Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.
Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.
The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored
... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...
Full Text Available Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional techniques used by the companies in this field are very diverse. In this context, this paper aims at presenting a series of promotional aspects of the techniques used by two of the largest DIY companies on the Romanian market Dedeman and Praktiker.
Full Text Available Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotions. With this project inquiry work that consists of 9 parts also has done to know about how the university students are affected and which promotion activities affect the students more. İnquiry appliers are students in University of Gazi TTEF. In the inquiry, questioned to students that students' gender, incomes, the place they live, their enroling in political parties, being affected by promotion activities, if they are affected, by which promotion activity and how much they are affected, advertsement, public relations,personal marketing and marketing development.
Xia, Yuan; Deshpande, Sameer; Bonates, Tiberius
Social marketing managers promote desired behaviors to an audience by making them tangible in the form of environmental opportunities to enhance benefits and reduce barriers. This study proposed "benchmarks," modified from those found in the past literature, that would match important concepts of the social marketing framework and the inclusion of which would ensure behavior change effectiveness. In addition, we analyzed behavior change interventions on a "social marketing continuum" to assess whether the number of benchmarks and the role of specific benchmarks influence the effectiveness of physical activity promotion efforts. A systematic review of social marketing interventions available in academic studies published between 1997 and 2013 revealed 173 conditions in 92 interventions. Findings based on χ 2 , Mallows' Cp, and Logical Analysis of Data tests revealed that the presence of more benchmarks in interventions increased the likelihood of success in promoting physical activity. The presence of more than 3 benchmarks improved the success of the interventions; specifically, all interventions were successful when more than 7.5 benchmarks were present. Further, primary formative research, core product, actual product, augmented product, promotion, and behavioral competition all had a significant influence on the effectiveness of interventions. Social marketing is an effective approach in promoting physical activity among adults when a substantial number of benchmarks are used and when managers understand the audience, make the desired behavior tangible, and promote the desired behavior persuasively.
Payet, Jennifer; Gilles, Marisa; Howat, Peter
To explore the social, health and economic impact of a farmers' market on a small rural community in the north of Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative research using a random structured intercept survey, and focus group interviews around four domains of social capital: economic impact, governance and capacity building, healthy public places and social and civic participation. The Gascoyne Growers Markets in Carnarvon. One hundred consumers and 28 market stallholders. Consumers demonstrated community pride and an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption since they commenced shopping at the markets. The stallholders appear to have gained economically, professionally and socially from the market experience. The Gascoyne Growers Markets demonstrate a sustainable health promotion activity developed in partnership with the community. It has contributed to the local economy, providing local quality fruit and vegetables directly to the community while also increasing social capital and creating a healthy public space.
Paulo Albuquerque; Polykarpos Pavlidis; Udi Chatow; Kay-Yut Chen; Zainab Jamal
We measure the value of promotional activities and referrals by content creators to an online platform of user-generated content. To do so, we develop a modeling approach that explains individual-level choices of visiting the platform, creating, and purchasing content as a function of consumer characteristics and marketing activities, allowing for the possibility of interdependence of decisions within and across users. Empirically, we apply our model to Hewlett-Packard's (HP) print-on-demand ...
Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.
Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.
Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. This study provides a unique insight into consumers' values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity.
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
Background and aim In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. Methods The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. Results After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. Conclusion This study provides a unique insight into consumers’ values and motivations that affect consumers’ decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity. PMID:29038710
Full Text Available As they operate in an increasingly turbulent environment, modern organizations have toorganize their activity in such a way that they meet the needs of their target audience as well, asquicker and as appropriate as possible, that they meet the consumers’ demand and that theyachieve a profitable and positively perceived existence. Alongside other categories of goods andservices suppliers, publishing houses are organizations that operate in an intensely competitivemarket. Through their specifics, publishing houses target specific categories of audience, not onlyinstitutions and enterprises (such as: public and private libraries, educational institutions, othertypes of cultural institutions etc., but also individuals. Consequently, publishing houses have todesign, target and promote their offer so that they meet the demand for this specific type of culturalconsumption in an appropriate manner. The purpose of this paper is to present the main techniquesand tools used by publishing houses to implement communicational marketing activities.
Muhammad Anwar; Mohammad Saeed
Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests), play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources...
As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.
Roy, Donald P.
Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Jung, Yumi; Oh, Hyun Jung; Alaimo, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Karin; Carlson, Joseph J.; Wen, Yalu; Betz, Heather Hayes; Orth, Julie
Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents. Design: A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for…
Scarapicchia, Tanya M. F.; Sabiston, Catherine M. F.; Brownrigg, Michelle; Blackburn-Evans, Althea; Cressy, Jill; Robb, Janine; Faulkner, Guy E. J.
Objective: MoveU is a social marketing initiative aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among undergraduate students. Using the Hierarchy of Effects model (HOEM), this study identified awareness of MoveU and examined associations between awareness, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intentions, and MVPA. Participants:…
Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...
Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.
Full Text Available Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests, play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources should be the basis for designing promotional tools and media strategies. The latter are meant to inculcate Islamic values, build the characters of customers and marketers and uphold truth in the society. Ethical behavior in advertising and other promotional activities must be based on a strong foundation of Islamic tenets and injunctions. There is a need to develop not only general guidelines for achieving marketing goals and corporate objectives in a morally acceptable manner, but also to devise an Islamic code of marketing by Muslim marketers, corporate leaders, and sharīʿah experts.
Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken
Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.
Chapman, Audrey R
The alcohol industry in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region promotes demand for alcohol products actively through a number of channels, including advertising and sponsorship of sports and other events. This paper evaluates whether human rights instruments that Latin American countries have ratified can be used to limit children's exposure to alcohol advertising and promotion. A review was conducted of the text of, and interpretative documents related to, a series of international and regional human rights instruments ratified by most countries in the LAC region that enumerate the right to health. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has the most relevant provisions to protect children and youth from alcohol promotion and advertising. Related interpretive documents by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child affirm that corporations hold duties to respect and protect children's right to health. Human rights norms and law can be used to regulate or eliminate alcohol beverage marketing and promotional activities in the Latin American region. The paper recommends developing a human rights based Framework Convention on Alcohol Control to provide guidance. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
White, S L; Maloney, S K
Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs.
Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport
Fred Fridinger; Carol Macera; H. Ken Cordell
Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on...
Full Text Available Contemporary marketing takes place in the field of permanent interconnection, of instant information and immediate rewards. Communication through marketing promotion will take these characteristics into account or will be just an inefficient spending. The Romanian market is no different from the global one. Marketing promotion currently has new tools that lead to new challenges in that it makes use of traditional, yet pow erful forms, but also absolute ways of communication. The Romanian promotion is helped today by these tools, but its task is more complex than it was a decade ago .
Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda
A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…
Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate t...
Full Text Available This paper has as its theme the marketing and promotion of tourism circuit between Bucharest and Prague, unique area in the world because there is a harmonious combination of potential natural and cultural values and historical tourism which attracts many tourists. Also due to the geographical potential tourists coming to Prague can practice sports activities both winter and summer.Both natural resources and the human touch are important sights to attract more tourists in the area, and in Prague, the potential exists.
Kagan, I; Biran, E; Telem, L; Steinovitz, N; Alboer, D; Ovadia, K L; Melnikov, S
In recent years, much effort has been invested all over the world in nurse recruitment and retention. Issues arising in this context are low job satisfaction, the poor public image of nursing and the reluctance of nurses to promote or market their profession. This study aimed to examine factors explaining the marketing of the nursing profession by nurses working at a general tertiary medical centre in Israel. One hundred sixty-nine registered nurses and midwives from five clinical care units completed a structured self-administered questionnaire, measuring (a) professional self-image, (b) job satisfaction, (c) nursing promotional and marketing activity questionnaire, and (d) demographic data. The mean scores for the promotion of nursing were low. Nurses working in an intensive cardiac care unit demonstrated higher levels of promotional behaviour than nurses from other nursing wards in our study. Nurse managers reported higher levels of nursing promotion activity compared with first-line staff nurses. There was a strong significant correlation between job satisfaction and marketing behaviour. Multiple regression analysis shows that 15% of the variance of promoting the nursing profession was explained by job satisfaction and job position. Nurses are not inclined to promote or market their profession to the public or to other professions. The policy on the marketing of nursing is inadequate. A three-level (individual, organizational and national) nursing marketing programme is proposed for implementation by nurse leadership and policy makers. Among proposed steps to improve marketing of the nursing profession are promotion of the image of nursing by the individual nurse in the course of her or his daily activities, formulation and implementation of policies and programmes to promote the image of nursing at the organizational level and drawing up of a long-term programme for promoting or marketing the professional status of nursing at the national level. © 2015
Blair, J E
1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.
Soteriades, Marios D.; Avgeli, Vasiliki A.
This paper provides an outline of principal marketing strategy issues and their application in promoting tourism destinations. It provides an overview of a report prepared for the Tourism Promotion Committee (T.P.C.) of Heraklion District, Crete. In the context of the tourist industry, the ‘product’ is an experience achieved through the combination of a diverse range of products and services. Nowadays tourism destinations face new and increasing marketing challenges arising from changing tour...
Angel L. Rivera Aponte
Full Text Available Active learning at undergraduate level is necessary to promote business competencies on behalf of the actual labor market in Puerto Rico.The participation of students registered in the Leadership course at the School of Business, using the induction process, generates throughout the integration of theory and practice the encouragement of competencies development. Qualitative analysis demostrates the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience through pedagogical methodologies of active learning. Results obtained by students’ success during the teaching and learning experience increased the competencies level of leadership, etc.
Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina
The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.
As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition
One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the planning and writing of advertisements and organizing sales promotion and public relation activities in wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Advertising Fundamentals and (2) Promotion. Each unit begins with a Unit…
Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.
This chapter looks at how food and drink narratives are utilised to promote and create place identities. By exploring the concepts of heritage branding and constructed historical narratives, it illustrates how iconic cuisines are being employed to promote place and attract consumers. It argues that the marketing process is more than utilising established aspects of heritage cuisines and historical truths, as it is often about creating narratives to meet the evolving needs of destinations and ...
Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy
Full Text Available This paper examines the correlation between promotion as a marketing mix instrument, product quality and marketing strategy on the mobile devices market. The research paper consists of four sections. Each section determines the key factors of the main subject's elements. The research makes analysis of the influence of promotional activities on consumer behavior. It was conducted via survey questions. The questions referred to mobile device brands, user satisfactory rates and other parameters in the Republic of Serbia. The aim was to define the impact of promotional activities on consumer choice when purchasing a mobile device. In addition, the product quality and marketing strategies of top mobile device brands are also taken into consideration. Observational statements are made based on statistical evidence from the completed research surveys.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L
Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.
... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the... direct expenditures for such marketing promotion including paid advertising as may be authorized. The... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their uses...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing promotion. A major marketing promotion program is one requiring the expenditure of more than $500 of Committee...
Syukri Yusuf Nasution
Full Text Available Abstract. IP Valuation means the process of how to compare object patented (protected and its characteristics with the similar to gain a benefit. In this research, the product that value has been registered and certified for the patent in Indonesia with number IDP000040604. IP Valuation conducted to estimate the potential future economic benefit of this product. Qualitative and quantitative methods carry out to determine the value of IP. A qualitative method performed by in-depth analysis for Legal, Technology, Market and Finance indicators. A quantitative method conducted to determine the value of IP by using income approach with DCF method. From the qualitative analysis it shows that the product is in low risk and high opportunity quadrant, and from quantitative analysis, it shows that the NPV of the product is Rp.52.088.550,- with a royalty rate of 7% with estimated turnover about Rp.692.921.848,- for 10 years of useful economic life. Keywords: IP Valuation, future economic benefit, qualitative and quantitative methods, high opportunity, royalty rate
Savescu Roxana Florenta
Full Text Available Microfinance is the solution that ensures the provision of loans and other basic financial services to those entrepreneurs who have limited access to the banking sector. These financial services provided by microfinance institutions allow small business owners to take advantage of their entrepreneurship skills by developing small businesses capable of generating additional income. As they mature, Romanian microcredit organizations become gradually aware of the importance of marketing in their current activities. The paper presents the results of a qualitative research on the experience and marketing practices in major microfinance institutions in Romania, highlighting at the same time the factors influencing decisions to invest resources in this area. The conclusions of the research reveal that microcredit organizations have a limited institutional capacity to develop complex marketing programs that drive marketing activities and resources to achieve the objectives of the organization. The approach here is one of a reactive management, the situations that pushes microcredit organizations into engaging in some marketing activities and using various instruments being determined by changes in the structure and level of market development and competition or by the availability of funds for current activity. Although marketing interventions should be considered important on all markets, the truth is that different types of markets (emerging, developing, mature markets require certain marketing activities. The proposed marketing mix contains 8 elements ("8 P" that ought to be optimally combined within the marketing strategy, in order to get the expected response from the target group: product, price, placement, promotion, processes, procedures, personnel, partnership. The topic chosen for this paper answers a need for know-how in the Romanian microcredit organizations, in terms of their marketing activity. From a scientific point of view, the paper
The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)
Keller, C.; Ghent, P.
This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.
Marketing strategies are employed to ensure the success of new products, services or programs. Both profit and non-profit organizations have used social marketing strategies to inform, to motivate interest, and to engage the involvement of the consumer. A client-dependent health care system did not find it necessary to market services, but a health care system that encourages clients to choose the most appropriate health promotion service available must market services. Nurses are in the business of promoting the health of clients. Therefore, it is essential that nurses become familiar with, and involved in, the development of marketing plans and strategies. The connection between the four variables of the marketing mix (product, promotion, place, and price) and promoting the health of clients is described. A case example recapitulating the marketing strategies employed to raise public awareness of a self-help group for family caregivers is related, the marketing response is evaluated, and future recommendations are proposed.
Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.
Miodrag Koprivica; Vasilj Koprivica; Slobodan Živkucin
The events are happening at the present time on million different tv and radio sta- tions. Every marketer should be aware of that, each and every marketer in situations like this is using different elements of marketing mix, such as: advertising, personal sales, promotional development, publicity and public relations, and of course direct marketing. Organizers of sporting events are using many different ways to bring in visitors. By using marketing mix good position and design of event is sec...
Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, Lisbeth
Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....
Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina
Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...
Full Text Available The events are happening at the present time on million different tv and radio sta- tions. Every marketer should be aware of that, each and every marketer in situations like this is using different elements of marketing mix, such as: advertising, personal sales, promotional development, publicity and public relations, and of course direct marketing. Organizers of sporting events are using many different ways to bring in visitors. By using marketing mix good position and design of event is secured, and of course vi- sitors are guaranteed. Promotion is by definition one of the elements of marketing mix. This work is exploring promotion goals, rational usage of means, and usage of internet as an media in promotion of sporting event
Full Text Available The veterinary profession as a health service is facing new market conditions of business management. In the conditions of increased competition it is necessary to look for new ways of expanding the business and increase the economic efficiency and profitability. The introduction of the prospective customers to the activities and promotion of its services is one of the ways of expanding the veterinary clinic. The promotion is a crucial tool in the market penetration in every field, but one of the disadvantages of this tool is the often extremely high price and is not appropriate for small business, such as veterinary practice. This is why the Internet as a medium is interesting means of promotion of the veterinary clinic due to its many advantages. It is accessible to everyone, has a great number of users and at the same time, is fairly affordable. Its important feature is the room for modern, creative and interactive approach. In certain countries there are certain limitations in the promotion of veterinary facilities, and the Internet is useful in such cases. The veterinary clinic has a great choice of means of promotion. Some of them are completely free, and those which cost usually have a symbolic price. Their usage enables the veterinarian to be more competitive, and helps their clinic to increase its successful work. At the same time this type of promotion provides the opportunity for interactive relationship with the clients and for promotion of the facilities and the accomplishments of the clinic. The increase in the market share and the economic efficiency is also an important factor in favor of this type of promotion. The example with the veterinary clinic Animal Medica, which has managed to increase its frequency in 15 % is another proof. Almost 60% f the clients talked that they heard first time for Animal Medica on the net (Facebook or website. Therefore the veterinarians in their ruthless competition should use the limitless
Costel Iliuta Negricea
Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.
Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.
Combs, G.F. Jr.; Patterson, J.A.
Net additional uranium procurement over the past year and a half has been very low. While 1977 procurement from domestic sources was low in a historical sense, there was a net reduction during the first half of 1978. New sales commitments by domestic producers to foreign buyers exceeded new purchase commitments by domestic buyers from foreign sources in 1976 and 1977, and available data indicate this difference is widening in 1978. The net reduction in and rescheduling of 1978 to 1985 delivery commitments from domestic producers is understandable in light of changing demands. Supply seems more than adequate to meet demand through 1985, though it will depend on utility inventory policy, imports--exports, and expansion of domestic supply. Producer material for sale and planned expenditures indicate aggressive expansion plans. Average contract prices and base prices in market price contracts increased slightly from January to July 1978. Average base prices are about 2 to 2 1/2 times the average contract prices. The average price settlement of market price contracts for 1978 delivery as of July declined from the level reported in January. Average market price settlements for 1979 delivery show an increase of 2% over those for 1978
Full Text Available International film market of Iran (IFM is one of the most important presenters of different films and television programs to be sold in the world market especially in Middle East. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate different methods to promote this market. The study uses a questionnaire and distributes it among buyers and sales agents of IFM. The results of hypothetic tests prove that the socio-cultural factors are the most important reasons for the participants. Another important criterion promoting sales of movies is different awards from various movie festivals dedicated to moviemakers. The opening date and place of market, publication and publicity are other important criteria influencing sales of movies. The paper illustrates film-marketing mix for film marketers. Indicators, which are important for participants in international film festivals, are also illustrated for international film market holders.
Full Text Available Abstract\tMarketing has an important role in modern life. Marketing provides economical and social bene-fits with correleating between producers and consumers.\tPromotional activities are necessary for better marketing strategies. Therefore, firms have to give more importance to promotional activities. Promotional activities are marketing instruments that an-nounced all the knowledges about the products and services to their consumers, for surviving and de-veloping the firms.\tNowadays drug producers are marketing their products all arround the world. But, drugs are not ordinary products, for this reason more importance must be given to drug marketing andpromotion.\tThe purpose of this study is to determine the role of promotion within the marketing in Turkish Drug Industry. The material of this study is an uniform questionnaire with 41 questions applied to about 190-200 medical representatives who work in Çorum, Yozgat, Amasya and Tokat cities for 37 firms which are the members of Federation of Employer’s Organization in Pharmaceutical Industry and 14 firms which are profited by the services of this federation.\tIn this study, SPSS program (ver7.5 has been used for evaluation of the data. According to the re-sults, medical represantatives think that the drug sales will increase and wait the data of IMS (Inform Medicines Statistics will rise about 60-80%. 90% of the medical represantatives believe that the pa-ramedical activities are effective and 73% of them carry out paramedical studies.\tÖzet\tPazarlama modern yasantida önemli bir role sahiptir. Pazarlama üreticiler ve tüketiciler arasinda bir iliski kurarak, ekonomik ve sosyal faydalar saglar. Tanitim faaliyetleri daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için gereklidir. Bu nedenle sirketler daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için tanitim faaliyetlerine önem vermelidir. Tanitim faaliyetleri, isletmenin ürettigi mal ve hizmetleri tüketicilere duyuran, isletmenin gelisimini ve yasamasini
Promotion of a health care provider's services is essential for communication with its customers and consumers. It is relevant to an organization's marketing strategy and is an element of what is described as the marketing mix. This paper considers the relationship of promotion to the marketing of services and proposes a plan for the promotion of the organization as a whole which can also be applied to an individual service or specialty. Whilst specific reference is made to an National Health Service (NHS) Trust it is also relevant to a Directly Managed Unit.
Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A
This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study.
Adesoga Dada Adefulu
Full Text Available The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which promotional strategy brings about variation in market share and profitability in the selected companies The study revealed the need for a better understanding of the organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive the achievement of marketing goals. In addition, promotional strategy measured by advertising, publicity and sales promotion affected market share and profitability at different percentage rates while Personal selling did not .The study concluded that promotional strategy suitable to a business caused variations in market share and profitability. Managers concerned about maintaining competitive edge in the market may find it appropriate to begin by examining promotional strategy adoption. Suggestions are also made for further research and study limitations are denoted. Researchers are encouraged to devote efforts to identifying what variables may modify the nature of relationship?
Full Text Available Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process of promotion and distribution of tourism products, starting from an empirical research conducted among economic sciences faculty students. The results of this work may provide a partial image of the young people's opinion about online marketing as a tool of marketing communication, and may be approached as a modest guide for tourism marketers in the process of creating, promoting and distributing tourism offers.
Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982
Paper discusses the factors that contribute to the spread of corruption as well as the implications of corruption for markets and for public sector activities. It is argued that corruption can be contained mainly by a scaling down of the public sector activities that stimulate its growth.
Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in ... “Drivers of development” is an old concept and it goes back to a generation of ... process of positive cumulative changes in the economy and in people's ... in general and how they relate to rice production and marketing are addressed.
Full Text Available The article considers the legislative requirements and features of distribution of the pedagogical software, a condition of the market of this production in Ukraine; the main actions for sales promotion and the advertising, optimization of marketing communications for the pedagogical software developers.
Sergey S. Rakhmanov
Full Text Available The article describes the general situation of power tools on the market, both in Russia and in the world. A comparative analysis of competitors, market structure analysis of power tools, as well as assessment of competitiveness of some major product lines. Also the analysis methods of promotion used by companies selling tools, competitive analysis range Bosch, the leader in its segment, power tools available on the market in Russia.
Silvia, MUHCINA; Andreea-Daniela, MORARU
Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process...
Full Text Available Choosing the content of promotional messages is a part of the activities of integrated marketing communication. As far as organic products in the world are concerned, research related to the choice of promotional message content is the object of much attention, primarily based on the conduct of research among the consumers of these product (information for defining the aim of promotion, creating and testing promotional messages, selecting media and media mix, and determining the number and frequency of promotional events. Promoting domestic organic products also inevitably implies conducting consumer-centred marketing research, in order to choose the appropriate promotional message. In this respect, this article defines several goals: study the choice of the promotional message content in relation to other activities of integrated marketing communication; consider this question in the context of relevant foreign market research into organic product consumers; determine the level of marketing research, which could be used for approaching the issue from the domestic perspective; and establish which recommendations and implication could be generated when domestic organic products are concerned.
Loomis, D.; Malm, E.
As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)
Full Text Available The fundamental characteristic of contemporary marketing is the total opening towards three major directions: consumer needs, organization needs and society’s needs. The continuous expansion of marketing has been accompanied by a process of differentiation and specialization. Differentiation has led to the so called “specific marketing”. In this paper, we aim to explain that in the retail companies, the concept of sales marketing can be distinguished as an independent marketing specialization. The main objectives for this paper are: the definition and delimitation of consumer goods’ sales marketing in the retail business and the sectoral approach of the marketing concept and its specific techniques for the retail activities.
Fatima M. Ramazanova
Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to develop a system of practical measures to ensure the most effective promotion of construction products to the market. Method During the process of research, methods of logical, statistical and comparative analysis as well as expert evaluations were used. Results Analysis and assessment of the construction market situation enabled a group of factors that affect the sales of construction products – in particular, building materials – to be identified, which constituted an empirical basis for developing a strategy for their promotion, aimed at maximum satisfaction of solvent demand and profit. It is determined that as an instrument of the communication policy of a construction enterprise, the promotion of construction products is a system of incentive measures and techniques designed to stimulate sales. A characterisation of the promotional system of construction products as an instrument of marketing communications is presented, revealing the target dependence of measures to stimulate sales from stages of the life cycle. The criteria for selecting the promotion channels have been systematised, serving as the basis for the strategic approach to the organisation of the distribution logistic system in construction and the steady positioning of construction products on the market. Conclusion A strategic approach to the promotion of construction products in the market ensures the creation of a system of effectively integrated marketing communications, implemented in the form of a strategic bridging partnership. Realisation of the strategy of construction product promotion comprises a reliable basis for strengthening the market positions of construction companies under the harsh conditions of a competitive environment.
Lock, C A; Kaner, E F
Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.
Murphy, Patrick E.; McGarrity, Richard A.
Admissions officers of 350 private colleges and universities were surveyed to ascertain their understanding of the term "marketing," current use of promotional (advertising and personal selling) activities, market segmentation approaches, and their product (i.e., academic programs) development and differentiation strategies. The mail questionnaire…
Keith G. Diem
Full Text Available The degree of participation in community-based youth development programs is typically affected by both the recruitment and retention of participants. A review of literature over more than forty years revealed the value of marketing and promotion to the viability of a company, product, or organization and how it may contribute to company sales or an organization’s membership. This article is focused on the application of marketing concepts to a non-profit organization or educational program. Using a marketing approach to program development can result in improved program quality as well as increased enrollment. Utilizing marketing activities such as needs assessment will aide in ensuring the program remains current in meeting needs and interests of clientele, the community, and society. Promoting an accurate and relevant image is a key in making sure people realize the value of your program.
Gondim Mariutti, F; Tench, R
Place marketing has been an object of study since the 1960s; however, even though in the last two decades there has been an increase in research, there is a lack of studies about ‘magic’ in promoting a place because it is a critical topic and an under theorised construct in academia, in general. Debate continues about the marketing strategies and campaigns because of not only the outcomes of continued use of promotional activities of place marketing but also because of the influential aspect ...
Adesoga Dada Adefulu
The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which...
Griffiths, Jenny; Blair-Stevens, Clive; Parish, Richard
The urgency and scale of contemporary health challenges are enormous. The review It's Our Health! published in 2006 found that social marketing had considerable potential to increase the effectiveness of health improvement work, with the intention that it should build on core health promotion principles and not replace them. Health promotion has, however, lost its focus and identity in recent years in some parts of the country, partly due to repeated organizational change, and it has suffered from a lack of proactive workforce development. Over the last year, the National Social Marketing Centre (NSMC) and the Shaping the Future of Health Promotion Collaboration (StFofHP), hosted by the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH), have explored the relationship between social marketing and health promotion and led a debate with stakeholders. A Delphi consultation with an expert panel drawn from specialists and strategic leaders in several settings, and the academic community, is currently under way and will report in the autumn. Findings so far emphasize the wide variation in understanding and interpretation of the two skill sets, much confusion about definitions and what added value both health promotion and social marketing bring to health improvement. Some of the distinctive contributions of both are described in this paper.
Full Text Available A winery with a marketing-oriented strategy is capable to understand the configuration of a marketing mix (with its implications, opportunities and costs and to effectively compete with other wine producers in today’s quasi-saturated, complex and challenging wine industry. Such a winery is also capable to attain its aspirations and objectives through a thorough understanding of customers’ needs and wants. The scope of this paper is to look within today’s wineries and analyse the marketing-oriented strategy they adopt as well as the promotional mix they rely on.
Meyer, Niels I
government promotion of energy conservation and of systems based on renewable energy sources. This type of policy may in some instanes conflict with the principles of the unregulated commercial market. The official Danish target is that 35% of energy demand should be covered by renewables by year 2030......Liberalisation of energy markets has been progressing among OECD countries since the early nineties. In Europe this trend was accelerated by the decision in December 1996 by the EU Council of Ministers to adopt a new EU directive on liberalisation of the electricity market. This decision would lead...
David Albeiro Andrade Yejas
Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This study aims at designing digital marketing strategies to promote the city brand including a marketing manual or guide and the elaboration of a digital system of mobile and web application. This research study was based on the theories of Garcia (2010, Capurro (2006, Montiel (2002, Porter (2012, Florez (2012, and others. Its methodology was qualitative; structured and semi- structured interviews were made, as well as direct observation of tourists. As a consequence, a digital marketing guide and digital applications were designed, representing only one click to access a non- barrier world and to improve the city competitiveness.
Il lavoro di tesi, che si compone di tre articoli di ricerca, analizza, nel contesto della marketing promotion, la risposta del consumatore ai media in termini di ricordo, intenzione di acquisto, comportamento di acquisto e preferenza per il medium. Il lavoro, in particolare, mette a confronto due tipologie di media, carta e online, nell’ambito della price e loyalty promotion, utilizzando due disegni di ricerca sperimentali ed uno correlazionale. I risultati del lavoro mostrano che la rispost...
LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP
Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.
FRANCISCO JAVIER VILLABA MERLO; IÑAKI PERIÁÑEZ CAÑADILLAS
Nowadays, there are many factors that have provoked a greater use of promotion by some manufacturers in the consumption markets. Traditionally, firms have used promotion as the last resource for the achievement of the goals of selling. When we analyse promotional management, this kind of performance represents an orientation to sales. In our field work we justify the breaking-off with this management philosophy, starting with a newdefinition for “sales promotion”, that includes the internal c...
Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in Sub-Sahara Africa. ... the popular conception of the 1950s with labour, surplus models (“development with unlimited supplies of labour”) with agriculture as an unlimited pool of costless labour, waiting to be transferred to the industrial sector.
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (1980) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A marketing and promotion strategy for wool.
Mentz, George; Whiteside, Richard
After using online recruiting techniques, researching Internet marketing, and consulting companies regarding search engine ranking, the authors made many observations about the evolution of the Internet as a tool for educating students and targeting enrollment for new admission. Article presents recommendations for using Internet to promote online…
Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.
Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238
MSc. Hidajet Karaxha
Full Text Available In order for a product to be put in the hands of the customer, requires a mechanism which is called distribution channel and which enables the connection between the consumer and producer. One of the many strategies applied by Kosovar companies for the involvement of the members of the channel is also the promotion through distribution channels. Therefore, the strategies which involve the members of the channel have a higher probability to be positively accepted by the members of the channel, when they are part of a general program of supporting the needs of the producers. The process of realizing a marketing strategy of a company does not concise only of achieving specific goals of production during the realization of the promotion phase, but it also requires identifying the target market and achieving it. The purpose of this paper is to review the promotion strategy of distribution channels, which emphasize the support by the members of the channel, initiated by the producers through cooperative advertisements, promotional salaries, slotting taxes, incentives, promotions in markets and also special promotional agreements. The theoretical and practical side of the study are very important, especially regarding to new theoretical and practical views in the study context. Besides the theoretical contribution that will be offered by this paper, there will also be interesting findings in the practical aspect where through this paper, the owners, managers, firms will be able to understand the role and importance of promotion through distribution channels. Knowing that there are only few studies offered in this field, this paper offers help for everyone interested in this field. This paper contains empirical data collected by questionnaires and interviews.
Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz
To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the trends of Internet marketing development. The differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing in the conditions of modern economy and active spreading of the Internet are determined. The problems of changing the trading infrastructure, the emergence of new channels for the distribution of goods and services, the changing nature of marketing communications, the benefits of interactive marketing are displayed.
Gallagher, S M
Being good at what you do is not enough. Despite strong evidence that the nurse practitioner delivers cost-efficient and outcome-based care, few consumers really understand the nurse practitioner's scope of practice. With the current rapidly changing status of health care, the nurse practitioner is presented with many opportunities. Strategies that ensure survival and growth are critical to longevity. Marketing strategies can offer solutions to these challenges. The 4 P's of marketing are discussed as an approach to promote the role of the nurse practitioner.
This paper examines whether vegetarian marketing campaigns promote a vegan diet. Our trivariate model of omnivorous, vegetarian, and vegan consumption is estimated using twenty years of UK data. For short-lived campaigns, we find no persistent effect, but observe a rise and fall in vegan numbers during adjustment. For long-running campaigns, we find that for every person who adopts a vegetarian diet in such a campaign, around 0.34 people adopt a vegan diet. In a campaign to market veganis...
Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova
Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.
Holdford, David A
To (1) discuss buzz marketing, contrast it with traditional forms of promotional communications, and provide guidelines for use and (2) describe a successful buzz-marketing program used by Sentara Healthcare to decrease overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotic medications. An English-language-only literature search of ABI Inform, Lexus-Nexus, InfoTrac, and university library databases from 1980 to the present using the keywords buzz, word of mouth, opinion leader, and thought leader. Articles and books were cross referenced for other works of interest. Performed by the author for their contribution to an exploratory analysis of this topic. Performed by the author. Buzz marketing is an indirect communications method that has been used successfully in the promotion of a wide variety of products, services, and ideas. By identifying and cultivating nonmedia opinion leaders, the technique generates word-of-mouth communications between these early adopters of products and services and the early and late majority of people who tend to follow their lead. Opinion leaders can be categorized as ordinary or extraordinary, technical or social, and specialist or generalist, depending on the nature of their communications, expertise, and range of knowledge. Buzz marketing is most useful for ideas that are memorable, produce small changes in behavior that have big effects over time, and have the potential to reach a "tipping point" in terms of momentum among a target population. Pharmacists can use buzz marketing for promoting innovative services such as pharmaceutical care. A case study is presented on the use of buzz marketing by a health system for decreasing antibiotic resistance through lessening of public demand for antibiotics and support of physicians in prescribing the agents appropriately. Buzz marketing is a potent force in the promotion of pharmaceuticals and can be used by pharmacists. It works best when patients perceive the benefits of innovations. Providing
Reviewed by R.Ayhan YILMAZ
Full Text Available Topics of the book is cover on building corporate identity for educational institutions, cultural and regional issues in educational product development, Defining the role of online education in today‘s world, individualization of open educational services, integrated marketing communications, measuring the impact of educational promotions, new customers and new demands, open and Distance education, reputation issues in online education and sustainable communication before, during and after enrollment
Rime, Dagfinn; Sucarrat, Genaro
We study the role played by geographic and bank-size heterogeneity in the relation between exchange rate variability and market activity. We find some support for the hypothesis that increases in short-term global interbank market activity, which can be interpreted as due to variation in information arrival, increase variability. However, our results do not suggest that local short-term activity increases variability. With respect to long-term market activity, which can be interpreted as a me...
Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies.
... State government, or similar entity. (c) State agency review. In reviewing the marketing materials... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing activities. 438.104 Section 438.104... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Enrollee Rights and Protections § 438.104 Marketing...
Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.
Epstein, Gil S.
This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.
Full Text Available The result of the business entities’ activities is associated with the development of instruments of the economic processes efficiency determination, including marketing activities. It has determined the purpose of the article. The methodological principles in this area are developed. It is proved that the increase in sales of the profit margin is only partly dependent on the implementation of advertising measures. The methodical approaches for estimation of exhibition and advertising activity and promotion of its employees are specified. The results of work involve evaluation of the advertising effect value on the basis of share of the advertising impact on the increase of sales and revenue from the sale of products. The corresponding proportion of such impact is determined based on the consumer inquiry. The index of trade fair works, its calculation based on two components: how many times a specific company participated in such events; and how well the company was presented at relevant trade fairs. The indices of the cost on advertising and promotion of certain products manufacturer are provided. The scientific innovation of the research is as follows. It is proved that the sales increase effect should not be assigned to advertising only. The compositions that influence the consumer preferences and their share in the total value effect are determined. The new is the proposed index of influence of the trade fair work results depending on the selected factors. The practical importance of the research results involve more accurate calculation of the effect of the activities made and, consequently, increase efficiency of the business entities.
out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.
O.F. Gryshсhenko; A.D. Niesheva
The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing...
and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market......Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing......-oriented activity. A framework of six generic domains is suggested: Organizational structure, human resource management, market-oriented activity competence, psychological climate, managers' personality characteristics, and individually held beliefs. A model is suggested inter-relating the domains....
Elliott, Ronald T.
This guide presents a competency-based curriculum for a high school course in sales promotion. It addresses all three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. Activities suggested in the guide deal with getting along with others, with supervisors or staff members, and with small or large groups. The guide, which can be used with…
Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....
Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.
Uma Shankar Singh; Osman Sahin
The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales...
Meyer, Niels I.
The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark. An EU directive from September 2001 has postponed the decision on a possible harmonisation of promotional models until at least 2005 in order to obtain more practical experience with the different support schemes. A critical evaluation is given in this paper of the different models with proposals for a balanced development between environmental and trading concerns. It is argued that too much emphasis is presently given to the side of free trade at the expense of long range planning for a sustainable energy development
Ding, Lily; Kinnucan, Henry W.
Rules are derived to indicate the optimal allocation of a fixed promotion budget between domestic and export markets when the commodity in question represents a significant portion of world trade and is protected in the domestic market by a deficiency-payment program. Optimal allocation decisions are governed by advertising elasticities in the domestic and export markets and the export market share. PromotionÂ’'s ability to lower deficiency payments is inversely related to the absolute value ...
Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...
Jasna Lasinger Siladjev
The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of promotional activities in advancing offers of travel agencies and their overall business profitability. More specifically, the paper examines elements of the promotional mix used by travel agencies when communicating with their customers; it is divided into six parts which delineate the characteristics of travel agencies on the tourism market, the specifics of marketing communication on the tourism market, promotional activities of trav...
Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users...
Full Text Available The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the main issues are related to four basic activities: - analysis, planning, implementing and controlling marketing activities.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.
Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix
Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all ...
Geothermal Energy Association
Geothermal Energy Association supports the US geothermal industry in its efforts to bring more clean geothermal energy on-line throughout the world. Activities designed to accomplish this goal include: (1) developing and maintaining data bases, web pages, (2) commissioning of special studies and reports, (3) preparing, printing and distributing brochures and newsletters, (4) developing exhibits and displays, and participating in trade shows, (5) designing, producing and disseminating audio-video materials, (6) monitoring and coordinating programs carried out by US DOE and other Federal agencies, (7) holding workshops to facilitate communication between researchers and industry and to encourage their recognition of emerging markets for geothermal technology, (8) attending conferences, making speeches and presentation, and otherwise interacting with environmental and other renewable energy organizations and coalitions, (9) hosting events in Washington, DC and other appropriate locations to educate Federal, State and local representatives, environmental groups, the news media, and other about the status and potential of geothermal energy, (10) conducting member services such as the preparation and distribution of a member newsletter related to operating and maintaining s useful and viable association, and (11) performing similar kinds of activities designed to inform others about geothermal energy. The activities of the export promotion aim to assist industry in accomplishing the goal of successfully penetrating and developing energy in country with existing geothermal resources and a desire to develop them. Activities including in export promotion are: (1)needs analysis and assessment involve monitoring the progress of developing markets and projects overseas and working with US industry to determine what future activities by GEA would be of greatest assistance, (2) outreach includes the preparation and dissemination of brochures and videos for foreign professionals
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.
Van Zee, Art
I focus on issues surrounding the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs and their regulatory oversight. Compared with noncontrolled drugs, controlled drugs, with their potential for abuse and diversion, pose different public health risks when they are overpromoted and highly prescribed. An in-depth analysis of the promotion and marketing of OxyContin illustrates some of the associated issues. Modifications of the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and an enhanced capacity of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate and monitor such promotion can have a positive impact on the public health.
Richards, Elizabeth Ann
A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.
Raluca Dania TODOR
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.
Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools.
The author first outlines some fundamental characteristics of the different energy world markets (oil, natural gas, coal, electricity). He outlines their availability, locations, and different main geographical areas. Then, he discusses the relationships between costs and prices in which intervene external costs, taxes, feed-in tariffs, national regulations, incentives for consumers. He discusses the issue of regulation of some energy activities, i.e. how State may or may not intervene on the markets, how competition may influence the market, how activities can thus be divided (production, transport, distribution) with implications and consequences for prices. He finally outlines concerns about the future financing of investments required to face tomorrow's needs
In the twenty-first century, promotion is everywhere and everything has become promotable: everyday goods and organizations, people and ideas, cultures and futures. This engaging book looks at the rise of advertising, public relations, branding, marketing and lobbying, and explores where our promotional times have taken us.\\ud \\ud Promotional Cultures documents how the professions and practices of promotion have interacted with and reshaped so much in our world, from commodities, celebrities ...
Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...
Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer
The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…
Oren, Moshe; Kotler, Eran
p53 mutations occur very frequently in human cancer. Besides abrogating the tumour suppressive functions of wild-type p53, many of those mutations also acquire oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Augmentation of proteasome activity is now reported as a common gain-of-function mechanism shared by different p53 mutants, which promotes cancer resistance to proteasome inhibitors.
Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.
Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)
The last 10 years have produced an extra ordinary upswing in the gas industry. Natural gas could, in part, satisfy the demands in fields previously reserved for heating oil. However, after these successes it seems necessary to analyze the new initial situation for future marketing activities and to find a new strategy. This investigation is concerned with those tasks. Crucial points are dealt with that represent interesting of activities for gas-supply initiatures, and the author tries to show by what means these efforts can be crowned with success. All important sectors of the market are discussed, new technological developments are dealt with briefly, and finally the special case of opening up new areas for natural gas-supply is examined. It is regarded as an absolute necessity that marketing information for new activities should be appreciably improved by market surveys. The whole article describes the activites that have arisen from the co-operation between Thyssen gas and the gas supply undertakings supplied by Thyssen gas.
Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan
performance (BP) and top management's respect. An empirical survey identifies four types of MFs: (1) the broad spectrum; (2) the hesitant; (3) the traditional and (4) the market-creating. Findings show that for each of the four types, the effect of investing in a particular role varies: all roles......Marketing functions (MFs) differ in how they practise marketing roles. The purpose of this article is to differentiate between MFs that practice marketing roles in a particular manner and then study how these different types of MFs differ with regard to the marketing roles’ effect on business...... are not equally important to practise. Moreover, all roles are not equally important to all marketing functions, but depend on the marketing function's unique starting point. Since MFs differ, relevant investments in marketing roles also differ, making it beneficial to prioritise them. However, management...
Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E
"Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning.
The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.; Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheng, Yin Cheong
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Design/methodology/approach:…
Full Text Available Disclosed aspects of the marketing approach in the activities of youth sports schools. The degree of use of marketing in the organization and management of youth sports schools. Identified constraints and the possible consequences of the use of marketing in youth sports schools. The study involved 127 employees with 15 youth sports schools. The respondents were the director and deputy instructor methodists that senior coaches offices youth sports schools. It is certain that in their professional activities only 36.0% of workers in youth sports schools use marketing is the marketing research, 73.2% of respondents believe that the use of marketing to promote the image of youth sports schools. The absence of a marketing specialist in the management bodies of physical education and sport is one of the main problems for the efficient functioning of the market of sports schools sports and sports services.
Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)
Urbonavičius, Sigitas; Dikčius, Vytautas
The article analyses how managers of companies see the importance of the overall marketing function as the importance of certain types of marketing activities. These types include typical areas of 4 Ps as well as marketing planning and marketing research activities. The research is based on a survey of 205 managers of primarily manufacturing and trading companies that operate in Lithuania. Managers evaluated marketing planning and distribution as the most important marketing functions, while ...
Chambers, David W
There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).
Kassegne, Sethson; Kays, Megan B; Nzohabonayo, Jerome
Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49). Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product preparation and administration. Further interventions in Burundi and
Schee, Brian A. Vander
This paper presents the results of implementing an active learning activity in the principles of marketing course adapted from the television show "Family Feud". The objectives of the Marketing Feud game include increasing awareness of marketing misperceptions, clarifying marketing misunderstandings, encouraging class participation, and building…
Beech, A J
Market-based demand forecasting is a method of estimating future demand for a healthcare organization's services by using a broad range of data that describe the nature of demand within the organization's service area. Such data include the primary and secondary service areas, the service-area populations by various demographic groupings, discharge utilization rates, market size, and market share by service line and organizationwide. Based on observable market dynamics, strategic planners can make a variety of explicit assumptions about future trends regarding these data to develop scenarios describing potential future demand. Financial planners then can evaluate each scenario to determine its potential effect on selected financial and operational measures, such as operating margin, days cash on hand, and debt-service coverage, and develop a strategic financial plan that covers a range of contingencies.
Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.
Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to
Uranium marketing activity was much lower in 1977 than during 1976, which was the largest procurement year to date. Results from the survey suggest that there is an adequate supply of uranium--at least through 1985--in light of apparent buyer concepts of demand. Unfilled requirements were reduced by additional procurement and slippages in requirements. U.S. buyers continue to concentrate almost exclusively on U.S. sources for procurement. Buyer and producer inventories changed only slightly during the year. The average price reported for 1977 deliveries was $19.75 per pound of U 3 O 8 , compared to the $17.20 estimate reported as of July 1, 1977. An average of $17.40 was reported for 1978. Settlements of market prices in 1977 averaged $41.50 and for 1978 averaged $43.95. Most market price contracts have a base price. These prices are much higher than average contract prics and are closer to market price settlements. Producers estimate they will be able to offer for sale substantial additional quantities of uranium, indicating that they expect to expand production considerably
Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey
This study describes the type and nature of promotional items distributed on university campuses to students; college students typically are in a stage of life characterized by identity exploration. Among 241 students, 90% received at least one promotional item (e.g.,T-shirts, pens/pencils, magnets, calendars, water bottles); 58% received at least…
Boisen, Martin; Groote, Peter; Terlouw, Kees; Couwenberg, Oscar
This paper analyses the different degrees to which place promotion, marketing and branding policies are institutionalised, based on a relatively straightforward and generally applicable methodology in order to stimulate international comparative research in the field. A consensus has emerged over
Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Jones, Sandra C.
The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy ...
Natalya O. Kolchina
Full Text Available Introduction: the article is concerned with the tools for promoting innovative educational products within the framework of the concept “Europe of knowledge” on the basis of education integration, researches and innovations. The relevance of the article is caused by increasing importance of promoting innovative products in the field of higher education through the means designed to popularize science not only among science professional, but also among the general public. Materials and Methods: the author uses descriptive method and analyzes the scholar literature on the promotion and introduction of innovative products in the field of education through the media. Results: the results show the need for using the exhibition activity parameters to introduce and implement the educational programmes “Tempus”, “Erasmus+”, and others, and to create relationship between universities and representatives of business communities from the partner countries. The authors emphasise the differences in the mechanism of impact on the target audience (a high school leaver, a student or a representative of a business community. The article presents a combination of essential elements in core objectives of the strategy “Europe 2020” (particularly in the context of priority of the rapid development and components of seven priority initiatives which determine the scheme for the strategic development of the EU member states in the field of education until 2020. Discussion and Conclusions: a professionally designed exposition, well-prepared advertising materials and adequate work with representatives of business communities and partner universities whihin the education exhibition can increase the number of applications to participate in the programme “Capicity-building in the field of higher education”. Promoting innovative products through using some marketing tools is differential in nature and indirectly related to the specifics of their posi
Full Text Available Preferring passive life style and the problems with obesity eventuating from this fact, have become very common in many countries. According to research, the physical activity of Poles turns out to be under the average for EU countries. (Sport activity of Poles, 2015, p.3 The promotion of physical activity is one of the most important tasks of public health. The publicity of physical activity, habits of caring for health and wellbeing should be realized by national and local authorities, media and organisations connected w sport and recreation. Next, there are subjects providing sport- recreation services, which use properly worked out marketing programs, apart from purely business goals, they can also become the promoters of physical activity. The aim of this article is to present shocking advertisement as the part of social campaigns influencing the changing the passive lifestyle for the active one. Shown in this article research was conducted among students of one university. The goal of research was the assessment of emotions which were aroused by showing examples of campaigns and their influence on the willingness to take up physical activities by the youth. The article contains the examples of campaigns and the results of research into using this kind of actions among young people. It was assumed, that the showing shocking messages concerning the consequences of lack physical activity, influences on taking up such activity by young people.
Full Text Available The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating and concentrating around the local market. The conclusion suggests that the relationships of the informal sector, street vendors, and local market should be promoted through an appropriate inclusive policy and regulatory environment.The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating
Full Text Available New types of advertizing have appeared apart from classical mass media due to the shrinking effectiveness of traditional advertizing messages. Promotions are not a brand new instrument for communicating and promoting goods and services to the market, but once organized and in a correct manner, they will be capable to bring success and good financial returns. Each promotion needs to be thoroughly elaborated and permanently controlled, being an instrument of marketing communications capable to have either positive or negative implications for the consumer attitude to a company. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the importance of promotions for company performance and effective communication with customers; to define the criteria for planning and organization of an effective promotion as part of marketing communication at company level. The essential meaning of promotion and its role in the system of marketing communications is highlighted. The most common mistakes in organizing promotions are shown; the criteria for effective planning of promotion campaign and the criteria for successful organization of a promotion are given.
Full Text Available Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users' needs. Each higher education institution sets its own goals which, broadly speaking, are to meet their own needs, the needs of students and the society as a whole. Therefore, when formulating a strategy for achieving the objectives of higher education institutions, it is necessary to have timely information from the environment. The modern approach to business puts forward the service users' needs. When it comes to institutions of higher education, the users are primarily students, who thus get the most attention. Keeping this in mind, we have conducted a research among students in order to identify the choice factors influencing their higher education institution selection process. The results obtained should provide guidelines for creating an adequate marketing mix in order to gain competitive advantage on the market for higher education. In the research descriptive and comparative methods were used. In the practical part of the research, survey technique was applied by means of a non-standardized questionnaire. The research results imply that the analysis of the factors influencing the process of selecting the higher education institution enables the creation of an adequate combination of instruments in a marketing mix which can then be used as an instrument for gaining competitive advantage.
The topic of marketing implementation within project management is out of interest of many authors. There are a few literature sources related to the theme. Our science interest is to analyze and outline the main possibilities of marketing conception implementation within project realization in order to make their distribution and promotion effective to reach the target groups and publics. We try to describe main basis of marketing perspective in managing projects in relation to target groups...
Moutinho, Victor; Moreira, António C.; Mota, Jorge
This paper estimates the relationships between bidding quantities, marginal cost and market power measures in the Spanish wholesale electricity market for two different regulatory periods: 2002–2005 and 2006–2007. Using panel econometric techniques we find differences in the impacts on bidding strategies for both periods. Hence, the marginal cost and the market power measures affect bid and net quantities. The market power measures also suggest that the coefficient is consistently positive and highly significant for both periods. Moreover, the market power and marginal costs have mixed effects according to the models proposed for both periods. In addition, our results point to the effectiveness of the different effects of mitigating the market power in the Spanish electricity market. For the 2006–2007 period, the proposed causal relationships are partially validated by the cointegration results, which assumes there is a significant causality between the Lerner Index and the marginal cost. - Highlights: • Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. • Net supplier and net demander behavior in the spot market. • Panel cointegration methods used: FMOLS, PMG, MG, DFE and DOLS. • The price cap regulation is effective in mitigating market power. • Market power and marginal cost have positive effects on bidding strategies
Meyer, Niels I.
The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models...... with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark.An EU directive from September 2001 has...
Bray, Jeremy W; Loomis, Brett; Engelen, Mark
We estimated the strength and direction of the association between product characteristics (beer type, package size, and brand name) and market-area socioeconomic characteristics, and promoted sales of beer in grocery stores. Supermarket scanner data from 64 market areas across the United States over 5 years were used to estimate regression models of the share of beer sales that are promoted, controlling for beer price, packaging, and type; and for market-level age, race/ethnicity, income, unemployment rate, and percentage of the population living in an alcohol control state. Large-volume units, such as 144-oz and 288-oz packages, are more likely to be promoted than smaller package sizes. Malt-liquor beverages are less likely to be promoted than non-malt-liquor beverages. Age, race/ethnicity, income, and geographic location of the market area are not significantly related to promoted beer sales. Marketing research has shown that in-store merchandising and promotions can substantially increase beer sales and that purchasing large package sizes may increase total consumption. Our results suggest that high levels of promoted sales for large-volume beer packages may result in increased beer consumption.
Valeria Arina BALACEANU
Modern advertising strategies involve the use of a bank's media and consumer incentives, so that banking institution, and thus offer products/services to cause favorable changes in mentality and their consumption habits, also important is the establishment an effective communication with employees, shareholders, competitors. Promotion strategies are essential to business success. Success is guaranteed if the message is sent to the right people at the right time. Promotion has a special place ...
Germain, Carol Anne
Some faculty and administrators naively believe that undergraduates come to campus as information literate individuals since these students know how to use computers and the Internet. Yet, as librarians, they know that there is more to IL than surfing search engines, IMing, and word processing. So marketing IL becomes a very important task. This…
Gyulnara M. Gasymova
Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.
James, Ricky; Naughton, Declan P; Petróczi, Andrea
Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient.
way could be a rewarding avenue for anti-doping. Effective social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient.
Full Text Available We live in a postmodern period where the old values or imperatives have lost the force as they were replaced by new values. Amidst this chaos, the Church opens its road by promoting values such as family and marriage based upon responsibility, understanding, compromise, etc. If the current trends move towards the personal satisfaction with everything this aspect involves, the Church is trying to preserve the traditionalism, the union between a man and a woman, the marriage. In our work we aim to analyze the methods by which the Orthodox Church promotes the heterosexual marriage.
Fornahl, Dirk; Diller, Matthias [BAW Institut fuer regionale Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH, Bremen (Germany)
Increasingly, the automobile industry is calling for state funds for electromobility. However, to achieve the goal of large-scale diffusion of grid-powered electric vehicles, the following points must be considered before deciding on appropriate promotion instruments: All products that are launched go through several phases before they are fully established in the market, and appropriate promotion measures are must be selected for each stage, in consideration of greatly different economic criteria. Against this background, a promotion strategy oriented along the various market phases must be developed.
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern ...
...), order on reh'g, 119 FERC ] 61,062 (2007). \\30\\ See Interstate Nat'l Gas Ass'n of America v. FERC, 285 F... without requiring market power analyses from each reseller. \\41\\ Interstate Nat'l Gas Ass'n of American v. FERC, 285 F.3d at 33 (DC Cir. 2002). \\42\\ Interstate Nat'l Gas Ass'n of America v. FERC, 285 F.3d 18 at...
Because of its negative effects, the scheme for aiding renewable energies presently in force in Europe is likely to penalise investments in nuclear energy. The F.I.T. system is a costly mechanism and a source of perverse effects as a switching of the merit order curve on the spot electricity market (with sometimes negative prices). Restoring an equity and 'equal opportunity' for nuclear energy in Europe needs to implement a 'Contract for Differences' scheme for nuclear energy, like the model now gaining favour in the U.K. The contract for differences signed between EDF and the UK government means that if the wholesale price that EDF secures for Hinckley's power falls below the index-linked preset value, the difference will be covered by payments from the UK government. It appears that nuclear power has weakened in Europe by the system of guaranteed purchase prices for renewable energies. Moreover this system is costly. New fairer rules must be implemented in the market. Either the market is left on its own to send the signals to all investors (including renewable energies), or a minimum of regulation is introduced in order to limit the costly surges of under and over capacity. But in the latter case it is necessary to treat all the energy sources in an equal way and guarantee the nuclear industry that it will also recover its fixed costs over the long term)
Groot, Robert D.; Musters, Pieter A. D.
A variation of the Minority Game has been applied to study the timing of promotional actions at retailers in the fast moving consumer goods market. The underlying hypotheses for this work are that price promotions are more effective when fewer than average competitors do a promotion, and that a promotion strategy can be based on past sales data. The first assumption has been checked by analysing 1467 promotional actions for three products on the Dutch market (ketchup, mayonnaise and curry sauce) over a 120-week period, both on an aggregated level and on retailer chain level. The second assumption was tested by analysing past sales data with the Minority Game. This revealed that high or low competitor promotional pressure for actual ketchup, mayonnaise, curry sauce and barbecue sauce markets is to some extent predictable up to a forecast of some 10 weeks. Whereas a random guess would be right 50% of the time, a single-agent game can predict the market with a success rate of 56% for a 6-9 week forecast. This number is the same for all four mentioned fast moving consumer markets. For a multi-agent game a larger variability in the success rate is obtained, but predictability can be as high as 65%. Contrary to expectation, the actual market does the opposite of what game theory would predict. This points at a systematic oscillation in the market. Even though this result is not fully understood, merely observing that this trend is present in the data could lead to exploitable trading benefits. As a check, random history strings were generated from which the statistical variation in the game prediction was studied. This shows that the odds are 1:1,000,000 that the observed pattern in the market is based on coincidence.
Schuler, Janice Lynn
This paper identifies major shifts in advertising and marketing addressed to the female audience between 1940 and 1980 in terms of women's labor, lifestyle, and leisure, and analyzes various popular and publicized conceptualizations of female identity and feminism from the point of view of business and marketers. The first period is identified as…
N. V. Lyasnikov; Yu. V. Lyasnikova
This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinationa...
Full Text Available More energy prices, on the one hand, and the increasing use of insulating materials in the construction industry, on the other hand, contributed to intensifying competition in the business market. In order to attract and retain a greater number of customers, manufacturers of styrofoam must constantly work on the quality of their offerings, and integrated marketing communications. In conditions when competitors offer a relatively homogeneous, right promotional activities have become one of the main factors of competitive advantage. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of certain promotional tools in marketing of styrofoam on the market of Vojvodina. In accordance with these goals were used value of the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation at promotional instruments. Data were collected through unstructured personal communication with a sample of 20 of the respondents. The research results indicate that there is a very strong and positive impact of promotional activities on the placement of styrofoam. At the same time, by far the most powerful influence of the advertising, then personal selling, and sales promotion, and the last place relations with the public. These results indicate that none of the instruments of promotional mix should not be ignored, but also emphasize the need to focus on those instruments that are of major influence on the placement of styrofoam. In this way, the findings of this research can be of benefit management companies operating in the market of Vojvodina styrofoam.
MSc. Hidajet Karaxha; MSc. Sejd Tolaj; Dr.Sc. Ilia Kristo
In order for a product to be put in the hands of the customer, requires a mechanism which is called distribution channel and which enables the connection between the consumer and producer. One of the many strategies applied by Kosovar companies for the involvement of the members of the channel is also the promotion through distribution channels. Therefore, the strategies which involve the members of the channel have a higher probability to be positively accepted by the members of the channel,...
Gelb, B D; Bryant, J M
More health care providers and payors are beginning to see health promotion programs as a significant tool for attracting patients, reducing costs, or both. To help design programs that take into account the values and lifestyles of the target group, naturalistic observation can be useful. The authors illustrate the approach in a study of pipeline workers that provided input for the design of nutrition and smoking cessation programs.
Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S
The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Zulqurnain Ali; Saira Ejaz; Asma Aleem; Muhammad Usman Saeed; Faisal Altaf Tahir; Muhammad Kashif
The rapid adoption of internet and related technologies as a promotional tool has made it imperative for firm’s marketing plan. As internet presence is essential for a firm survival, so it has changed the way of doing businesses altogether. In this study, we empirically checked the four dimensions of electronic marketing (electronic mail marketing, web marketing, mobile marketing and marketing through internet) impact on consumer perception to make a buying decision. A total of 250 questionna...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under five in Burundi; however, use of oral rehydration salts (ORS, the recommended first-line treatment, remains low. In 2004, PSI/Burundi launched a social marketing intervention to promote ORASEL among caregivers of children under five; the product was relaunched in 2006 with a new flavor. This study evaluates the intervention after the ORASEL relaunch, which included mass media and interpersonal communication activities. The study looks at trends in ORASEL use in Burundi and in behavioral determinants that may be related to its use. Methods In 2006 and 2007, PSI conducted household surveys among Burundian females of reproductive age (15-49. Both surveys used a two-stage sampling process to select 30 households in each of 115 rural and urban collines throughout the nation. Survey respondents were asked about diarrhea treatment-related behavior; key behavioral determinants; and exposure to the ORASEL intervention. Data were analyzed to identify trends over time, characteristics of ORASEL users, and associations between exposure to the intervention and changes in ORASEL use and related behavioral determinants. Results ORASEL use among caregivers at their children's last diarrheal episode increased significantly from 20% in 2006 to 30% in 2007, and there were also desirable changes in several behavioral determinants associated with ORASEL use. Evaluation analysis showed that a higher level of exposure to the social marketing campaign was associated with greater use of ORASEL and with significant improvements in perceived availability, knowledge of the signs of diarrhea and dehydration, social support, and self-efficacy. Conclusions ORS use can be improved through social marketing and educational campaigns that make the public aware of the availability of the product, encourage dialogue about its use, and increase skills and confidence relating to correct product
Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...
Komarova, N.; Velthuis, O.
The paper studies how local contexts contribute to the emergence of markets. In particular, it explains how potential entrepreneurs are motivated to become active in establishing new markets. Empirically, the focus is on contemporary art markets in two emerging countries: India and Russia. The paper
The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F
The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels.
Kotysh Olena M.
Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches to defining concepts such as «exports» and «export activity». The results of the study helped to reveal that these concepts are identical, although this approach is criticized by many scientists. In the publication presented, the export activity is understood as a combination of actions on the part of the enterprises – foreign economic actors, involved in organizational arrangements aimed at preparation and marketing of goods to foreign economic actors. The article calculates the macro indicators in dynamics in order to characterize the status of Ukraine’s export activities. Its main development tendencies have been identified, the main challenges and directions for further development have been indicated. The article provides the international experience in promoting exports worldwide, the main tasks and functions of export promotion institutions have been explained, thus creating possibility to form recommendations for further actions on the part of the State to support and develop the export activity of Ukraine.
Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane
The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...
Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan
The purpose of this study is to prioritise investments in marketing activities based on their effect on business performance (BP). On the basis of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model adapted to a marketing context, four generic marketing activities are structured in two...... dimensions: (1) Small m: marketing strategy and marketing implementation and (2) big M: cross-functional coordination and innovation. Big M and small m interact and influence BP similarly. When considering investing in marketing activities to improve financial performance, the first priority is to recruit...... and retain competent employees and the second, to collect, disseminate and act upon market insight in the form of measurement of effectiveness and production of intelligence. These provide resources for the development of a customer-oriented marketing strategy that in turn helps innovation and cross...
The purpose of this thesis was to create a modern marketing strategy for a Finnish webstore and to develop an appropriate marketing plan for promotion of a new brand. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis were collected from secondary data resources, including literature, articles and the Internet. The primary and the secondary data for the empirical part of this thesis were gathered in the Internet from various articles, thematic forums and official statistics of Finland. ...
This paper summarizes the experience of programs designed to promote the adoption of best practices in equipment specification and installation among distributors and installation contractors in the residential central air conditioning and industrial compressed air equipment markets. For each of those markets, the paper identifies the current understanding of best practices, characterizes energy savings available from their adoption, assesses the nature of barriers to their adoption, and describes the operations and accomplishments of programs designed to address those barriers
Bebie, B.; Hug, F.; Vonbank, A.; Wieland, P.
This article discusses the promotion of sustainable energy use and power-production from renewable resources. In particular, the approach adopted by the City of Zurich in Switzerland is discussed. Changes currently being experienced in the Swiss energy business are looked at. The approach adopted by the City of Zurich, which includes both rewards for increasing energy efficiency as well as the definition of criteria for the evaluation of measures and their effect, is discussed. Instruments and goals are looked at. Other topics discussed include the 'ecologicalisation' of electrical power production and economical incentives for industry. The role played by the labelling of ecologically-produced power is discussed and the economical advantages for the City of Zurich itself are examined
DiPofi, J A; LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L
As part of a project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted to gain insight into perceptions of the threat of radon in the Karst geological region (i.e., Northern Alabama, Central Tennessee, Central Kentucky). Based on health practitioner input, it was clear that the tenets of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the probing afforded by focus group research would provide greatly needed theory-based insight into the public reactions (or lack thereof) to the threat posed by radon. Qualitative research findings of this project are discussed as well as preliminary recommendations are provided to advance the protection motivation theory research agenda for promoting awareness of the threat of radon and to influence appropriate response to that threat.
Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Schneider, Carl R
Community pharmacy ownership requires engaging with marketing strategies to influence consumer behaviour. There is a plethora of information from trade journals, expert opinion, and published discussion surrounding this issue. Despite this, evidence relating to the efficacy of marketing activity within the pharmacy sector is scant. To review how marketing activity has been conceptualised in the community pharmacy sector and to determine the evidence for the effect of marketing activity. Seven databases were systematically searched using a scoping review framework with the reporting protocol of PRISMA-P. The search yielded 33 studies that were analysed for year of publication, journal, country of focus, and framework of marketing. The majority of marketing research papers focused on the United States and were published in healthcare journals. These were various marketing strategy elements, including; segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. Also evident was research regarding marketing mix, which predominately involved the "4Ps" model. Actual marketing activity comprised little of the research. Research into marketing activity in community pharmacy is limited, and little evidence is available to show the effects of such activities. Future research needs to demonstrate the causality for the effect of marketing activities on consumer behaviour and economic outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fontana, S A
1. Occupational health nurses can use marketing strategies to plan, offer, and manage health promotion programs; and to conduct research aimed at better understanding the health needs of workers. 2. By applying a social marketing orientation to health promotion planning, occupational health nurses can tailor programs to fit employees' needs, and deliver health messages that are readily understandable to worker groups. 3. A priority in implementing any occupational health program or service is learning about the needs, desires, and health habits of employees. 4. Greater benefits to employee health may occur by targeting change in structures and systems at the workplace rather than solely focusing on lifestyle issues.
For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.
The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) published its Retail Market Readiness Plan in January 2000 with particular focus on what is needed by distributors to become ready for self certification on December 14, 2001. The market opening date has now been set for May 1, 2002 so the framework has been updated to focus on what is needed to open the electricity market to retail competition. This report describes the activities required for the opening of the retail electricity market with reference to the activities that the participants, distributors and retailers need to complete to properly interact at market opening. The measures that other organizations such as EBT hubs should take were also identified for cases where the measures involve cooperation and interaction with distributors and retailers to ensure a smooth transition to competition within the industry. While schedules of individual organizations will vary, market participants should try to align with the overall framework at key milestones. The mandatory requirements associated with milestones were included in Appendix B. These included requirements for: market opening baseline; market readiness activities; participant systems and organizational preparations; loading of new rates into systems; cutover to new systems by market participants; data scrubbing; multiple contract resolution; pre-market processing; distributor-retailer service agreement; retail prudential posting; inter-participant testing; contingency arrangements; stability period; and, market opening. Appendix A includes the Market Opening Gantt Chart. 1 tab
Birner, Sabrina; Martinot, Eric
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has allocated more than $90 million over the past 10 years to eight projects promoting energy-efficient products in developing and transition countries. We review the early experience from these projects and suggest lessons relevant to market transformation programs. Based on GEF project designs, we also propose a menu of generic supply-side and demand-side interventions useful for designing and analyzing market transformation programs. Experience suggests that institutional and policy changes, leading to sustained price reductions and higher market volumes, are important outcomes for market transformation; that market impacts can appear early in programs due to increased expectations and awareness; and that projects can have a catalytic effect. We recommend eight principles for designers of future projects but caution that no single approach guarantees success
Cruz, Tess Boley; Wright, La Tanisha; Crawford, George
This study analyzes tobacco industry menthol marketing strategies aimed at urban predominantly Black populations. Data are drawn from an interview with a former Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company trade marketing manager, tobacco industry documents on Kool promotions in urban areas, and public health literature on tobacco marketing. Tobacco companies recognize the growth potential for the menthol segment in these urban communities. They have higher levels of price discounts and signage, exert tight controls over the retail environment, and use hip-hop lifestyle to associate menthol products with urban nightlife, music, fame, and cultural edginess among younger smokers. Tobacco companies regard the urban Black menthol segment as one of the few markets in which they can grow sales despite declines elsewhere in the United States. Consequently, this population is surrounded by intense and integrated levels of marketing. We need strong monitoring, regulation, and enforcement efforts that will counter the industry's use of menthol at multiple levels in urban environments.
The laws defining the tasks of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) do not allow it to dictate measures, but to collaborate on the basis of voluntary actions. In the heat pump sector, the SwissEnergy action programme binds together 1 state, 26 cantons, 3000 communes, 50 manufacturers, 3500 installers, 1200 electricity companies and environmental agencies. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, the SFOE took the lead by creating the Swiss heat pump promotion group (GSP) in 1993. The idea was to bundle the market's forces to actively market and promote heat pumps for heating purposes. Under the umbrella of the Energy2000 (1990-2000) and the SwissEnergy (2001-2010) promotion programmes, the disparate heat pump sector was brought together and consolidated into being a key player on the heating market. The role of the SFOE and the GSP has changed with time. At the beginning, the SFOE decided what was to be done and the GSP did the job on a mandatory base. The SFOE was responsible for achieving the goals. The GSP gradually grew, so that since 2001 it has been able to determine the action plans itself. The SFOE sets the goals and the GSP is responsible for fulfilling them. The SFOE assures the coordination and the efficient use of resources. Its domain manager is responsible for the coordination of the whole chain from research and development to market, including quality management for all of the activities and the products as well. In this way, the government laid the foundations for the sector to become a success. This model can be applied to other domains or to other countries if some of the assessments and conditions described in the article are met. (author)
The laws defining the tasks of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) do not allow it to dictate measures, but to collaborate on the basis of voluntary actions. In the heat pump sector, the SwissEnergy action programme binds together 1 state, 26 cantons, 3000 communes, 50 manufacturers, 3500 installers, 1200 electricity companies and environmental agencies. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, the SFOE took the lead by creating the Swiss heat pump promotion group (GSP) in 1993. The idea was to bundle the market's forces to actively market and promote heat pumps for heating purposes. Under the umbrella of the Energy2000 (1990-2000) and the SwissEnergy (2001-2010) promotion programmes, the disparate heat pump sector was brought together and consolidated into being a key player on the heating market. The role of the SFOE and the GSP has changed with time. At the beginning, the SFOE decided what was to be done and the GSP did the job on a mandatory base. The SFOE was responsible for achieving the goals. The GSP gradually grew, so that since 2001 it has been able to determine the action plans itself. The SFOE sets the goals and the GSP is responsible for fulfilling them. The SFOE assures the coordination and the efficient use of resources. Its domain manager is responsible for the coordination of the whole chain from research and development to market, including quality management for all of the activities and the products as well. In this way, the government laid the foundations for the sector to become a success. This model can be applied to other domains or to other countries if some of the assessments and conditions described in the article are met. (author)
Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol
Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.
The rise of social media has provided useful marketing tools for companies to promote their events. The purpose of this thesis was to research social media marketing and how it can be used in event promotion. The theory part also includes research of the event marketing process, as it can help to plan the social media marketing strategy. The purpose of the case study in this thesis was to study the ways the commissioning company can use social media marketing in their event promotion. Hence, ...
<正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.
Онищенко, Світлана Петрівна; Берневек, Тетяна Іванівна
The article identified the main types of a project product from the point of view of a business level that is necessary to determine the specificity of the project marketing. As such objects of marketing - variants of the project product we have singled out: a product, a combination "product-market segment," a commodity group, a strategic business unit, a company. We have analyzed the relation "product life cycle - project-organization" and received a generalized representation of this relati...
Full Text Available The financial shifts encountered in the last decade, increase the importance of capital markets in emerging countries, which is also Romania’s case. The banking system was for a long period of time the main source of liquidity for the economy. Meanwhile, the situation is changing due to the importance that capital market has in financing the economy. Through this paper we analyze the transactions’ evolution made by financial intermediaries on Romanian capital market, by highlighting the Societies for Financial Services and Investments (SSIF. Based on this evolution, we identified the main significant differences and similarities between the SSIFs existing on the market.
With the rapid international cultural integration, the American popular music has become more and more popular in the world wide. People around the world listen to it almost every day and love it in heart. With the economy gradually being open to the world, the music industry has grown dramatically in China with an increasing number of music companies entering the Chinese market. The readers will gain a good understanding of the current situation of American popular music and musical corporat...
Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick
Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...
Comeau, Allison; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Wahl, Thomas I.
An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System is utilized to determine the effectiveness of Market Promotion Program (MPP) and Target Export Assistance (TEA) advertising and promotion expenditures in the Japanese market for meat. Using annual data, it is found that beef advertising and promotion has had a positive and significant effect on the demand for beef. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that pork and poultry advertising and promotion increased the demand for either commodity.
Market-based approaches to environmental management are all the rage. Claims that market mechanisms can encourage environmental protection and promote greater economic efficiency while saving taxpayers' money are tantalizing. In the forestry sector, policy makers are widely heeding this advice and shrinking command-and-control systems in favour of incentive mechanisms that seek to align private enthusiasm with the public good. In some cases, governments are even promoting the creation of markets where none existed before. In others, markets are evolving of their own accord. In such times of change, it is difficult to stand back and take stock. Yet, it is during such times that guidance is most needed. In the rush to introduce market-based solutions to environmental problems, a particular concern is how markets are impacting on the poor. In this paper an effort is made to draw on a recent review of markets for four forest environmental services (biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and landscape beauty) to draw out preliminary insights into how markets are performing with respect to their impacts on the poor. The evidence suggests a need for caution. While the potential benefits are significant, the poor face an uphill battle in realizing them. Key constraints facing the poor include a lack of property rights over forest resources and their environmental services; inadequate skills and education; poor market information; lack of market contacts; inadequate communication infrastructure; inappropriate contract design; and lack of access to financial resources. To tackle these, four potential ways forward are highlighted: (1) assign property rights to forest assets and their related environmental services in ways that respect customary arrangements and poor people's tenure; (2) strengthen capacity for market participation, e.g. through training and education; (3) invest in the provision of market information, advice and, essentially, a
Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David
Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264
This document examines an innovative marketing strategy developed by South Texas Community College (STCC) to promote its technical programs. In 2000, STCC organized the "Business Conference Institute" to develop 1-day conferences with the Division of Business, Math & Sciences (DBMS). The creation of this Institute linked the College with the local…
Boisen, Martin; Terlouw, Kees; Groote, Peter; Couwenberg, Oscar
The literature and practice of place promotion, place marketing and place branding lack a common understanding of what these three concepts mean and through what kind of policies they can be implemented. Although scholars have provided several theoretical frameworks and definitions, both scholars
This paper describes aspects of doing televised rhetorical analysis as they relate to the promotion of college awareness in a particular target market. Considerations in the paper include variables that most professors encounter in their efforts to address the "service" expectations of their employment and how these variables can be…
This thesis deals with the retail marketing and the in-store promotion. It is prima-rily focused on merchandising, sales promotion and other selected activities. The work itself is devoted to Samsung Electronics Czech and Slovak s.r.o. and is mostly based on a practical experience gained from a position of an employee. Firstly, the amount of investments in marketing of Samsung in comparison with the competition is introduced. The following part describes the basic retail acti-vities across th...
Full Text Available Consumer researchers have most frequently looked at the influence the marketplace has on consumers’ identity projects, while the reverse process – how consumers’ identity projects influence the marketplace and general culture – is an important issue that has received less attention. Aiming to contribute to the development of this literature, we conduct a qualitative netnographic investigation of the Fat Acceptance Movement, an online-based movement led by consumer-activists who attempt to change societal attitudes about people who are fat. Our main goal is, therefore, to investigate how consumer activists who congregate online, that is, cyberactivists, reframe market offers while attempting to promote market and cultural change. We identify several rhetorical strategies employed by online consumer activists in their quests to change themselves, other consumers, and the broader culture. Our findings advance consumer research on how consumers may mobilize resources to initiate and promote self-, market-, and cultural transformations.
Morgan-Siebe, J P
Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) do not know that they are infected. It is important for infected persons to get tested for HIV in order to be diagnosed and medically treated. HIV has no known cure, but it can be controlled and sometimes prevented with proper medical care. The social work profession has ideal positioning to be extraordinarily helpful in work that promotes HIV testing, leading to reducing then eliminating new HIV diagnoses. Social marketing interventions, along with audience segmenting are explained. Specific attention is given to two separate subjects-minority health disparities and impulsive and/or sensation seeking sex practices-to showcase the versatility of social marketing in the promotion of HIV testing. Further ideas about how social workers can participate in these interprofessional social marketing campaigns are provided.
Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.
Alisa Yu. Fadeyeva
Full Text Available Objective to investigate the potential of Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting regional investment portals in the information environment to identify the most effective ways of its implementation and to determine the level of mastering of this tool by the Russian regions. Methods general scientific methods observation comparison analysis induction deduction analogy classification. Results the analysis showed that today Social Media Marketing is an essential tool for interaction with the investment community and one of the most effective ways to promote the regional portal which allows to increase the knowledge of and loyalty to the brand to increase the targeted website traffic to increase the awareness of investors about the specific features of the portal and the regional development agenciesrsquo functioning to promptly receive information about the investment environment and to establish contacts with investors. At the same time the study of SMMactivity in the Russian regions revealed a very low level of quality of communication with investors through social networks. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigates the significance and makes the comparative analysis of the Social Media Marketing channels with regard to investment promotion agencies as well as the results of the regional structures functioning for effective communication through social networks. Practical significance the main results of the research can be used by the regional investment agencies in order to promote their websites increase the quality of communication with investors and promote the investment attractiveness of the region as a whole. nbsp
In today’s era of internet with evolution of Web 2.0, all the organisations dealing in retail are going online. In fact online presence has been mandatory requirement today and does no longer hold any competitive advantage by far. In country like India, printing retail industry has been found to be in a state of growth. There is wide array of literature available that analyzes critical success factors for online marketing in general as well as precisely for retail industry. This management pr...
Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.
Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)
Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme; Workman, Christopher T
Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system of ordinary differential equations for estimating dynamic promoter activity for promoters that change their activity in response to the environment that is robust to noise and changes in growth rate. Our approach, inference of dynamic promoter activity (PromAct), improves on existing methods by more accurately inferring known promoter activity profiles. This method is also capable of estimating the correct scale of promoter activity and can be applied to quantitative data sets to estimate quantitative rates.
Uma Shankar Singh
Full Text Available The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales promotion activities, to realize the importance of brand loyalty on sales promotion activities. A quantitative method was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A survey instrument developed taking items to measure all variables with five points likert scale. A sample size of 159 (from 210 incorporated in the study having the reliability of 0.851(more than 0.7. The data analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and regression to measure the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. It is recommend that COCA COLA should improve more on its different activities and produce different product and with tasty fast food or build up different production of equipment to expand its business in the whole world’s market .
Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley
Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…
Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa
The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.
Carmen Adina Pastiu
Marketing in its hypostasis: optical and economic design, practice science andart, it appears and develops in the context of a competitive economy, as a necessity ofbusiness success. These considerations and not only determined us researching its directsteps: business to business, and to identify characteristics of marketing activities undertakenby companies in competitive markets. In this paper we follow, based on research carried outon a sample of 160 statistical units (footwear industry co...
Sharova, I.; Sharova, K.
The article discusses the necessity and possibility of implementation of marketing tools to increase customer loyalty and satisfaction of the bank to improve the business performance of financial institutions
Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding in....... This introductory chapter introduces the nature of the problem, paradigmatic position, unit and level of analysis, and methods employed in the research. Also overviews of the research process and the structure of the dissertation are given....
Cotoia, Anthony M.
Suggests that educators lack understanding of the nature of marketing and the collegiate product. Establishes priorities for developing a marketing plan, identifies the potential benefits and inevitable problems of a marketing program, and offers examples of successful promotional activities. (DMM)
Full Text Available The topic of marketing implementation within project management is out of interest of many authors. There are a few literature sources related to the theme. Our science interest is to analyze and outline the main possibilities of marketing conception implementation within project realization in order to make their distribution and promotion effective to reach the target groups and publics. We try to describe main basis of marketing perspective in managing projects in relation to target groups, to which the project would be defined and it would reach it directly or indirectly. The main aim of the study is to analyze the possibilities of project preparation and implementation with the support of direct and effective marketing mix with emphasis on promotion and distribution policy. The project would be seen as a product within this marketing mix and the price is not considered to be that interesting as it is given by the national law and concrete priority call. The communication policy as well as distribution strategy must be designed in relation to expectations and needs of target groups which might vary in their age, sex, life standard, demography characteristics, etc.
Mah, Manuel W; Tam, Yat Cho; Deshpande, Sameer
To assess published hand hygiene behavioral interventions that employed a social marketing framework and to recommend improvements to future interventions. We performed a systematic literature review by searching the PubMed database and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for published articles about hand hygiene behavioral interventions in healthcare facilities, schools, and community settings. Our analysis included articles that describe multifaceted interventions and evaluated them with predefined social marketing benchmark criteria. Of 53 interventions analyzed in this review, 16 (30.2%) employed primary formative audience research, 5 (9.4%) incorporated social or behavioral theories, 27 (50.9%) employed segmentation and targeting of the audience, 44 (83.0%) used components of the "marketing mix," 3 (5.7%) considered the influence of competing behaviors, 7 (13.2%) cultivated relationships with the target audience, and 15 (28.3%) provided simple behavioral messages. Thirty-five (66.0%) of the interventions demonstrated a significant improvement in performance, but only 21 (39.6%) were considered to have a strong evaluative design. The median duration of the interventions was 8.0 months. From a social marketing perspective, the promotion of hand hygiene could be improved in several ways. The effectiveness of social marketing in hand hygiene promotion should be tested in future interventions.
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith
The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus.
Augustine Egwu Ndu OKO
Full Text Available The adoption of sales promotion in the marketing of telecommunication services in Nigeria is common among the front line GSM service providers. This however does not yield the much assured increasing return on investment, hence is unprofitable and the required fund for the expansion of infrastructure base of operation is not earned, and serve rendition is as a result poor. Studying the impact of sales promotion on patronage based on the data sourced and analyzed using Likert’s ranking scale, questionnaire and analysis of variance (ANOVA, the work discerns and concludes that the high level of illiteracy based on quantitative rather than qualitative education high level of poverty as well as high rate of rural dwelling are challenges to the expansion of the level of consumption of telecommunication services even at the offer of sales promotion incentives. Recommended is a good quality marketing research with consumers as thrust point for efficiency in market segmentation as basic in the adoption of sales promotion strategy.
Martin Owusu Ansah
Full Text Available The promotional activities have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of companies are using them to ensure their survival in today’s competitive market. Essentially, the study analyzed the nature of sales promotional activities of Unilever Ghana Limited; determined factors that influence the consumption of Unilever products in Kumasi and finally examined the relationship between sales promotions and the consumption of Unilever products. Primary and secondary data sources were used to select 220 consumers of Unilever in Kumasi and an in-depth interview with the Managers of the companies in Kumasi. Convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Cross tabulation was done on the demographics whilst a regression model was used to establish the relationship between sales promotions and consumption of products. The findings revealed that Personalities in promotions, Prices in promotions, Messages in promotions and Promotional tools have strong influence on consumption but the Medium in promotion did not have influence on consumption during promotions. It was therefore recommended for celebrities to be used in the company’s promotions.
Full Text Available Progress in transforming current food consumption and production practice in a sustainable direction is slow. Communicative, sustainable consumer policy instruments such as eco-labeling schemes have limited impact outside the green segment and within the mainstream market. This article asks how sustainably produced food can be described in order to promote such food. Based on six cases, it aims to conceptualize the common denominators of sustainable food production by drawing on recent literature on sustainable marketing and on food and sustainable development. Contradictions and implications in terms of labeling schemes, global sourcing and consumer food practice are discussed.
Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek; Ozçakar, Nilgün; Mevsim, Vildan
Drugs, as commercial products, are subject to diverse marketing methods including promotional activities. Although the legal/ethical aspects of promotional activities have been discussed in a limited manner, the patient has remained the neglected variable of this equation. The goal of our study, therefore, is to investigate the patients' opinion on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies. A descriptive study was conducted at 44 primary health care centers in Turkey and 584 volunteers who applied to these centers were included. A questionnaire consisting of 42 questions was developed with demographic information in the first section, and drug ads and promotions included in the second section. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The awareness and ethical evaluation of patients of the promotional activities. Nearly 83% of the participants were aware of the promotion issue. Eighty percent found it unethical, 82% suggested that promotional activities should be forbidden, restricted or regulated. 1/3 of the participants believed that physicians made their drug choices based on the gifts and ads of pharmaceutical companies. Half of them had low confidence in the prescriptions of physicians who accepted gifts from the pharmaceutical companies. 54.5% of patients also considered promotional activities as a factor which increased drug prices. In our study, a considerable number of patients were aware of promotions and the effects of promotion on prescriptions. The findings of our study may contribute to the development of effective regulations on this issue. Very strict measures controlling drug companies' promotion activities must be formulated. Further, these regulations must incorporate and take into consideration the patients' opinion. Today, the basic need for the proper use of drugs does not rest in pharmaceutical promotion, but in providing adequate health services and effective education for both people
Full Text Available This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, −906 T/C, −809 G/A, −616G/C, and −521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits.
Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.
Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.
Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.
The paper analyse active aging policy in the labour market in Norway. First, a statistical analysis of the changes in labour market is presented. Even though European countries are more challenged than Norway, demographic ageing puts some pressure on the labour force and the ability of the welfare state to meet the needs of increased retirees in the future. The statistical analysis deals with labour market participation, unemployment, part-time employment, education, early exit and w...
Sanchez, Juan Machado
Increasing competition caused by globalization, high growth of some emerging markets and stagnation of developed economies motivate Consumer Packaged Goods (CPGs) manufacturers to drive their attention to emerging markets. These companies are expected to adapt their marketing activities to the particularities of these markets in order to succeed. In a country classified as emerging market, regions are not alike and some contrasts can be identified. In addition, divergences of marketing variab...
Full Text Available Universities and research institutes more and more often resort to promotion tools up till now used mainly in business. Omnipresent market competition has reached also the area of science, where more and more often the fight for students and money for scientific research takes place. Competition among science institutions is additionally stimulated by demographic factors – the gradual aging of the European society. As data from the Central Statistical Office show, the number of peopled aged 19-24 in Poland will drop from 2,817,000 in 2015 to 2,135,000 in 2025. The reduction of the number of young people will substantially boost competition between universities. Their success, similarly as success in business will depend to an ever greater extent on the quality of conducted marketing activities. Education and research have become a product which, just like any other product, has to „fight” for the client.
Reutterer, Thomas; Boztug, Yasemin; Breugelmans, Els
-stage procedure. For deriving segment-specific promotions at the product category level, this procedure takes both interdependencies in purchase behaviour across categories and customer heterogeneity with respect to cross-category effects in response to marketing actions into account. The resulting...... recommendations are empirically evaluated vis-à-vis alternative approaches in a controlled field experiment conducted in cooperation with a major online grocery retailer....
Sagary, C.; Saniere, A
World investment in E and P (including the Russia and China) is expected to reach an all-time high of $170 billion in 2005. On the three most important markets, key players are investing substantially and competition from Chinese companies is increasing. (author)
Sagary, C.; Saniere, A.
World investment in E and P (including the Russia and China) is expected to reach an all-time high of $170 billion in 2005. On the three most important markets, key players are investing substantially and competition from Chinese companies is increasing. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the role of customer satisfaction in reducing the risks of the business market. The results of measuring the level of customer satisfaction allow to create an early warning system against the danger of decline in sales revenue in the future.
Jayanti, R K
Problem recognition styles--desired state types (DSTs) and actual state types (ASTs)--have an effect on preventive health care decision making. Segmenting the market along these lines can help marketers position products and services to educate and attract people who will not see a doctor unless there is something wrong with them. Both groups expect the same benefits from preventive health care actions, but ASTs fail to act on those expectations. Therefore, marketing strategy touting the benefits of preventive health care might be futile. Educational promotional campaigns aimed at both DSTs and ASTs also are wasteful because DSTs already possess much health knowledge, lead wellness-oriented lifestyles, and practice preventive health behaviors.
Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter. Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 953-962 ...
Smith, Janet D.; And Others
A survey of marketing and market research activities in large, urban, two- and four-year colleges was conducted to identify the nature of marketing problems faced by institutions; current and preferred emphasis placed on market research activities; modes of assessing the needs of target groups and developing appropriate programs; the location of…
Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Samuel, Lalitha; Quinn, Christine; Dunne, Stephanie
The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of marketing strategies for multivitamin and multimineral (MVM) supplement packaging and to assess the extent to which these supplements are marketed as food products. A cross-sectional study of children's supplement packaging was conducted. Descriptive statistics identified common marketing practices. Websites of the three largest retail chain pharmacies in the United States and MVM manufacturers were accessed. The study's sample consisted of packaging for 52 children's MVM supplements. Child-targeted marketing included reference to trademarked characters on 42.3% of MVM packaging (n = 22). More than 80% of the sample (n = 42) listed fruity flavors and almost all packaging included descriptive words related to the MVMs' shape and/or flavor (88.5%, n = 46). Nearly one-fifth of the packaging (n = 10) pictured a food item. With respect to parent-targeted promotional language, almost 83% of the supplement packages (n = 43) included text on the support of bodily structure/function. More than half of the sample (53.8%, n = 28) had promotional language related to dietary practice (e.g. organic, gluten-free). Pediatricians can play a role in ensuring that parents are aware of (1) possible risks associated with MVM overconsumption, and (2) the importance of deriving vitamins and minerals from a balanced diet. Given the high number of exposures to pediatric MVMs among youth and established influence of food marketing on shaping children's perceptions and behaviors, further research is necessary to determine the extent to which children's MVMs are marketed as a food product and perceived as such by children.
Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme
activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system......Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds......, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter...
Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to present the selected data obtained from primary research, which concerns the marketing activities use in the Czech companies in view of their industry. Nowadays, high competitive environment influence permanent pressure on companies which are in turn force to monitor and adapt them in order to retain their expected market position. In article there were gained data by primary research, using a structure questionnaire survey and processing by statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The research sample consists 147 companies in 2013. All companies were operating in the Czech environment and they were chosen in random way from chosen CZ-NACE groups. The main scientific aim is to analyse the condition for realisation of marketing activities and determine whether there is a relationship between measurement of marketing effectiveness and industry field in the Czech business environment. Findings of the article point to differences in the use of individual marketing activities in view of engineering field. It was found that companies have to respect corporate goals to fill stakeholders᾿ requirements, with a small improving because of the engineering industry field. Through realisation marketing activities there are many ways how to impact target audience. Also, it was found there is only average dependency between tracking of marketing performance and engineering field. The result of the article is describing relevant approach to prove efficiency of realisation of marketing activities in relation with engineering companies. The companies know the importance of relationship with their customers. Marketing management and realisation of marketing activities has become realm where is possible to find opportunities to increase own competitiveness in view of the growing competitive environment.
The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the ma...
Lim, Megan Sc; Hare, James D; Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M
Alcohol brands are incorporating social networking sites (SNS) into their marketing programmes. SNS are also being used to reduce alcohol consumption and harms by health promotion organisations. Marketing via SNS can attempt to influence consumers using a range of strategies from traditional marketing, social media, and behaviour change theory. This study systematically quantifies marketing strategies used by alcohol brands and health promoters on Facebook. We identified the 10 most popular alcohol brands and health promotion organisations in Australia on Facebook and extracted all posts from April 2014. A framework was developed, listing 33 SNS marketing strategies. The frequency of use of each strategy in posts was counted for all profiles. The median number of fans of alcohol brands was 189,290 compared with 7562 for health promotion pages. A total of 210 Facebook posts were analysed. Popular marketing strategies included visual attraction, connecting with other organisations, and links to culture and events. Time-specific and day-specific posts and tweets were used more regularly by alcohol brands than health promotion agencies. Alcohol brands remain substantially more popular than health promotion organisations, and this difference is likely driven by offline factors rather than specific use of marketing strategies. However, health promotion organisations can learn from the strategies used by popular brands, particularly in the use of time and day-specific content.
Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W
There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.
The Alberta Stock Exchange's (ASE's) filing and disclosure requirements for market making and promotion contracts are outlined. The discussion focuses on the differences between market making and market manipulation, acceptable and unacceptable methods of market making and promotion and common trading and securities legislation violations associated with these types of activities
Jasna Lasinger Siladjev
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of promotional activities in advancing offers of travel agencies and their overall business profitability. More specifically, the paper examines elements of the promotional mix used by travel agencies when communicating with their customers; it is divided into six parts which delineate the characteristics of travel agencies on the tourism market, the specifics of marketing communication on the tourism market, promotional activities of travel agencies, and promotional activities of travel agencies in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, based on previously conducted empirical research. On the turbulent tourism market, it is common that tourist demand changes from day to day; therefore, it is important to monitor these changes to create products according to new tourist needs. After creating a product, it is crucial to select that element of the promotional mix that will present the new product on the tourism market in the best possible way so that it attracts the highly coveted-tourists. To research this issue, surveys of employees in marketing departments of travel agencies were conducted which, along with other research methods, produced the final and significant results.
Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...
Gosselin, Pierre; Poitras, Philippe
Health-related websites have become a common tool for public health authorities to inform the general public of their health promotion information and programs. However, building traffic in the cluttered health Internet universe is becoming increasingly complex, costly, and challenging for governmental health promotion websites. In 2006, the Canadian Health Network (CHN), a cooperative program made up of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and some 20 health non-governmental organizations (NGOs), was looking for an affordable marketing tool for the promotion of its website and contents to specific populations. To test new and innovative marketing tools for a health promotion website in Canada. Within the context and constraints of a governmental health promotion website, an adaptation of a commercial Internet viral marketing software platform was developed and implemented under the name "The Crazy Race". This process was done interactively between seven NGOs and the CHN staff. The communication objectives were (a) to provide a meaningful visit that could communicate important public health messages, and (b) to increase subscriptions to its e-newsletter. A nine-step standardized Web-user experience (Internet path) was thus defined and experimented with under a pre-determined operating budget of less then Can$50,000, mainly paid for by participating organizations on a pay-per-performance basis. An initial group of 215 people were sent an invitation to participate in the campaign. Over its 15-day duration, the campaign generated by itself and without any media support a total of 110,200 Web user participants who registered and sent a total of 439,275 invitations (2% of the Canadian Web-user population of 21.8 million in 2006). The epidemic self-dissemination of the campaign occurred in both French and English populations and spread across all age groups. Two-thirds of the participants were women. The use of an Internet viral marketing platform proved to be
Background Health-related websites have become a common tool for public health authorities to inform the general public of their health promotion information and programs. However, building traffic in the cluttered health Internet universe is becoming increasingly complex, costly, and challenging for governmental health promotion websites. In 2006, the Canadian Health Network (CHN), a cooperative program made up of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and some 20 health non-governmental organizations (NGOs), was looking for an affordable marketing tool for the promotion of its website and contents to specific populations. Objective To test new and innovative marketing tools for a health promotion website in Canada. Methods Within the context and constraints of a governmental health promotion website, an adaptation of a commercial Internet viral marketing software platform was developed and implemented under the name “The Crazy Race”. This process was done interactively between seven NGOs and the CHN staff. The communication objectives were (a) to provide a meaningful visit that could communicate important public health messages, and (b) to increase subscriptions to its e-newsletter. A nine-step standardized Web-user experience (Internet path) was thus defined and experimented with under a pre-determined operating budget of less then Can$50,000, mainly paid for by participating organizations on a pay-per-performance basis. Results An initial group of 215 people were sent an invitation to participate in the campaign. Over its 15-day duration, the campaign generated by itself and without any media support a total of 110,200 Web user participants who registered and sent a total of 439,275 invitations (2% of the Canadian Web-user population of 21.8 million in 2006). The epidemic self-dissemination of the campaign occurred in both French and English populations and spread across all age groups. Two-thirds of the participants were women. Conclusions The use of an
Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang
element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked...... mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression....
Following two banner years for the oil service and supply sector, marked by strong activity and a substantial increase in prices, the Exploration and Production market continued at a frenetic pace in 2007, although certain local markets retreated. In 2008, activity should stay high and prices should start stabilizing. With services in short supply, companies in the sector have been able to shift the balance of power with oil firms in their favor
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine trading activity and the relationship between futures trading activity by trader type and energy price movements in three energy futures markets –natural gas, crude oil and heating oil. We find that the level of net positions of speculators are positively related to future returns and in contrast net positions of hedgers are negatively related to futures price changes in all three markets. The changes in net positions are relatively more informative compare to the level of net positions in predicting price changes in related markets.
Bensaid, B.; Saniere, A.
After falling 4% in 2002 to $107.5 billion, world investment in E and P (not including China or the CIS) is expected to rise in 2003 (+5%) to a record breaking $113 billion. In 2004, expenditure (not including the CIS or China) should keep expanding and exceed $115 billion, driven by three factors: in 2004, world oil demand should grow by more than 1 Mbbl/day; major players on the North American market are showing optimism; and oil and gas prices are expected to remain high
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
We build a general equilibrium model in terms of a search and matching model with an informal sector. We consider the impact of the traditional policy instruments considered in the tax evasion literature, such as changes in the tax- and punishment system as well as changes in the employment...... protection legislation and concealment costs, on labour market outcomes. To this end, we set-up a model which allows workers to allocate their search for formal and informal sector jobs optimally. We calibrate and simulate the model to fit the North and the South of Europe, where the share of informal sector...
Joining forces for the environment; Cooperative marketing in the 'Initiatives Erdgas and Umwelt' promotes environmentally acceptable technical solutions. Gemeinsam fuer die Umwelt; Kooperatives Marketing im 'Initiativkreis Erdgas und Umwelt' foerdert umweltorientierte Problemloesungen
Windfeder, H. (Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany))
Device manufactures, craftsmans businesses and the gas economy have joined together to establish a marketing cooperative to be named ''Initiativkreis Erdgas and Umwelt''. This association offers the participating branches a platform for presenting their joint service offer for an energy-saving environmentally benign heat supply. Communication activities extend to the areas advertising, sales promotion, press activities and public relations work. (BWI)
Price promotions were noted within the majority of POS close to schools. Aggressive promotional activities may hinder efforts to de-normalize tobacco use, especially during financial crisis when price promotions may pose as more attractive to potential consumers.
Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul
The practice of medical tourism depends on successfully informing potential patients about procedure options, treatment facilities, tourism opportunities, travel arrangements, and destination countries. The promotion of medical tourism includes a wide range of marketing materials such as flyers, booklets, and websites. Yet, there is a paucity of knowledge about the dissemination, content, and reception of these promotional materials. Drawing on a thematic content analysis of the promotional print material distributed at the first medical tourism trade show in Canada in 2009, the main purpose of this article is to identify and understand the messages and images that companies use to market India as a global destination. While researchers and news media frequently cite low cost procedures as a key determinant for international patient travel, particularly to developing nations, our analysis reveals few low cost-related images or messages in the promotional materials distributed at the trade show. To help explain this surprising disjuncture, we consider four related issues: (1) promotional materials may be designed to be circulated amongst potential patients' concerned family and friends who privilege knowing about things such as the use of advanced technologies; (2) developing nations need to portray safe and advanced treatment facilities in order to dispel potential patients' suspicions that their medical care is inferior; (3) companies may avoid making cost saving claims that cannot be fulfilled for all of their international patients, especially those traveling from developing nations; and (4) messages of low cost may detract from and even undermine messages about quality. We conclude by identifying numerous avenues for future research by social and health scientists, and by considering the implications of our findings for existing knowledge gaps and debates within health geography specifically. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Virginia Rincón Diez
Full Text Available This protocol presents a research process which aims to analyze the impact of an active learning model on entrepreneurship of university students of Marketing. First, a learning model is proposed which allows to jointly conducting the content of different subjects and which provides an integrated vision of Marketing. Subsequently, the concept of entrepreneurship is defined and a measuring instrument is mentioned. Through this instrument the information needed to analyze to what extent the new learning model promotes students’ entrepreneurship is gathered. Finally, several possibilities to perform the data analysis are presented.
Mendoza, Roger Lee
The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function.
Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L
People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz
Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.
In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges
Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike
To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses. . Cross-sectional survey. . Australia and New Zealand. . 119 registered oncology nurses. . Self-reported online survey completed once per participant. . Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses. . Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience. . Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients. . Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.
In this paper, I investigate whether information accessibility in the target market influences the mode in which out-of-state banks enter the new market following the U.S. interstate banking deregulation and consequently affects local economic activity. I exploit heterogeneity in legal enforcement of non-compete covenants across states and over time as exogenous variations in the key channel through which an out-of-state bank could gain access to local information: the mobility of local incum...
Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang
In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…
Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.
This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…
Bashirov Islam H.
Full Text Available The article studies a topical issue of development of methods of modelling marketing activity on software sales for achievement of efficient functioning of an enterprise. On the basis of analysis of the market type for the studied CloudLinux OS product, the article identifies the market structure type: monopolistic competition. To ensure the information basis of the marketing activity in the target market segment, the article offers the survey method. The article provides a questionnaire, which contains specific questions regarding the studied market segment of hosting services, for an online survey with the help of the Survio service. In accordance with the system approach the CloudLinux OS has properties of systems, namely, diversity. Economic differences are non-price indicators that have no numeric expression and are quality descriptions. Analysis of the market and the conducted survey allow obtaining them. Combination of price and non-price indicators provides a complete description of the product properties. To calculate an integral indicator of competitiveness the article offers to apply a model, which is based on the direct algebraic addition of weight measures of individual indicators, regulation of formalised indicators and use of the mechanism of fuzzy sets for identification of non-formalised indicators. The calculated indicator allows not only assessment of the current level of competitiveness, but also identification of influence of changes of various indicators, which allows increase of efficiency of marketing decisions. Also, having identified the target customers of hosting OS and formalised non-price parameters, it is possible to conduct the search for a set of optimal characteristics of the product. In the result an optimal strategy of the product advancement to the market is formed.
After four years of heavy activity, growth on the upstream service and supply markets is slowing. At the end of 2008, the oil and gas price fell subsequent to the decline in demand for petroleum products. This is an indication that exploration-production activity will slow in 2009 and that the price of services - hence sales at service and supply companies - will drop
Combs, G.F. Jr.; Krusiewski, S.V.
In 1979 US buyers contracted for a net increase of 15,400 tons U 3 O 8 in new procurement after deducting for changes to January 1, 1979, commitments. Export commitments made in 1979 totalled 2800 tons, while import commitments amounted to 1000 tons U 3 O 8 . Buyers' inventories of domestic- and foreign-origin normal and enriched uranium increased to 52,300 tons U 3 O 8 during 1979, with the larger part of the increase being in enriched uranium. The average price reported for 1979 deliveries was $23.85 per pound of U 3 O 8 . Settlements of market price contracts average $42.55 for 1979 delivery and $45.80 for 1980 delivery. Producers expect to be able to offer 33,700 tons U 3 O 8 for sale in the 1980-1985 period, about 20% less than was estimated in the 1979 survey. Utilities made sales of 500 tons U 3 O 8 for 1979-1980 delivery as well as loans of 1600 tons U 3 O 8 that are to be repaid by 1984; more than half of these sales or loans were made to uranium producers. Reactor manufacturers have sold about 1100 tons U 3 O 8 since January 1, 1979, and loaned 120 tons. Unfilled requirements have decreased more than 100,000 tons U 3 O 8 since January 1, 1978, and currently total 75,700 tons U 3 O 8 . Responses to the 1980 survey suggest that there seems to be an adequate supply of uranium to meet US demand at least through 1985
Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M
This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.
移动互联网的发展给手机应用软件市场带来了发展机遇，但是在推广过程中普遍存在的问题是：用户粘性差，缺少用户反馈；推广方式单一，效果有限费用高；推广周期短，激活率低。如何能够在短期内以较低的成本快速的将 APP推广到用户中间，并保证用户可以持续关注和使用，是推广策略的核心，企业可以借助内容营销开展推广活动，以原创内容为桥梁将企业和用户紧密联系，将产品开发与内容营销结合实现多维度营销和推广，借用新闻的娱乐性加速推广周期的进程。%The Development of mobile Internet has brought developmental opportunities to the cell phone application software market. However, in the promotion process, common problems arose, including poor user engagement and insufficient user feedback, single pro-motion method with limited effect of high cost, and the low activation rate due to short promotion period. How to popularize an APP and maintain user attention and engagement are the core of a promotion strategy. Enterprises may roll out promotion programs with the help of content marketing:bridging themselves with users through original contents, integrating product development with content marketing to re-alize multi-dimensional marketing and promotion, and accelerating the process of promotion periods by means of entertainment news.
Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh
Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.
N. V. Lyasnikov
Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.
A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels
Janssens, F.; Sezer, C.
Marketplaces can be used by city planners as urban development strategies because they have the potential to turn open spaces in the city into public space, thereby improving both the social and the spatial qualities of those spaces. In Amsterdam, however, marketplaces currently fail to activate
Basch, Corey Hannah; Roberts, Katherine J; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra
More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children's vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children's vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children's vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children's vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose.
Basch, Corey H.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra
More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children’s vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed. There were 207 advertisements for children’s vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy. None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning. Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind. Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children. Companies that market children’s vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements. Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children’s vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose. PMID:25948456
de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M
Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding...
Holt, Annie; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter
This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia. An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs. Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills. RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.
Krusiewski, S.V.; Thomas, D.C.; Patterson, J.A.
In 1980 US buyers contracted for 12,500 short tons U 3 O 8 in new procurement. Nontheless, there was a net decrease of 13,100 tons in total commitments as of January 1, 1981, because of even larger changes to the delivery commitments as of January 1, 1980. The average contract price of domestic uranium was $28.15 per pound of U 3 O 8 for 1980 delivery and $30.70 for 1981 delivery. Settlements of domestic market price contracts averaged $36.75 for 1980 delivery and $46.80 for 1981 delivery. Prices of foreign uranium averaged $43.10 for 1980 delivery and $40.00 for 1981 delivery. Producers expect to be able to offer 21,800 tons U 3 O 8 for sale in the 1981 to 1985 period, about 30 percent less than was estimated in the 1980 survey. US producers also estimated that 30,600 tons U 3 O 8 would be available for sale in the 1986 to 1990 period. Utilities made sales of 800 tons U 3 O 8 for 1980 to 1981 delivery as well as loans of another 800 tons. New export commitments made in 1980 totalled 4000 tons U 3 O 8 ; however, 2500 tons of these commitments are options or delivery is contingent on price developments. Import commitments made in 1980 totalled 2300 tons U 3 O 8 . Inventories of natural and enriched uranium held by US buyers increased from 52,300 to 63,400 tons U 3 O 8 during 1980. In addition, inventories of uranium held by US producers increased from 2400 to 2700 tons U 3 O 8 . Unfilled requirements for the 1981 to 1990 period decreased from 75,300 tons U 3 O 8 , as reported in last year's survey, to 54,500 tons in this year's survey, a decrease of 20,800 tons. Responses to the 1981 survey suggest that there seems to be an adequate supply of uranium to meet US demand at least through 1986, although the apparent buyer requirements reported as of January 1, 1981 for the 1987 to 1990 period are higher than the total domestic production or supply
Full Text Available Background: This article is a discussion on the role of marketing in the activity of logistics service providers. The strong competition and changing purchasing preferences should motivate the transport, forwarding and logistics sector managers to apply the marketing approach in practice. Methods: Results of direct research, conducted among a targeted group of 100 companies from the transport, forwarding and logistics sector, constitute the source basis. The sample group was divided into three categories of logistics providers: 2PL, 3PL and 4PL. The statistical analysis was based on three different non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and V Kramer. Results and conclusions: Currently, marketing does not play a key role in the activity of logistics services providers. The prevailing opinion is that importance of marketing in the company is average. The respondents have assessed in a similar way their activity compared to the activities of the competition. However, it was found that with the increase of the level of specialization (2PL-4PL, the awareness of impact of marketing on the logistics services sector also increased. The logistics services providers, who offer a wide range of logistics services, asses their competitive position in a better light.
Most existing support schemes aim to stimulate the deployment of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector on the basis of the electricity output (MW h) of renewable energy installations. Support is anchored in the electricity commodity market. In contrast to this established approach, Russia intends to promote renewable energy through the capacity market. The idea is to remunerate investors for the installed capacity (MW) of their installations, in particular for the availability of their installations to produce electricity. This article argues that, contrary to the implicit consensus, a capacity-based approach to supporting renewable energy can provide an alternative to the current output-based schemes. Capacity-based schemes limit the incentive that the operators of renewable energy installations currently have under output-based schemes to deliver electricity to the grid even in periods of low demand. These schemes also provide investors with a more predictable income flow. However, to be successful, the regulation of capacity supply – currently designed for flexible power plants – needs to accommodate the specific production patterns of variable renewable energy installations. This paper examines ways to overcome this challenge in Russia and provides more general conclusions on the complex interaction between capacity markets and renewable energy investments.
Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Zagnit, Emily A; Martinez, Amairany
Retail sales of over the counter (OTC) medications have risen steadily over the years; however, these products are not without potential risk. The aim of this study was to describe the marketing strategies used to promote OTC medicines to children and their parents. Data were collected from 187 product packaging of fever reducer, allergy, and cough medicines posted on the Internet sites of three of the largest pharmacies in the United States. Specific marketing information was collected related to flavorings and pictures appearing on the packaging. There was no significant difference between the type of medicine and whether they were flavored or not, as almost every product (95.7 %) indicated that it resembles a food flavoring. On almost all the packaging (92.5 %) the flavor was also indicated by words in different font sizes. Most of the products (83.4 %) showed a picture of a food product on their packaging. There was a significant difference between the medicine types by picture, with fever medicines having more pictures of food than either cough or allergy medicine. Stronger regulations of marketing strategies of these products are needed.
Mas, Sébastien; Bernard, Paquito; Gourlan, Mathieu
To investigate the cross-sectional association between personal physical activity (PA) level, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs toward PA promotion, and PA promotion behavior among smoking cessation advisors. 149 smoking cessation advisors were invited to complete online questionnaires. Hypotheses were tested using Bayesian path analysis. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control (PBC) of smoking cessation advisors were related to PA promotion intentions; intentions were in turn related to PA promotion behaviors. Advisors' personal PA level was indirectly associated with PA promotion behaviors through PBC and PA promotion intentions. The TPB is a relevant theoretical framework with which to explore determinants of PA promotion behavior among smoking cessation advisors. The PA level of health care professionals may be linked to PA promotion behavior through some TPB constructs. Smoking cessation advisor training should include education on attitude development (e.g., PA benefits on smoking cessation), PBC (e.g., modality of PA prescription) and PA promotion intentions (e.g., goal setting). Smoking cessation advisors should also be encouraged to regularly practice PA in order to improve their PA promotion behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AIM: To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries.\\ud METHODS: A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google.\\ud RESULTS: Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation ...
Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong
Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. RESULTS: The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents.
There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...
Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.
Conclusion: This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other health promotion activities which focus on disease prevention.
Bakhmach, I.; Siora, O.; Kharchenko, V.; Sklyar, V.; Andrashov, A.
This paper presents key results of RPC Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market. RPC Radiy (located in Kirovograd, Ukraine) is a vendor which designs and produces digital safety I and C platform as well as turnkey applications, based on the platform, for NPPs (safety systems). The main feature of the Radiy Platform is the application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) as programmable components for logic control operations. Since 2009 RPC Radiy started to explore the possibility to conduct the expansion to Canadian nuclear market. The activities performed by RPC Radiy related to this direction are resulted in several joint projects with Canadian companies. (author)
Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Brandt, Ase; Samuelsson, Kersti A M
were included if they covered both baseline and follow-up data and focused on activity and participation. Study participants had to be aged over 18 years with mobility limitations. Mobility device interventions encompassed crutches, walking frames, rollators, manual wheelchairs and powered wheelchairs......, and 3 follow-up studies that included before and after data. Two studies dealt with the effects of powered wheelchair interventions and the other studies with various other types of mobility device. Two studies were of high, internal and external methodological quality. Interventions were found......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of mobility device interventions in terms of activity and participation for people with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Systematic review. Search of 7 databases during the period 1996 to 2008. METHODS: Controlled studies and non-controlled follow-up studies...
Kuo, Meichun; Wechsler, Henry; Greenberg, Patty; Lee, Hang
Heavy episodic or binge drinking has been recognized as a major problem on American college campuses affecting the health, safety, and education of students. The present study examines the alcohol environment surrounding college campuses and assesses the impact on students' drinking. This environment includes alcohol promotions, price specials, and advertising at drinking establishments that serve beer for on-premise consumption as well as retail outlets that sell beer for off-premise consumption. The study used student self-report data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study (CAS) and direct observational assessments by trained observers who visited alcohol establishments in communities where the participating colleges were located. The analytic sample included more than 10,000 students as well as 830 on-premise and 1684 off-premise establishments at 118 colleges. Alcohol specials, promotions, and advertisements were prevalent in the alcohol outlets around college campuses. Almost three quarters of on-premise establishments offered specials on weekends, and almost one half of the on-premise establishments and more than 60% of off-premise establishments provided at least one type of beer promotion. The availability of large volumes of alcohol (24- and 30-can cases of beer, kegs, party balls), low sale prices, and frequent promotions and advertisements at both on- and off-premise establishments were associated with higher binge drinking rates on the college campuses. In addition, an overall measure of on- and off-premise establishments was positively associated with the total number of drinks consumed. The regulation of marketing practices such as sale prices, promotions, and advertisements may be important strategies to reduce binge drinking and its accompanying problems.
Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna
: For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A
Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land
Conny Tjandra R
Full Text Available AbstractIncreasingly incidences of nutrition related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancers are becoming significant health burdens not only in western countries but it is also newly coming health problem in Asia, including Indonesia. To encounter this development in the future it is important to continually promote the diseases prevention actions through appropriate social marketing programs. For that purpose, understanding psychological set such as knowledge, belief, attitude and motivation to perform diseases prevention actions and their causal relationship is becoming more and more important. The most challenging issue is to perform social marketing programs that can successfully influence people future health behavior. Our study has aim to understand the relationship of some psychological factors in influencing behavior. The result of this study showed that in spite of controversial issues published in current studies, we found that inherent knowledge level influences motivation through a modulation of attitude variable.Keywords: eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, motivation, behavioral action, prevention, healthy eating habit.AbstrakMeningkatnya jumlah penyakit kronik yang berhubungan dengan gizi pangan seperti penyakit jantung koroner, kegemukan dan kanker merupakan masalah kesehatan yang utama bukan hanya di Negara barat saja melainkan juga terjadi di negara berkembang seperti Asia. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, perlu dikembangkan sistem pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan oleh setiap individu didalam masyarakat. Pendidikan dan penyuluhan kepada masyarakat terhadap pentingnya tindakan preventif seperti melalui “social marketing programs” yang digalakkan baik oleh pemerintah atau institusi kesehatan lainnya, sangatlah penting. Didalam social marketing, promosi tentang pencegahan semestinya dilakukan dengan terlebih dahulu mengetahui dan mengenal segala macam bentuk kebutuhan dasar, pengetahuan, sikap, kepercayaan
Dr.Sc. Jusuf Zeqiri
Full Text Available Ethno marketing defines as marketing segmentation approach that groups consumers on the basis of ethnicity. Ethno marketing starts with recognizing the elements of culture as crucial and essential for driving contemporary marketing strategies. Ethno marketing is slowly gaining traction in marketing in multicultural environments, particularly in countries or regions inhabited by consumers from different ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to find whether such marketing activities based on cultural elements practice has any effect on consumers’ buying behavior in the Balkans. It focuses on consumers in Kosova with the understanding that this is a preliminary exploratory study whose results will form basis for a large study on the Balkan region. The study used a structured questionnaire with the Likert Scale. One hundred, forty-eight responses were received and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The results of the analysis show that Albanian consumers in Kosova agree that ethno marketing is important and company marketing activities such as a company’s advertisement and promotion in the language of the ethnic is considered very important during consumers purchase decisions. Furthermore, results reveal that symbols, cultural elements as well as the information dissemination inside the stores and outside seem to be very important for consumers. On the basis of this study, a larger study that covers the different countries in the Balkan region to determine how consumers in the different countries in the region relate to ethno marketing is strongly recommended.
Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.
Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252
Gustavo M Cerqueira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.
Barbu Andreea Mihaela
Full Text Available Romanian education, which is an important pillar for human resource forming process and the basis for economic development, suffered a lot of changes in the last decades. The main factors that have influenced the undergraduate and university training programs are the political and social-cultural ones. Educational services organizations are facing various challenges as: creating and maintaining a good institutional image, managing all types of resources efficiently, motivating the academic personnel, satisfying the community needs and supporting the public policy. The marketing tools and activities help these entities to improve the educational programs and adapt them to the individual needs of the clients, to keep under control the production costs, which are limited by the small public budget and to perform and promote these services efficiently, leading to an increased organizational performance. The paper begins by presenting the current situation of higher education in Romania, underlining the fierce competition among the universities, the increased market potential and the financing sources. It continues by mentioning the advantages of strategic marketing planning for universities, as superior results and effectiveness, improved decision making and multiple benefits for the people involved. The paper reveals also the characteristics of segmenting and positioning on higher education market and the specific of marketing mix. Thereby, educational product is more easily adapted to customer needs when it is designed in collaboration with existing and future students, their parents, with other universities in the field or even with graduates. Students themselves can contribute to the increase the quality of their education. Price may be a factor of choice when future student chooses to pursue a university course, especially in those situations where the price does not include only the payment of annual fees for education. Distribution takes into
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.
Grabovskiy, E.; Kostyuk, Y.
In modern market conditions of each company power is interested in the effective management of its marketing activities. In particular, he needs to know how to analyze market opportunities, select the required target markets, to develop an effective marketing complex and successfully manage the implementation of marketing activities. The activity of the enterprises of a food is one of the most important factors giving the integral assessment of the socio-economic level of the society, and und...
Rall, M; Meyer, S M
Existing literature on the marketing of primary healthcare services was reviewed to determine the role of registered nurses in this regard. The systematic review included five searches and ensured wide coverage of the results of available primary research studies on the topic. The results were summarised and the role of registered nurses in the marketing of primary healthcare services was identified. Primary research sources on the topic included textbooks on marketing by experts in the field and relevant journal articles by authorities on healthcare marketing. The data were analysed and four main categories identified. To ensure the trustworthiness of the research, Lincoln and Guba's (1981: 215-216) criteria, as explained by Krefting (1991: 217), were applied. Because the population consisted of only literature, ethical considerations concerning human subjects were irrelevant. Results indicated that the basic commercial marketing principles (the so-called 4Ps--product, price, place, and promotion) could be adapted for the health sector. The conclusion was that registered nurses could contribute to the marketing of primary healthcare services by communicating with the community (promotion) and by ensuring effective service (product) delivery at the right price and place. Registered nurses could influence the community's perceptions of health care and facilitate behaviour changes, thereby promote health. The implementation of the findings and recommendations of this research could create a new awareness among registered nurses of their role in the marketing of primary healthcare services in South Africa and improve their skills in this regard.
April's activity in the restricted uranium market fluctuated in the same range as that observed in March. At the same time, NUKEM detects a weakening of prices in the unrestricted market to $7.45-$7.65. Unrestricted buyers seem to have detected lower prices as well; much of the new demand noted this month emerged in the unrestricted segment of the market. With this issue, NUKEM inaugurates a new market statistic. To better follow developments in the conversion market, we will report a spot price range for conversion services. This price measure will be derived in a manner analogous to NUKEM's other spot market price ranges. We will continue to publish the current NUKEM price range for new contracts for a few months. If you wish to retain the old conversion contract price range in future editions, please contact our US office. Four deals for near term delivery occurred in the uranium market in April, resulting in spot market transaction volume of 2.5 million lbs U3O8 equivalent. In the first week, a US non-utility purchased a small quantity of enriched uranium product from an intermediary in a spot transaction representing about 75,000 lbs U3O8. The second week saw the stealthy purchase of Portland General Electric's inventory of natural and enriched uranium. The buyer of PGE's 1.1 million lbs U3O8 equivalent has achieved an unusual degree of anonymity. Also during the second week, a US utility bought a small quantity of enriched uranium containing less than 25,000 lbs natural U3O8 equivalent
Coughlin, Steven S; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina
Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity.
Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina
Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992
Widawska-Stanisz Agnieszka; Sowier-Kasprzyk Izabella
Preferring passive life style and the problems with obesity eventuating from this fact, have become very common in many countries. According to research, the physical activity of Poles turns out to be under the average for EU countries. (Sport activity of Poles, 2015, p.3) The promotion of physical activity is one of the most important tasks of public health. The publicity of physical activity, habits of caring for health and wellbeing should be realized by national and local authorities, med...
Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D
To analyse cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents on packaging in the supermarket. On three occasions from 2006 to 2008, researchers purchased all foods in a large supermarket that included a cross-promotion on the package. A total of 397 products were categorized by promotional partner, food category, targeted age group, promotion type, product nutrition, and company policies on marketing to children. The number of products with youth-oriented cross-promotions increased by 78 % during the period examined. Overall, 71 % of cross-promotions involved third-party licensed characters and 57 % appealed primarily to children under 12 years of age; however, the use of other forms of promotions increased from 5 % of the total in 2006 to 53 % in 2008, and promotions targeting pre-school and general audiences increased from 23 % to 54 % of the total. Only 18 % of products met accepted nutrition standards for foods sold to youth, and nutritional quality declined during the period examined. Food manufacturers with policies limiting marketing to children represented 65 % of all youth-oriented cross-promotions, their use of cross-promotions increased significantly, and the nutritional quality of their products did not improve. Some media companies did reduce the use of their properties on food promotions. Overall, the supermarket environment worsened due to an increase in cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents and a decline in the nutritional quality of these products. This analysis failed to find improvements in food marketing to youth and highlights the need to expand current industry self-regulatory pledges.
Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...
Adela Laura Popa
Full Text Available In this study we intended, in the first place, to analyse and determine if the online environment represents an efficient environment for promoting educational services offered by higher education institutions in Romania. Another major objective of this paper is to describe a context in which online marketing tools like Facebook and Google AdWords could contribute to promote higher education services in the online environment. In order to achieve the goal, a causal research based on experiment was designed and implemented. The type of the experiment is 'before-after with control group', design. For conducting the experiment, after developing the landing page, two advertising campaigns were designed: one of them through the tools offered by Facebook and the other one by using Google AdWords. The test units considered are two masters of the faculty of economics (one master is the experimental unit and the other is for control. The independent variable is the extent to which the masters are promoted in the online environment and the dependent variable is the number of students enrolled in the two masters during the admission period. Based on the results from this experiment, but also on data of other studies, we consider that the best results in designing online promotion campaigns for higher education institutions - when considering the tools involved in this experiment - are obtained when they are used as complementary tools. According with our observations, Google AdWords has more potential for attracting prospective students on the landing pages containing information dedicated to them, but Facebook’s features can be successfully used in particular for creating and developing relationships with potential students so that they will subsequently want to become students of that institution.
Pitts, A; Burke, W; Adams, J
'Marketing messages' are the themes used in advertisements to promote products. We explored the frequency of different marketing messages used in food and alcohol advertisements in UK women's magazines and associations with the type and nutritional content of products promoted. All advertisements for food and alcohol in 108 issues of popular UK monthly women's magazines were identified and text-based marketing messages classified using a bespoke coding framework. This information was linked to existing data on the type (i.e. food group) and nutritional content of advertised products. A total of 2 687 marketing messages were identified in 726 advertisements. Consumer messages such as 'taste' and 'quality' were most frequently found. Marketing messages used in advertisements for food and alcohol were notably different. The relationship between type and nutritional content of products advertised and marketing messages used was not intuitive from a consumer perspective: advertisements for foods 'high in fat and/or sugar' were less likely to use messages related to health, but more likely to use messages emphasizing reduced amounts of specific nutrients. Almost all advertisements included consumer-related marketing messages. Marketing messages used were not always congruent with the type or nutritional content of advertised products. These findings should be considered when developing policy. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.
Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…
Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania
In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…
Egan, Catherine A.; Webster, Collin A.
Recently, there has been growing attention on the importance of the staff involvement component of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). In particular, classroom teachers (CTs) are increasingly being called upon to promote physical activity (PA) in their classrooms as part of the PA during school component of a CSPAP.…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app. Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling. Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience. Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM
Full Text Available The villages of Bucovina possess a particular charm, mainly through the orthodox churches with heritage value, the deep spiritual character sent both to local communities and tourists, the architecture based on wood handicraft, the manner in which traditions, local customs and crafts are still preserved, the multicultural character, and, not least, the outstanding hospitality of the hosts.Continuous improvement of performance in rural tourism refers to an integrated approach of specific elements in the destination Bucovina, online marketing becoming more present in everyday practice of small entrepreneurs in local tourism. From an empirical point of view, promotion of rural tourism on Facebook and YouTube represents an easy initiative accessible to the general public, which has the ability to create the foundation of a competitive tourism.
Radka, Mark; Kamel, Sami
The growth in demand for energy in both developed and developing countries is expected to continue an upward trend for many years, with a large portion of the increase projected to occur in developing countries. As these countries undertake various economic development initiatives and programmes it is important from a global environmental perspective that they increase the proportion of efficient, low carbon emitting energy in the energy mix. This paper identifies a number of ways of improving markets that foster increased adoption of clean energy technologies in developing countries. The paper concludes that a holistic approach is needed if new technology promotion efforts are to succeed. Ensuring the appropriateness of the technology, and hence its sustainability, requires proper attention to social, economic and political criteria as well as the fundamental technical characteristics. (au)
Radka, Mark [United Nations Environment Programme, Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (France); Kamel, Sami [Risoe National Lab., UNEP Risoe Centre for Energy, Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark)
The growth in demand for energy in both developed and developing countries is expected to continue an upward trend for many years, with a large portion of the increase projected to occur in developing countries. As these countries undertake various economic development initiatives and programmes it is important from a global environmental perspective that they increase the proportion of efficient, low carbon emitting energy in the energy mix. This paper identifies a number of ways of improving markets that foster increased adoption of clean energy technologies in developing countries. The paper concludes that a holistic approach is needed if new technology promotion efforts are to succeed. Ensuring the appropriateness of the technology, and hence its sustainability, requires proper attention to social, economic and political criteria as well as the fundamental technical characteristics. (au)
Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun
S gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using an Sulfolobus islandicus reporter gene system. The minimal active araS promoter (P(araS)) was found to be 59 nucleotides long and harboured four promoter elements: an ara-box, an upstream transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE......), a TATA-box and a proximal promoter element, each of which contained important nucleotides that either greatly decreased or completely abolished promoter activity upon mutagenesis. The basal araS promoter was virtually inactive due to intrinsically weak BRE element, and the upstream activating sequence...... (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...
Breidahl, Karen Nielsen
models have been resilient: Based on an in-depth historical and comparative analysis of labour market activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark since the early 1990s, the article contributes to the overall question: To what extent do the institutional pathways...... of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted...
Leone, Liliana; Ling, Tom; Baldassarre, Laura; Barnett, Lisa M; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina
The alarming epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity at paediatric age urges societies to rise to the challenge of ensuring an active lifestyle. As one response to this, business enterprises are increasingly engaged in promoting sport and physical activity (PA) initiatives within the frame of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, comparative analyses among industry sectors of CSR strategies for PA promotion with a particular focus on children are still lacking. This study aimed to explore (i) what are the CSR strategies for PA promotion adopted in different industry sectors and (ii) whether corporate engagement in promoting PA for children is supportive of children's rights to play and be physically active. Corporate pledges pertaining to CSR initiatives to promote PA were analysed. The hypothesis was that companies from different sectors employ different CSR strategies and that companies with a higher profile as regard to public health concerns for children tend to legitimate their action by adopting a compensatory strategy. Results show that the issue of PA promotion is largely represented within CSR commitments. CSR strategies for PA promotion vary across industry sectors and the adoption of a compensatory strategy for rising childhood obesity allows only a limited exploitation of the potential of CSR commitments for the provision of children's rights to play and be physically active. Actors within the fields of public health ethics, human rights and CSR should be considered complementary to develop mainstreaming strategies and improve monitoring systems of PA promotion in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong
Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010
Graça António R.
Full Text Available Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987. For the business community, sustainability is more than mere window-dressing. By adopting sustainable practices, companies can gain a competitive edge, increase their market share, and boost shareholder value (IISD, 2013. The wine industry has incorporated sustainability into its business strategy for a long time. In the USA, several industry organizations promoted its adoption by both grape growers and winemakers. In mountain wine regions, sustainability becomes more important as these regions generally struggle with reduced competitiveness due to inherent difficulties such as accessibility, remoteness, sparseness of business and population, topography and pedoclimatology (EUROMONTANA 2005. Therefore, any improvement in sustainability is a key factor for the viability of mountain wine producers. Sogrape Vinhos farms 480 ha of mountain vineyards in DWR securing the quality base of grapes for its SANDEMAN Port and CASA FERREIRINHA Douro wines. The company continuously adopted sustainable practices across the whole value chain, from grape to glass. This paper illustrates how a simple, but comprehensive, sustainability assessment, as proposed by a US-based award, can be used to monitor and improve sustainable development practices for a wine business set in an adverse environment, while raising awareness in a key market for wines produced in a mountain vineyard area such as the DWR.
Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state, Nigeria. ... of procuring the products, channels for marketing the products, and risks involved in procuring wildlife products sold in the market. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde
Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other
Laura Gómez Urquijo
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the significance of recent European Commission initiatives in the face of evidence of non-compliance with the social objectives targeted in the EU 2020 Strategy. In the midst of the ongoing debate regarding austerity and growth, we stress the need to further the EU trend toward differentiated growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. Given that “conditionality” is a new keystone of economic governance and cohesion policy, the difficulties that the Member States encounter and the diversity of their social protections give a new meaning to the European coordination policies that are intended to promote social cohesion. By analysing EU proposals and official documents, we will show how the Commission’s initiatives have introduced diverse elements that are intended to address the social consequences of the economic crisis and reveal how new ideas of growth and new ways to deepen the internal market have been promoted. We will also determine whether we can consider these ideas to be a valid response to current social challenges.
Oseni, Musiliu O.; Pollitt, Michael G.
This paper focuses on how to promote regional cooperation in electricity. We begin by discussing the theory of international trade cooperation in electricity, with a view to discussing what preconditions might be important in facilitating wide area trading across national borders. We then develop lessons based on the comparison of four case studies. These include three regional developing country power pools – the Southern African Power pool (SAPP), West African Power pool (WAPP) and the Central American Power Market (MER). We contrast these with Northern Europe's Nord Pool. These cases highlight both the potential and difficulty of having cross-jurisdictional power pools. In the light of the theory and evidence we present, we draw key lessons in the areas of: preconditions for trading; necessary institutional arrangements; practicalities of timetabling; reasons to be hopeful about future prospects. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on how to promote regional electricity cooperation. • We develop lessons based on comparison of four international case studies. • The cases highlight both the potential and difficulty of power pools. • We identify preconditions, institutional arrangements and timetabling. • We conclude that the future prospects for regional power pools are good.
Arora, Mansi; Zhang, Jie; Heine, George F.; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D.
We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promoters of nearly half of the active genes were highly ubiquitinated specifically during mitosis. The ubiquitination at the coding regions in interphase but not at promoters during mitosis was enriched for ubH2B and dependent on the presence of RNF20. Ubiquitin labeling of both promoters during mitosis and transcribed regions during interphase, correlated with active histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 but not a repressive histone modification, H3K27me3. The high level of ubiquitination at the promoter chromatin during mitosis was transient and was removed within 2 h after the cells exited mitosis and entered the next cell cycle. These results reveal that the ubiquitination of promoter chromatin during mitosis is a bookmark identifying active genes during chromosomal condensation in mitosis, and we suggest that this process facilitates transcriptional reactivation post-mitosis. PMID:22941662
Philip Chimobi Omoke
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.
Full Text Available The market for 'Fine Art' is dominated by institutions and auction houses. These act as gatekeepers by monopolising the primary market. The choice of art as an investment vehicle is based on a combination of expected return and subjective preference. The reason for investing in 'Fine Art' is more than purely for financial gain. There are other more intrinsic factors that are considered as part of the investor decision-making process. This market for 'Fine Art' can be considered largely inefficient. Exclusivity, high prices, institutional based indexes and the overall lack of information are by far the greatest drivers of this market inefficiency. 'Art' prices are usually set in the primary market for 'Fine Art' through the auction process and the auction process should also typically reflect an efficient way of creating shared value. However, the auction process in the primary art market is not efficient and does not create shared value as would occur in a typical free market structure. The systems employed by the auction process in the primary art market is a strategy in itself, giving the impression that there is shared value, and thus distorting prices while simultaneously stimulating investor confidence. This becomes apparent when the price for 'Fine Art' does not necessarily reflect the 'true' value of the respective 'Fine Art' being sold. Thus investors may take advantage of this situation, by traveling across international borders to purchase what they would consider valuable art. In effect, art tourism is driven by market inefficiency in the 'Fine Art' market.
Bopp, Melissa; Sims, Dangaia; Matthews, Stephen A; Rovniak, Liza S; Poole, Erika; Colgan, Joanna
To outline the development, implementation, and evaluation of a multistrategy intervention to promote active transportation, on a large university campus. Single group pilot study. A large university in the Northeastern United States. University students (n = 563), faculty and staff (employees, n = 999) were included in the study. The Active Lions campaign aimed to increase active transportation to campus for all students and employees. The campaign targeted active transport participation through the development of a smartphone application and the implementation of supporting social marketing and social media components. Component-specific measures included app user statistics, social media engagement, and reach of social marketing strategies. Overall evaluation included cross-sectional online surveys preintervention and postintervention of student and employee travel patterns and campaign awareness. Number of active trips to campus were summed, and the percentage of trips as active was calculated. T tests compared the differences in outcomes from preintervention to postintervention. Students had a higher percentage of active trips postintervention (64.2%) than preintervention (49.2%; t = 3.32, P = .001), although there were no differences for employees (7.9% and 8.91%). Greater awareness of Active Lions was associated with greater active travel. This multistrategy approach to increase active transportation on a college campus provided insight on the process of developing and implementing a campaign with the potential for impacting health behaviors among campus members.
Full Text Available Regional head election system was change in 2015. It has impact on political marketing strategy to all stake holders, such as political party and candidatures.The purposes of this research is to analyzeashifting ofpolitical marketing issueson regional election 2015. The research approach uses the mix method with the type of sequential explanatory. The subjects of this research are the candidates, election successful teams or supporting team, and young voters. Location of research based on cluster system district and sub district in Bandung, Cianjur, Magelang, Sleman, and Medan. The data are collected through techniques of questionnaires to young voters; interview to candidates, election successful teams and young voters, as well as the documentation of media and data on Regional General Elections Commission (KPUD. There are also triangular data techniqueinterviews with the General Elections Commission (KPU, the community and supporting team, and documentation and questionnaire form. The result shows that the system of political marketing has already started shifting from product, promotion, price, place, and people known as the 5Ps from mostly dominated by Political Partyinto the role of PEOPLE as candidature in influensing the voters. The Result also tells that shifting from using convetional media into almost using digital media was powerfull.
Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata
A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.
Gachet Páez, Diego; de Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel; Puertas Sánz, Enrique; Villalba, María Teresa; Muñoz Gil, Rafael
The aging population and economic crisis specially in developed countries have as a consequence the reduction in funds dedicated to health care; it is then desirable to optimize the costs of public and private healthcare systems, reducing the affluence of chronic and dependent people to care centers; promoting healthy lifestyle and activities can allow people to avoid chronic diseases as for example hypertension. In this article, we describe a system for promoting an active and healthy lifestyle for people and to recommend with guidelines and valuable information about their habits. The proposed system is being developed around the Big Data paradigm using bio-signal sensors and machine-learning algorithms for recommendations.
Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Heley, Kathryn; Pierce, John P; Niaura, Ray; Strong, David; Abrams, David
The role of tobacco marketing in tobacco use, particularly among the vulnerable ethnic and socioeconomic sub-populations is a regulatory priority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There currently exist both ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the use of tobacco products. Monitoring such inequalities in exposure to tobacco marketing is essential to inform tobacco regulatory policy that may reduce known tobacco-related health disparities. We use data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Wave 1 youth survey to examine (1) recalled exposure to and liking of tobacco marketing for cigarettes, non-large cigars, and e-cigarettes, (2) self-reported exposure to specific tobacco marketing tactics, namely coupons, sweepstakes, and free samples, and (3) self-reported impact of tobacco marketing and promotions on product use. Findings indicate that African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely to recall having seen cigarette and non-large cigar ads. Reported exposure to coupons, sweepstakes and free samples also varied ethnically and socioeconomically. African Americans and those of lower SES were more likely than other respondents to report that marketing and promotions as played a role in their tobacco product use. Better understanding of communication inequalities and their influence on product use is needed to inform tobacco regulatory action that may reduce tobacco company efforts to target vulnerable groups. Tobacco education communication campaigns focusing on disproportionately affected groups could help counter the effects of targeted industry marketing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to understand consumer behavioural models with respect to their reactions to social network marketing. Theoretical background is focused on online and social network usage, motivations and behaviour. The research goal is to explore consumer reactions to the exposure of social network marketing based on the following criteria: level of brand engagement, word-of-mouth (WOM referral behaviour, and purchase intentions. Consumers are investigated based on their attitudes toward social network marketing and basic socio-demographic covariates using data from a sample size of 700 Bulgarian respondents (age group 21–54 years, Internet users, urban inhabitants. Factor and cluster analyses are applied. It is found that consumers are willing to receive information about brands and companies through social networks. They like to talk in social networks about these brands and companies and to share information as well (factor 2, brand engagement. Internet users are willing to share information received through social network advertising (factor 1, wom referral behaviour but they would not buy a certain brand as a result of brand communication activities in social networks (factor 3, purchase intention. Several practical implications regarding marketing activities through social networks are drawn.
Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang
Introduction The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. Methods We used using data from the 2013–2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations ...
Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.
Timur A. Tultaev
Full Text Available In the modern world innovation is one of the key factors determining the economic prospects of enterprises development, commodity markets, sectors of the economy and the state generally. The complete implementation of innovative technologies in marketing communicative policy of intangible enterprises contributes to the effective promotion of their services on the market and building a loyal consumer audience.
Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon
Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper
The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....
Full Text Available The topic of reverse logistics has become very actual due the requirements of highly competitive market. This importance is made by significance of condition for environment-friendly production and purchasing around the world. Individual activities, which are included in reverse logistics, support entrepreneurs in their competitiveness to other companies and to own customers. The objective of the paper is to find relationship between marketing communication tool and activities of reverse logistics on behaviour of final customers in Czech Republic. A theoretical background from the area of reverse logistics supports this approach with data from primary research collected by the author. A data from primary research was used. The entire primary research focused on the evaluation of customers’ perception in the area of reverse logistics in the Czech Republic by a questionnaire survey. Sample population was created by 1266 consumers’ respondents, which were chosen in random way. There were returned questionnaires from 332 respondents. Questionnaire itself was distributed by only platform, during June 2016. The research itself was aimed at a random chosen group of people in the Czech Republic. Findings of the research shows connection of individual activities of reverse logistics and individual communication tools, which are well-accepted on customer side. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market.
McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier
A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.
Thomas, Philip J; Chrystal, Alec
Buy-one-get-one-free (BOGOF) promotions are a common feature of retail food markets, but why are they so widespread? The theory of Relative Utility Pricing (RUP) developed in this paper provides an explanation not only for supermarket promotional offers but also for more general pricing of packs of different sizes in supermarkets and on the internet. A clear and simple explanation is given for the two most widely used quantity promotions: BOGOF and 3-for-the-price-of-2. The RUP model may be l...
Thomas, P.; Chrystal, A.
Buy-one-get-one-free (BOGOF) promotions are a common feature of retail food markets, but why are they so widespread? The theory of Relative Utility Pricing (RUP) developed in this paper provides an explanation not only for supermarket promotional offers but also for more general pricing of packs of different sizes in supermarkets and on the internet. A clear and simple explanation is given for the two most widely used quantity promotions: BOGOF and 3-for-the-price-of-2. The RUP model may be l...
Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. We used using data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between e-cigarette promotions and the prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use among US adults. In the 2013-2014 survey period, 7.1% of adults (about 16.0 million) reported receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions in the previous 6 months; 3.2% received mail promotions, and 5.1% received email promotions. A higher prevalence of promotions was found among men versus women, adults aged under 65 years versus those older, current e-cigarette users, current smokers, and people with no smoking restriction rules in their homes or vehicles. In the multivariable analysis, receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions was associated with higher odds of being current e-cigarette users (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; P marketing promotions was prevalent among US adults. Receiving e-cigarette promotions was associated with increased odds of both prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use. Future longitudinal studies are needed to measure causal effects of e-cigarette promotions on e-cigarette use among adults.
Every company faces a time when there is a need to develop a marketing plan, which consists of determined goals and objectives, analysis of current situation, forecast planning and other relevant elements. In order to stay competitive and gain competitive advantage, companies seek for other marketing opportunities aside from traditional marketing. The era of technology has facilitated internet marketing development and opened the door of marketing opportunities. The main objective of this...
Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.
Choe, Seong-Kyu; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles G
Hox proteins form complexes with TALE cofactors from the Pbx and Prep/Meis families to control transcription, but it remains unclear how Hox:TALE complexes function. Examining a Hoxb1b:TALE complex that regulates zebrafish hoxb1a transcription, we find maternally deposited TALE proteins at the hoxb1a promoter already during blastula stages. These TALE factors recruit histone-modifying enzymes to promote an active chromatin profile at the hoxb1a promoter and also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and P-TEFb. However, in the presence of TALE factors, RNAPII remains phosphorylated on serine 5 and hoxb1a transcription is inefficient. By gastrula stages, Hoxb1b binds together with TALE factors to the hoxb1a promoter. This triggers P-TEFb-mediated transitioning of RNAPII to the serine 2-phosphorylated form and efficient hoxb1a transcription. We conclude that TALE factors access promoters during early embryogenesis to poise them for activation but that Hox proteins are required to trigger efficient transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a devastating muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in dystrophin, a muscle cytoskeletal protein. Utrophin is a homologue of dystrophin that can functionally compensate for its absence when expressed at increased levels in the myofibre, as shown by studies in dystrophin-deficient mice. Utrophin upregulation is therefore a promising therapeutic approach for DMD. The use of a small, drug-like molecule to achieve utrophin upregulation offers obvious advantages in terms of delivery and bioavailability. Furthermore, much of the time and expense involved in the development of a new drug can be eliminated by screening molecules that are already approved for clinical use.We developed and validated a cell-based, high-throughput screening assay for utrophin promoter activation, and used it to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library of marketed drugs and natural compounds. Initial screening produced 20 hit molecules, 14 of which exhibited dose-dependent activation of the utrophin promoter and were confirmed as hits. Independent validation demonstrated that one of these compounds, nabumetone, is able to upregulate endogenous utrophin mRNA and protein, in C2C12 muscle cells.We have developed a cell-based, high-throughput screening utrophin promoter assay. Using this assay, we identified and validated a utrophin promoter-activating drug, nabumetone, for which pharmacokinetics and safety in humans are already well described, and which represents a lead compound for utrophin upregulation as a therapy for DMD.
Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Hauser, Kimberlea; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Nydia Y; Frías, Jaime L
To develop a culturally appropriate communication initiative in an effort to promote the use of pre-conceptional folic acid among Hispanic women of childbearing age. The materials were designed to communicate information about the risks of neural tube defects and the value of folic acid supplementation before conception. The initiative was developed using a social marketing approach. A series of focus groups were conducted with Hispanic women, particularly Mexican and Mexican-American women, to gain an understanding of their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding birth defects and folic acid. Additionally focus groups assessed women's preferences for existing folic acid education materials. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes which were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to include the role of partners and a sense of family in the promotions aimed at these groups. Another key component was the need to dispel myths which act as barriers to pre-conceptional folic acid use. Other important elements included in the media products were the need for Spanish and English versions, an explanation of neural tube defects, and a reference to the cost of the supplements. The final products of the initiative included Spanish and English versions of a brochure, photo-novella, and radio public service announcement. Pre-testing results showed women understood the message, thought the message was for women like them, and expected to begin taking a folic acid supplement. Results of the overall evaluation of the initiative are on-going.
Full Text Available Abstract This commentary is the concluding piece of a series of papers about the Canadian ParticipACTION initiative. It describes the resurgence of the new ParticipACTION as a national communications initiative in Canada, and sets this in an international context. The set of ParticipACTION papers in this issue establish benchmarks and provide baseline and initial impact data for the evaluation and monitoring of ParticipACTION, using qualitative and quantiative research methods. As a set, they describe a comprehensive approach to setting up evaluations of national social marketing efforts to promote physical activity.
Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven
Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...
Full Text Available Existing literature on the marketing of primary healthcare services was reviewed to determine the role of registered nurses in this regard. The systematic review included “— five searches and ensured wide coverage of the results of available primary research studies on the topic. The results were summarised and the role of registered nurses in the marketing of primary healthcare services was identified. Primary research sources on the topic included textbooks on marketing by experts in the field and relevant journal articles by authorities on healthcare marketing. The data were analysed and four main categories identified. To ensure the trustworthiness of the research, Lincoln and Guba’s (1981:215-216 criteria, as explained by Krefting (1991:217, were applied. Because the population consisted of only literature, ethical considerations concerning human subjects were irrelevant. Results indicated that the basic commercial marketing principles (the so-called 4Ps - product, price, place, and promotion could be adapted for the health sector. The conclusion was that registered nurses could contribute to the marketing of primary healthcare services by communicating with the community (promotion and by ensuring effective service (product delivery at the right price and place. Registered nurses could influence the community’s perceptions of health care and facilitate behaviour changes, thereby promote health. The implementation of the findings and recommendations of this research could create a new awareness among registered nurses of their role in the marketing of primary healthcare services in South Africa and improve their skills in this regard.
Wong, Faye; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie; Asbury, Lori; Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; McCarthy, Susan; Londe, Paula
The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketing principles of product, price, place, and promotion. In this paper, we describe how these four principles were applied to formulate the strategies and tactics of the VERB campaign, and we provide examples of the multimedia materials (e.g., posters, print advertising, television, radio spots) that were created.
Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effects of perception and marketing expenditures as well as financial and non-financial promotions on brand equity. The proposed study of this paper prepares a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular customers of three types of Shampoo in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of structural equation modeling for the proposed study of this paper has been accomplished based on LISREL software. The results of the survey on testing various hypotheses indicate that perception on marketing expenditure, financial as well as non-financial promotion and word of mouth advertisement influence positively on brand awareness and negatively on non-financial promotions (α=0.01. In addition, brand awareness influences positively on perception quality (α=0.01. Brand awareness as well as brand associate also influence on brand loyalty (α=0.01.
Thing, Lone Friis
Within academic discussions of health promotion related to physical activity an Eliasian perspective is seldom used. Based on a central theoretical theme within Norbert Elias’ sociology of sport (Elias and Dunning 1986), namely the quest for excitement, this article explores the health orientation...... of Danish society as an expression of a continued civilizing of the body. In national governmental health messages sports participation and general physical activity are presented as an essential health-promoting instrument that keeps illness and disease away, thereby prolong life. But the all......-pervading guide to physical activity and sport - often with a focus on quantitative dimensions like frequency, duration and intensity - as measurable effects and risks, has resulted in a rationalisation of many movement cultures for large selections of the population. Health messages are then presented using...
Hiebenthal-Millow, Kirsten; Greenough, Thomas C.; Bretttler, Doreen B.; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Sullivan, John L.; Kirchhoff, Frank
HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression
Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays. The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%. Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.
Lucia, Julio J.; Mansanet-Bataller, Maria; Pardo, Ángel
We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract
Magdelena Józefa Cyrklaff
Full Text Available Flash mobinits original formmeantspontaneous event, initiated in a public space byan unknown groupof people. Ithadentertainingand absurdcharacter and about the time of its commencement completely random people were reported usually through e-mails or text messages. Over time, this particular form of happening evolved and can now be used as an educational tool for sensitizing activation of some important social issues, as well as a marketing tool used in advertising and branding. This article is devoted to the characteristic of flash mobs as a tools of promotion of the institutions, services and cultural products. At the beginning in the article were described the evolution and structure of flash mobs and then were given examples of flash mobs in marketing activities in the field of art and culture. At the end of the article were presented guidelines related to the use of flash mobsin a business field.
Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana
The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Santa, D.F. Jr.
There now is no doubt that the Nation's electric power industry is in the midst of a fundamental, irreversible restructuring. Still, at all levels, the question remains: ''How do we get from here to there?'' In particular: (1) Now that the Order No. 888 Open Access Rule has been implemented, the question for the Commission is what else must be done to promote efficient, competitive bulk power markets? (2) For the individual states that are proceeding with retail access, the question is what must be done to balance the equities and achieve a consensus among the various affected stakeholder groups? and (3) As the Congressional committees with jurisdiction over electric restructuring legislation soon may be going to markup, the question for the sponsors of the various pieces of legislation and for their supporting constituencies is whether a consensus can be found for a comprehensive electric restructuring bill. The author addresses each of these topics, with special emphasis on the Commission's post-Order No. 888 agenda
Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars
Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...... prospects in the long run. When the cost side is taken into account, private and public job training still come out with surplusses, while classroom training leads to a deficit....... by propensity score matching. For the years 1995 - 2005 it is found that private job training programmes have substantial positive employment and earnings effects, but also public job training ends up with positive earnings effects. Classroom training does not significantly improve employment or earnings...
Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.
The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis
Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
The proposed strategy, which is designed to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the costs of marketing the Information Analysis Products (IAPs) produced by the 16 ERIC Clearinghouses, is based on a study of the concept of centralized versus decentralized ordering of selected ERIC products. The experiment measured four variables--postage,…
Viviene A Temple
Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities and the effects on overall physical activity levels and on health outcomes. Materials and methods. A systematic review of eight databases until January 31, 2015 identified 383 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of adults with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Six articles from the 383 citations met this criterion. Results. Three studies resulted in significant increases in physical activity behaviour; however well-controlled trials designed to improve weight status by increasing physical activity did not produce significant effects. Conclusion. Overall, the results indicate that interventions to increase physical activity should simultaneously target the individual with intellectual disability as well as their proximal environment over a sustained period of time.
Borin, Norm; Metcalf, Lynn
In response to political, social, and competitive forces, many firms are developing sustainable marketing strategies. Marketing educators can play an important role in assisting these firms by developing curricula that build the knowledge and skills required to enable marketing graduates to contribute to sustainable marketing efforts. Marketing…
Leeman, Jennifer; Myers, Allison; Grant, Jennifer C; Wangen, Mary; Queen, Tara L
The US tobacco industry spends $8.2 billion annually on marketing at the point of sale (POS), a practice known to increase tobacco use. Evidence-based policy interventions (EBPIs) are available to reduce exposure to POS marketing, and nationwide, states are funding community-based tobacco control partnerships to promote local enactment of these EBPIs. Little is known, however, about what implementation strategies best support community partnerships' success enacting EBPI. Guided by Kingdon's theory of policy change, Counter Tools provides tools, training, and other implementation strategies to support community partnerships' performance of five core policy change processes: document local problem, formulate policy solutions, engage partners, raise awareness of problems and solutions, and persuade decision makers to enact new policy. We assessed Counter Tools' impact at 1 year on (1) partnership coordinators' self-efficacy, (2) partnerships' performance of core policy change processes, (3) community progress toward EBPI enactment, and (4) salient contextual factors. Counter Tools provided implementation strategies to 30 partnerships. Data on self-efficacy were collected using a pre-post survey. Structured interviews assessed performance of core policy change processes. Data also were collected on progress toward EBPI enactment and contextual factors. Analysis included descriptive and bivariate statistics and content analysis. Following 1-year exposure to implementation strategies, coordinators' self-efficacy increased significantly. Partnerships completed the greatest proportion of activities within the "engage partners" and "document local problem" core processes. Communities made only limited progress toward policy enactment. Findings can inform delivery of implementation strategies and tests of their effects on community-level efforts to enact EBPIs.
Luoma Pauli V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.
Becker, H.D. [Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit, Maingas AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
The first step in any worthwhile marketing strategy for urban regions is to make a survey of all real estates without a gas supply. The data stock thus obtained serves as a short, medium, and long-term basis for all further activity. It cal be used to set up yearly personnel and activity plans. The activities are rounded off by incentives in the form of conversion aids or financing offers and additional measures presented within a Full Service Package Defining clear aims makes it easier to evaluate the success of the activities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der erste Schritt zu einer erfolgreichen Marktbearbeitung in Verdichtungsgebieten ist die Erhebung aller Liegenschaften ohne Gasversorgung. Der gewonnene Datenbestand dient kurz-, mittel- und langfristig als Grundlage aller Aktivitaeten. Eine Personal- und Aktivitaetenplanung kann jaehrlich daraus abgeleitet werden. Kaufanreize in Form von Umstellhilfen, Finanzierungsangeboten und zusaetzlichen Dienstleistungen im Rahmen eines Full-Service-Angebotes runden die Aktivitaeten ab. Die klare Vorgabe von Zielen erleichert die Erfolgskontrolle. (orig.)
Full Text Available Purpose: The Chinese government takes measures to promote the development of green building (GB. But until 2013, there are only few green buildings in China. The real estate developers are skeptical in entering GB market, which requires theories to explain developers and government’s behaviors.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we attempt Evolutionary game theory and System dynamics (SD into the analysis. A system dynamics model is built for studying evolutionary games between the government and developers in greening building decision making.Findings and Originality/value: The results of mixed-strategy stability analysis and SD simulation show that evolutionary equilibrium does not exist with a static government incentive. Therefore, a dynamical incentive is suggested in the SD model for promoting the green building market. The symmetric game and asymmetric game between two developers show, if the primary proportion who choose GB strategy is lower, all the group in game may finally evolve to GB strategy. In this case and in this time, the government should take measures to encourage developers to enter into the GB market. If the proportion who choose GB strategy is high enough, the government should gradually cancel or reduce those incentive measure.Research limitations/implications: an Evolution Analysis and System Dynamics Simulation on Behaviors of Real Estate Developers and Government could give some advice for the government to promote the green building market.
... Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976 (7 U.S.C. 3001-3006) as amended by Section 10605 of the... marketing entities where agricultural farmers or vendors sell their own products directly to consumers, and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc AMS-TM-09-0088; TM-09-09] Notice of...
Krause, Joan H
Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al. would exacerbate them. The Model would limit FDA authority to core communications proposing immediate commercial transactions, giving manufacturers unfettered discretion over scientific exchanges and nearly free rein over truthful quasi-commercial communications. Most problematically, the New Model relies on the longstanding assumption that truly educational and scientific activities can be distinguished from simple product promotion - a dichotomy that exists not only in federal law and professional association codes, but also underlies the jurisdiction of the federal agencies overseeing the pharmaceutical sector. Experience invites skepticism that these activities can be cleanly separated, suggesting that the New Model may simply perpetuate abusive behaviors without offering concomitant benefits to physicians or patients.
Yarym-Agayev Oleksandr M.
Full Text Available The article considers main issues of organisation of Internet marketing at small and medium enterprises of Ukraine, shows a necessity of development and marketing support of the site and provides recommendations on development, implementation and maintenance of corporate sites for marketing and advertising managers. The article considers such directions of operation with the site as analysis of sites of competitors, development of a corporate site, information provision of the site, site indexation and its promotion in search engines, placing site links at information portals, creation of pages in social networks, work at forums, information mailings, operation with site analytics and ensuring feedback with the site visitors. The listed recommendations would allow increase the site image, attract new clients, organise efficient co-operation with specialists on development and promotion of the site and achieve the maximal effect from this source of advertisement and sales.
Hyosun Kim’s report "Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters" aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it PMID:27239884
Abdul Azez, Siti Rochmah Diah Yuliana
Perkembangan Perguruan Tinggi semakin pesat, mendorong Instansi harus semakin aktif dalam merealisasikan strategi marketing yang efektif dan efisien. strategi pemasaran dari mulut ke mulut (WOM) sering disebut dengan strategi word of mouth. Rumusan masalah adalah bagaimana pengaruh faktor faktor marketing mix (place, product, promotion, price) terhadap Keputusan Masuk STIE Semarang yang dimediasi Word of Mouth”, Hipotesis : ada pengaruh faktor marketing mix (product, place, promotion, price) ...
Full Text Available Under conditions of constantly growing competition, what is becoming a key problem is keeping the previously acquired clients. Their trust in the provider and regularly repeated purchases are an expression of the efficiency of marketing activities conducted by companies. What is becoming a measure of success is the satisfaction and loyalty of buyers. Companies spend a lot of money to attract clients and the competition keeps trying to take away their clients. A lost client means not just the loss of a future order – this is the loss of revenues equal to the value of all products which a particular buyer could purchase in his entire life. On top of that comes the cost of acquiring new client to replace the old one. TARP research shows that the cost of acquiring a new client is five times higher than the cost of pleasing an existing client (Kotler, 2006. In the publication the significance of the relations with the client are discussed with regard to efficient marketing strategy. Moreover, the results of client satisfaction surveys and market analysis taking into consideration the revenues from sale of services in the area of micronization are presented.
Ileana (BĂDULESCU ANASTASE
Full Text Available Marketing is a new activity, whose premises for emergence must be sought at the very beginning of the 20th century. It had a slow development, localized within a country with a strong market economy. The term ‘strategy’ represents the title of one of the ten supreme magistrates, who used military force during the time of confrontations. Currently, ‘strategos’ means the planning of the enemies’ destruction by using resources, and the term ‘strategy’ is limited to the phrase. A more thorough analysis of the notion may be summed up in five key factors: plan, strategy, behavioural model, position and perspective. After the 1950s - 1960s, marketing experiences an explosive growth, being included among the preoccupations of companies from economies with different structures and degrees of development. (http://www.academia.edu/11461407/Bazele_...The USA is where strong favourable factors, such as the industrial revolution, the division of labour, the increased distances between producers and traders and the population explosion etc., appeared.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.
Kwasny, R.; Aul, F.; Lohrey, K.
Concerns about the impact of hydrocarbon use on climate and global warming are significantly growing. Furthermore, we are all well aware that security of supply is increasingly an issue. In this context, it is now principally recognised that nuclear energy has to be back on the agenda. All in all, the prospects for the nuclear power industry and thus for the uranium activities is very positive for the coming years. The changes that have taken place in the international uranium market during the past several years are remarkable. Since 2002, the uranium prices have increased more than tenfold. The spot market price of uranium began an increase from about USD 9/lb U 3 O 8 in mid 2001 following a fire at the Olympic Dam mill (Australia) in October 2001 and was propelled in subsequent years by a series of interrupting events, such as the mine shaft flooding at the McArthur River mine (Canada) in April 2003, the threat of the early shutdown of the Roessing mine (Namibia) and the Ranger mine (Australia) in 2003, the decision of Techsnabexport (Tenex, Russia) in October 2003 to terminate sales of UF6 to the US trading company Globe Nuclear Services and Supply GNSS Ltd. (GNSS), and finally the complete flooding at the developing Cigar Lake mine (Canada) in October 2006. With the emergence of hedge funds and investors, that began in late 2004, increased uranium demand and upward pressure on market prices were further stimulated. What about the recent events and trends in the uranium industry? Are the uranium producers and the utilities well prepared to meet all the challenges associated with developments in the uranium business? And what about the risks, uncertainties and other factors that could affect the developments in the uranium industry and uranium markets? (orig.)
Schreiber, T; Tissier, A
The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamal, Susan; Holmberg, Christine; Russell, Jean; Bochenek, Tomasz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Fischer, Christiane; Tinnemann, Peter
Pharmaceutical promotion activities in low and middle-income countries are often neither regulated nor monitored. While Egypt has the highest population and per capita use of medicines in the Arab world, we know very little about pharmaceutical companies promotional activities in the country. To explore and analyze the perceptions of physicians towards promotional and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies among physicians and pharmacists in Egypt. Perspectives of different healthcare system stakeholders were explored through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 in Cairo, Egypt. Interviewees were chosen via purposive sampling and snowball technique. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. Then qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted with the help of NVIVO software. The majority of physicians and pharmacists acknowledged exposure to pharmaceutical promotion. It was commonly believed that interaction with the pharmaceutical industry is necessary and both associated risks and benefits were acknowledged. The interviewed physicians considered themselves competent enough to minimize risks and maximize benefits to their prescribing habits. Views diverged on the extent and magnitude of the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical promotion, especially in regard to the influence on patients' health. Pharmaceutical promotion in Egypt is intensely directed at prescribers and dispensers. Physicians, pharmacists and policymakers expressed little skepticism to the influence of promotion towards their individual prescribing. Raising awareness of the pitfalls of pharmaceutical promotion is necessary, especially among the less experienced physicians.
Abe, Akemi; Masaki, Naoko; Fukuizumi, Maiko; Hashimoto, Shuji
To create a "Health Promotion Checklist for Residents" to help promote healthy habits among local residents. First, we investigated items for a health promotion checklist in the Health Japan 21 (2(nd) edition) and other references. Next, we conducted a questionnaire survey including these checklist items in August 2012. The study subjects were randomly selected Hatsukaichi city residents aged ≥20 years. Anonymous survey forms explaining this study were mailed to the investigated subjects and recovered in return envelopes. Data were compared by sex and age group. We created a checklist comprising a 23-item health promotion evaluation index with established scoring. There were 33 questions regarding health checkups; cancer screenings; dental checkups, blood pressure; glycated hemoglobin or blood glucose; dyslipidemia; body mass index; number of remaining teeth; breakfast, vegetable, fruit, and salt intake; nutrient balance; exercise; smoking; drinking; sleep; stress; and mental state. There were also questions on outings, community involvement, activities to improve health, and community connections. The questions were classified into six categories: health management, physical health, dietary and exercise habits, indulgences, mental health, and social activities. Of the 4,002 distributed survey forms, 1,719 valid responses were returned (recovery rate, 43.0%). The mean score by category was 1.69 (N=1,343) for health management, 6.52 (N=1,444) for physical health, 12.97 (N=1,511) for dietary and exercise habits, and 2.29 (N=1,518) for indulgences, all of which were higher for women, and 5.81 (N=1,469) for mental health, which was higher for men. The health management scores were higher among subjects in their 40s and 50s. The physical health score increased gradually with age from the 70 s and older to the 20 s, whereas the dietary and exercise habits increased gradually from the 20 s to the 70 s and older. The 20 s had high scores for indulgences, while mental
Bilbao, Aritz; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego
The increase of life expectancy in modern society has caused an increase in elderly population. Elderly people want to live independently in their home environment for as long as possible. However, as we age, our physical skills tend to worsen and our social circle tends to become smaller, something that often leads to a considerable decrease of both our physical and social activities. In this paper, we present an AAL framework developed within the SONOPA project, whose objective is to promote active ageing by combining a social network with information inferred using in-home sensors. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto
This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.
Romito, Laura M; Saxton, M Kim; Coan, Lorinda L; Christen, Arden G
With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p targeted smokers. Current retail promotional strategies
Coan Lorinda L
Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions
Harris, F.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Anderson, S.; Hastings, G.; Borland, R.; Fong, G. T.; Hammond, D.; Cummings, K. M.
Background: In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. \\ud Objective: To investigate the impact of the UK’s comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers’ awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. \\ud ...
Awad, Abdelmoneim; Abahussain, Eman
To investigate self-reported practice of pharmacists regarding health promotion and education activities, explore the barriers that may limit their involvement in health promotion and education, and identify their willingness to participate in continuing education programs related to health education. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a pre-tested questionnaire on a sample of 223 community pharmacists. The extent of the pharmacists' involvement in counselling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients' health behaviour. The response rate was 92%. Information on medication use was the most frequent reason for consumers seeking community pharmacists' advice. The majority of respondents believed that behaviour related to the proper use of drugs was very important. There was less agreement on the importance of other health behaviours. Respondents indicated they were involved in counselling patients on health behaviours related to use of drugs as prescribed/directed, weight management, medicine contents and side effects, diet modification and stress reduction, but were less involved in counselling on other health behaviours. Respondents' perception of themselves as "most prepared" to counsel patients closely reflected their involvement. Pharmacists reported high levels of success in helping patients to achieve improvements in using their drugs properly compared to low levels in changing patients' personal health behaviours. The majority of respondents believed that pharmacists had a responsibility for counselling consumers on health behaviours (97%, 95% CI 95-99%), and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion (84%, 78-88%). Lack of pharmacists' time was reported by about 58% of respondents as the major barrier limiting pharmacists' provision of health
Lilia S. Revenko
Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national
Pop Nicolae Al.
Full Text Available In the insurance industry there is a new way of thinking which determined the passage from transactional marketing to a holistic marketing concept. In this paper five key elements of holistic marketing are presented: relationship marketing, integrated mar
There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs
Full Text Available The article outlines the issues related to the topic of management of formalised marketing and media activities in outsourcing companies in the age of competitiveness, with particular emphasis on contemporary marketing approach. General management of the organisation and management of marketing and media activities, particularly in their formalised form, both have a significant effect on improving company competitiveness in the market. Outsourcing companies constitute a specific sector of services which without a very well-functioning marketing and media activities would not be able to operate and develop in the market. The article presents selected aspects connected with the management of marketing and media activities, with particular emphasis on formalisation of marketing activities in outsourcing companies. The analysis presented below focuses on the efficiency of the implemented formalisation of marketing and media activities in outsourcing companies in relation to their competitiveness, with special recognition of contemporary marketing approach.
When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)
Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor
Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.
Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming
To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.
Shigeta, Tsutomu; Miyoshi, Takashi
While NASDA has been engaged in the development of new satellite missions and the bus technologies, NASDA explores new and attractive applications by promoting the utilization of satellite missions and strengthening the relationships with external parties. Offering opportunities to external parties for conducting application experiments will bring great chances for them in challenging and experimenting new space-based applications. Consequently, it is expected that the outcomes of the space development are returned to general public, research institutes, industries, and that ideas or requirements for new satellite mission could emerge and be materialized. With these objectives in mind, NASDA is presently planning a new space project that is named "i-Space". The i-Space project aims to contribute to the progressing "IT Revolution" by providing new space communication capabilities and to develop practical applications by collaborating with external parties. This paper introduces the activities and roles of NASDA in promoting satellite utilization experiments, particularly focusing on the i-Space project.
Jane, B; Gibson, K
Parklives is a programme intended to raise levels of physical activity across the UK, funded by Coca-Cola GB and delivered in association with Local Authorities and other organizations. Such public-private partnerships have been advocated by many however critics suggest that the conflict between stakeholder motives is too great. This study conducted a content analysis of twitter content related to the ParkLives physical activity programme. Images and text were analysed from two separate weeks, one from the school vacation period and one during school term time. Three hundred and eighteen tweets were analysed. Content analysis revealed 79% of images contained children and 45% of these images contained prominent Coca-Cola branding, a level of exposure that suggests ParkLives simultaneously provides opportunities for children's physical activity and for targeted marketing. Content analysis also demonstrated that the programme allowed increased access to policy-makers. The sponsorship of a physical activity promotion campaign can allow a corporation to target its marketing at children and gain access to health-related policy development networks. This study reinforces the need for independent evaluation of all potential impacts of such a partnership and calls on those responsible for community health to fully consider the ethical implications of such relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This research examined the relationship between beliefs about physical activity, physical activity levels, age and the promotional practices for physical activity employed by Air Force squadron commanders...
Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.
Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.
Lee, Christine C; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao; Matunis, Michael J
The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that functions as the gatekeeper to mitotic exit. APC/C activity is controlled by an interplay of multiple pathways during mitosis, including the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), that are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that sumoylation of the APC4 subunit of the APC/C peaks during mitosis and is critical for timely APC/C activation and anaphase onset. We have also identified a functionally important SUMO interacting motif in the cullin-homology domain of APC2 located near the APC4 sumoylation sites and APC/C catalytic core. Our findings provide evidence of an important regulatory role for SUMO modification and binding in affecting APC/C activation and mitotic exit. © 2018, Lee et al.
Ms. Elena V. Chepukhalina
Full Text Available In this article definition to SMM is given (Social Media Marketing, types and tools of social media are classified, the marketing tasks solved by social media are listed, and the Russian audience of users of social media is analysed.
Recruiters and marketers within the Alabama Community College System are tasked with increasing enrollment at their institutions. The methods of accomplishing this goal include traditional strategies as well as new and emerging ones. Unlike personnel at other institutions of higher learning, however, community college recruiters and marketers have…
... perishable (fresh, refrigerated, or frozen) or canned as well as nutrient-dense foods and beverages... producer-to- consumer marketing outlets that sell healthy foods including, but not limited to, farmers...-based projects that focus on developing healthy food direct- marketing outlets in food deserts. These...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014
Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…
Yatagai, Chieko; Maruyama, Masugi; Kawahara, Tomoko; Sumi, Hiroyuki
When heated to a temperature of 70 degrees C or higher, the strong fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase in a solution was deactivated. Similar results were observed in the case of using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA, which are synthetic substrates of nattokinase. In the current study, tests were conducted on the indirect fibrinolytic effects of the substances containing nattokinase that had been deactivated through heating at 121 degrees C for 15 min. Bacillus subtilis natto culture solutions made from three types of bacteria strain were heat-treated and deactivated, and it was found that these culture solutions had the ability to generate tissue plasminogen activators (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells and HeLa cells at certain concentration levels. For example, it was found that the addition of heat-treated culture solution of the Naruse strain (undiluted solution) raises the tPA activity of HeLa cells to about 20 times that of the control. Under the same conditions, tPA activity was raised to a level about 5 times higher for human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to a level about 24 times higher for nattokinase sold on the market. No change in cell count was observed for HeLa cells and HUVEC in the culture solution at these concentrations, and the level of activity was found to vary with concentration. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J; Slevin, Terry; Dixon, Helen
To investigate the potential efficacy of bowel cancer prevention messages in increasing intentions to be more physically active. A convenience sample of 281 physically inactive persons aged 30-60 years was recruited in the Perth city centre and randomly assigned to a bowel cancer and physical activity message or a heart disease and physical activity message. After reading a booklet containing information about physical activity and its link either to bowel cancer (n = 141) or cardiovascular disease (n = 140), respondents filled in a self-completion questionnaire. The main response measures were impact on intentions to be more physically active, and perceived believability and relevance of the message. Perceived believability of the message was high in both conditions. Perceived personal relevance of the message was substantially lower in the bowel cancer than the cardiovascular disease condition. Overall, the cardiovascular disease condition achieved somewhat higher behavioural intentions than the bowel cancer condition. The finding that two in three respondents in the bowel cancer condition had increased intention to increase their level of physical activity provides support for the potential efficacy of promoting physical activity in reducing the risk of bowel cancer.
... does not meet the definition of a Federal mandate because the resulting annual State expenditures would..., roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct...' markets, roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other...
Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.
Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne
Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George
When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition,
Burke, J P
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.
Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena
Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrPC) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrPC in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrPC is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrPC is expressed in the kidney, and ∼370 μg of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrPC promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of 59Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP−/−) mouse kidney relative to PrP+/+ controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with 59Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrPC in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of 59Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent 59Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrPΔ51–89) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrPC to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrPC promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394
Garcίa, Robert; Sidhu, Anupreet; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve
INTRODUCTION There has been a surge in the number of vape shops in the USA. Research on the marketing practices of e-cigarette manufacturers is scarce and even less known are the practices of vape shop retailers. Past research on tobacco marketing has shown differences in the amount and content of marketing material, based on a community’s demographic profile. This study examined marketing strategies in vape shops and explored differences among vape shops located in communities that differ by...
Full Text Available Extensive usage of the Internet as a marketing tool began approximately fifteen years ago, resulting in the development of the Internet marketing as a distinctive field within marketing theory and practice. Since then, the Internet usage and its technological properties have evolved substantially, and have in turn led to a fast development of new marketing methods and techniques that can be applied within the electronic environment. Doing marketing on the Internet is posing a number of new challenges for marketing managers. One of the challenges lies the need to know and understand the breadth of Internet marketing activities. The purpose of this paper is to give an insight into the current landscape of Internet marketing activities and to propose a conceptual framework for managing those activities. The paper presents the development of the Internet marketing and defines the main concepts. The new role of the consumer is emphasized in order to identify potential new tasks for marketing managers. Current Internet marketing activities are observed in the context of the traditional marketing mix. Finally, based on the literature review and the analysis, a set of elements that could form a modified framework for the Internet marketing mix is proposed.
In order to fulfil climate and energy goals that EU has set for the period until 2030 and also after 2050, an engagement of the entire society is necessary. The energy sector is entering a transition towards a so called 4D model: decarbonization, decentralisation, distribution and democratisation. Citizens' engagement and responsibility in this transition requires active consumption management, energy generation and application of energy efficiency measures. To be competitive on the energy market, various forms of collective citizen collaborations are needed and to encourage people to participate in those, they have to be further educated so that the energy sector transition can succeed. The expected road transportation electrification posts further challenges on the energy sector. Horizontal connection of more EU policies, climate-energy, circular economy, digital agenda shows that a holistic approach is needed for the transition into a new, resource and energy more efficient, society.(author).
Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D
Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.
Full Text Available Background: The elimination of breakfast and the high consumption of low-value snacks are becoming more frequent and common among adolescents. Nutrition is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is associated with the specific cultural and environmental issues of each society as well as psychological features.This qualitative research was conducted to identify factors affecting breakfast consumption behavior in adolescents using the social marketing framework. Materials and Methods: A qualitative research based on the social marketing framework was conducted through directed content analysis in the high schools of Isfahan and Khorramabad, Iran, in 2016. Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 33 in-depth, semi-structured; interviews conducted in person with both male and female students, the parents, and the teachers and were analyzed simultaneously in three phases, namely preparation, organization and reporting. Results: The results obtained in the present study within the social marketing framework were coded into the four categories of product, place, price and promotion. The product category had four subcategories, including favorite taste sought in breakfast, breakfast preparation, breakfast serving style, variety and the healthful features of breakfast. The price category had four subcategories, including time, psychological, social and financial prices. The promotion category had three subcategories, including official channels, unofficial channels, and educational materials and equipment. The place category had two subcategories, including having breakfast at school or having breakfast in an outdoor space. Conclusion: The promotion of healthy breakfast as a product, requires that first its important features be considered, including the favorite taste sought in breakfast, second that it be promoted through channels most popular with students, and most importantly, that its price be reduced by using incentives such as
Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.
Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.
The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering
Abstract Historical studies indicate that determinants of the gender wage gap have varied through history. This paper suggests that employment discrimination dominated over wage discrimination in clerical work in Sweden in the mid-1930s. Women were largely excluded from career paths in the offices. This is explained within an analytical framework, in which segmented labour market theory, notably concepts related to internal labour markets, is com¬bined with a simple model of statistical di...
Rye, James A; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eck, Ronald; Neal, William A
The prevalence of overweight in youth has increased three- to four-fold in the United States since the 1960s. The school environment can play prominently in the mitigation of this epidemic by increasing physical activity opportunities/ levels, decreasing the availability of food/ beverage with added sugar, and enhancing students' scientific understandings about energy balance. The potential to increase energy expenditure goes beyond the school day to include safe routes for walking and biking to school (active transport) as well as the availability of school facilities as a community resource for physical activity outside of school hours. However, school consolidation and siting decisions have profound effects on active transport as well as the school as a community resource. Teachers and adolescents should not be overlooked as important partners in conceiving and carrying out programming that seeks to increase physical activity levels in youth and the broader community. As leaders and health care providers in their communities, physicians are postured to be effective advocates of, and to leverage in their own practice, school-based policies and practices towards promoting healthy weight in youth.
Stevens, Mark; Rees, Tim; Coffee, Pete; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Polman, Remco
Against the backdrop of a global physical inactivity crisis, attempts to both understand and positively influence physical activity behaviours are characterized by a focus on individual-level factors (e.g. cognitions, attitudes, motivation). We outline a new perspective, drawn from an emerging body of work exploring the applicability of social identity and self-categorization theories to domains of sport and health, from which to understand and address this pervasive problem. This social identity approach suggests that the groups to which people belong can be, and often are, incorporated into their sense of self and, through this, are powerful determinants of physical activity-related behaviour. We start by reviewing the current state of physical activity research and highlighting the potential for the social identity approach to help understand how social factors influence these behaviours. Next, we outline the theoretical underpinnings of the social identity approach and provide three key examples that speak to the analytical and practical value of the social identity approach in physical activity settings. Specifically, we argue that social identity (1) can be harnessed to promote engagement in physical activity, (2) underpins exercise group behaviour, and (3) underpins effective leadership in exercise settings. We conclude by identifying prospects for a range of theory-informed research developments.
Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío
Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.
Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.
To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries. A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google. Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation are identified and discussed in relation to health libraries. In increasingly complex health service and information environments, the marketing and promotion of library services is becoming more important if those services are to justify the resources given to them. Marketing techniques are equally applicable to physical and digital library services.
Moller, Arlen C; Majewski, Sara; Standish, Melanie; Agarwal, Pooja; Podowski, Aleksandra; Carson, Rebecca; Eyesus, Biruk; Shah, Aakash; Schneider, Kristin L
The popularity of active video games (AVGs) has skyrocketed over the last decade. However, research suggests that the most popular AVGs, which rely on synchronous integration between players' activity and game features, fail to promote physical activity outside of the game or for extended periods of engagement. This limitation has led researchers to consider AVGs that involve asynchronous integration of players' ongoing physical activity with game features. Rather than build an AVG de novo, we selected an established sedentary video game uniquely well suited for the incorporation of asynchronous activity: online fantasy sports. The primary aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a new asynchronous AVG-active fantasy sports-designed to promote physical activity. We conducted two pilot studies of an active fantasy sports game designed to promote physical activity. Participants wore a low cost triaxial accelerometer and participated in an online fantasy baseball (Study 1, n=9, 13-weeks) or fantasy basketball (Study 2, n=10, 17-weeks) league. Privileges within the game were made contingent on meeting weekly physical activity goals (eg, averaging 10,000 steps/day). Across the two studies, the feasibility of integrating physical activity contingent features and privileges into online fantasy sports games was supported. Participants found the active fantasy sports game enjoyable, as or more enjoyable than traditional (sedentary) online fantasy sports (Study 1: t8=4.43, Pgame was cited as a key motivating factor for increasing physical activity. Preliminary evidence supports potential for the active fantasy sports system as a sustainable and scalable intervention for promoting adult physical activity.
Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R
We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.
Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D
Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea
This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Capital Market Activities on the Nigerian Economy. ... Others include the expansion of the stock market in terms of depth and breadth and the attraction of foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment into the Nigerian economic landscape. Keywords: Nigeria, Market ...
Minko M. Milev
Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis of the attitude of dental physicians, dental technicians, patients and students of dental technology, about the marketing communication in the work of dental technical laboratories. Material and Methods: The main study was conducted on the territory of Northeastern Bulgaria, using direct anonymous paper questionnaires in the period between April and July 2015. A total of 700 respondents were interviewed, distributed into four groups (dental physicians, dental technicians, students of dental technology and patients of dental laboratories. Results and Discussion: The study was designed to investigate the satisfaction with marketing communications among all participants in dental laboratory activities. Satisfaction of dental physicians with aspects of marketing communication of dental laboratories was 47,39% (n=127, and a negative answer was given from 22,76% (n = 61 of respondents. The majority of dental technicians (75,91%, n=104 were satisfied with aspects of marketing communication with dental clinics/dental physicians, while 29,85% (n = 80 weren’t satisfied. The study of the satisfaction with the communication among the students showed that 60,42% (n=116 of them were satisfied and lack of satisfaction with communication was reported by 1,56% (n=3 of the respondents. Among the studied patients, 81,55% (n=84 felt satisfied with the communication carried out at the dental clinics, and 8,74% (n = 9 among patients were not satisfied. Conclusion: The integrated communications may successfully achieve the goals of a given communication campaign by a well-coordinated utilisation of the different kinds of IMC instruments: advertising, public relations (PR, personal sales, sales promotions and others. The desired synergy is attained when all the IMC instruments are synchronised and mutually enhanced.
Integrated marketing communications represent the unification of organization's marketing and communication activities. Sports organizations have the emphasized need for effective communication with their environment (the public, the media, advertisers, sponsors, and other subjects interested in their offer). Elements of the integrated marketing communications are: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, public relations, direct marketing, Internet communications etc. Each ...
Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa
Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.
Adele Anna Teleman
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.
The IEA Clean Coal Centre, with its partners Fuel Consult GmbH (Germany), Glowny Instytut Gornictwa (Poland), Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia) and Stredisko Pro Efektivni Vyuzivani Energie O.P.S. (Czech Republic) is undertaking a promotion and dissemination project. This is supported with a financial grant from the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel under contract number RFC2-CT-2008-00006. The aim is to undertake an overall assessment of the competitiveness and environmental performance of coal to liquids technology from a European perspective. The major deliverable is this report, which comprises a review of CTL activities, worldwide and a consideration of possible future CTL R, D & D needs for Europe, building both on the global state of the art arising from work undertaken previously and the current worldwide activities including the planned and ongoing demonstration programmes in the USA and China respectively. This is complemented with comment on the capabilities and expertise in EU universities as well as EU industry should there be a need to implement larger-scale development and demonstration programmes and ultimately to build large CTL plant. Finally the benefits of seeking international cooperation on CTL R, D & D with stakeholders outside of Europe rather than limiting activities to EU member states is discussed. The information is being promoted and disseminated to all European stakeholders, in particular to those major coal- and oil shale-using member states, Poland, the Czech Republic and Estonia, in which there is significant potential for an uptake of CTL technology and where industry is now starting to reconsider the development of CTL processes.
Tanase, M.; Funayama, Y.; Tanaka, O.
Radiation Application Development Association (RADA) was established to promote the applications of radiation in 1968. Among the activities of RADA, we have five works directly to promote the application of radiation to the public. One of them is to publish a quarterly journal 'Radiation and Industries' which carries comprehensive articles on timely topics of radiation-based applications, patent information etc. And also RADA organizes the Radiation Process Symposium, which has been held every other year strictly, for exchange of information on radiation applications. The symposium started in 1985, where researchers and engineers in various and wide fields have been discussed on the radiation applications to industries. As the third, RADA distributes beautiful ornaments, which were produced by gamma-ray irradiation of crystals, glass and pearls, to promote better understanding of radiation. We also have taken charge of two businesses contracted with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). One is to hold seminars on radiation and nuclear energy for teachers of primary, junior high and senior high schools to enhance their understanding about radiation and nuclear energy, and to facilitate the use in their classrooms of such knowledge concerning energy, environment and their effects on our lives. The other is to facilitate the transfer of technologies of radiation application in the realms of industry, agriculture, medical treatment, etc. through dispatching of experts, releasing data on radiation applications, and organizing technical seminars. Recently, we arranged an opportunity to use neutrons from research reactors through trial experiments for transferring the technology to industries. (author)
Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines diffe...
Karafyllia, Maria; Zucchella, Antonella
The distinction between domestic and international market activities has an idiosyncratic meaning for international business research. This study examines the significant yet unclear role of domestic market activities for the internationalizing firm through the theoretical lens of exploitation and exploration. By means of five qualitative case studies, we show that both the dynamics between domestic-international market activities and the interplay between exploitation-exploration are intrins...
Alcohol consumption is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States, accounting for approximately 100,000 deaths annually. Efforts to reduce the adverse health and social consequences from alcohol use include policies to restrict access to alcohol among underaged persons (i.e., persons aged Point-of-purchase (POP) (i.e., on-site) marketing, including alcohol advertising and placement, can increase alcohol sales and consumption substantially, thereby increasing the risk for various alcohol-related health outcomes, including alcohol-impaired driving and interpersonal violence. To assess the type and frequency of POP alcohol marketing, researchers with the ImpacTeen Project collected and analyzed store observation data during 2000-2001 from 3,961 alcohol retailers in 329 communities throughout the United States. This report summarizes the results of the study, which indicate that POP alcohol marketing is extensive in certain store types frequented by teenagers and young adults. Public health agencies and policy makers should work with liquor control boards to reduce POP marketing that could promote risky or underage drinking.
Hunter, Roger W; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen
AND METHODS We recently generated knock-in mice in which wild-type muscle GS was replaced by a mutant (Arg582Ala) that could not be activated by glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), but possessed full catalytic activity and could still be activated normally by dephosphorylation. Muscles from GS knock-in or transgenic......-insensitive GS knock-in mice, although AICAR-stimulated AMPK activation, glucose transport, and total glucose utilization were normal. CONCLUSIONS We provide genetic evidence that AMPK activation promotes muscle glycogen accumulation by allosteric activation of GS through an increase in glucose uptake...
Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.
Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei
The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed
This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...
Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla
to understand sustainability in a corporate organisation working with materials and products for the fashion market (authors, 2016). Here the training cards translate these findings to become operationalised in the organisation as a communication tool. The training cards were developed as a methods-focused side...... project that followed a design project conducted by two fashion designers running from August to December 2016. Based on an existing collection of sustainable training cards used in teaching, a draft version of the cards was introduced to the designers in September 2016. In the following months interviews...... and in teaching sustainability in fashion and textiles design education. In the paper we want to discuss, why and how training cards can promote active learning and be used to obtain knowledge on chosen and often complex topics in a simplified manner. This will be based on our experiences with the developed...
Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang
Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.
Karadeniz, Mustafa; Eroğlu Pektaş, Güzide; Gözüyukarı, Mustafa
Marketing is the process of developing, pricing, promoting, and placing products, services, and ideas. The aim of social marketing is to inform the society and affect behavioural differences in individuals by using the mentioned marketing processes. In social marketing, the marketing concepts of profit and value mean the acceptance of a desired behaviour by the society. Social marketing can be used in many different areas such as promoting sportive activities, promoting life belt use, prevent...
Savescu Roxana Florenta
Full Text Available As they mature, microcredit organizations in Romania are becoming aware of the importance of marketing in their current activities. Although marketing interventions should be considered important on all types of markets, the reality is that micro-credit companies in Romania have a limited institutional capacity to develop and implement marketing programs. This implies that marketing efforts should be focused and marketing needs should be prioritized, according to the appropriate level of market development (developing markets, growth markets and mature markets. The paper presents the results of an exploratory marketing research study regarding the marketing activity performed by microfinance institutions in Romania. The purpose of the research was to identify courses of action to institutionalize marketing research in the current activity of the subjects analyzed. It has been our intention to give a very practical dimension to the recommendations regarding the marketing information useful for microcredit organizations and categories of marketing research needing to be conducted regularly, making them applicable within the specific Romanian environment. Given the fact that on a national level scientific concerns about microfinance in Romania, in general or about marketing in the field of microfinance in particular are almost nonexistent, this thesis can be regarded as an innovation. This conclusion comes both from the investigation of existing literature and from the author's interviews with managers of microfinance institutions who have argued that this was the first time when Romanian academic institutions got interested in this sector. Potential beneficiaries of the results of this study are: managers of microcredit organizations interested in the development and sustainability of the institutions they manage; various national and international organizations interested in designing technical assistance programs in the areas identified as being
Ackermann, T.; Andersson, G.; Soeder, L.
This paper presents and briefly evaluates some existing government instruments and market schemes which support the development of renewable energy generation. The brief evaluation focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: feed-in tariffs, net metering, bidding process, fixed quotas, green certificate trading, green power exchange, green pricing. (author)
Goodwin, Barry K.; Holt, Matthew T.; Prestemon, Jeffery P.
Price dynamics for North American oriented strand board (OSB) markets are examined. The role of transactions costs are explored vis-a-vis the law of one price. Weekly data, February 3rd, 1995 through October 9th, 2009, are used in the analysis. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating Time-Varying Smooth Transition Autoregressions (TV-STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity and structural change are important features of these markets; price...
The significance of this protest lies on how a group of "Ordinary" market women expressed their collective consciousness to oppose political chicanery and nihilism. This revolt was sparked-off by governments unilateral attempts to encroach upon women‟s traditional territory, the local market place and impose certain ...
Hiller, Sanne; Yalcin, Erdal
-concentration trade-off with a stochastic productivity evolution, we analyze the transition dynamics between domestic market serving, exporting and FDI. We find that a stochastic productivity development generates hysteresis, and thereby confirm a general real option result. Market serving mode switching is driven...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the basic elements of marketing (so called model 5P: product, price, distribution, promotion and staff as the main parts of marketing mix. It defines what can be an object of sale in terms of sport activity. Then, how the price is formed, what are the ways to sell the product, activity concerning product promotion as well as activity and service of the staff who are customer oriented.
Nebojša Maksimović; Radenko Matić; Svetlana Mihić
This paper analyses the basic elements of marketing (so called model 5P): product, price, distribution, promotion and staff as the main parts of marketing mix. It defines what can be an object of sale in terms of sport activity. Then, how the price is formed, what are the ways to sell the product, activity concerning product promotion as well as activity and service of the staff who are customer oriented.
Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom
To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.
This study, aimed at increasing the effectiveness and integration of the company’s marketing communications activities was conducted for the Höyhentämö (Pluckhouse) theatre organisation. The primary activities of Höyhentämö focus on producing contemporary theatre, dance and other performances. The objective of the research study is to find the most useful promotional tools for Höyhentämö that will enhance and improve awareness of their brand, thus resulting in brand recognition. The resea...
Olshefsky, Alisa M; Zive, Michelle M; Scolari, Rosana; Zuñiga, María
Increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in Latinos warrants effective social marketing messages to promote testing. The Tú No Me Conoces (You Don't Know Me) social marketing campaign promoted awareness of HIV risk and testing in Latinos living on the California-Mexico border. The 8-week campaign included Spanish-language radio, print media, a Web site, and a toll-free HIV-testing referral hotline. We documented an increase in HIV testing at partner clinics; 28% of testers who heard or saw an HIV advertisement specifically identified our campaign. Improved understanding of effective social marketing messages for HIV testing in the growing Latino border population is warranted.
John-Leader, Franklin; Van Beurden, Eric; Barnett, Lisa; Hughes, Karen; Newman, Beth; Sternberg, Jason; Dietrich, Uta
This paper describes a multimedia campaign implemented in rural New South Wales on a budget smaller than that typical of many published campaigns. The 'To Be Young at Heart - Stay Active Stay Independent' (SASI) campaign was one arm of a multi-strategic program to reduce falls among seniors by promoting physical activity. This 18-month campaign used social marketing techniques. Central to this campaign was strong formative research, significant use of corporate, community and media partnerships and a detailed, strategic distribution plan. Campaign reach was evaluated by a community intercept survey. A variety of high-quality information, education and communication (IEC) resources were developed. Overall, the campaign cost was calculated at USD 191,000. The actual cost of USD 42,000 (excluding staff time) was used to generate almost double this amount in sponsorship (USD 82,000). In the mid-campaign reach survey, 36% recognised the campaign and attributed this to television (58%), newspaper (33%), poster (13%) and bus-back advertising (8%). Of these respondents, 21% reported seeking information about physical activity, 33% reported increased intention to be more active, and 22% reported becoming more active as a result of the campaign. It is possible to develop and deliver a well-designed, multi-media campaign on a limited budget by using sound formative research and engaging community and corporate partners to generate sponsorship. An effective distribution strategy is crucial and may require additional partnerships at State or national level.
Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Che, Raymond; Yu, Herbert; Fei, Peiwen
Mutations in the human RecQ helicase, BLM, causes Bloom Syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and characterized by genomic instability and an increased risk of cancer. Fanconi Anemia (FA), resulting from mutations in any of the 19 known FA genes and those yet to be known, is also characterized by chromosomal instability and a high incidence of cancer. BLM helicase and FA proteins, therefore, may work in a common tumor-suppressor signaling pathway. To date, it remains largely unclear as to how BLM and FA proteins work concurrently in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we report that BLM is involved in the early activation of FA group D2 protein (FANCD2). We found that FANCD2 activation is substantially delayed and attenuated in crosslinking agent-treated cells harboring deficient Blm compared to similarly treated control cells with sufficient BLM. We also identified that the domain VI of BLM plays an essential role in promoting FANCD2 activation in cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, especially ultraviolet B. The similar biological effects performed by ΔVI-BLM and inactivated FANCD2 further confirm the relationship between BLM and FANCD2. Mutations within the domain VI of BLM detected in human cancer samples demonstrate the functional importance of this domain, suggesting human tumorigenicity resulting from mtBLM may be at least partly attributed to mitigated FANCD2 activation. Collectively, our data show a previously unknown regulatory liaison in advancing our understanding of how the cancer susceptibility gene products act in concert to maintain genome stability.
Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev
New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.
Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano
The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on
To coordinate an academic-library marketing effort effectively, a comprehensive plan is essential. A traditional marketing plan consists of four activities: determining what to promote, defining target audiences, choosing type of outreach, and evaluating program. Suggestions for promotional activities, forms of publicity, and examples from the…
Litt, Jill; Varda, Danielle; Reed, Hannah; Retrum, Jessica; Tabak, Rachel; Gustat, Jeanette; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy
We evaluated organization- and network-level factors that influence organizations' perceived success. This is important for managing interorganizational networks, which can mobilize communities to address complex health issues such as physical activity, and for achieving change. In 2011, we used structured interview and network survey data from 22 states in the United States to estimate multilevel random-intercept models to understand organization- and network-level factors that explain perceived network success. A total of 53 of 59 "whole networks" met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis (89.8%). Coordinators identified 559 organizations, with 3 to 12 organizations from each network taking the online survey (response rate = 69.7%; range = 33%-100%). Occupying a leadership position (P Organizations' perceptions of success can influence decisions about continuing involvement and investment in networks designed to promote environment and policy change for active living. Understanding these factors can help leaders manage complex networks that involve diverse memberships, varied interests, and competing community-level priorities.
Tom St Quinton
Full Text Available Non-conscious processes are important in influencing the performance of a number of behaviors, such as physical activity. One way that such processes can be influenced is through priming. Despite this, approaches within health psychology have predominantly focused on reflective processes with a number of psychological theories dedicated to identifying the predictors of intention. In doing so, critical beliefs and thoughts are first identified and then altered within interventions. Such work has shown limited effectiveness, however, with a gap apparent between what one intends to do and what subsequently ensues. Although there have been attempts to bridge this gap, such as theoretical integration, recent efforts include priming implicit processes. The aim of this commentary is to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of priming non-conscious processes and to suggest that the content of motivation should also succumb to priming influences. This brief review suggests that priming one of the most influential conscious processes, that of self-efficacy, could demonstrate particular effectiveness in promoting physical activity. Thus, the main purpose of the article is to suggest that the content of implicit processes as well their more traditional conscious counterparts may provide useful intervention targets. To achieve this, the article will first introduce the role of non-conscious processes and behavioral priming. Following this, the more common reflective processes will be outlined as well as attempts at theoretical integration. Finally, the article will identify studies priming non-conscious processes and will then suggest priming self-efficacy.
Lucidarme, Steffie; Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick
To define key factors of effective evidence-based policy implementation for physical activity promotion by use of a partnership approach. Using Parent and Harvey's model for sport and physical activity community-based partnerships, we defined determinants of implementation based on 13 face-to-face interviews with network organisations and 39 telephone interviews with partner organisations. Furthermore, two quantitative data-sets (n = 991 and n = 965) were used to measure implementation. In total, nine variables were found to influence implementation. Personal contact was the most powerful variable since its presence contributed to success while its absence led to a negative outcome. Four contributed directly to success: political motive, absence of a metropolis, high commitment and more qualified staff. Four others resulted in a less successful implementation: absence of positive merger effects, exposure motive and governance, and dispersed leadership. Community networks are a promising instrument for the implementation of evidence-based policies. However, determinants of both formation and management of partnerships influence the implementation success. During partnership formation, special attention should be given to partnership motives while social skills are of utmost importance for the management.
Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Bell, Robert A.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H.; Caccamo, Anthony F.; Slee, Christina K.; Cipri, Camille S.; Paterniti, Debora A.
Objectives Commercial advertising and patient education have separate theoretical underpinnings, approaches, and practitioners. This paper aims to describe a collaboration between academic researchers and a marketing firm working to produce demographically targeted public service anouncements (PSAs) designed to enhance depression care-seeking in primary care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of academic researcherss contracted with a marketing firm in Rochester, NY to produce PSAs that would help patients with depressive symptoms engage more effectively with their primary care physicians (PCPs). The researchers brought perspectives derived from clinical experience and the social sciences and conducted empirical research using focus groups, conjoint analysis, and a population-based survey. Results were shared with the marketing firm, which produced four PSA variants targeted to gender and socioeconomic position. Results There was no simple, one-to-one relationship between research results and the form, content, or style of the PSAs. Instead, empirical findings served as a springboard for discussion and kept the creative process tethered to the experiences, attitudes, and opinions of actual patients. Reflecting research findings highlighting patients’ struggles to recognize, label, and disclose depressive symptoms, the marketing firm generated communication objectives that emphasized: a) educating the patient to consider and investigate the possibility of depression; b) creating the belief that the PCP is interested in discussing depression and capable of offering helpful treatment; and c) modelling different ways of communicating with physicians about depression. Before production, PSA prototypes were vetted with additional focus groups. The winning prototype, “Faces,” involved a multi-ethnic montage of formerly depressed persons talking about how depression affected them and how they improved with treatment, punctuated by a physician who provided clinical
Kravitz, Richard L; Epstein, Ronald M; Bell, Robert A; Rochlen, Aaron B; Duberstein, Paul; Riby, Caroline H; Caccamo, Anthony F; Slee, Christina K; Cipri, Camille S; Paterniti, Debora A
Commercial advertising and patient education have separate theoretical underpinnings, approaches, and practitioners. This paper aims to describe a collaboration between academic researchers and a marketing firm working to produce demographically targeted public service anouncements (PSAs) designed to enhance depression care-seeking in primary care. An interdisciplinary group of academic researchers contracted with a marketing firm in Rochester, NY to produce PSAs that would help patients with depressive symptoms engage more effectively with their primary care physicians (PCPs). The researchers brought perspectives derived from clinical experience and the social sciences and conducted empirical research using focus groups, conjoint analysis, and a population-based survey. Results were shared with the marketing firm, which produced four PSA variants targeted to gender and socioeconomic position. There was no simple, one-to-one relationship between research results and the form, content, or style of the PSAs. Instead, empirical findings served as a springboard for discussion and kept the creative process tethered to the experiences, attitudes, and opinions of actual patients. Reflecting research findings highlighting patients' struggles to recognize, label, and disclose depressive symptoms, the marketing firm generated communication objectives that emphasized: (a) educating the patient to consider and investigate the possibility of depression; (b) creating the belief that the PCP is interested in discussing depression and capable of offering helpful treatment; and (c) modelling different ways of communicating with physicians about depression. Before production, PSA prototypes were vetted with additional focus groups. The winning prototype, "Faces," involved a multi-ethnic montage of formerly depressed persons talking about how depression affected them and how they improved with treatment, punctuated by a physician who provided clinical information. A member of the
Teppei Nagano; Eiko Ooka; Naohiko Baba
Transactions in the yen money markets have become active since the end of the quantitative easing policy (QEP) in March 2006. In particular, transactions by foreign financial institutions have been increasing in the offshore markets including the FX swap and euroyen deposit markets, as well as the domestic money markets. This Review surveys the spreads and hence the arbitrage relationship between those offshore markets and the domestic money markets. In the short-term money markets, the sprea...
Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.
This work presents a novel hourly-ahead profit model for an active distribution company (DISCO), a DISCO with high capacity level of connected DGs that can make selling proposals for the markets, in a pool-based system. The presented model engages DSICO in both energy producing and reserve providing activities. DISCO's earnings from reserve market include the remuneration both for real-time generation and ready-for-service capacity. To achieve the optimal decisions for an active DISCO in the energy and reserve markets, a two-stage optimization model and associated mathematical formulations have been developed. The first subproblem extracts a single operating profile (a lumped financial model) of the whole distribution system, including DGs and ILs, at the connecting point to the upstream network. The second one determines the optimal values of decision variables (power and reserve commodities) to maximize the DISCO's profit, in case such variables are accepted in the markets. In other words, it aims to optimally allocate the DISCO's generating capability for proposing into the energy and reserve markets, from the DISCO's perspective. It also proposes a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology for a multi-substation multi-feeder DISCO to increase DISCO's ability to gain more benefits from the market activities. It conducts DISCO's generating capabilities towards the proper substations to reap more probable benefits. It also introduces fast, simple, and straightforward algorithms for recognition and removal of configurations having loop and/or islanding parts in. Simulation results are given at the second part of the present work.
Shereef, R. M.; Khaparde, S. A.
In India, uniform price was assigned to renewable energy certificate (REC) irrespective of renewable energy (RE) type, technology, and location. Moreover REC price bands are higher than existing preferential tariff. There are distinct renewable purchase obligations (RPOs) specified for various RE types, whereas there is lack of efficient tools to check RPO compliance. Because of these reasons, REC market stabilisation is getting delayed. This paper proposes a method using plant performance multiplier to convert non-solar and solar REC to single equivalent REC with competitive REC pricing, which can be traded on unified REC market. The method combines solar and non-solar RPOs into a single composite RPO, to make RPO compliance and its checking simple and efficient. A sample illustration of the proposed method is given. The benefits offered by the proposed method in REC pricing, REC trading and RPO compliance are discussed. A comparative economic analysis of present and proposed method is reported.
K. Michael Cummings
Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.
Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D.; Li, Lin; Cummings, K. Michael
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions. PMID:21556189
Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael
Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.
Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry
To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Olimpia Oancea Ph.D Student; Victoria-Mihaela Brînzea Ph.D Student
Today we put great emphasis on the strategic importance of marketing communication, rather than seeing it as merely a tactical process of promoting the other elements of the marketing mix. Brands exist in the minds of customers not only through their experience of a product or service, but also because of the long-term effects of communication. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of marketing communications - as a strategic function - in the marketing activity of an organ...
Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…
Олег Владимирович ЛОГИНОВ
The main types of marketing activities and the main categories of the target audience are determined. Model's optimality criterion is the forecast of enrollment of students. Optimality criterion is based on the effectiveness of marketing activities, taking into account the specificity of the reaction of various categories of the target audience.
Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Ying-Xia; Zhang, Yingxia
HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of "risk". In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22-56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n = 15), commercial partners (n = 10), and other sexual relationships (n = 11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities.