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Sample records for markedly elevated plasma

  1. Marked elevation in plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO in patients with mitochondrial disorders treated with oral l-carnitine

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    H.D. Vallance

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral supplementation with l-carnitine is a common therapeutic modality for mitochondrial disorders despite limited evidence of efficacy. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of l-carnitine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO, is an independent and dose-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Given the limited data demonstrating efficacy with oral l-carnitine therapy and the newly raised questions of potential harm, we assessed plasma TMAO levels in patients with mitochondrial disease with and without oral l-carnitine supplementation. Nine subjects were recruited and completed the study. Eight out of 9 subjects at baseline had plasma TMAO concentrations <97.5th percentile (<15.5 μM. One subject with stage 3 renal disease, had marked elevation in plasma TMAO (pre 33.98 μm versus post 101.6 μm. Following at least 3 months of l-carnitine supplementation (1000 mg per day, plasma TMAO levels were markedly increased in 7out of 9 subjects; overall, plasma TMAO significantly increased 11.8-fold (p < 0.001 from a baseline median level of 3.54 μm (interquartile range (IQR 2.55–8.72 to 43.26 (IQR 23.99–56.04 post supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that chronic oral l-carnitine supplementation markedly increases plasma TMAO levels in subjects with mitochondrial disorders. Further studies to evaluate both the efficacy and long term safety of oral l-carnitine supplementation for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders are warranted. Keywords: l-carnitine, Trimethylamine N-oxide, Mitochondrial disorders

  2. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

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    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  3. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

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    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  4. Plasma apoAV levels are markedly elevated in severe hypertriglyceridemia and positively correlated with the APOA5 S19W polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, P.; Schaap, F.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Frants, R.R.; Tol, A. van; Hattori, H.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The recently discovered apoAV is hypothesized to affect triglyceride metabolism by stimulating the lipolysis of triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. We set out to determine the association between increased serum TG levels, plasma apoAV levels, and polymorphism of the APOA5 gene, with

  5. Plasma apoAV levels are markedly elevated in severe hypertriglyceridemia and positively correlated with the APOA5 S19W polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, Peter; Schaap, Frank G.; Havekes, Louis M.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Frants, Rune R.; van Tol, Arie; Hattori, Hiroaki; Smelt, August H. M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recently discovered apoAV is hypothesized to affect triglyceride metabolism by stimulating the lipolysis of triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. We set out to determine the association between increased serum TG levels, plasma apoAV levels, and polymorphism of the APOA5 gene, with

  6. Mass elevation and lee effects markedly lift the elevational distribution of ground beetles in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen.

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    Schmidt, Joachim; Böhner, Jürgen; Brandl, Roland; Opgenoorth, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Mass elevation and lee effects markedly influence snow lines and tree lines in high mountain systems. However, their impact on other phenomena or groups of organisms has not yet been quantified. Here we quantitatively studied their influence in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen on the distribution of ground beetles as model organisms, specifically whether the ground beetle distribution increases from the outer to the inner parts of the orogen, against latitudinal effects. We also tested whether July temperature and solar radiation are predictors of the beetle's elevational distribution ranges. Finally, we discussed the general importance of these effects for the distributional and evolutionary history of the biota of High Asia. We modelled spatially explicit estimates of variables characterizing temperature and solar radiation and correlated the variables with the respective lower elevational range of 118 species of ground beetles from 76 high-alpine locations. Both July temperature and solar radiation significantly positively correlated with the elevational ranges of high-alpine beetles. Against the latitudinal trend, the median elevation of the respective species distributions increased by 800 m from the Himalayan south face north to the Transhimalaya. Our results indicate that an increase in seasonal temperature due to mass elevation and lee effects substantially impact the regional distribution patterns of alpine ground beetles of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and are likely to affect also other soil biota there and in mountain ranges worldwide. Since these effects must have changed during orogenesis, their potential impact must be considered when biogeographic scenarios based on geological models are derived. As this has not been the practice, we believe that large biases likely exist in many paleoecological and evolutionary studies dealing with the biota from the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and mountain ranges worldwide.

  7. Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Hansen, J; Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance as observed with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the present study, we evaluated plasma follistatin in patients with type 2 diabetes characterised by low-grade inflammation and assessed the acute effects o...... of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and LPS on plasma follistatin....

  8. Elevated plasma chemokine CCL18/PARC in beta-thalassemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitriou, E.; Verhoek, M.; Altun, S.; Karabatsos, F.; Moraitou, M.; Youssef, J.; Boot, R.; Sarafidou, J.; Karagiorga, M.; Aerts, H.; Michelakakis, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma CCL18/PARC, a member of the CC chemokine family, has been found to be several ten-fold increased in symptomatic Gaucher type I patients. Elevated plasma chitotriosidase levels are a well-known abnormality in Gaucher patients, however, its diagnostic use is limited by the frequent genetic

  9. Eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome with markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein.

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    Hara, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwase, Takashi; Kadota, Muneyuki; Bando, Mika; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Niki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yuka; Tomita, Noriko; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with asthma visited our hospital with increasing dyspnea and new-onset paresthesia and purpura in her legs. Physical examination showed a wheeze, pretibial edema, and surrounding purpura. Chest X-rays showed cardiac decompensation and an electrocardiogram revealed a new ST-T change. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia (10,450/μL), troponin T(+), elevated BNP, and markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (> 150 ng/mL). Echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis (ejection fraction 30%) with increased wall thickness. Coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging implied diffuse myocardial edema and subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Skin biopsy of purpura showed superfi cial perivascular dermatitis with remarkable eosinophilic infiltrations. No evidence of drug allergies, parasitic infection, or myeloproliferative disorder was detected. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome was considered. She was administered prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide, and diuretics. Several markers of eosinophilic myocarditis and heart failure gradually improved, including ECP. She was discharged 30 days later with no cardiac event. Eosinophilic myocarditis is characterized by predominantly eosinophilic infi ltration. Eosinophilic granule proteins, such as ECP and major basic protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic myocarditis. We experienced a rare case of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome. Markedly elevated ECP played an important role in the early diagnosis and subsequent reduction in ECP served as a marker of monitoring. In an asthmatic patient with dyspnea, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome with eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered.

  10. Occipital lobe seizures related to marked elevation of hemoglobin A1C: report of two cases.

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    Hung, Wan-Ling; Hsieh, Peiyuan F; Lee, Yi-Chung; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2010-07-01

    Occipital lobe seizures caused by nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) have been reported in only a few cases and are not fully characterized. We report two cases of NKH-related occipital lobe seizures with high hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), epileptiform electroencephalograph (EEG) and MRI abnormalities. Both patients had moderate hyperglycemia (310-372 mg/dl) and mildly elevated serum osmolarity (295-304 mOsm/kg) but markedly elevated HbA1C (13.8-14.4%). One patient had a clinico-EEG seizure originating from the right occipital region during sleep. The other patient had an interictal epileptiform discharge consisting of unilateral occipital beta activity in sleep. None of the previously reported cases fulfilled the criteria of a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar (NKHH) state, or showed any interictal beta paroxysms, spikes, sharp waves, or spike/sharp-slow wave complexes. We suggest that prolonged exposure to uncontrolled hyperglycemia, as indicated by HbA1C, rather than an acute NKHH state is crucial in the development of this peculiar seizure. We also suggest clinicians look for the presence of interictal focal beta paroxysms in addition to the usual epileptiform discharges while reading the EEG of these patients. 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate is elevated in obesity.

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    Greg M Kowalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P, the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%, total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. CONCLUSION: We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance.

  12. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

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    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  13. Falsely Elevated Plasma Creatinine Due to an Immunoglobulin M Paraprotein.

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    McGill, Mitchell R; Vijayan, Anitha; Trulock, Elbert P; Witt, Chad A; Kohler, Giselle D; Scott, Mitchell G

    2016-11-01

    The most common method for measuring plasma creatinine is based on its reaction with picric acid. However, enzymatic methods are becoming more popular due to improved specificity. We present a case of falsely elevated plasma creatinine values obtained by an enzymatic method that turned out to be due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. A 63-year-old woman evaluated for lung transplantation had falsely increased plasma creatinine levels (1.54-1.71mg/dL; corresponding to estimated glomerular filtration rates of 32-36 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) as measured by the Roche Creatinine plus enzymatic assay when compared with the picric acid-based procedure and several other enzymatic methods, which gave plasma creatinine values of 0.7 to 0.8mg/dL. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an IgM κ light chain paraprotein. Removal of high-molecular-weight (>30kDa) proteins by ultrafiltration reduced the patient's plasma creatinine level by the Roche enzymatic method to 0.7mg/dL. Addition of the patient's immunoglobulin fraction to plasma from other patients with normal plasma creatinine levels resulted in values that were increased by 0.58 to 0.62mg/dL. Furthermore, removal of non-IgM immunoglobulins with protein G-coupled beads did not eliminate the interference from the patient's plasma. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that falsely elevated plasma creatinine values by the Roche enzymatic method can be due to an IgM paraprotein. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated plasma procalcitonin level predicts poor prognosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Asian elderly.

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    Dai, Junru; Xia, Bangbo; Wu, Xiaomiao

    Previous studies have focused on relationship between plasma procalcitonin level and myocardial infarction risk, but this relationship in Asian elderly has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of peripheral procalcitonin concentration (both immediate and average levels) with myocardial infarction prognosis in Asian elderly. A total of 400 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, 400 unstable angina patients and 400 controls were included. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were measured using commercially available kits. Each myocardial infarction patient received a standard therapy and a 12-month follow-up unless major adverse cardiac events occurred. On admission, plasma procalcitonin level was higher in myocardial infarction patients than in unstable angina patients and controls (p < .001). In the follow-up period, 142 myocardial infarction patients suffered from major adverse cardiac events, and other 258 myocardial infarction patients did not. Higher admission, peak and average plasma levels of procalcitonin in the first week after chest pain onset were associated with elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.18-1.99; HR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.99-3.52; HR: 2.36, 95%CI: 1.81-3.00). Plasma procalcitonin level had a positive linear correlation with plasma level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein on admission (r = 0.650, p < .001). In conclusion, peripheral concentration of procalcitonin (both immediate and average levels) might be an independent predictor for prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Prognostic significance of procalcitonin might be implicated in inflammation.

  15. Colour marking of transparent materials by laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Miyamoto, Iwao; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate colour marking of a transparent material using laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA) system. After the LIPAA process, metal thin film is deposited on the surface of the ablated groove. This feature is applied to RGB (red, green and blue) colour marking by using specific metal targets. The metal targets, for instance, are Pb 3 O 4 for red, Cr 2 O 3 for green and [Cu(C 32 H 15 ClN 8 )] for blue colour marking. Additionally, adhesion of the metal thin film deposited on the processed groove by various experimental conditions is investigated

  16. Interpretation of elevated plasma visfatin concentrations in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

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    Lu, Li-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Yu, Teng-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chin; Chiu, Cheng-An; Chung, Fu-Mei; Tsai, I-Ting; Yang, Chih-Ying; Cheng, Ya-Ai; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Visfatin is a cytokine that is expressed in many tissues, including the heart, and has been proposed to play a role in plaque destabilization leading to acute myocardial injury. The present study evaluates plasma levels of visfatin in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and examines the temporal changes in visfatin levels from the acute period to the subacute period to determine a correlation with the degree of myocardial ischemia. We evaluated 54 patients with STEMI. Circulating levels of visfatin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by ELISA. In addition, local expression of visfatin and BNP were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of left ventricular myocytes in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). Plasma levels of visfatin were significantly increased in patients with STEMI on admission, relative to controls (effort angina patients and individuals without coronary artery disease). The visfatin levels reached a peak 24h after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and then decreased toward the control range during the first week after PCI. The basal plasma visfatin levels were found to correlate with peak troponin-I, peak creatine kinase-MB, total white blood cell count, and BNP levels. Trend analyses confirmed that visfatin levels correlated with the number of diseased coronary arteries. Further, in MI mice, mRNA levels of visfatin and BNP were found to be higher than in sham-treated mice. IHC analysis showed that visfatin and BNP immunoreactivity was diffusely observable in left ventricular myocytes of the MI mice. This study indicates that plasma visfatin levels are significantly higher in STEMI patients and that these higher visfatin levels correlate with elevated levels of cardiac enzymes, suggesting that increased plasma visfatin may be closely related to the degree of myocardial damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

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    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of symptomatic nonneuronopathic (type 1) Gaucher patients (n = 64, median = 230.7nM, range 15.6-1035.2nM; normal (n = 28): median 1.3nM, range 0.8-2.7nM). The method developed for mass spectrometric quantification of plasma glucosylsphingosine is sensitive and robust. Plasma glucosylsphingosine levels correlate with established plasma markers of Gaucher cells, chitotriosidase (ρ = 0.66) and CCL18 (ρ = 0.40). Treatment of Gaucher disease patients by supplementing macrophages with mannose-receptor targeted recombinant glucocerebrosidase results in glucosylsphingosine reduction, similar to protein markers of Gaucher cells. Since macrophages prominently accumulate the lysoglycosphingolipid on glucocerebrosidase inactivation, Gaucher cells seem a major source of the elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine. Our findings show that plasma glucosylsphingosine can qualify as a biomarker for type 1 Gaucher disease, but that further investigations are warranted regarding its relationship with clinical manifestations of Gaucher disease. PMID:21868580

  18. Oxygen Plasma Modification of Poss-Coated Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, C. J.; Belcher, M. A.; Ghose, S.; Connell, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface energy of a material depends on both surface composition and topographic features. In an effort to modify the surface topography of Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film, organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis(dimethylsilyloxy)silsesquioxane (POSS), were spray-coated onto the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN surface. Prior to POSS application, the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film was activated by exposure to radio frequency (RF)-generated oxygen plasma. After POSS deposition and solvent evaporation, the films were exposed to various durations of RF-generated oxygen plasma to create a topographically rich surface. The modified films were characterized using optical microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The physical properties of the modified films will be presented.

  19. Determination of bench-mark elevations at Bethel Island and vicinity, Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties, California, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, J.C.; Ikehara, M.E.; McCaffrey, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Elevations of 49 bench marks in the southwestern part of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta were determined during October and November 1987. A total of 58 miles of level lines were run in the vicinity of Bethel Island and the community of Discovery Bay. The datum of these surveys is based on a National Geodetic Survey bench mark T934 situated on bedrock 10.5 mi east of Mount Diablo and near Marsh Creek Reservoir. The accuracy of these levels, based on National Geodetic Survey standards, was of first, second, and third order, depending on the various segments surveyed. Several bench marks were noted as possibly being stable, but most show evidence of instability. (USGS)

  20. Bilateral Ovarian Fibrothecoma Associated with Ascites, Bilateral Pleural Effusion, and Marked Elevated Serum CA-125

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    Védi André Serges Loué

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in the association of ovarian tumor, ascites, and hydrothorax with the significant elevated tumor marker CA-125. However, this association can be observed in a rare clinical and benign pathological entity, that is Demons-Meigs’ syndrome. Objective. To describe a rare case of Demons-Meigs' syndrome observed in our department. Methods. A black African woman of 35 years old, seventh gravida and fourth parous, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy for large bilateral ovarian masses associated with significant ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and particular highly elevated tumor marker CA-125 (1835 UI/mL in a pronounced general alteration condition. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful characterized by a complete remission of hydrothorax and ascites with normal level of CA-125 three months after tumor excision. Histology of both masses revealed a bilateral ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary, thus confirming the diagnosis of Demons-Meigs’ syndrome. Conclusion. The Demons-Meigs syndrome, although it strongly mimics the clinical picture of malignant metastatic ovarian cancer, remains a disease with benign prognosis after surgical tumor resection. This is a rare condition that must be known and recognized by practitioners to avoid unnecessary practices.

  1. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin are elevated in patients with Laron syndrome despite marked obesity.

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    Kanety, Hannah; Hemi, Rina; Ginsberg, Shira; Pariente, Clara; Yissachar, Eleanor; Barhod, Ehud; Funahashi, Tohru; Laron, Zvi

    2009-12-01

    Patients with Laron syndrome (LS; primary GH insensitivity) caused by molecular defects of the GH receptor gene, are characterized by dwarfism, profound obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the current study was to evaluate adiponectin levels in LS, as obesity is known to be associated with low adiponectin. We studied nine untreated LS adult patients (5 males, 4 females) and six girls with LS receiving once-daily treatment by IGF1. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels, adiponectin multimers distribution, and metabolic indices were analyzed in serum samples obtained during several years of follow-up. Adiponectin levels in the severely obese adult LS patients (percent body fat; females 61.0+/-2.5%, males 40.6+/-8.1%) were two- to three-fold higher than those reported for subjects of corresponding age, gender and degree of adiposity. Total adiponectin was significantly higher in females compared with males (21.4+/-3.5 vs 10.2+/-4.6 microg/ml, P<0.001). The elevated adiponectin in LS subjects was associated with an increased abundance of the HMW isoform, and positively correlated with body fat percentage (r=0.65, P=0.017) and leptin (r=0.65, P=0.012). There was no correlation between adiponectin levels (total and HMW) and the degree of insulin resistance in LS subjects or their blood lipids levels. Adiponectin was also high in young girls with LS (22.9+/-7.4 microg/ml) and did not change during long-term IGF1 replacement therapy. Adiponectin hypersecretion in LS, despite profound obesity, suggests that GH activity may negatively impact adiponectin secretion from adipocytes.

  2. Dust acoustic waves in complex plasmas at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Starostin, A.N.; Tkachenko, I.M.; Fortov, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    The bi-Yukawa effective interaction potential with different screening constants is employed to calculate dust static correlation functions in the hyper-netted chain approximation and to generalize the theory of dust acoustic waves within the non-perturbative moment approach complemented by hydrodynamic considerations. For the bi-Yukawa interaction potential the sound speed becomes significantly wavenumber-dependent, an additional soft diffusion-like mode is predicted, and the static dielectric function is shown to take negative values. The results can be applied to non-equilibrium dusty plasmas at elevated pressure. -- Highlights: ► Bi-Yukawa interaction potential of dust particles with different screening lengths. ► Dust static correlation functions in the hyper-netted chain approximation. ► The moment and hydrodynamic approaches are in a good agreement at weak non-ideality. ► The dust acoustic wave phase and group velocities depend on the wavenumber. ► The moment approach hints the appearance of the diffusion-like soft mode.

  3. MHD marking using the MSE polarimeter optics in ILW JET plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes Cortes, S.; Alves, D.; Baruzzo, M.; Bernardo, J.; Buratti, P.; Coelho, R.; Challis, C.; Chapman, I.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.C.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this communication we propose a novel diagnostic technique, which uses the collection optics of the JET Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic, to perform polarimetry marking of observed MHD in high temperature plasma regimes. To introduce the technique, first we will present measurements of the coherence between MSE polarimeter, electron cyclotron emission, and Mirnov coil signals aiming to show the feasibility of the method. The next step consists of measuring the amplitude fluctuation of the raw MSE polarimeter signals, for each MSE channel, following carefully the MHD frequency on Mirnov coil data spectrograms. A variety of experimental examples in JET ITER-Like Wall (ILW) plasmas are presented, providing an adequate picture and interpretation for the MSE optics polarimeter technique.

  4. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  5. Elevated plasma glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease: relation to phenotype, storage cell markers, and therapeutic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; van Dussen, Laura; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Overkleeft, Herman; Scheij, Saskia; Ghauharali, Karen; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Ferraz, Maria J.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Maas, Mario; Wijburg, Frits A.; Speijer, Dave; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Mistry, Pramod K.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leads to prominent glucosylceramide accumulation in lysosomes of tissue macrophages (Gaucher cells). Here we show glucosylsphingosine, the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, to be markedly increased in plasma of

  6. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, G; Heath, J L; Wabeck, C J; Owens, S L; Mench, J A

    1998-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers (Arbor Acres) were either 1) fed a diet containing corticosterone (CORT) prior to processing, 2) transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3) processed without either of the above treatments. Six crates of birds (10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment) were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time (ST), Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen (IQF) in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice (AOI) for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides (R-value), cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses. The IQF Biceps femoris samples were used for pH, R-value, color, and heme pigment analysis. Mean (+/- SEM) CORT concentrations were 12.9+/-2.57, 11.7+/-1.38 and 7.9+/-0.79 ng/mL, respectively, in the CORT, transported, and control groups. There were significant treatment by ST (P < 0.05) and ST (P < 0.001) effects on the R-value of IQF P. superficialis samples. The CORT group had the highest L* value (P < 0.01) and the lowest a* value (P < 0.06). There was also a significant main effect of ST on shear values (P < 0.05) of AOI P. superficialis samples, with the means higher at 4 h than at 20 min post-mortem. The R-value of IQF B. femoris samples was markedly influenced by treatment (P < 0.001) and ST (P < 0.001). The results indicate that artificially elevating circulating CORT concentrations results in lighter meat color in broilers.

  7. Elevated plasma homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fasting plasma glucose (p<0.01), tHcy (p<0.02), and triglyceride (p<0.03) were significantly higher in the diabetes group when compared with the corresponding control values. The plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 (p<0.05) were significantly reduced compared to the control values. The tHcy (p<0.01) was significantly ...

  8. Ahmed Versus Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Implantation in Patients With Markedly Elevated Intraocular Pressure (≥30 mm Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Arthur F; Moster, Marlene R; Patel, Neal S; Lee, Daniel; Dhami, Hermandeep; Pro, Michael J; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Glaucoma patients with markedly elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are at risk for developing severe hypotony-related complications. The goal of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) and the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant (BGI) in this patient population. Patients with preoperative IOP≥30 mm Hg were included. Outcome measures were: (1) surgical failure (IOP>21 mm Hg or glaucoma surgery, or loss of light perception) and (2) surgical complications. A total of 75 patients were included: 37 in the AGV group and 38 in the BGI group. The mean±SD follow-up was 2.3±1.6 years for the AGV group and 2.4±1.7 years for the BGI group (P=0.643). Mean preoperative IOP was 38.7±6.5 mm Hg for the AGV group and 40.8±7.6 mm Hg for the BGI group. At the last follow-up, 10 (27.0%) patients failed in the AGV group compared with 6 (15.8%) patients in the BGI group (P=0.379). The BGI group had higher rate of flat or shallow anterior chamber (n=4, 10%) compared with the AGV group (n=0, 0%) (P=0.043). Failure rates of AGV and BGI in patients with IOP≥30 mm Hg were comparable. There were more early hypotony-related complications in the BGI group; however, none were vision threatening. Both glaucoma drainage implants were effective in treating patients with uncontrolled glaucoma in an emergency setting.

  9. Clinical and angiographic profile of patients with markedly elevated coronary calcium scores (≥1000) detected by electron beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Shah, Rima; Senter, Shaun; Kason, Thomas T.; Haynie, Justin; Calvin, James E.; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Snell, R. Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and angiographic profile of patients with extremely high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS; ≥1000) by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT). Methods: All patients at Rush University Medical Center who had a calcium score ≥1000 and a coronary angiogram performed from 1997 to 2002 were identified using a prospectively collected database. The baseline demographics, symptom status, and degree of coronary stenosis by angiography and subsequent rate of coronary intervention were compared with that of patients with calcium scores <1000. Results: The clinical and angiographic profile of patients with severe coronary calcification, detected by EBCT, revealed that patients with scores ≥1000 had a significantly higher prevalence of coronary stenosis ≥50% compared with patients with scores <1000 (97% vs. 57%, P<.001). The group with CACS ≥1000 was more likely to be male (90% vs. 75%, P=.027) and was older (64±8 vs. 59±10, P=.001) compared with the group with less severe calcification. Although there was a significantly higher rate of luminal stenosis detected by coronary angiography in the cohort with CACS ≥1000, there was no difference in subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and utilization of intracoronary stents between the two groups. Conclusions: A markedly elevated coronary calcium score (≥1000) is correlated with increasing age and is associated with an increased likelihood of coronary stenosis ≥50%. However, the decision to perform coronary angiography in patients with severe coronary calcification should not be based solely on these findings, but should remain primarily dependent on the degree of ischemia detected by clinical and functional assessment

  10. Elevated Plasma Chemokines for Eosinophils in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders during Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA prominent pathological feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD is markedly greater eosinophilic infiltration than that seen in other demyelinating diseases, like multiple sclerosis (MS. Eosinophils express the chemokine receptor CCR3, which is activated by eotaxins (CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2, CCL26/eotaxin-3 and CCL13 [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-4]. Moreover, CCL13 is part of the chemokine set that activates CCR2. The present study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 and MCPs (CCL13, CCL2, CCL8, and CCL7 in patients with NMOSD during remission.MethodsHealthy controls (HC; n = 30 and patients with MS (n = 47 and NMOSD (n = 58 in remission were consecutively enrolled in this study between January 2016 and August 2017. Plasma CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL2, CCL8, CCL7, CCL13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interleukin (IL-1β levels were detected using the human cytokine multiplex assay.ResultsPlasma CCL13, CCL11, and CCL26 levels were all significantly higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC and patients with MS. No significant differences were found in the CCL13, CCL11, or CCL26 levels between patients with NMOSD receiving and not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, which stimulate the above chemokines, were higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC. There was no difference in CCL24 levels among the three groups. In most cases, the CCL7 levels were below the threshold value of the human cytokine multiplex assay, which is in line with other studies. Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed a positive association of CCL13 levels with the number of relapses after controlling gender, age, body mass index, and disease duration in patients with NMOSD.ConclusionThe study indicates that in NMOSD, the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α during remission stimulates eosinophilic chemoattractants such as

  11. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  12. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup

    2014-01-01

    be short-term regulated via changes in protein-protein interactions, incorporation into lipid rafts, and/or changes in steady-state turnover, which could result in changes in the diffusion behavior of AQP3. Thus we measured AQP3 diffusion coefficients upon stimulation with the AVP mimic forskolin to reveal...... if AQP3 could be short-term regulated by AVP. k-Space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS) analysis of time-lapse image sequences of basolateral enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AQP3 (AQP3-EGFP) revealed that the forskolin-mediated elevation of cAMP increased the diffusion coefficient by 58...

  13. Mutations in HNF1A Result in Marked Alterations of Plasma Glycan Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Novokmet, Mislav; Rudan, Igor; Gloyn, Anna L.; Hayward, Caroline; Adamczyk, Barbara; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Muzinic, Ana; Hassanali, Neelam; Pucic, Maja; Bennett, Amanda J.; Essafi, Abdelkader; Polasek, Ozren; Mughal, Saima A.; Redzic, Irma; Primorac, Dragan; Zgaga, Lina; Kolcic, Ivana; Hansen, Torben; Gasperikova, Daniela; Tjora, Erling; Strachan, Mark W.J.; Nielsen, Trine; Stanik, Juraj; Klimes, Iwar; Pedersen, Oluf B.; Njølstad, Pål R.; Wild, Sarah H.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Gornik, Olga; Wilson, James F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Harry; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Owen, Katharine R.; Lauc, Gordan; Wright, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma proteins and that glycan biomarkers could improve the efficiency of a diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY. In a pilot comparison of 33 subjects with HNF1A-MODY and 41 subjects with type 2 diabetes, 15 of 29 glycan measurements differed between the two groups. The DG9-glycan index, which is the ratio of fucosylated to nonfucosylated triantennary glycans, provided optimum discrimination in the pilot study and was examined further among additional subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 188), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 118), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 40), type 1 diabetes (n = 98), type 2 diabetes (n = 167), and nondiabetic controls (n = 98). The DG9-glycan index was markedly lower in HNF1A-MODY than in controls or other diabetes subtypes, offered good discrimination between HNF1A-MODY and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (C statistic ≥0.90), and enabled us to detect three previously undetected HNF1A mutations in patients with diabetes. In conclusion, glycan profiles are altered substantially in HNF1A-MODY, and the DG9-glycan index has potential clinical value as a diagnostic biomarker of HNF1A dysfunction. PMID:23274891

  14. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  15. Elevated plasma YKL-40, lipids and lipoproteins, and ischemic vascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically elevated YKL-40 is associated with elevated lipids and lipoproteins and with increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. METHODS: We conducted cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from...... the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (n=21 647), plasma lipids and lipoproteins (n=94 461), and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n=94 579). RESULTS: From 1977 to 2013, 3256 individuals developed ischemic stroke, 5629 ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 4183 myocardial infarction...

  16. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from proteinuric patients is elevated and remains unaffected by antiproteinuric treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, L; Laverman, GD; van Tol, A; Groen, AK; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    Background. Lipid derangements are assumed to contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in proteinuric patients. The impact of proteinuria on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is unknown. The first step in RCT, cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma, may be altered in proteinuria, consequent

  17. Transient plasma cobalamin elevation in patients with pneumonia - two case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Torp; Scheller, Rudolf; Nybo, Mads

    2018-01-01

    We report two cases of transient significantly elevated plasma cobalamin (B12) in geriatric patients acutely admitted with fever, increased C-reactive protein and X-ray verified pneumonia. Extensive diagnostic workup did not reveal kidney or liver disease, neither any signs of cancer. Furthermore...

  18. Elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in elderly patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Lee, S C

    2001-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia are linked to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has inhibitory effects on key processes in atherothrombosis. Although asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, is associated with atherosclerotic disease, there has been no report on association of ADMA with ischemic stroke. Here we investigated the relation of plasma ADMA, stroke, and homocyst(e)inemia in the elderly. Plasma ADMA and homocyst(e)ine concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ADMA than controls (1.85+/-1.32 vs. 0.93+/-0.32 micromol/l, P=0.0001). After adjustment for risk factors, elevated ADMA levels, above 90th percentile of normal controls (> or =1.43 micromol/l) was associated with stroke (OR=6.05, 95% CI; 2.77-13.3, P=0.02). ADMA plasma levels were positively correlated to homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.43, P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration > or =15.0 micromol/l) was a significant predictor of elevated ADMA level. Altogether, findings indicate that elevated ADMA concentrations are at increased risk for ischemic stroke in the elderly, and may account for increased risk of stroke in patients with hyperhomocyst(e)inemia.

  19. Corrosion caused by elevator and spider marks on CRA pipe: Comparison of conventional inserts and a new gripping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Corrosion-resistant alloys (CRA) are used to reduce corrosion damage to casing and tubing strings and prolong the life span of the well pipe. An analysis of various corrosion mechanisms shows that surface integrity is an important factor in corrosion prevention. Surface damage caused by inappropriate handling or conventional slip markings contribute directly to the development and propagation of corrosion. A newly developed gripping system distributes the load equally onto a large number of small peaks, minimizing the indentation of each single peak. The new gripping system does not damage the surface integrity of the pipe, virtually eliminating the corrosion potential.

  20. Destructive, granulating lesion in the temporal bone after elevated plasma homocysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonding, Per; Skriver, Elisabeth; Helin, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    lesion in the left temporal bone was discovered; repeated histologic examination only showed simple granulation tissue. After 6 months, a part of the bony cochlea was extruded. With approximately 8 months' delay and after the patient had had postoperative lung embolism, plasma homocysteine was found...... to be significantly elevated, a condition known as an independent risk factor for thromboembolic lesions. In the acquired form, it is most often caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin B cofactors. Accordingly, the patient was treated with folic acid, which rapidly normalized plasma homocysteine. Subsequently...

  1. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  2. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  3. Olympic boxing is associated with elevated levels of the neuronal protein tau in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Randall, Jeffrey; Wilson, David; Marcusson, Jan; Brisby, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if olympic (amateur) boxing is associated with elevation of brain injury biomarkers in peripheral blood compared to controls. Thirty olympic boxers competing in at least 47 bouts were compared to 25 controls. Blood was collected from the controls at one occasion and from the boxers within 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period of at least 14 days. Tau concentration in plasma was determined using a novel single molecule ELISA assay and S-100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and amyloid β 1-42 were determined using standard immunoassays. None of the boxers had been knocked-out during the bout. Plasma-tau was significantly increased in the boxers after a bout compared to controls (mean ± SD, 2.46 ± 5.10 vs. 0.79 ± 0.961 ng L(-1), p = 0.038). The other brain injury markers did not differ between the groups. Plasma-tau decreased significantly in the boxers after a resting period compared to after a bout (p = 0.030). Olympic boxing is associated with elevation of tau in plasma. The repetitive minimal head injury in boxing may lead to axonal injuries that can be diagnosed with a blood test.

  4. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-01-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid pho...

  5. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart......% confidence interval, 11%-30%) for ischemic stroke, 16% (8%-24%) for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 3% (-5%-11%) for myocardial infarction, and 7% (1%-12%) for ischemic heart disease. Interpretation: In the general population, elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic...... stroke and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, independent of plasma CRP levels. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:672-680...

  6. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-11-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid phosphatases tested from potato, wheat germ, milk, and bovine prostate did not show this degree of specificity. The plasma membrane activity also dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine histone at a much greater rate than did the other acid phosphatases. pH profiles for free O-phosphotyrosine and phosphotyrosine histone showed a shift toward physiological pH, indicating possible physiological significance. Phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation activity was nearly 10 times greater than that seen for phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation, and Km values were much lower for phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (0.5 microM vs. 10 microM). Fluoride and zinc significantly inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation. Vanadate, on the other hand, was a potent inhibitor of phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (50% inhibition at 0.5 microM) but not of phosphoserine histone. ATP stimulated phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (160-250%) but inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation (95%). These results suggest the existence of a highly specific phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase activity associated with the plasma membrane of human astrocytoma.

  7. Elevated plasma endothelin-1 and pulmonary arterial pressure in children exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2007-08-01

    Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O(3) that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 +/- 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O(3) levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Chronic exposure of children to PM(2.5) is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure.

  8. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. Methods We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 ± 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O3 levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chronic exposure of children to PM2.5 is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:17687455

  9. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Ohbuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient’s morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo, ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.

  10. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (Pmass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Mutations in HNF1A result in marked alterations of plasma glycan profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kattla, Jayesh J

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma...... proteins and that glycan biomarkers could improve the efficiency of a diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY. In a pilot comparison of 33 subjects with HNF1A-MODY and 41 subjects with type 2 diabetes, 15 of 29 glycan measurements differed between the two groups. The DG9-glycan index, which is the ratio of fucosylated...... to nonfucosylated triantennary glycans, provided optimum discrimination in the pilot study and was examined further among additional subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 188), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 118), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 40), type 1 diabetes (n = 98), type 2 diabetes (n = 167...

  12. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  13. Elevated plasma fibrinogen, psychological distress, antidepressant use, and hospitalization with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2013-01-01

    with depression in the general population. METHODS: We examined 73,367 20-100 year old men and women from two large population-based studies, the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured plasma fibrinogen and recorded symptoms of psychological distress, use......OBJECTIVES: Low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of depression. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory marker fibrinogen are associated with psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication, and with hospitalization...... of antidepressant medication, and hospitalization with depression in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, a stepwise increase in fibrinogen percentile categories was associated with a stepwise increase in risk of psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication...

  14. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Bosco, O; Mariano, F; Dondi, A E; Goffi, A; Spatola, T; Cuccurullo, A; Tizzani, P; Brondino, G; Stella, M; Montrucchio, G

    2009-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists. Circulating levels of TPO are increased in patients with sepsis and are mainly related to sepsis severity. To investigate the potential contribution of elevated TPO levels in platelet activation during burn injury complicated or not by sepsis. We studied 22 burned patients, 10 without and 12 with sepsis, and 10 healthy subjects. We measured plasma levels of TPO, as well as leukocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression. The priming activity of plasma from burned patients or healthy subjects on platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and the role of TPO in these effects were also studied in vitro. Burned patients without and with sepsis showed higher circulating TPO levels and increased monocyte-platelet binding compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, TPO levels, monocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression were significantly higher in burned patients with sepsis than in burned patients without sepsis. In vitro, plasma from burned patients without and with sepsis, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation, monocyte-platelet binding and platelet P-selectin expression. The effect of plasma from burned patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that of plasma from burned patients without sepsis. An inhibitor of TPO prevented the priming effect of plasma from burned patients. Increased TPO levels may enhance platelet activation during burn injury and sepsis, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure in these diseases.

  15. Elevated total plasma-adiponectin is stable over time in young women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syk, M; Ramklint, M; Fredriksson, R; Ekselius, L; Cunningham, J L

    2017-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated eating behaviour and present data suggest adipokines may regulate food intake. We investigated a possible association between BN and adipokine levels and hypothesized that plasma (P)-adiponectin would be elevated and P-leptin and P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio would be reduced in women with BN. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with a longitudinal arm for patients with BN. Plasma-adiponectin and leptin was measured in 148 female patients seeking psychiatric ambulatory care and 45 female controls. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with BN and the remaining with other affective and anxiety disorders. P-adiponectin and P-leptin levels were compared between patients with BN, patients without BN and controls. At follow-up 1-2years later, adipokines were reassessed in patients with BN and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess symptom severity. P-adiponectin was elevated in patients with BN at baseline and at follow-up when compared to patients without BN and controls (P<0.004 and <0.008 respectively). The difference remained significant after controlling for body mass index. P-adiponectin was correlated to symptom severity at follow-up in patients with BN without morbid obesity (ρ=0.72, P<0.04). P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio was significantly lower in patients with BN compared to controls (P<0.04) and P-leptin non-significantly lower. Findings indicate a stable elevation of P-adiponectin in women with BN. P-adiponectin at follow-up correlates to eating disorder symptom severity in patients without morbid obesity, indicating that P-adiponectin should be further investigated as a possible potential prognostic biomarker for BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

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    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  17. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...

  18. Clinical and immunohistochemical comparative study of the efficacy of carboxytherapy vs platelet-rich plasma in treatment of stretch marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodeib, Abeer A; Hassan, Ghada F R; Ragab, Marwa N M; Hasby, Eiman A

    2018-01-07

    Striae distensae are dermal scars with a linear atrophic depression. The exact origin of striae distensae remains unrevealed, but low expression of collagen and fibronectin genes in the affected tissue was found. Several treatment modalities have been proposed, yet no consistent modality is available. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of carboxytherapy vs platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of stretch marks. This study included 20 patients with striae alba. Every patient received treatment in the form of PRP injection in their right side (group A) and carboxytherapy session in their left side (group B) every 3-4 weeks for 4 sessions. Skin biopsies were taken before and after treatment, and they were subjected to fibronectin immunohistochemical stain. There was a significant improvement in striae alba in both groups after than before treatment. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards either percentage of improvement, response (grading scale), or patient satisfaction. The fibronectin-stained area was significantly higher in both groups after than before treatment, and it was significantly higher after treatment in group (B) than group (A). Both methods were safe and effective with minimal side effects. There was no significant difference between both methods of treatments. This was confirmed histopathologically by fibronectin expression which is found to be low in striae and increased significantly after treatment. But fibronectin expression was higher in group (B) than (A). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impact of elevated plasma serotonin on global gene expression of murine megakaryocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Mercado

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a biogenic amine that also acts as a mitogen and a developmental signal early in rodent embryogenesis. Genetic and pharmacological disruption of 5-HT signaling causes various diseases and disorders via mediating central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and serious abnormalities on a growing embryo. Today, neither the effective modulators on 5-HT signaling pathways nor the genes affected by 5-HT signal are well known yet.In an attempt to identify the genes altered by 5-HT signaling pathways, we analyzed the global gene expression via the Illumina array platform using the mouse WG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip containing 45,281 probe sets representing 30,854 genes in megakaryocytes isolated from mice infused with 5-HT or saline. We identified 723 differentially expressed genes of which 706 were induced and 17 were repressed by elevated plasma 5-HT.Hierarchical gene clustering analysis was utilized to represent relations between groups and clusters. Using gene ontology mining tools and canonical pathway analyses, we identified multiple biological pathways that are regulated by 5-HT: (i cytoskeletal remodeling, (ii G-protein signaling, (iii vesicular transport, and (iv apoptosis and survival. Our data encompass the first extensive genome-wide based profiling in the progenitors of platelets in response to 5-HT elevation in vivo.

  20. Elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine in schizophrenia: a guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 metabolic pathway abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoluwa Okusaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001 and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001 but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches.

  1. Immunological Roles of Elevated Plasma Levels of Matricellular Proteins in Japanese Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Shiratori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated matricellular proteins (MCPs, including osteopontin (OPN and galectin-9 (Gal-9, were observed in the plasma of patients with Manila-type tuberculosis (TB previously. Here, we quantified plasma OPN, Gal-9, and soluble CD44 (sCD44 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and another 29 cytokines by Luminex assay in 36 patients with pulmonary TB, six subjects with latent tuberculosis (LTBI, and 19 healthy controls (HCs from Japan for a better understanding of the roles of MCPs in TB. All TB subjects showed positive results of enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOTs. Spoligotyping showed that 20 out of 36 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strains belong to the Beijing type. The levels of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44 were higher in TB (positivity of 61.1%, 66.7%, and 63.9%, respectively than in the HCs. Positive correlations between OPN and Gal-9, between OPN and sCD44, and negative correlation between OPN and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response, between chest X-ray severity score of cavitary TB and ESAT-6-ELISPOT response were observed. Instead of OPN, Gal-9, and sCD44, cytokines G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-1RA levels were higher in Beijing MTB-infected patients. These findings suggest immunoregulatory, rather than inflammatory, effect of MCPs and can advance the understanding of the roles of MCPs in the context of TB pathology.

  2. Elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Diamond

    Full Text Available Primary graft dysfunction (PGD is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD.We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40% and 47 non-PGD subjects (59% received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03. The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02; there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (p = 0.9.Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

  3. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  4. Plasma ET-1 Concentrations are Elevated in Patients with Hypertension - Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Lu, Yong-Ping; Hasan, Ahmed Abdallah; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    A recent study revealed that global overexpression of ET-1 causes a slight reduction in systemic blood pressure. Moreover, heterozygous ET-1 knockout mice are hypertensive. The role of ET-1 in human hypertension was so far not addressed by a strict meta-analysis of published human clinical studies. We included studies published between January 1, 1990 and February 28, 2017. We included case control studies analyzing untreated essential hypertension or hypertensive patients where antihypertensive medication was discontinued for at least two weeks. Based on the principle of Cochrane systematic reviews, case control studies (CCSs) in PubMed (Medline) and Google Scholar designed to identify the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathophysiological of hypertension were screened. Review Manager Version 5.0 (Rev-Man 5.0) was applied for statistical analysis. Mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) were shown in inverse variance (IV) fixed-effects model or IV random-effects models. Eleven studies fulfilling our in- and exclusion criteria were eligible for this meta-analysis. These studies included 450 hypertensive patients and 328 controls. Our meta-analysis revealed that ET-1 plasma concentrations were higher in hypertensive patients as compared to the control patients [mean difference between groups 1.57 pg/mL, 95%CI [0.47∼2.68, P = 0.005]. These finding were driven by patients having systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure higher than 100 mmHg. This meta-analysis showed that hypertensive patients do have elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations. This finding is driven by those patients with high systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Given that the ET-1 gene did not appear in any of the whole genome association studies searching for hypertension associated gene loci, it is very likely that the elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations in hypertensive patients are secondary to hypertension and may reflect endothelial cell damage. © 2017 The

  5. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2012-01-01

    of these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR spectroscopy...... for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  6. Marked elevation in plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in patients with mitochondrial disorders treated with oral l-carnitine

    OpenAIRE

    H.D. Vallance; A. Koochin; J. Branov; A. Rosen-Heath; T. Bosdet; Z. Wang; S.L. Hazen; G. Horvath

    2018-01-01

    Oral supplementation with l-carnitine is a common therapeutic modality for mitochondrial disorders despite limited evidence of efficacy. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of l-carnitine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), is an independent and dose-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the limited data demonstrating efficacy with oral l-carnitine therapy and the newly raised questions of potential harm, we assessed pla...

  7. Elevated plasma factor VIII enhances venous thrombus formation in rabbits: contribution of factor XI, von Willebrand factor and tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Iwakiri, Takashi; Okuyama, Nozomi; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Inoue, Osamu; Harada, Aya; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shima, Midori; Asada, Yujiro

    2013-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factor VIII (FVIII) are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate how elevated FVIII levels affect venous thrombus formation and propagation in vivo. We examined rabbit plasma FVIII activity, plasma thrombin generation, whole blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity before and one hour after an intravenous infusion of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII). Venous thrombus induced by the endothelial denudation of rabbit jugular veins was histologically assessed. Thrombus propagation was evaluated as indocyanine green fluorescence intensity. Argatroban, a thrombin inhibitor, and neutralised antibodies for tissue factor (TF), factor XI (FXI), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were infused before or after thrombus induction to investigate their effects on venous thrombus formation or propagation. Recombinant FVIII (100 IU/kg) increased rabbit plasma FVIII activity two-fold and significantly enhanced whole blood coagulation and total plasma thrombin generation, but did not affect initial thrombin generation time, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity. The rFVIII infusion also increased the size of venous thrombus 1 hour after thrombus induction. Argatroban and the antibodies for TF, FXI or VWF inhibited such enhanced thrombus formation and all except TF suppressed thrombus propagation. In conclusion, elevated plasma FVIII levels enhance venous thrombus formation and propagation. Excess thrombin generation by FXI and VWF-mediated FVIII recruitment appear to contribute to the growth of FVIII-driven venous thrombus.

  8. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  9. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

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    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  10. Elevation of plasma milrinone concentrations in stage D heart failure associated with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Zachary L; Calcutt, Marion W; Morrison, Thomas B; Akers, Wendell S; Davis, Mary Beth; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    To determine steady state milrinone concentrations in patients with stage D heart failure (HF) with and without renal dysfunction We retrospectively identified patients with stage D HF at a single medical center on continuous milrinonein fusion at the time of plasma collection for entry into a research registry database. Milrinone was prescribed and titrated to improve hemodynamic and clinical status by a cardiologist. Plasma samples were obtained at steady state milrinone concentrations. Patients were stratified by creatinine clearance (CrCl) into 4 groups: group 1 (CrCl >60 mL/min), group 2 (CrCl 60-30 mL/min), group 3 (CrCl milrinone hemodynamic changes by cardiac catheterization and electrophysiologic changes by implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. A total of 29 patients were identified: group 1 (n=14), group 2 (n=10), group 3(n=3), and group 4 (n = 2). The mean infusion rate (0.391+0.08 mg/kg/min) did not differ between groups (P=0.14). The mean milrinone concentration was 451+243 ng/mL in group 1, 591+293 ng/mL in group 2, 1575+962 ng/mL in group 3, and 6252+4409 ng/mL in group 4 (Pmilrinone hemodynamic improvements between the groups (P=0.41). The ICD interrogation revealed limited comparisons, but 6 of the 8 post milrinone ventricular tachycardia episodes requiring defibrillation occurred in group 4 patients. Patients with stage D HF having severe renal dysfunction have elevated milrinone concentrations. Future studies of milrinone concentrations are warranted to investigate the potential risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and potential dosing regimens in renal dysfunction.

  11. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  12. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Elevated uptake of plasma macromolecules by regions of arterial wall predisposed to plaque instability in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohri

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where plaques of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing plaque rupture.

  14. Effects of gap and elevated pressure on ethanol reforming in a non-thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Trung Q; Zhu Xinli; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles, mobile power generators and for hydrogen-enhanced combustion from ethanol is demonstrated using energy-efficient non-thermal plasma reforming. A tubular reactor with a multipoint electrode system operated in pulsed mode was used. Complete conversion can be achieved with high selectivity (based on ethanol) of H 2 and CO of 111% and 78%, respectively, at atmospheric pressure. An elevated pressure of 15 psig shows improvement of selectivity of H 2 and CO to 120% and 87%, with a significant reduction of C 2 H x side products. H 2 selectivity increased to 127% when a high ratio (29.2) of water-to-ethanol feed was used. Increasing CO 2 selectivity is observed at higher water-to-ethanol ratios indicating that the water gas shift reaction occurs. A higher productivity and lower C 2 H x products were observed at larger gas gaps. The highest overall energy efficiency achieved, including electrical power consumption, was 82% for all products or 66% for H 2 only.

  15. Elevated Plasma IL-38 Concentrations in Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Their Dynamics after Reperfusion Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yucheng; Yu, Kunwu; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoya; Ji, Qingwei; Zeng, Qiutang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that IL-38 is associated with autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, IL-38 is expressed in human atheromatous plaque. However, the plasma levels of IL-38 in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have not yet to be investigated. On admission, at 24 h, at 48 h, and at 7 days, plasma IL-38, C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin I (cTNI), and N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured and IL-38 gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was detected in STEMI patients. The results showed that plasma IL-38 levels and IL-38 gene expression in PBMCs were significantly increased in STEMI patients compared with control group and were time dependent, peaked at 24 h. In addition, plasma IL-38 levels were dramatically reduced in patients with reperfusion treatment compared with control group. Similar results were also demonstrated with CRP, cTNI, and NT-proBNP levels. Furthermore, IL-38 levels were found to be positively correlated with CRP, cTNI, and NT-proBNP and be weakly negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in STEMI patients. The results indicate that circulating IL-38 is a potentially novel biomarker for patients with STEMI and IL-38 might be a new target for MI study.

  16. Plasma chitinase 3-like 1 is persistently elevated during first month after minimally invasive colorectal cancer resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HMC Shantha Kumara; David Gaita; Hiromichi Miyagaki; Xiaohong Yan; Sonali AC Hearth; Linda Njoh; Vesna Cekic; Richard L Whelan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess blood chitinase 3-like 1(CHi3L1) levels for 2 mo after minimally invasive colorectal resection(MICR) for colorectal cancer(CRC). METHODS: CRC patients in an Institutional Review Board approved data/plasma bank who underwent elective MICR for whom preoperative(PreO p), early postoperative(PostO p), and 1 or more late PostO p samples [postoperative day(POD) 7-27] available were included. Plasma CHi3L1 levels(ng/m L) were determined in duplicate by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: PreOp and PostOp plasma sample were available for 80 MICR cancer patients for the study. The median PreOp CHi3L1 level was 56.8 CI: 41.9-78.6 ng/mL(n = 80). Significantly elevated(P < 0.001) median plasma levels(ng/mL) over PreOp levels were detected on POD1(667.7 CI: 495.7, 771.7; n = 79), POD 3(132.6 CI: 95.5, 173.7; n = 76), POD7-13(96.4 CI: 67.7, 136.9; n = 62), POD14-20(101.4 CI: 80.7, 287.4; n = 22), and POD 21-27(98.1 CI: 66.8, 137.4; n = 20, P = 0.001). No significant difference in plasma levels were noted on POD27-41. CONCLUSION: Plasma CHi3L1 levels were significantly elevated for one month after MICR. Persistently elevated plasma CHi3L1 may support the growth of residual tumor and metastasis.

  17. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral sinus elevation evaluating plasma rich in growth factors technology: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Orive, Gorka

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology and its autologous formulations in five consecutive patients in which bilateral sinus lift augmentation was carried out. Five consecutive patients received bilateral sinus floor augmentation. All patients presented a residual bone height of class D (1-3 mm). The effects of PRGF combined with bovine anorganic bone (one side) were compared with the biomaterial alone (contralateral side). The effects of using liquid PRGF to maintain the bone window and autologous fibrin membrane to seal the defect were evaluated. A complete histological and histomorphometrical analysis was performed 5 months after surgery. One patient was excluded from the study as the Schneiderian membrane of the control side was perforated during the surgery. In two patients, the biopsies obtained from the control sides 5 months postsurgery were not acceptable for processing. PRGF technology facilitated the surgical approach of sinus floor elevation. The control area was more inflamed than the area treated with PRGF technology. Patients referred also to an increased sensation of pain in the control area. PRGF-treated samples had more new vital bone than controls. In patient number 1, image processing revealed 21.4% new vital bone in the PRGF area versus 8.4% in the control area, whereas in patient number 2, 28.4% new vital bone was quantified in the PRGF area compared with the 8.2% of the control side. The immunohistochemical processing of the biopsies revealed that the number of blood vessels per square millimeter of connective tissue was 116 vessels in the PRGF sample versus 7 in the control biopsy. These preliminary results suggest that from a practical point of view, PRGF may present a role in reducing tissue inflammation after surgery, increasing new bone formation and promoting the vascularization of bone tissue. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Caloric Restriction and Exercise Increase Plasma ANGPTL4 Levels in Humans via Elevated Free Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  20. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  1. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  2. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  3. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  4. Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Furumoto, Tomoo; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to cardiovascular events, but its role in subclinical coronary microvascular dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, in the present study it was investigated whether elevated plasma PAI-1 activity is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Thirty patients with untreated essential hypertension and 10 age-matched healthy controls were studied prospectively. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography. Clinical variables associated with atherosclerosis (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and PAI-1 activity) were assessed to determine their involvement in coronary microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced hyperemic MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in healthy controls (ATP-induced MBF: 2.77±0.82 vs 3.49±0.71 ml·g -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.02 and CFR: 2.95±1.06 vs 4.25±0.69; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, CFR was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.46, p<0.02), and inversely with HOMA-IR (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and PAI-1 activity (r=-0.61, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated PAI-1 activity remained a significant independent determinant of diminished CFR. Elevated plasma PAI-1 activity was independently associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which suggests that plasma PAI-1 activity is an important clue linking hypofibrinolysis to the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  5. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.; Dahlhoff, C.; Giesbertz, P.; Eidens, M.K.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Müller, M.R.; Daniel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Article About the Authors Metrics Comments Related Content Abstract Introduction Results Discussion Materials and Methods Supporting Information Acknowledgments Author Contributions References Reader Comments (0) Figures Abstract In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino

  6. The hormesis effect of plasma-elevated intracellular ROS on HaCaT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Harding, Frances J.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Herrmann, Franziska; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Short, Robert D.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the link between ionized-gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and cell fate, defined in terms of cell viability versus death. Phospholipid vesicles were used as cell mimics to measure the possible intracellular ROS concentration, [ROSi], delivered by various plasma treatments. Cells were exposed to a helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet for different plasma exposure times (5-60 s) and gas flow rates (50-1000 ml min-1). Based upon the [ROSi] data we argue that plasma-generated ROS in the cell culture medium can readily diffuse into real cells. Plasma exposure that equated to an [ROSi] in the range of 3.81  ×  10-10-9.47  ×  10-8 M, measured at 1 h after the plasma exposure, resulted in increased cell viability at 72 h; whereas a higher [ROSi] at 1 h decreased cell viability after 72 h of culture. This may be because of the manner in which the ROS are delivered by the plasma: HaCaT cells better tolerate a low ROS flux over an extended plasma exposure period of 1 min, compared to a high flux delivered in a few seconds, although the final [ROSi] may be the same. Our results suggest that plasma stimulation of HaCaT cells follows the principle of hormesis.

  7. Plasma Concentration of Biomarkers Reflecting Endothelial Cell- and Glycocalyx Damage are Increased in Patients with Suspected St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydland, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients developing cardiogenic shock (CS) during hospitalization is high. Catecholamines, ischemia, and inflammation (parameters present in CS) affect the endothelium. We hypothesized that plasma level of biomarkers reflecting e...

  8. Plasma ET-1 Concentrations Are Elevated in Pregnant Women with Hypertension -Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ping Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The ET system might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The objective is to analyse the impact of ET-1 in hypertensive pregnant women by a strict meta-analysis of published human clinical studies. Methods: Based on the principle of Cochrane systematic reviews, Cohort studies in PubMed (Medline, Google Scholar and China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc designed to identify the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were screened. Review Manager Version 5.0 (Rev-Man 5.0 was applied for statistical analysis. Mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI were shown in inverse variance (IV fixed-effects model or IV random-effects model. Results: Sixteen published cohort studies including 1739 hypertensive cases and 409 controls were used in the meta-analysis. ET-1 plasma concentrations were higher in hypertensive pregnant women as compared to the controls (mean difference between groups: 19.02 [15.60~22.44], P < 0.00001,. These finding were driven by severity of hypertension and/or degree of proteinuria. Conclusion: Plasma ET-1 concentrations are elevated in hypertensive disorders during human pregnancy. In particular women with preeclampsia (hypertensive pregnant women with proteinuria have substantially elevated plasma ET-1 concentration as compared to pregnant women with normal blood pressure.

  9. Dynamic load balancing in a concurrent plasma PIC code on the JPL/Caltech Mark III hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Leaver, E.W.; Decyk, V.K.; Dawson, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing has been implemented in a concurrent one-dimensional electromagnetic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code using a method which adds very little overhead to the parallel code. In PIC codes, the orbits of many interacting plasma electrons and ions are followed as an initial value problem as the particles move in electromagnetic fields calculated self-consistently from the particle motions. The code was implemented using the GCPIC algorithm in which the particles are divided among processors by partitioning the spatial domain of the simulation. The problem is load-balanced by partitioning the spatial domain so that each partition has approximately the same number of particles. During the simulation, the partitions are dynamically recreated as the spatial distribution of the particles changes in order to maintain processor load balance

  10. Delayed radiation-induced inflammation accompanying a marked carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation in a patient with resected pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Cardinal, Jon S.; Jacobson, Geraldine M. [West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a useful tumor marker for pancreatic cancer, it can also become elevated from a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Herein we describe an unusual presentation of elevated CA 19-9 in an asymptomatic patient who had previously undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for resected early stage pancreatic cancer. The rise in CA 19-9 might be due to delayed radiation-induced inflammation related to previous intra-abdominal radiation therapy with or without radiation recall induced by gemcitabine. After treatment with corticosteroids the CA 19-9 level decreased to normal, and the patient has not developed any evidence of recurrent cancer to date.

  11. Design and numerical simulation of a 3-D electron plasma analyzer that resolves both energy and elevation angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.A.; Sablik, M.J.; Winningham, J.D.; Frahm, R.A.; Reiff, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF) will include, as one of its complement of thirteen scientific instruments, a plasma electron analyzer capable of providing 3-dimensional measurements of the energy and angular distribution of electrons in the solar wind, asteroidal and cometary environments. After initial instrument selection, mission planners at JPL suggested that an instrument capable of performing angular scanning electronically rather than mechanically be investigated. This paper describes the computer design of the new CRAF plasma electron detector, consisting of an electronic scanning component, called the 'elevation analyzer', and an energy analyzing component based on the Soft Particle Spectrometer (SPS) and its successor, the Spectrographic Particle Imager (SPI). Numerical simulation of each component's operation - consisting of ray-tracing particles through the electrostatic field of each analyzer and collecting statistics on those particles successfully transmitted - is used to determine the energy and angular response functions of each component and the design dimensions that optimize these responses. (orig.)

  12. Elevated prostaglandin E metabolites and abnormal plasma fatty acids at baseline in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael Glenn; Thomsen, Kelly; Brown, Rebekah F; Laposata, Michael; Seegmiller, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels. Patients with CF age 6-18 years with pancreatic insufficiency were recruited. Each participant completed 3 four-week study periods: DHA at two different doses (high dose and low dose) and placebo with a minimum 4 week wash-out between each period. Blood, urine, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were collected at baseline and after each study period for measurement of plasma fatty acids as well as prostaglandin E metabolites. Seventeen participants were enrolled, and 12 participants completed all 3 study periods. Overall, DHA supplementation was well tolerated without significant adverse events. There was a significant increase in plasma DHA levels with supplementation, but no significant change in arachidonic acid (AA) or LA levels. However, at baseline, AA levels were lower and LA levels were higher than previously reported for individuals with CF. Urine PGE-M levels were elevated in the majority of participants at baseline, and while levels decreased with DHA supplementation, they also decreased with placebo. Urine PGE-M levels are elevated at baseline in this cohort of pediatric CF patients, but there was no significant change in these levels with DHA supplementation compared to placebo. In addition, baseline plasma fatty acid levels for this cohort showed some difference to prior reports, including higher levels of LA and lower levels of AA, which may reflect changes in clinical care, and consequently warrants further

  13. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  14. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-01-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  15. Risk of Dementia Associated with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine in a Latin American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara J. Chacón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy and dementia risk remains controversial, as the association varies among populations and dementia subtypes. We studied a Venezuelan population that has high prevalence of both elevated tHcy and dementia. We tested the hypotheses that (1 elevated tHcy is associated with increased dementia risk, (2 the risk is greater for vascular dementia (VaD than for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and (3 a history of stroke may partly explain this association. 2100 participants (≥55 years old of the Maracaibo Aging Study underwent standardized neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular assessments. Elevated tHcy was significantly associated with dementia, primarily VaD. When history of stroke and other confounding factors were taken into account, elevated tHcy remained a significant risk factor in older (>66 years, but not in younger (55–66 years subjects. Ongoing studies of this population may provide insight into the mechanism by which tHcy increases risk for dementia.

  16. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; Peri, Giuseppe; Setiati, Tatty E.; Hack, C. Erik; Koraka, Penelopie; Soemantri, Augustinus; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Mantovani, Alberto; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  17. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  18. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  19. The plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 are elevated in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wang, Jianye; Wang, Haiyu; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, which is critical to normal tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. In patients with endometriosis, increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 have been observed in ectopic endometrium, but the plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis and their relation to disease severity have not been clear. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma and peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Jinan Military General Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Fifty patients with proven endometriosis and 26 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with endometriosis were evaluated and divided into moderate/severe endometriosis group (stage I-II, n = 26) and minimal/mild endometriosis group (stage III-IV, n = 24) according to the revised criteria of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Blood samples and peritoneal fluid were obtained from both patients and controls. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma and peritoneal fluid. The concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 between different groups was compared and its correlation to disease severity was analysed. Plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis were higher than that in controls. In addition, those patients with moderate/severe endometriosis had significantly higher plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to those with minimal/mild endometriosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid were both positively correlated with severity of endometriosis and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9

  20. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  1. Gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast: a previously unrecognized role for CYP2C8 in the metabolism of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonen, T; Filppula, A; Laitila, J; Niemi, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T

    2010-08-01

    According to available information, montelukast is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C9. In order to study the significance of CYP2C8 in the pharmacokinetics of montelukast, 10 healthy subjects were administered gemfibrozil 600 mg or placebo twice daily for 3 days, and 10 mg montelukast on day 3, in a randomized, crossover study. Gemfibrozil increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-infinity), peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of montelukast 4.5-fold, 1.5-fold, and 3.0-fold, respectively (P gemfibrozil, the time to reach C(max) (t(max)) of the montelukast metabolite M6 was prolonged threefold (P = 0.005), its AUC(0-7) was reduced by 40% (P = 0.027), and the AUC(0-24) of the secondary metabolite M4 was reduced by >90% (P gemfibrozil 1-O-beta glucuronide inhibited the formation of M6 (but not of M5) from montelukast 35-fold more potently than did gemfibrozil (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) 3.0 and 107 micromol/l, respectively). In conclusion, gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast, indicating that CYP2C8 is crucial in the elimination of montelukast.

  2. Anorectic response to the trichothecene T-2 toxin correspond to plasma elevations of the satiety hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and peptide YY3-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kun; Zhang, Hua; Yue, Jianming; Gu, Wei; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Haibin; Wu, Wenda

    2018-04-22

    T-2 toxin, a potent type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by various Fusarium species and can negatively impact animal and human health. Although anorexia induction is a common hallmark of T-2 toxin-induced toxicity, the underlying mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and Peptide YY 3-36 (PYY 3-36 ) in anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Elevations of plasma GIP and PYY 3-36 markedly corresponded to anorexia induction following oral exposure to T-2 toxin using a nocturnal mouse anorexia model. Direct administration of exogenous GIP and PYY 3-36 similarly induced anorectic responses. Furthermore, the GIP receptor antagonist Pro3GIP dose-dependently attenuated both GIP- and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. Pretreatment with NPY2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 induced a dose-dependent attenuation of both PYY 3-36 - and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. To summarize, these findings suggest that both GIP and PYY 3-36 might be critical mediators of anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    patients without a plasma Cbl measurement. Patients treated with Cbl were excluded. Survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Mortality risk ratios (MRR) were computed using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, cancer stage and comorbidity, scored...

  4. Elevated levels of IL-18 in plasma and skeletal muscle in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A M W; Penkowa, M; Iversen, M

    2007-01-01

    COPD [12 women, 66 +/- 9.4 years of age and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 32% +/- 12 % of predicted value] and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (10 nonsymptomatic smokers and 10 nonsmokers) were included in the study. Plasma levels of IL-18 were...

  5. Elevated plasma fibrinogen associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant fibrinogen correlate with pulmonary function and rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalization. We measured plasma fibrinogen and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), and assessed prospectively COPD...

  6. Elevated HbA1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Predicting Diabetes Incidence Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Kasia J.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Gill, Thomas M.; Kanaya, Alka; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Koster, Annemarie; Johnson, Karen C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara; De Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which measures—impaired fasting glucose (IFG), elevated HbA1c, or both—best predict incident diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we selected individuals without diabetes, and we defined IFG (100–125 mg/dL) and elevated HbA1c (5.7–6.4%) per American Diabetes Association guidelines. Incident diabetes was based on self-report, use of antihyperglycemic medicines, or HbA1c ≥6.5% during 7 years of follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, site, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, and physical activity. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for models with IFG and with both IFG and elevated HbA1c. RESULTS Among 1,690 adults (mean age 76.5, 46% men, 32% black), 183 (10.8%) developed diabetes over 7 years. Adjusted odds ratios of diabetes were 6.2 (95% CI 4.4–8.8) in those with IFG (versus those with fasting plasma glucose [FPG] HbA1c (versus those with HbA1c HbA1c were considered together, odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.3) in those with IFG only, 8.0 (4.8–13.2) in those with elevated HbA1c only, and 26.2 (16.3–42.1) in those with both IFG and elevated HbA1c (versus those with normal FPG and HbA1c). Addition of elevated HbA1c to the model with IFG resulted in improved discrimination and calibration. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with both IFG and elevated HbA1c have a substantially increased odds of developing diabetes over 7 years. Combined screening with FPG and HbA1c may identify older adults at very high risk for diabetes. PMID:24135387

  7. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  8. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    ) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk......BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... adequately examined. METHODS: We conducted this cohort study using population-based Danish medical registries. Patients referred for Cbl measurement with levels greater than the lower reference limit (≥200 pmol/L) were identified from the population of Northern Denmark during the period of 1998 to 2009 using...

  9. Elevated GM3 plasma concentration in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A lipidomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B Chan

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease whose pathological hallmark is the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. Lipid metabolism dysregulation may play a significant role in PD pathogenesis; however, large plasma lipidomic studies in PD are lacking. In the current study, we analyzed the lipidomic profile of plasma obtained from 150 idiopathic PD patients and 100 controls, taken from the 'Spot' study at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Our mass spectrometry based analytical panel consisted of 520 lipid species from 39 lipid subclasses including all major classes of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids and sterols. Each lipid species was analyzed using a logistic regression model. The plasma concentrations of two lipid subclasses, triglycerides and monosialodihexosylganglioside (GM3, were different between PD and control participants. GM3 ganglioside concentration had the most significant difference between PD and controls (1.531±0.037 pmol/μl versus 1.337±0.040 pmol/μl respectively; p-value = 5.96E-04; q-value = 0.048; when normalized to total lipid: p-value = 2.890E-05; q-value = 2.933E-03. Next, we used a collection of 20 GM3 and glucosylceramide (GlcCer species concentrations normalized to total lipid to perform a ROC curve analysis, and found that these lipids compare favorably with biomarkers reported in previous studies (AUC = 0.742 for males, AUC = 0.644 for females. Our results suggest that higher plasma GM3 levels are associated with PD. GM3 lies in the same glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway as GlcCer, a substrate of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which has been associated with PD. These findings are consistent with previous reports implicating lower glucocerebrosidase activity with PD risk.

  10. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Mardinoglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D, we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associated with degree of IR after adjusting for BMI. Nevertheless, also after adjusting for obesity and plasma BCAA, 3-HIB levels were associated with future risk of incident T2D. We also examined the effect of 3-HIB on fatty acid uptake in human cells and found that both HUVEC and human cardiac endothelial cells respond to 3-HIB whereas human adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells do not respond to 3-HIB. In conclusion, we found that increased plasma level of 3-HIB is a marker of future risk of T2D and 3-HIB may be important for the regulation of metabolic flexibility in heart and muscles.

  11. Affinity proteomics reveals elevated muscle proteins in plasma of children with cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bachmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes are central processes in the pathophysiology of severe Plasmodium falciparum childhood malaria. However, it is still not understood why some children are more at risks to develop malaria complications than others. To identify human proteins in plasma related to childhood malaria syndromes, multiplex antibody suspension bead arrays were employed. Out of the 1,015 proteins analyzed in plasma from more than 700 children, 41 differed between malaria infected children and community controls, whereas 13 discriminated uncomplicated malaria from severe malaria syndromes. Markers of oxidative stress were found related to severe malaria anemia while markers of endothelial activation, platelet adhesion and muscular damage were identified in relation to children with cerebral malaria. These findings suggest the presence of generalized vascular inflammation, vascular wall modulations, activation of endothelium and unbalanced glucose metabolism in severe malaria. The increased levels of specific muscle proteins in plasma implicate potential muscle damage and microvasculature lesions during the course of cerebral malaria.

  12. Military training elicits marked increases in plasma metabolomic signatures of energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Castellani, John W; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25.4 MJ/day [SD 2.3]) and severe energy deficits (13.6 MJ/day [SD 2.5]). Of 737 identified metabolites, 478 changed during the training. Increases in 88% of the free fatty acids and 91% of the acylcarnitines, and decreases in 88% of the mono- and diacylglycerols detected within lipid metabolism pathways were observed. Smaller increases in 75% of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and 50% of the branched-chain amino acid metabolites detected were also observed. Changes in multiple metabolites related to lipid metabolism were correlated with body mass loss and energy balance, but not with energy and macronutrient intakes or energy expenditure. These findings are consistent with an increase in energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism during strenuous military training. The magnitude of the energy deficit induced by undereating relative to high energy expenditure, rather than macronutrient intake, appeared to drive these changes, particularly within lipid metabolism pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Three family members with elevated plasma cobalamin, transcobalamin and soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Lücke, Elke; Arendt, Johan F B; Nissen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    deficiency were found. DNA sequencing of the TCN2 gene revealed several known polymorphisms not associated with highly elevated transcobalamin levels. Upon gel filtration, sCD320 eluted as a larger molecule than previously reported. By incubation with anti-transcobalamin antibodies, we precipitated both...... transcobalamin and part of sCD320. CONCLUSIONS: The high cobalamin levels were mainly explained by high levels of holoTC, possibly caused by complex formation with its soluble receptor, sCD320. The family occurrence points to a genetic explanation....

  14. An elevated level of BNP in plasma is related to the development of good collateral circulation in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Gang; Lv, Shumin; Gao, Qinqin; Bu, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Geng

    2011-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was recently demonstrated to be a potential stimulator of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The correlation between BNP level and collateral formation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been reported. The study included 311 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were divided into three groups according to coronary angiography and collateral formation: normal group (100 patients with normal coronary angiographic findings); poor collateral group (116 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% without visible collateral circulation); and good collateral group (95 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% with well-developed collateral circulation). Collateral score was analyzed using the Cohen-Rentrop classification. Plasma BNP levels were 45.77 ± 4.66 pg/ml, 116.40 ± 28.15 pg/ml, and 254.20 ± 42.85 pg/ml for patients in normal, poor collateral, and good collateral groups, respectively. Plasma BNP levels in the latter were significantly higher than in the normal group (p collateral group (p collateral group and poor collateral group when compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dimensions at end diastole (LVEDd), age, severity of angiographic disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment in the multiple ordinal logistic regression model, plasma BNP levels showed a strong independent association with collateral Cohen-Rentrop score (χ(2 )= 5.636, OR = 1.002, 95% CI 1.000-1.004, p = 0.018). An elevated level of BNP in plasma is independently associated with collateral development; patients with good collaterals tend to have a higher BNP level.

  15. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mardinoglu A; Gogg S; Lotta LA; Stancáková A; Nerstedt A; Boren J; Blüher M; Ferrannini E; Langenberg C; Wareham NJ; Laakso M; Smith U

    2018-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB) has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR) using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D), we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associat...

  16. Plasma thrombin-cleaved osteopontin elevation after carotid artery stenting in symptomatic ischemic stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Mie; Okura, Takafumi; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Tagawa, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Higaki, Jitsuo; Nose, Masato; Nakahara, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is the primary pathophysiology that underlies ischemic cerebral infarction. Osteopontin (OPN) is produced in atherosclerotic lesions and is cleaved by activated thrombin. We hypothesized that the rupture or damage of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque increases plasma levels of thrombin-cleaved OPN (trOPN). This study included 90 patients who received carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS), 23 patients with essential hypertension (EHT) and 10 patients who were treated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The CAS patient group included 36 patients that had pre- and post-operative blood tests, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using cerebral MRIs and estimated thrombus debris within the protection device. Immunohistochemistry of CEA specimens revealed that trOPN was detected around intra-plaque vessels. The highest tertile of plasma trOPN levels in CAS patients was higher than trOPN levels in EHT patients. Post-operative trOPN levels were significantly higher in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients (P=0.003). New ipsilateral DWI-positive patients revealed higher post-operative trOPN levels (P=0.003) and a higher grade of thrombi (P<0.001) than DWI-negative patients. TrOPN may be a novel biomarker that reflects the atherothrombotic status in ischemic stroke. (author)

  17. Elevated seminal plasma estradiol and epigenetic inactivation of ESR1 and ESR2 is associated with CP/CPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheim, Nils; Ellem, Stuart; Dansranjavin, Temuujin; Hagenkötter, Christina; Berg, Elena; Schambeck, Rupert; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Pilatz, Adrian; Risbridger, Gail; Weidner, Wolfgang; Wagenlehner, Florian; Schagdarsurengin, Undraga

    2018-04-13

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is associated with urinary tract symptoms and hormonal imbalances amongst others. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, unexplored molecular background and lack of prostate biopsies complicate therapy. Here, using liquid biopsies, we performed a comprehensive translational study on men diagnosed with CP/CPPS type III ( n = 50; median age 39.8, range 23-65) and age-matched controls ( n = 61; median age 36.8, range 20-69), considering biochemical parameters of blood and ejaculates, and epigenetic regulation of the estrogen receptor genes ( ESR1 and ESR2 ) in leukocytes isolated from blood (systemic regulation) and in somatic cells isolated from ejaculates (local regulation). We found elevated 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) levels in seminal plasma, but not in blood plasma, that was significantly associated with CP/CPPS and impaired urinary tract symptoms. In ejaculated somatic cells of CP/CPPS patients we found that ESR1 and ESR2 were both significantly higher methylated in CpG-promoters and expressionally down-regulated in comparison to controls. Mast cells are reported to contribute to CP/CPPS and are estrogen responsive. Consistent with this, we found that E 2 -treatment of human mast cell lines (HMC-1 and LAD2) resulted in altered cytokine and chemokine expression. Interestingly, in HMC-1 cells, possessing epigenetically inactivated ESR1 and ESR2, E 2 -treatment led to a reduced transcription of a number of inflammatory genes. Overall, these data suggest that elevated local E 2 levels associate with an epigenetic down-regulation of the estrogen receptors and have a prominent role in CP/CPPS. Investigating E 2 levels in semen could therefore serve as a promising biomarker to select patients for estrogen targeted therapy.

  18. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  19. Artesunate prevents rats from the clozapine-induced hepatic steatosis and elevation in plasma triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanmei Li,1,2 Ruibing Su,3 Shuqin Xu,2 Qingjun Huang,1 Haiyun Xu1,2 1The Mental Health Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Forensics and Pathology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. However, the use of clozapine has been limited by its adverse effects on metabolism. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and was shown to decrease the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in rabbits and rats in recent studies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of artesunate on the clozapine-induced metabolic alterations in rats given saline, clozapine, artesunate, or clozapine plus artesunate for 6 weeks. The clozapine group showed significantly high plasma levels of triglyceride, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis along with high levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the saline group. But the treatment had no effect on weight gain and caused no hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and behavioral changes in the rats. More significantly, these clozapine-induced changes were not seen in rats coadministered with clozapine plus artesunate. These results added evidence supporting psychiatrists to try add-on treatment of artesunate in schizophrenia patients to ameliorate clozapine-induced adverse metabolic effects. Keywords: artesunate, clozapine, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, schizophrenia 

  20. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  1. Elevated plasma cholecystokinin at high altitude: metabolic implications for the anorexia of acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D M; Davies, B; Milledge, J S; Richards, M; Williams, S R; Jordinson, M; Calam, J

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to measure the satiety neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in humans at terrestrial high altitude to investigate its possible role in the pathophysiology of anorexia, cachexia, and acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nineteen male mountaineers aged 38 +/- 12 years participated in a 20 +/- 5 day trek to Mt. Kanchenjunga basecamp (BC) located at 5,100 m, where they remained for 7 +/- 5 days. Subjects were examined at rest and during a maximal exercise test at sea-level before/after the expedition (SL1/SL2) and during the BC sojourn. There was a mild increase in Lake Louise AMS score from 1.1 +/- 1.2 points at SL1 to 2.3 +/- 2.3 points by the end of the first day at BC (P anorexia on Day 2 compared with those with a normal appetite. While there was no relationship between the increase in CCK and AMS score at BC, a more pronounced increase in resting CCK was observed in subjects with AMS (> or =3 points at the end of Day 1 at BC) compared with those without (+98.9 +/- 1.4 pmol/L(-1) vs. +67.6 +/- 37.2 pmol/L(-1), P < 0.05). Caloric intake remained remarkably low during the stay at BC (8.9 +/- 1.4 MJ.d(-1)) despite a progressive decrease in total body mass (-4.5 +/- 2.1 kg after 31 +/- 13 h at BC, P < 0.05 vs. SL1/SL2), which appeared to be due to a selective loss of torso adipose tissue. These findings suggest that the satiogenic effects of CCK may have contributed to the observed caloric deficit and subsequent cachexia at high altitude despite adequate availability of palatable foods. The metabolic implications of elevated CCK in AMS remain to be elucidated.

  2. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  3. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG, Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  4. Elevated plasma SPARC levels are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Ping, Fan; Yin, Jinhua; Xiao, Xinhua; Xiang, Hongding; Ballantyne, Christie M; Wu, Huaizhu; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT) and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG), Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  5. Low muscle glycogen and elevated plasma free fatty acid modify but do not prevent exercise-induced PDH activation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Gudmundsson, Mikkel; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2010-01-01

    to the contra-lateral leg (CON) the day before the experiment day. On the experimental days, plasma FFA was ensured normal or remained elevated by consuming breakfast rich (low FFA) or poor (high FFA) in carbohydrate, 2 hours before performing 20 min of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Vastus lateralis...

  6. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A, a potential marker for vulnerable plaque in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper K; Teisner, Ane S; Teisner, Borge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the presence and time-related pattern of circulating pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). DESIGN AND METHODS: Consecutively admitted patients (N=573) with clinical signs of NSTE-...

  7. Predictive Value of Plasma Glucose Level on Admission for Short and Long Term Mortality in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebers, Loes P.; Damman, Peter; Claessen, Bimmer E.; Vis, Marije M.; Baan, Jan; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan; Koch, Karel T.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Piek, Jan J.; Henriques, Jose P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Published reports describe a strong association between plasma glucose levels on admission and mortality in patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of admission glucose

  8. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  9. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  10. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  11. Elevated plasma level of pentraxin-3 predicts in-hospital and 30-day clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Li, Yuanmin; Wen, Jing; Li, Weiming; Xu, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    This investigation explored the short-term prognostic value of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We measured plasma levels of PTX3 and other biomarkers in 525 PCI-treated NSTEMI patients (mean age, 57.7 years; 328 males). The associations of PTX3 levels with cardiac events and cardiac deaths occurring within 30 days of discharge were evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Renal function, diabetes prevalence, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and ejection fraction differed significantly in the high PTX3 (≥3.0 ng/ml, n = 107) and low PTX3 (<3.0 ng/ml, n = 418) groups (all p < 0.05). Plasma PTX3 levels were correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in NSTEMI patients (all p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed in-hospital and 30-day cardiac events and deaths were higher in the high PTX3 group (both p < 0.01). Elevated PTX3 was an independent predictor of 30-day cardiac events (95% CI 1.09-1.68; p = 0.006) and mortality (95% CI 1.18-2.15; p = 0.002). An elevated plasma level of PTX3 predicts 30-day cardiac events and mortality in PCI-treated NSTEMI patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  13. Plasma bilirubin values on admission and ventricular remodeling after a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Berta; Barrabés, José A; Figueras, Jaume; Pineda, Victor; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Lidón, Rosa-Maria; Sambola, Antonia; Bañeras, Jordi; Otaegui, Imanol; García-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin may elicit cardiovascular protection and heme oxygenase-1 overexpression attenuated post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and post-infarction remodeling is unknown. In 145 patients with a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), we assessed whether plasma bilirubin on admission predicted adverse remodeling (left ventricular end-diastolic volume [LVEDV] increase ≥20% between discharge and 6 months, estimated by magnetic resonance imaging). Patients' baseline characteristics and management were comparable among bilirubin tertiles. LVEDV increased at 6 months (P bilirubin tertiles (10.8 [30.2], 10.1 [22.9], and 12.7 [24.3]%, P = 0.500). Median (25-75 percentile) bilirubin values in patients with and without adverse remodeling were 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.73 (0.60-0.92) mg/dL (P = 0.693). Absence of final TIMI flow grade 3 (odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.12-13.66) and a history of hypertension (2.04, 0.93-4.50), but not admission bilirubin, were independently associated with adverse remodeling. Bilirubin also did not predict the increase in ejection fraction at 6 months. Admission bilirubin values are not related to LVEDV or ejection fraction progression after a first anterior STEMI and do not predict adverse ventricular remodeling. Key messages Bilirubin levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease, and overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (the enzyme that determines bilirubin production) has prevented post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and the progression of ventricular volumes and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction remained unexplored. In this cohort of patients with a first acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving contemporary management, bilirubin levels on admission were not predictive of the changes in left

  14. Plasma concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are elevated in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jacobsen, P; Rossing, K

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with macrovascular atherosclerotic complications in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Adhesion molecules mediate leucocyte adhesion to the endothelium early in the atherosclerotic process. The present study tests the hypothesis that microalbuminuria...... disease in diabetic patients with renal complications. METHODS: Soluble adhesion molecule concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in healthy controls (n = 16) and in 59 Type 1 diabetic patients: group 1-patients with normoalbuminuria (n = 16); group 2-patients...... diabetic patients, but the concentrations were increased by the presence of microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy (P diabetic patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentration of sICAM-1 is elevated in Type 1...

  15. Elevated Plasma Levels of Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Parallel with the Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Tsuguo; Tajima, Kazuki; Yamashiro, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Suwabe, Akira; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    (Pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a receptor for renin and prorenin, is implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and their complications. Soluble (P)RR (s(P)RR) is composed of extracellular domain of (P)RR and thus exists in blood. We have reported that plasma concentrations of s(P)RR were elevated in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The aim of the present study was to clarify the difference in plasma s(P)RR concentrations between male and female OSAS patients. Plasma s(P)RR concentrations were studied in 289 subjects (206 males and 83 females) consisting of 259 OSAS patients and 30 non-OSAS control subjects. The 259 OSAS patients were classified into mild (5 ≤ apnea hypopnea index (AHI) value found in male subjects (male r = 0.413, p < 0.0001; female r = 0.263, p < 0.05). Importantly, when OSAS patients (26 males and 15 females) with AHI ≥ 20 underwent continuous positive airway pressure treatment, plasma s(P)RR levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, plasma s(P)RR levels are elevated in both male and female OSAS patients in parallel with the disease severity.

  16. Frequency and clinical correlates of elevated plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA at diagnosis in peripheral T-cell lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Huang, Ying; Gru, Alejandro; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Mishra, Anjali; Ruppert, Amy S.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBER) in tumor tissue and cell-free plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) are detected in EBV-associated lymphomas. Studies have suggested that EBER+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have worse prognosis, but the role of EBV in these neoplasms remains unclear. pEBVd is quantitative and more easily amenable to standardization than EBER, but frequency of pEBVd detection, clinical impact, and agreement with EBER status in PTCL are unknown. We retrospectively assessed frequency of detectable pre-treatment pEBVd, presence of EBER in tumor tissue, and outcomes in 61 of 135 EBV-assessable PTCL patients. Fifteen of 61 patients (24.5%, 95% CI: 14–37%) were pre-treatment pEBVd+, with no significant differences in baseline characteristics or treatment between pEBVd+ and pEBVd− patients. EBER-ISH was performed on 10 pEBVd+ and 35 pEBVd− tumors. All 10 pEBVd+ patients were EBER+, but 9 pEBVd− patients were also EBER+. With median follow up of 24 months (range 1–96), overall survival (OS) was shorter in pEBVd+ compared to pEBVd− patients (13 vs. 72 months; p=0.04). In this retrospective study, pre-treatment pEBVd was elevated in 25% of PTCL patients, was highly specific for EBER+ tumors, and was associated with shorter survival. pEBVd should be further explored as a prognostic variable and tumor biomarker in PTCL. PMID:27943278

  17. Prayer marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmi, Abdullah A; Al Zouman, Abdulrahman Y; Al Hussaini, Husa; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2002-07-01

    Prayer marks (PMs) are asymptomatic, chronic skin changes that consist mainly of thickening, lichenification, and hyperpigmentation, and develop over a long period of time as a consequence of repeated, extended pressure on bony prominences during prayer. Three hundred and forty-nine Muslims and 24 non-Muslims were examined for the appearance of PMs at different body sites. The prospective study of 349 Muslims (both males and females) with regular praying habits showed the occurrence of PMs on specific locations, such as the forehead, knees, ankles, and dorsa of the feet, leading to dermatologic changes consisting of lichenification and hyperpigmentation. The incidence of PMs was significantly higher in males than in females. Older subjects (over 50 years of age) demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of lichenification and hyperpigmentation, suggesting that repeated pressure and friction for prolonged periods are the causative factors for the development of PMs. Histologic examination of skin biopsies from the affected sites showed compact orthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, dermal papillary fibrosis, and dermal vascularization. PMs were not associated with any risk of secondary complications, such as erythema, bullous formation, and infections. PMs are commonly occurring dermatologic changes in Muslims who pray for prolonged periods.

  18. Polymyositis with elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Ryusuke; Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Kikuchi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuko; Matsubara, Shiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-12-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a type of autoimmune, inflammatory myopathy. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration of various organs. However, several reports have described cases of other diseases that present with those features, suggesting the importance of careful differential diagnosis. Herein, we report the first case of PM with elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma cells in the muscles, mimicking IgG4-RD.A 73-year-old woman visited our hospital because of proximal muscle weakness of both thighs. Her blood test showed high levels of serum creatinine kinase, aldolase, and IgG4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thighs showed muscle edema. Needle electromyography showed findings typical of myositis. Histological analysis of her left quadriceps revealed infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells as well as CD8 T cells. Scattered necrotic and regenerating muscle fibers with no specific findings for IgG4-RD (storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis) were typical for PM. We diagnosed her condition as PM and treated her with 40 mg/day of prednisolone that decreased levels of muscle enzymes and improved muscle weakness. Our case indicated that PM could present with high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration, mimicking IgG4-RD. Although the mechanism of IgG4 elevation in such PM is unclear, our case highlights the necessity to recognize that high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration in organs are not specific for IgG4-RD.

  19. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  20. Particle-in-cell modeling of laser Thomson scattering in low-density plasmas at elevated laser intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Andrew T.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering is a non-intrusive technique commonly used for measuring local plasma density. Within low-density, low-temperature plasmas and for sufficient laser intensity, the laser may perturb the local electron density via the ponderomotive force, causing the diagnostic to become intrusive and leading to erroneous results. A theoretical model for this effect is validated numerically via kinetic simulations of a quasi-neutral plasma using the particle-in-cell technique.

  1. A MMP derived versican neo-epitope is elevated in plasma from patients with atherosclerotic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Genovese, Federica; Larsen, Lise Korsager

    2013-01-01

    ELISA for detection of the fragment in plasma. VCANM was measured in plasma of patients with different levels of heart diseases. Patients experiencing I) acute coronary syndrome, II) stable ischemic heart disease and III) demonstrating high levels of coronary calcium deposits had significantly higher...

  2. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and risk of venous thromboembolism among cancer patients: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both venous thromboembolism (VTE) and high plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are markers of occult cancer and aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. In this population-based cohort study, we assessed VTE risk among cancer patients with high plasma Cbl levels. MATERIALS...

  3. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  4. Elevated pre-treatment levels of plasma C-reactive protein are associated with poor prognosis after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, death from breast cancer, and recurrence of breast cancer.......We examined whether plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, death from breast cancer, and recurrence of breast cancer....

  5. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  6. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries.

  7. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A, a novel, quick, and sensitive marker in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K.K.; Teisner, A.S.; Teisner, B.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional biomarkers in acute coronary syndromes reflect myocardial necrosis but not the underlying arteriosclerotic disease. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a new biomarker in acute coronary syndromes that detects vulnerable plaques in arteriosclerotic disease and identifies ...

  8. Interplay of Plasma Membrane and Vacuolar Ion Channels, Together with BAK1, Elicits Rapid Cytosolic Calcium Elevations in Arabidopsis during Aphid Feeding[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas R.; Avramova, Marieta; Canham, James; Higgins, Peter; Bilkey, Natasha; Mugford, Sam T.; Pitino, Marco; Toyota, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    A transient rise in cytosolic calcium ion concentration is one of the main signals used by plants in perception of their environment. The role of calcium in the detection of abiotic stress is well documented; however, its role during biotic interactions remains unclear. Here, we use a fluorescent calcium biosensor (GCaMP3) in combination with the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) as a tool to study Arabidopsis thaliana calcium dynamics in vivo and in real time during a live biotic interaction. We demonstrate rapid and highly localized plant calcium elevations around the feeding sites of M. persicae, and by monitoring aphid feeding behavior electrophysiologically, we demonstrate that these elevations correlate with aphid probing of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Furthermore, we dissect the molecular mechanisms involved, showing that interplay between the plant defense coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1), the plasma membrane ion channels GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE 3.3 and 3.6 (GLR3.3 and GLR3.6), and the vacuolar ion channel TWO-PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) mediate these calcium elevations. Consequently, we identify a link between plant perception of biotic threats by BAK1, cellular calcium entry mediated by GLRs, and intracellular calcium release by TPC1 during a biologically relevant interaction. PMID:28559475

  9. Endothelial Dysfunction in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Elevated Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Plasma Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Philby, Mona F; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David

    2017-02-09

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition, especially in obese children, and has been associated with increased risk for endothelial dysfunction and dislipidemia, which are precursors of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular risk and atheromatous plaque activity. We hypothesized that Lp-PLA2 levels would be elevated in children with OSA, particularly among obese children who also manifest evidence of endothelial dysfunction. One hundred sixty children (mean age 7.1±2.3 years), either nonobese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) or obese with (n=40) and without OSA (n=40) underwent overnight polysomnographic and postocclusive reperfusion evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, Lp-PLA2 plasma activity was assessed using a commercial kit. Obese children and OSA children had significantly elevated plasma Lp-PLA2 activity levels compared to controls. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were concurrently present or when endothelial function was present, Lp-PLA2 activity was higher. Treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy resulted in reductions of Lp-PLA2 activity (n=37; P <0.001). Lp-PLA2 plasma activity is increased in pediatric OSA and obesity, particularly when endothelial dysfunction is present, and exhibits decreases on OSA treatment. The short-term and long-term significance of these findings in relation to cardiovascular risk remain undefined. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  11. Elevated plasma macrophage migration inhibitor factor as a risk factor for the development of post-stroke depression in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Pu, Shuang; Ni, Ying; Gao, Mingqing; Li, Xuemei; Zeng, Xianwei

    2018-07-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a central cytokine of the innate immunity and inflammatory responses, has been reported to link to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and depression. The aim of this study was to test the possible association between plasma MIF and the development of post-stroke depression (PSD) in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The first-ever AIS patients who were hospitalized at Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical College during the period from November 2015 to September 2017 were included. Neurological and neuropsychological evaluations were conducted at the 3-month follow-up. Plasma concentrations of MIF were tested by Quantikine Human MIF Immunoassay. Plasma levels of homocysteine (HCY), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) were also tested. Results were expressed as percentages for categorical variables and as medians (Interquartile range-IQR) for the continuous variables. Finally, 333 stroke patients were included, and 95 out of those patients (28.5%) were classified as major depression. In the patients with major depression, plasma levels of MIF were higher compared with those in patients free-depression [27.3(IQR, 23.5-34.9) ng/ml vs. 20.9(IQR, 17.0-24.8) ng/ml; Z = 8.369, P < 0.001]. For each 1unit increase of MIF, the unadjusted and adjusted risk of PSD increased by 18% (odds ratios [OR]: 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.23, P < 0.001) and 11% (1.11; 1.02-1.16, P = 0.001), respectively. In a multivariate model using the elevated levels of MIF (≥median) vs. normal (

  12. Elevated fasting plasma cortisol is associated with ischemic heart disease and its risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh type 2 diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca M; Labad, Javier; Strachan, Mark W J; Braun, Anke; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Lee, Amanda J; Frier, Brian M; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R; Price, Jackie F

    2010-04-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie the metabolic syndrome, but whether circulating cortisol levels predict cardiovascular end points is less clear. People with type 2 diabetes are at increased cardiovascular disease risk and thus are suitable to study associations of plasma cortisol with cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess whether altered HPA axis activity was associated with features of the metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in the general community, including 919 men and women aged 67.9 (4.2) yr with type 2 diabetes (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). We measured fasting morning plasma cortisol. Associations between cortisol levels, features of the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and ischemic heart disease were determined. Elevated plasma cortisol levels were associated with raised fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels (P cortisol levels were associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease (>800 vs. cortisol is also associated with a greater prevalence of ischemic heart disease, independent of conventional risk factors. Understanding the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease merits further exploration.

  13. Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shu-Wei; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Interlamellar bonding within plasma-sprayed coatings is one of the most important factors dominating the properties and performance of coatings. The interface bonding between lamellae significantly influences the erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, TiO2 and Al2O3 coatings with different microstructures were deposited at different deposition temperatures based on the critical bonding temperature concept. The erosion behavior of ceramic coatings was investigated. It was revealed that the coatings prepared at room temperature exhibit a typical lamellar structure with numerous unbonded interfaces, whereas the coatings deposited at the temperature above the critical bonding temperature present a dense structure with well-bonded interfaces. The erosion rate decreases sharply with the improvement of interlamellar bonding when the deposition temperature increases to the critical bonding temperature. In addition, the erosion mechanisms of ceramic coatings were examined. The unbonded interfaces in the conventional coatings act as pre-cracks accelerating the erosion of coatings. Thus, controlling interlamellar bonding formation based on the critical bonding temperature is an effective approach to improve the erosion resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings.

  14. Elevated plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus is attributable to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggestad, Jeanie B; Wang, Joshua J; Zhang, Sarah X; Thompson, David M; Short, Kevin R

    2015-12-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a member of the serpin family secreted by adipocytes. Plasma PEDF is increased in obese children and adults. Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher circulating PEDF but there are no reports in children with T2DM. To compare PEDF concentration in children with T2DM to normal weight and obese children without T2DM and determine associations with anthropometric or serum factors. Participants were 34 obese children with T2DM diagnosed by American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, 61 normal weight [body mass index (BMI) 25-75 percentile] and 63 obese (BMI ≥ 95 percentile) children of age 8-18 yr. Plasma PEDF was measured in fasting plasma samples. Anthropometric, serum, and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA) data were obtained for each subject to identify potential predictor variables. PEDF was 55% higher (p = 0.001) in the T2DM group compared with normal weight children, but did not differ from obese children. In the T2DM group, fat mass and lean mass both individually predicted PEDF (r² = 0.22 and 0.17, p = 0.02 and p obese groups, therefore, obesity, rather than diabetes, may account for the higher PEDF in children with T2DM compared with normal weight children. PEDF was positively associated with both lean mass and fat mass both of which may contribute to the circulating level of the protein, and potentially to PEDF's association with insulin resistance in obese children with and without diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Elevated soluble CD163 plasma levels are associated with disease severity in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Wang

    Full Text Available Hantaan virus is a major zoonotic pathogen that causesing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Although HFRS pathogenesis has not been entirely elucidated, the importance of host-related immune responses in HFRS pathogenesis has been widely recognized. CD163, a monocyte and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor that plays a vital function in the hosts can reduce inflammation, is shed during activation as soluble CD163 (sCD163. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological significance of sCD163 in patients with HFRS.Blood samples were collected from 81 hospitalized patients in Tangdu Hospital from October 2011 to January 2014 and from 15 healthy controls. The sCD163 plasma levels were measured using a sandwich ELISA, and the relationship between sCD163 and disease severity was analyzed. Furthermore, CD163 expression in 3 monocytes subset was analyzed by flow cytometry.The results demonstrated that sCD163 plasma levels during the HFRS acute phase were significantly higher in patients than during the convalescent stage and the levels in the healthy controls (P<0.0001. The sCD163 plasma levels in the severe/critical group were higher than those in the mild/moderate group during the acute (P<0.0001. A Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the sCD163 levels were positively correlated with white blood cell, serum creatine, blood urea nitrogen levels, while they were negatively correlated with blood platelet levels in the HFRS patients. The monocyte subsets were significantly altered during the acute stage. Though the CD163 expression levels within the monocyte subsets were increased during the acute stage, the highest CD163 expression level was observed in the CD14++CD16+ monocytes when compared with the other monocyte subsets.sCD163 may be correlated with disease severity and the disease progression in HFRS patients; however, the underlying mechanisms should be explored further.

  17. Postpartum plasma exchange in a woman with suspected thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) vs. hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome (HELLP): a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of a hypercoagulable state and decreasing concentration of ADAMTS 13 in late pregnancy and during the postpartum period increases the risk for a woman to develop life-threatening thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This is also the time of great risk for the more common obstetric complications of preeclampsia; eclampsia; and hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. These conditions are associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Differential diagnosis may be difficult due to the overlapping of clinical and laboratory findings, including thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurologic symptoms, and renal insufficiency, making it difficult or impossible to distinguish them from TTP. Management of microangiopathic disorders encountered during pregnancy differ; therefore, an accurate diagnosis is required. Outcomes of TTP without plasma exchange therapy (TPE) are almost uniformly fatal. Early recognition and management of symptoms with prompt and aggressive TPE is essential when TTP is suspected.

  18. Obtention of the ponderomotive force in the mark of the kinetic theory in the injection of high power in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M.

    2006-01-01

    To reach the quasi stationary work regime of a Tokamak, it is necessary to optimize the current generation by non inductive methods with the injection of radio-frequency waves (RF), such as the electron cyclotron waves, cyclotron ion, and in the inferior hybrid one. At the moment, the powers of the radiation sources are very big for what the such no-lineal effects as the ponderomotive force are very important. In the case of the electron cyclotron waves, in the mark of the lineal theory of waves propagation, using extraordinary waves (first and second harmonic), the problem of the singularity always arises in the exact resonance. One of the ways of eliminating this singularity is considering that the group of electrons under resonance conditions is big (quasi lineal theory) or introducing such non lineal effects such as the ponderomotive force. In the obtaining of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions this indetermination arises also. In this work the kinetic theory to obtain the expression of the ponderomotive force in the cyclotron resonance of the electrons, where the Vlasov kinetic equation expands up to second order with regard to the electric field of the RF wave. The kinetic approach allows to the analysis of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions considering the Landau integration method. (Author)

  19. Elevated plasma levels of TNF-alpha and Interleukin-6 in patients with diastolic dysfunction and glucose metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinghaus Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM has reached epidemic proportions and is an important risk factor for heart failure (HF. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD is recognized as the earliest manifestation of DM-induced LV dysfunction, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We sought to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and tissue Doppler derived indices of LVDD in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods We enrolled 41 consecutive patients (mean age 65+/-10 years submitted for coronary angiography. Echocardiographic assessment was performed in all patients. Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging was performed at the mitral annulus and was characterized by the diastolic early relaxation velocity Em. Conventional transmitral flow was measured with pw-doppler. Early (E transmitral flow velocity was measured. LVDD was defined as E/Em ratio ≥ 15, E/Em 8-14 was classified as borderline. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were determined in all patients. A standardized oral glucose tolerance test was performed in subjects without diabetes. Results Patients with E/Em ratio ≥ 15, classified as LVDD and those with E/Em ratio 8-14 (classified as borderline had significantly higher IL-6 (P = 0,001, TNF-alpha (P Conclusion This study reveals that increased plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with LVDD. These findings suggest a link between low-grade inflammation and the presence of LVDD. An active proinflammatory process may be of importance in the pathogenesis of diastolic dysfunction.

  20. A predominance of R5-like HIV genotypes in vaginal secretions is associated with elevated plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and the absence of anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacour Nedra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV expressed in genital secretions provides the inoculum from which transmitting variants are selected, both in sexual transmission and mother-to-infant transmission during partuition. Characterization of HIV levels and genotypes found in vaginal secretions and the impact of anti-retroviral therapy (ART on this virus can provide valuable insight for the prevention of HIV transmission. Vaginal HIV was evaluated in a cohort of 43 women attending a New Orleans HIV outpatient clinic. Predominant vaginal genotypes were characterized as R5- or X4-like by heteroduplex tracking analyses of the envelope V3 region. Most women (67.4% shed R5-like genotypes in vaginal secretions which was associated with elevated plasma HIV levels (≥ 10,000 copies HIV-RNA/mL and absence of ART. Because R5-like genotypes are more frequently associated with transmission, these observations suggest that the majority of women shedding HIV in genital secretions present a transmission risk. The levels of vaginal virus were similar between both groups, but shedding of X4-like genotypes was associated with lower plasma viral loads and the use of ART, suggesting that ART use may impact the genotypes of virus found in the female genital compartment.

  1. A Shotgun Proteomic Approach Reveals That Fe Deficiency Causes Marked Changes in the Protein Profiles of Plasma Membrane and Detergent-Resistant Microdomain Preparations from Beta vulgaris Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Lüthje, Sabine; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Mongrand, Sébastien; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2016-08-05

    In the present study we have used label-free shotgun proteomic analysis to examine the effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profiles of highly pure sugar beet root plasma membrane (PM) preparations and detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), the latter as an approach to study microdomains. Altogether, 545 proteins were detected, with 52 and 68 of them changing significantly with Fe deficiency in PM and DRM, respectively. Functional categorization of these proteins showed that signaling and general and vesicle-related transport accounted for approximately 50% of the differences in both PM and DRM, indicating that from a qualitative point of view changes induced by Fe deficiency are similar in both preparations. Results indicate that Fe deficiency has an impact in phosphorylation processes at the PM level and highlight the involvement of signaling proteins, especially those from the 14-3-3 family. Lipid profiling revealed Fe-deficiency-induced decreases in phosphatidic acid derivatives, which may impair vesicle formation, in agreement with the decreases measured in proteins related to intracellular trafficking and secretion. The modifications induced by Fe deficiency in the relative enrichment of proteins in DRMs revealed the existence of a group of cytoplasmic proteins that appears to be more attached to the PM in conditions of Fe deficiency.

  2. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  3. Symptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmia is associated with delayed gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and with elevated plasma brain natriuretic peptide level in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Katsumi; Tsujino, Takeshi; Nakao, Shinji; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Masai, Miho; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Delayed gadolinium enhancement (DGE) in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging indicates the areas with myocardial fibrosis, which are suggested to be arrhythmogenic substrate in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is associated with cardiovascular events in HCM. We investigated the grade of DGE in CMR and plasma BNP levels in HCM patients with or without symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). We recruited 26 consecutive untreated HCM patients without any symptoms of heart failure. They were divided into 2 groups: patients with symptomatic VT/VF [VT/VF (+) group, n=6]; patients without symptomatic VT/VF [VT/VF (-) group, n=20]. CMR was performed to evaluate left ventricular geometry and the grade of DGE. Plasma BNP levels, left ventricular mass index, and the number of segments with positive DGE were greater in the VT/VF (+) group than in the VT/VF (-) group (698.1±387.6 vs. 226.9±256.8 pg/ml, p=0.006; 152.3±49.5 vs. 89.5±24.1 g/m 2 , p=0.003; 9.7±5.7 vs. 3.5±3.3, p=0.013). On logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio for symptomatic VT/VF was 214 for log BNP (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-37,043, p=0.04) and 1.54 for DGE score (95% CI 1.01-2.34, p=0.04). High plasma BNP levels and the enlarged area of DGE in CMR were associated with symptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. These factors may be useful markers for detecting high-risk patients of sudden cardiac death in HCM. (author)

  4. Plasma proteomics shows an elevation of the anti-inflammatory protein APOA-IV in chronic equine laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine laminitis is a devastating disease that causes severe pain in afflicted horses and places a major economic burden on the horse industry. In acute laminitis, the disintegration of the dermal-epidermal junction can cause the third phalanx to detach from the hoof wall, leaving the horse unable to bear weight on the affected limbs. Horses that survive the acute phase transition into a chronic form of laminitis, which is often termed “founder”. Some evidence suggests that chronic laminar inflammation might be associated with alterations in the endocrine and immune systems. We investigated this broad hypothesis by using DIGE to assess global differences in the plasma proteome between horses with chronic laminitis and controls. Results We identified 16 differentially expressed proteins; the majority of these were involved in the interrelated coagulation, clotting, and kininogen cascades. Clinical testing of functional coagulation parameters in foundered horses revealed a slight delay in prothrombin (PT clotting time, although most other indices were within normal ranges. Upregulation of the intestinal apolipoprotein APOA-IV in horses with chronic laminitis was confirmed by western blot. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that localized laminar inflammation may be linked to systemic alterations in immune regulation, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal inflammation has been implicated in the development of acute laminitis but has not previously been associated with chronic laminitis.

  5. Elevated NT-proBNP is associated with unfavorably altered plasma fibrin clot properties in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, Paweł T; Matusik, Patrycja S; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Małecka, Barbara; Ząbek, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-09-15

    Dense fibrin clot formation and hypofibrinolysis have been reported in atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear which factors affect fibrin clot properties in AF. We investigated plasma fibrin clot permeability (K s ), clot lysis time (CLT), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as well as other coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters along with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in 160 AF patients (median age, 70.5years). Previous stroke (n=15; 9.4%) was associated with decreased K s (P=0.04) and longer CLT (P=0.005), together with higher antiplasmin (P=0.03) and lower tissue-type plasminogen activator (P=0.01). Lower K s (P=0.04) and tendency towards longer CLT (P=0.10) were observed in patients with a left atrium diameter>40mm. Patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 3 or more (82.5%) were characterized by higher thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen (P=0.009). K s was inversely correlated with log NT-proBNP (r=-0.34, PCLT was positively correlated with log NT-proBNP (R=0.61, PCLT (the top quartile,≥109min). In AF patients prothrombotic fibrin clot properties assessed ex vivo are determined by PAI-1 and NT-proBNP and this phenotype is associated with prior ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  7. Elevated mRNA-levels of distinct mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual hypoglossal motor neurons of endstage SOD1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMühling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as major pathogenic features in familial and sporadic forms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, a fatal degenerative motor neuron disease. However, the distinct molecular ALS-pathology remains unclear. Recently, an activity-dependent Ca2+ homeostasis deficit, selectively in highly vulnerable cholinergic motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (hMNs from a common ALS mouse model, endstage superoxide dismutase SOD1G93A transgenic mice, was described. This functional deficit was defined by a reduced hMN mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity and elevated Ca2+ extrusion across the plasma membrane. To address the underlying molecular mechanisms, here we quantified mRNA-levels of respective potential mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT positive hMNs from wildtype (WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, by combining UV laser microdissection with RT-qPCR techniques, and specific data normalization. As ChAT cDNA levels as well as cDNA and genomic DNA levels of the mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase ND1 were not different between hMNs from WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, these genes were used to normalize hMN-specific mRNA-levels of plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters, respectively. We detected about 2-fold higher levels of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters MCU/MICU1, Letm1 and UCP2 in remaining hMNs from endstage SOD1G93A mice. These higher expression-levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters in individual hMNs were not associated with a respective increase in number of mitochondrial genomes, as evident from hMN specific ND1 DNA quantification. Normalized mRNA-levels for the plasma membrane Na2+/Ca2+exchanger NCX1 was also about 2-fold higher in hMNs from SOD1G93A mice. Thus, pharmacological stimulation of Ca2+ transporters in highly vulnerable hMNs might offer a novel neuroprotective strategy for ALS.

  8. Carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT genotype have elevated levels of plasma glucose, serum proinsulin and plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) during a meal test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Kjems, L L; Vestmar, M A

    2011-01-01

    , proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) among individuals carrying the high-risk rs7903146 TT genotype and low-risk CC genotype following a meal test. Methods A meal challenge was performed in 31......, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after ingestion of a standardised breakfast meal. Results An elevated incremental AUC for plasma glucose was observed among TT genotype carriers (CC carriers 21.8¿±¿101.9 mmol/l¿×¿min vs TT carriers 97.9¿±¿89.2 mmol/l¿×¿min, p¿=¿0.001). TT...

  9. Elevated plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels in human smokers originate primarily from enzymatic instead of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF 2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF 2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers. The influences of gender and hormonal contraceptive use were accounted for. The distribution was determined by measuring the 8-iso-PGF 2α /prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) ratio. When comparing smokers (n = 28) against non-smokers (n = 30), there was a statistically significant increase in the 8-iso-PGF 2α concentration. The source of this increased 8-iso-PGF 2α was primarily from PGHS. When stratifying for gender, the increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in male smokers (n = 9) was primarily from PGHS. Interestingly, female smokers on hormonal contraceptives had increased 8-iso-PGF 2α in both pathways, whereas those not on hormonal contraceptives did not have increased 8-iso-PGF 2α . In conclusion, increased plasma 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers has complex origins, with PGHS-dependent formation as the primary source. Accounting for both pathways provides a definitive measurement of both oxidative stress and inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  11. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats; Marcacao com radioiodo de um sucedaneo do plasma e ensaios preliminares de seu comportamento cinetico em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-07-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  12. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats; Marcacao com radioiodo de um sucedaneo do plasma e ensaios preliminares de seu comportamento cinetico em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-07-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  13. Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    2018-01-01

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord is a senior technologist for ecosystem and water resources management in SEC SAID Oakland, California office. In his career which lasts over fifteen years Mark has worked on project involving lake restorations, clean water engineering, ecological engineering and management, hydrology, hydraulics, sediment transport and other projects for environmental planning all over the country. Mark Tompkins Canaccord tries to blend his skills of planning and engineering with s...

  14. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  15. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  16. Mark Stock | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock Mark Stock Scientific Visualization Specialist Mark.Stock@nrel.gov | 303-275-4174 Dr. Stock , virtual reality, parallel computing, and manipulation of large spatial data sets. As an artist, he creates . Stock built the SUNLIGHT artwork that is installed on the Webb Building in downtown Denver. In addition

  17. Elevated Plasma Soluble CD14 and Skewed CD16+ Monocyte Distribution Persist despite Normalisation of Soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by Effective HIV Therapy: A Changing Paradigm for Routine HIV Laboratory Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Berry, Cassandra; French, Martyn; Fernandez, Sonia; Krueger, Romano; Nolan, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. Design Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. Methods A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163) and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. Results HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001). Conclusions Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune activation in HIV

  18. Elevated plasma soluble CD14 and skewed CD16+ monocyte distribution persist despite normalisation of soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by effective HIV therapy: a changing paradigm for routine HIV laboratory monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Castley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. METHODS: A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14, soluble CD163 (sCD163 and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune

  19. Follow-up study of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformities and elevated plasma FGF23: possible aetiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M A; Goldberg, Gail R; Jones, Helen; Pettifor, John M; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported on a case-series of children (n=46) with suspected calcium-deficiency rickets who presented in The Gambia with rickets-like bone deformities. Biochemical analyses discounted vitamin D-deficiency as an aetiological factor but indicated a perturbation of Ca-P metabolism involving low plasma phosphate and high circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years after presentation to investigate possible associated factors and characterise recovery. 35 children were investigated at follow-up (RFU). Clinical assessment of bone deformities, overnight fasted 2 h urine and blood samples, 2-day weighed dietary records and 24 h urine collections were obtained. Age- and season-matched data from children from the local community (LC) were used to calculate standard deviation scores (SDS) for RFU children. None of the RFU children had radiological signs of active rickets. However, over half had residual leg deformities consistent with rickets. Dietary Ca intake (SDS-Ca=-0.52 (0.98) p=0.04), dietary Ca/P ratio (SDS-Ca/P=-0.80 (0.82) p=0.0008) and TmP:GFR (SDS-TmP:GFR=-0.48 (0.81) p=0.04) were significantly lower in RFU children compared with LC children and circulating FGF23 concentration was elevated in 19% of RFU children. Furthermore an inverse relationship was seen between haemoglobin and FGF23 (R(2)=25.8, p=0.004). This study has shown differences in biochemical and dietary profiles between Gambian children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities and children from the local community. This study provided evidence in support of the calcium deficiency hypothesis leading to urinary phosphate wasting and rickets and identified glomerular filtration rate and iron status as possible modulators of FGF23 metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated metallothionein-bound cadmium concentrations in urine from bladder carcinoma patients, investigated by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Christian [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: wolf@helmholtz-berlin.de; Strenziok, Romy [Department of Urology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Kyriakopoulos, Antonios [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-12

    Cadmium is discussed as being involved in the development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and can be observed in urine of these patients. Investigations of urinary samples from bladder cancer patients and normal controls were carried out with special emphasis on metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium. Compounds that are constituents of urine were separated in urine samples by means of size exclusion chromatography and cadmium was monitored continuously with a hyphenated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. MT-bound cadmium was quantified by peak area integration, taking into account the intensity of the rhodium signal which was added continuously before ICP-MS detection. The obtained results show that urinary cadmium is predominantly bound to the observed MT-fraction. The median of the MT-bound cadmium concentration in the control group was found to be 0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} whereas the cancer group has a median of 1.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The variance of the data in the cancer group is much higher than in the controls. However, the urinary MT-bound cadmium is significantly elevated in the cancer group; odds-ratio test: 7.11 (95% C.I.: 1.89-26.80), taking into account the total protein content. Due to the fact that only one main cadmium-containing fraction was observed, there is no necessity to separate the MT-fraction before cadmium determination in urine samples in future studies.

  1. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  2. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  3. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  4. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  5. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  6. Follow-up study of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformities and elevated plasma FGF23: Possible aetiological factors☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M.A.; Goldberg, Gail R.; Jones, Helen; Pettifor, John M.; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported on a case-series of children (n = 46) with suspected calcium-deficiency rickets who presented in The Gambia with rickets-like bone deformities. Biochemical analyses discounted vitamin D-deficiency as an aetiological factor but indicated a perturbation of Ca–P metabolism involving low plasma phosphate and high circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years after presentation to investigate possible associated factors and characterise recovery. 35 children were investigated at follow-up (RFU). Clinical assessment of bone deformities, overnight fasted 2 h urine and blood samples, 2-day weighed dietary records and 24 h urine collections were obtained. Age- and season-matched data from children from the local community (LC) were used to calculate standard deviation scores (SDS) for RFU children. None of the RFU children had radiological signs of active rickets. However, over half had residual leg deformities consistent with rickets. Dietary Ca intake (SDS-Ca = − 0.52 (0.98) p = 0.04), dietary Ca/P ratio (SDS-Ca/P = − 0.80 (0.82) p = 0.0008) and TmP:GFR (SDS-TmP:GFR = − 0.48 (0.81) p = 0.04) were significantly lower in RFU children compared with LC children and circulating FGF23 concentration was elevated in 19% of RFU children. Furthermore an inverse relationship was seen between haemoglobin and FGF23 (R2 = 25.8, p = 0.004). This study has shown differences in biochemical and dietary profiles between Gambian children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities and children from the local community. This study provided evidence in support of the calcium deficiency hypothesis leading to urinary phosphate wasting and rickets and identified glomerular filtration rate and iron status as possible modulators of FGF23 metabolic pathways. PMID:22023931

  7. Glycosylated haemoglobin is markedly elevated in new and known ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean HbA1c in known Type 1, known Type 2 and newly diagnosed diabetes patients were similarly ... of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy [3]. ..... dilemma of HbA1c detection in presence of a haemoglobinopathy: A ...

  8. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  9. Identification markings for gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

  10. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  11. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  12. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  13. Serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cell elevation in orbital IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD): Potential use in IgG4-RD assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anita S Y; Mudhar, Hardeep; Shen, Sunny Yu; Lang, Stephanie S; Fernando, Malee; Hilmy, Maryam Hazly; Guppy, Naomi Jayne; Rennie, Ian; Dunkley, Lisa; Al Jajeh, Issam

    2017-11-01

    To determine the role of serum and tissue IgG2 in orbital biopsies with the histological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in comparison with non-IgG4-related orbital inflammatory disorders (OID), including autoimmune disorders. This is an international (Sheffield, UK, and Singapore) collaborative, retrospective case review of 69 patients (38 from Singapore National Eye Centre and 31 from Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) with orbital inflammatory biopsies between 2002 and 2016. Clinical information and histology were reviewed and cases were classified into three groups: Group 1: IgG4-RD orbital inflammation (n=43); Group 2: idiopathic OID (n=12) and Group 3: autoimmune OID (n=14). Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were collated where available and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tissue IgG2 plasma cells was performed. Dual IHC showed IgG2 plasma cells as a distinct population from IgG4 plasma cells. Significant (twofold) serum IgG2 elevation was noted among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic (group 2) and autoimmune OID (group 3). Similarly, significant elevation of tissue IgG2 plasma cells was also seen among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic and autoimmune OID (groups 2 and 3). Significant elevations of serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cells are present in orbital IgG4-RD in comparison with non-IgG4 orbital inflammation (idiopathic and autoimmune OID), suggesting that IgG2 may play a role in IgG4-RD. A serum IgG2 cut-off >5.3 g/L was found to be 80% sensitive and 91.7% specific for orbital IgG4-RD, with an accuracy of 0.90. Tissue IgG2 and IgG4 subclass reporting may provide additional insight regarding the 'IgG4-RD' pathogenesis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  15. Normalization of elevated cardiac, kidney, and hemolysis plasma markers within 48 h in Mexican Tarahumara runners following a 78 km race at moderate altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a 78 km race in Chihuahua, Mexico at 2,400 m above sea level. Cardiac, kidney, and hematology plasma markers were measured pre-race and h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-race. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, electrocardiography, HbA1c, hemoglobin and VO2max (estimated from...... the race was 68 (11)%VO2 max. Mean SpO2 was 92 (3)% h post-race, but had returned to pre-race values after 48 h....... The plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natiuretic peptide and copeptin returned to pre-race concentrations after 1 and 6 h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Altered cardiac, renal, and hemolysis plasma markers were normalized after 48 h following 78 km of running, suggesting that the impact...

  16. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  17. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  19. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  20. The follow-up of patients of sixty-five years of age and younger with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks, and elevated D-dimer levels in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Vrethem

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available D-dimer levels in plasma, a degradation product of fibrin, have been shown to correlate with the severity of ischemic stroke. In order to investigate the outcome of patients with elevated D-dimer we have carried out a follow-up study of patients of 65 years of age and younger with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA admitted to our stroke unit from 1991 to 1992. Twenty-two of the 57 patients had elevated D-dimer levels in the plasma. High levels were associated with cardioembolic stroke. On follow-up after a mean of 12 years, 15 patients had died and six patients had suffered another stroke or TIA (three of whom were dead. Ten patients had suffered other cardiovascular events and seven of them were dead. We concluded that high levels of D-dimer in acute ischemic stroke patients on admission were associated with cardioembolic stroke and might have prognostic value for the development of further cardio- or cerebrovascular events. Advanced age was found to be an independent risk factor.

  1. Plasma Ang2 and ADAM17 levels are elevated during clinical malaria; Ang2 level correlates with severity and expression of EPCR-binding PfEMP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens E V; Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Vaaben, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria involves a complex interplay between parasite adhesion and inflammatory response that includes release of cytokines and activation of the endothelium with accompanying release of Angiopoitin 2 (Ang2) to the plasma. A-disintegrin and metalloprotein...

  2. Temporal course of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in angioplasty-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and potential significance of concomitant heparin administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian J; Oxvig, Claus; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a putative plaque instability marker. In acute coronary syndromes, the disrupted culprit plaque contains abundant PAPP-A, and circulating PAPP-A levels predict clinical outcomes. Determinants of circulating PAPP-A levels, however, are not fully...

  3. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  4. Elevated plasma surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels and a direct correlation with anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-specific IgG antibody in SARS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y P; Liu, Z H; Wei, R

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS-type pneum......Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS......-type pneumonia and the SARS-specific IgG response. Sixteen patients with SARS, 19 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (Streptococcus pneumonia) and 16 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Plasma SP-D and anti-SARS-CoV N protein IgG were measured using ELISA. SP-D was significantly...... elevated in SARS-type pneumonia [median (95% CI), 453 (379-963) ng/ml versus controls 218 (160-362) ng/ml, P protein IgG (r(2) = 0.5995, P = 0.02). The possible re-emergence of SARS or SARS-like infections suggests a need...

  5. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  6. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  7. SLARette Mark 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs

  8. Binge drinking and total alcohol consumption from 16 to 43 years of age are associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose in women: results from the northern Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Karina; Hammarström, Anne; Rolandsson, Olov

    2017-06-08

    Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43. Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires. Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43. Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.

  9. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  10. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...... echocardiographically determined averaged E/é ratio/diastolic function, LVMI, cardiovascular risk factors, and FPG categorized as normal (NFG), impaired (IFG), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), in 483 men and 208 women aged 56-79years without overt cardiovascular disease, who received no cardiovascular, anti...

  11. Elevated levels of plasma von Willebrand factor and the risk of macro- and microvascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, P; Vedel, P; Parving, H H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the concept suggesting that microalbuminuria in combination with high levels of plasma von Willebrand factor is a stronger predictor for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications than microalbuminuria alone in type 2 diabetic...... patients. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and persistent microalbuminuria were followed for an average of 3.8 (SD 0.3) years. 70% of the patients were treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. Patients in this subanalysis were divided into two groups...... nephropathy or progression in diabetic retinopathy than microalbuminuria alone in patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria....

  12. Plasma amino acid levels are elevated in young, healthy low birth weight men exposed to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Hellgren, Lars; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals exhibit a disproportionately increased, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and a decreased glucose oxidation, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals, and furthermore have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We...... and after a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW and NBW men increased plasma alanine levels and decreased valine and leucine/isoleucine levels in response to overfeeding. Also, LBW men had higher alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after overfeeding...

  13. Study on the rhythmic variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wu Guo; Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the rhythmic fluctuation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with EH and CHD. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were determined with RIA at 8Am, 4Pm and midnight in 61 patients with EH, 46 patients with CHD and 36 controls. Results: The normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern of plasma cortisol levels was retained in the EH and CHD patients. However, the levels were all significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls, especially in the midnight specimens. Conclusion: Marked elevated plasma cortisol levels were observed in patients with EH and CHD, with the normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern retained. (authors)

  14. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Inhibition Reduces Hepatic Steatosis but Elevates Plasma Triglycerides in Mice and Humans: A Bedside to Bench Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chai-Wan; Addy, Carol; Kusunoki, Jun; Anderson, Norma N; Deja, Stanislaw; Fu, Xiaorong; Burgess, Shawn C; Li, Cai; Ruddy, Marcie; Chakravarthy, Manu; Previs, Steve; Milstein, Stuart; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Kelley, David E; Horton, Jay D

    2017-08-01

    Inhibiting lipogenesis prevents hepatic steatosis in rodents with insulin resistance. To determine if reducing lipogenesis functions similarly in humans, we developed MK-4074, a liver-specific inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) and (ACC2), enzymes that produce malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis. MK-4074 administered to subjects with hepatic steatosis for 1 month lowered lipogenesis, increased ketones, and reduced liver triglycerides by 36%. Unexpectedly, MK-4074 increased plasma triglycerides by 200%. To further investigate, mice that lack ACC1 and ACC2 in hepatocytes (ACC dLKO) were generated. Deletion of ACCs decreased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations in liver due to reduced malonyl-CoA, which is required for elongation of essential fatty acids. PUFA deficiency induced SREBP-1c, which increased GPAT1 expression and VLDL secretion. PUFA supplementation or siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPAT1 normalized plasma triglycerides. Thus, inhibiting lipogenesis in humans reduced hepatic steatosis, but inhibiting ACC resulted in hypertriglyceridemia due to activation of SREBP-1c and increased VLDL secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  16. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A.S.; Peshkov, L.P.; Rozin, M.M.; Shestov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, a flap, a lock with a catch and a spring-loaded shut-off clamp in the form of upper and lower horizontal levers which are connected by a handle and an axle and one end of which is made in the form of an eccentric cam. The size of the eccentricity of the cam of the levers is increased toward the handle of the clamp in order to increase the operational reliability and to extend the service life.

  17. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  18. Elevation of Plasma TGF-β1 During Radiation Therapy Predicts Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Combined Analysis From Beijing and Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lujun; Wang Luhua; Ji Wei; Wang Xiaozhen; Zhu Xiangzhi; Hayman, James A.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Yang Weizhi; Brenner, Dean; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Kong, F.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether radiation-induced elevations of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) during radiation therapy (RT) correlate with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the ability of mean lung dose (MLD) to improve the predictive power. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with Stage I-III NSCLC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy. Platelet-poor plasma was obtained pre-RT and at 4-5 weeks (40-50 Gy) during RT. TGF-β1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint was ≥ Grade 2 RILT. Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression, and chi-square were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 165 patients were enrolled in this study. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy, and the median MLD was 15.3 Gy. Twenty-nine patients (17.6%) experienced RILT. The incidence of RILT was 46.2% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio > 1 vs. 7.9% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio ≤ 1 (p 20 Gy vs. 17.4% if MLD ≤ 20 Gy (p = 0.024). The incidence was 4.3% in patients with a TGF-β1 ratio ≤ 1 and MLD ≤ 20 Gy, 47.4% in those with a TGF-β1 ratio >1 or MLD > 20 Gy, and 66.7% in those with a TGF-β1 ratio >1 and MLD > 20 Gy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiation-induced elevation of plasma TGF-β1 level during RT is predictive of RILT. The combination of TGF- β1 and MLD may help stratify the patients for their risk of RILT.

  19. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  20. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  1. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, Dirk L.; Dik, Willem A.; Schreurs, Marco W. J.

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml) versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml), p CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (89.5%). Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS. PMID:28634419

  2. Elevated pulmonary arterial and systemic plasma aldosterone levels associate with impaired cardiac reserve capacity during exercise in left ventricular systolic heart failure patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Bradley A; Stephens, Thomas E; Farrell, Laurie A; Oldham, William M; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are a modifiable contributor to clinical worsening in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is increased in HFrEF, induces pulmonary endothelial aldosterone synthesis in vitro. However, whether transpulmonary aldosterone release occurs in humans or aldosterone relates to functional capacity in HFrEF is not known. Therefore, we aimed to characterize ET-1 and transpulmonary aldosterone levels in HFrEF and determine if aldosterone levels relate to peak volume of oxygen uptake (pVO2). Data from 42 consecutive HFrEF patients and 18 controls referred for invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing were analyzed retrospectively. Radial ET-1 levels (median [interquartile range]) were higher in HFrEF patients compared with controls (17.5 [11.5-31.4] vs 11.5 [4.4-19.0] pg/ml, p = 0.04). A significant ET-1 transpulmonary gradient (pulmonary arterial [PA] - radial arterial levels) was present in HFrEF (p reserve capacity in HFrEF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F-2 alpha in maternal plasma during prepartum luteolysis and parturition in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W; Isaman, L; Frank, D A; Michel, F J; Currie, W B

    1988-09-01

    Concentrations of progesterone and of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in plasma collected from 6 bitches every 3 h starting 2.8-4.6 days before parturition (birth of first pup) and continuing until 0.4-0.8 days post partum, and in additional samples collected less frequently. Progesterone concentrations at 48, 24, 12 and 3 h pre partum averaged 2.8 +/- 0.3, 2.2 +/- 0.4, 1.0 +/- 0.3 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml. At those times PGFM values averaged 380 +/- 80, 800 +/- 220, 1450 +/- 450 and 1930 +/- 580 pg/ml, respectively. Mean concentrations of PGFM increased about 2.5-fold between 48 and 15 h pre partum in association with the onset of luteolysis, and then increased another 2.5 times before parturition as progesterone fell to nadir values. Peak levels of PGFM ranged from 1060 to 7150 pg/ml (2100 +/- 600 pg/ml) and occurred within 1-9 h after the birth of the first pup and before the birth of the last pup. These results suggest that prepartum luteolysis in dogs is initiated by increases in maternal concentrations of PGF, and that progesterone withdrawal causes a further increase in PGF which completes luteolysis and provides a major portion of the uterotonic activity causing expulsion of pups.

  5. Elevated plasma YKL-40 predicts increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and decreased survival after any cancer diagnosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.S.; Bojesen, S.E.; Mylin, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    ,899 subjects (20 to 95 years) from the Danish general population, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, observed for 11 years for cancer incidence and 14 years for death: 1,432 participants had a first incident cancer, 968 of these died. Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer events and death after events according...... to plasma YKL-40 in sex and 10 years age percentile categories: 0% to 33%, 34% to 66%, 67% to 90%, 91% to 95%, and 96% to 100%. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of gastrointestinal cancer increased with increasing YKL-40 (trend P ....0 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5) for YKL-40 in category 34% to 66%, 1.5 for 67% to 90% (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.3), 2.4 for 91% to 95%, (95% CI, 1.3 to 4.6), and 3.4 for 96% to 100% (95% CI, 1.9 to 6.1) versus YKL-40 category 0% to 33% (P any cancer event and YKL-40 category 91% to 100% had...

  6. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  7. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D. Bharwani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml, p<0.001, resp.. Furthermore, sIL-2R level seems to be a good discriminator between CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (89.5%. Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS.

  8. Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 Zahara Ali,1,2 Ghulam Mohammad,3 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, 2Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 3Department of Medicine, SNM Hospital, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p against adapted highlanders (HLs and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c. For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP, were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Increased levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and TNFα were observed in HAPE-p against the healthy groups, HAPE-c, and HLs (P<0.0001. CRP levels were decreased in HAPE-p against HAPE-c and HLs (P<0.0001. There was no significant difference or very marginal difference in the levels of these biomarkers in HAPE-c and HLs (P>0.01. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between epinephrine and norepinephrine (P=4.6E-06 in HAPE-p and positive correlation in HAPE-c (P=0.004 and HLs (P=9.78E-07. A positive correlation was observed between TNFα and CRP (P=0.004 in HAPE-p and a negative correlation in HAPE-c (P=4.6E-06. SaO2 correlated negatively with platelet-derived growth factor beta beta (HAPE-p; P=0.05, norepinephrine (P=0.01, and TNFα (P=0.005 and

  9. Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lundåsen

    Full Text Available Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2 and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c. Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

  10. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  11. Plasma Membrane Ca2+-Permeable Channels are Differentially Regulated by Ethylene and Hydrogen Peroxide to Generate Persistent Plumes of Elevated Cytosolic Ca2+ During Transfer Cell Trans-Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-ming; van Helden, Dirk F; McCurdy, David W; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2015-09-01

    The enhanced transport capability of transfer cells (TCs) arises from their ingrowth wall architecture comprised of a uniform wall on which wall ingrowths are deposited. The wall ingrowth papillae provide scaffolds to amplify plasma membranes that are enriched in nutrient transporters. Using Vicia faba cotyledons, whose adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously and rapidly (hours) undergo a synchronous TC trans-differentiation upon transfer to culture, has led to the discovery of a cascade of inductive signals orchestrating deposition of ingrowth wall papillae. Auxin-induced ethylene biosynthesis initiates the cascade. This in turn drives a burst in extracellular H2O2 production that triggers uniform wall deposition. Thereafter, a persistent and elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, resulting from Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels, generates a Ca(2+) signal that directs formation of wall ingrowth papillae to specific loci. We now report how these Ca(2+)-permeable channels are regulated using the proportionate responses in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration as a proxy measure of their transport activity. Culturing cotyledons on various combinations of pharmacological agents allowed the regulatory influence of each upstream signal on Ca(2+) channel activity to be evaluated. The findings demonstrated that Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity was insensitive to auxin, but up-regulated by ethylene through two independent routes. In one route ethylene acts directly on Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, through an ethylene receptor-dependent pathway. The other route is mediated by an ethylene-induced production of extracellular H2O2 which then acts translationally and post-translationally to up-regulate Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity. A model describing the differential regulation of Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity is presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  12. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  13. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  14. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  15. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  16. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  17. Genetically elevated bilirubin and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Whether this is a causal relationship remains unclear.......Elevated plasma levels of bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Whether this is a causal relationship remains unclear....

  18. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  19. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  20. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • January 2012. 25 ... impact on mental health and that the outcomes of certain mental .... Accuracy and precision of biochemical tests were ..... Reynolds EH Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine.

  1. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  2. A case of thyroid storm with multiple organ failure effectively treated with plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Yoshida, Akira; Nakata, Yukiko; Mizote, Isamu; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2011-01-01

    We describe a 48-year-old man with thyroid storm presenting with heart failure. He presented severely impaired left ventricular wall motion and a marked increase in the liver enzymes. He developed disseminated intravascular coagulation on day 2. Due to elevated serum thyroid hormone level, anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibody positivity, and his clinical symptoms, he was diagnosed as thyroid storm due to untreated Graves' disease. His condition did not improve even after 6 days of conventional therapy including steroids. After therapeutic plasma exchange was carried out, his thyroid hormone level decreased markedly. Consequently, his condition recovered gradually, and he was discharged at day 43.

  3. Effect to the Glycolit which the glucose absorption marked with a 14 C in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleitas Estevez, Andres; Simon Carballo, Rafael; Coma Alfonso, Cristina; Derivet Zarzabal, Milagros

    2001-01-01

    It has been proved that glicolit, a product obtained from natural zeolites, delays the intestinal absorption of glucose and prevents the elevation of its level in blood in the postprandial periods. The authors go deep into the knowledge of the mechanism of action of glicolit as an antihyperglycemic agent by using a radioisotopic technique, since these techniques are very specific and have a certain independence of the environment in which the absorption and incorporation of glucose to blood occurs. l5 rats were studied. They were administered a preparation of glucose marked with a 14 C during fasting. 6 of them received only this preparation (group 1, control) and the other 6 were given this preparation combined with glicolit (group 2). Blood was extracted at different times to measure glucose in plasma by radioactive counts. Differences were observed between both groups of rats in the areas under the curves of absorption of glucose, which shows the usefulness of the this method to measure the antihyperglycemic effect of glicolit. The results obtained by the radioisotopic method with glucose marked with a 14 C confirm what has been reported in previous papers and allow us to advance in the study of this possible drug, on having an efficient method

  4. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  5. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  6. Laser marking method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Mukai, Narihiko; Sano, Yuji; Yamamoto, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)

  7. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  8. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  9. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  10. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  11. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  13. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  14. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  15. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  16. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  17. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  18. Procedure for marking, encryption, labelling and optical coding

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco, Ángel; Rodríguez-González, Agustín; Sánchez Valencia, Juan Ramón; Aparicio, Francisco J.; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona Krystina; Holgado Bolaños, Miguel; Casquel del Campo, Rafael; Ocaña, J. L.; Molpeceres, C.; García-Ballesteros Ramírez, Juan José; Morales Furió, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    [EN] It permits marking or recording motifs (301) on surfaces whereon there has been deposited previously a fluorescent polymer layer (300) through a procedure of plasma polymerisation (100) of molecules of a colourant. The procedure combines the special characteristics of the polymer layers making them suitable for being capable of recording diverse motifs (301) thereon, and the possibility of recording by laser (10 1) or other techniques. Among such characteristics s...

  19. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  20. Evaluation of IgG4+ Plasma Cell Infiltration in Patients with Systemic Plasmacytosis and Other Plasma Cell-infiltrating Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Takeoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic plasmacytosis is a rare skin disorder characterized by marked infiltration of plasma cells in the dermis. IgG4-related disease is pathologically characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis, accompanied by elevated levels of serum IgG4. Reports of cases of systemic plasmacytosis with abundant infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells has led to discussion about the relationship between systemic plasmacytosis and IgG4-related disease. This study examined IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratios in 4 patients with systemic plasmacytosis and 12 patients with other skin diseases that show marked infiltration of plasma cells. Furthermore, we examined whether these cases met one of the pathological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease (i.e. IgG4+/IgG plasma cells ratio of over 40%. Only one out of 4 patients with systemic plasmacytosis met the criterion. These results suggest that systemic plasmacytosis and IgG4-related disease are distinct diseases.

  1. Plasma serotonin level is a predictor for recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of plasma serotonin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative plasma serotonin levels of 150 healthy control (HC) cases, 150 benign colorectal polyp (BCP) cases, and 176 CRC cases were determined using radioimmunoassay assay. Serotonin levels were compared between HC, BCP, and CRC cases, and those in CRC patients were related to 5-year outcome. Plasma serotonin levels were markedly higher in CRC patients than in either HCs or BCP cases. An elevated serotonin level was significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the level of serotonin had a high predictive value for disease recurrence and mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that high serotonin level was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that a high peri-operative plasma serotonin level is useful as a prognostic biomarker for CRC recurrence and poor survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  3. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  4. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-01-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  6. Obtention of the ponderomotive force in the mark of the kinetic theory in the injection of high power in a plasma; Obtencion de la fuerza ponderomotriz en el marco de la teoria cinetica en la inyeccion de alta potencia en un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cgt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    To reach the quasi stationary work regime of a Tokamak, it is necessary to optimize the current generation by non inductive methods with the injection of radio-frequency waves (RF), such as the electron cyclotron waves, cyclo ion, and in the inferior hybrid one. At the moment, the powers of the radiation sources are very big for what the such no-lineal effects as the ponderomotive force are very important. In the case of the electron cyclotron waves, in the mark of the lineal theory of waves propagation, using extraordinary waves (first and second harmonic), the problem of the singularity always arises in the exact resonance. One of the ways of eliminating this singularity is considering that the group of electrons under resonance conditions is big (quasi lineal theory) or introducing such non lineal effects such as the ponderomotive force. In the obtaining of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions this indetermination arises also. In this work the kinetic theory to obtain the expression of the ponderomotive force in the cyclotron resonance of the electrons, where the Vlasov kinetic equation expands up to second order with regard to the electric field of the RF wave. The kinetic approach allows to the analysis of the ponderomotive force under resonance conditions considering the Landau integration method. (Author)

  7. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  8. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  9. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  10. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  11. Marked hyperandrogenicity in a 60-year-old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Aljenaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Markedly elevated androgen levels can lead to clinical virilization in females. Clinical features of virilization in a female patient, in association with biochemical hyperandrogenism, should prompt a search for an androgen-producing tumor, especially of ovarian or adrenal origin. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old woman of Pakistani origin who presented with the incidental finding of male pattern baldness and hirsutism. Her serum testosterone level was markedly elevated at 21 nmol/L (normal range: 0.4–1.7 nmol/L, while her DHEAS level was normal, indicating a likely ovarian source of her elevated testosterone. Subsequently, a CT abdomen-pelvis was performed, which revealed a bulky right ovary, confirmed on MRI of the pelvis as an enlarged right ovary, measuring 2.9 × 2.2 cm transaxially. A laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of a Leydig cell tumor, a rare tumor accounting for 0.1% of ovarian tumors. Surgical resection led to normalization of testosterone levels.

  12. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  13. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  14. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the vessel. (2) The type of vessel. (3) Specific purpose or limitation approved by the Coast Guard...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-23 Marking. (a) General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be marked with the information required by this section. Each marking must be...

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  16. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  17. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  18. Electric field measurements in moving ionization fronts during plasma breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved, direct measurements of electric field strengths in moving ionization fronts during the breakdown phase of a pulsed plasma. Plasma breakdown, or plasma ignition, is a highly transient process marking the transition from a gas to a plasma. Some aspects of plasma

  19. Science on a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Jorgensen, A. M. (Anders M.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane

  20. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  1. A condition closely mimicking IgG4-related disease despite the absence of serum IgG4 elevation and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Fujita, Kentaro; Harada, Kenichi; Matsumura, Masami; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with systemic fibroinflammatory conditions closely resembling those of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Radiology and histology showed characteristics of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, despite normal serum IgG4 value and scanty IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in each organ. This case suggests that a condition closely mimicking IgG4-RD may develop without IgG4-positive plasma cells and those exceptional cases should also be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  2. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser marking of alumina using near infrared (NIR) lasers was experimentally analyzed. • Color change produced by NIR lasers is due to thermally induced oxygen vacancies. • Laser marking results obtained using NIR lasers and green laser are compared. • High contrast marks on alumina were achieved. - Abstract: Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks

  3. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  4. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  5. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, P; Tarnow, L; Oestergaard, P B

    2000-01-01

    patients with and without proliferative retinopathy were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that VEGF is elevated early in the course of diabetic nephropathy in men with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Baseline albuminuria, arterial blood pressure and male gender was predictors of diabetic nephropathy......BACKGROUND: Growth factors have been suggested to play a role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine family that induces angiogenesis and markedly increases endothelial permeability. The aim of the present study...... was to investigate plasma levels of VEGF in a large cohort of type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in long-standing type 1 diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria, and to evaluate VEGF as a predictor of nephropathy progression. METHODS: We measured VEGF with an enzyme...

  6. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0±0.6 pg/ml, 4.7±0.2 pg/ml and 6.5±1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6±2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 μmol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin

  7. Effects of Prolastin C (Plasma-Derived Alpha-1 Antitrypsin) on the acute inflammatory response in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the VCU-alpha 1-RT pilot study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbate, A.; Tassell, B.W. Van; Christopher, S.; Abouzaki, N.A.; Sonnino, C.; Oddi, C.; Carbone, S.; Melchior, R.D.; Gambill, M.L.; Roberts, C.S.; Kontos, M.C.; Peberdy, M.A.; Toldo, S.; Vetrovec, G.W.; Biondi-Zoccai, G.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties in addition to inhibiting serine proteases. Administration of human plasma-derived AAT is protective in models of acute myocardial infarction in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and

  8. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mark II magnetic detector for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mark II Detector, presently in the design stage, is a SLAC/LBL detector project to replace the Mark I now in operation at SPEAR. While similar in concept to the Mark I it will have improved momentum resolution, shower detection, solid angle coverage for both triggering and tracking and a magnet design providing easier access to those particles transmitted through the aluminum coil

  10. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  11. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  12. Changes in plasma and urinary nitrite after birth in premature infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Priti; Jones, Jesica; Wolfe, Craig; Deming, Douglas D.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma nitrite serves as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Because nitrite ingestion is markedly lower in newborns than adults, we hypothesized plasma nitrite levels would be lower in newborns than in adults, and that infants diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a disease characterized by ischemia and bacterial invasion of intestinal walls, would have lower levels of circulating nitrite in the days prior to diagnosis. Methods Single blood and urine samples were collected from 9 term infants and 12 adults, 72 preterm infants every 5 d for 3 wk, and from 13 lambs before and after cord occlusion. Results Nitrite fell 50% relative to cord levels in the first day after birth; and within 15 min after cord occlusion in lambs. Urinary nitrite was higher in infants than adults. Plasma and urinary nitrite levels in infants who developed NEC were similar to those of preterm control infants on days 1 and 5, but significantly elevated at 15 and 20 d after birth. Conclusion Plasma nitrite falls dramatically at birth while newborn urinary nitrite levels are significantly greater than adults. Acute NEC is associated with elevated plasma and urinary nitrite levels. PMID:26539663

  13. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records... back cover, including a binder cover or folder, if the document has a front and back cover; (2) Any.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  14. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  15. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic liquid). Marked rated holding marking for additional cryogenic liquids may be displayed on or adjacent to the...

  16. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of the...

  17. Do employers prefer Mark over Mohammed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Eline Nievers; Laila Faulk; Jaco Dagevos

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Liever Mark dan Mohammed? Does Mohammed have less chance of succeeding on the Dutch labour market than Mark, even though they both have the same qualifications and work experience? And are employers less friendly towards Sonaya than Paula? This study investigates the

  18. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions except...

  19. Elevated phenylacetic acid levels do not correlate with adverse events in patients with urea cycle disorders or hepatic encephalopathy and can be predicted based on the plasma PAA to PAGN ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Berry, S A; Lichter-Konecki, U; Feigenbaum, A; Schulze, A; Longo, N; Bartley, J; Berquist, W; Gallagher, R; Smith, W; McCandless, S E; Harding, C; Rockey, D C; Vierling, J M; Mantry, P; Ghabril, M; Brown, R S; Dickinson, K; Moors, T; Norris, C; Coakley, D; Milikien, D A; Nagamani, S C; Lemons, C; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2013-12-01

    Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is the active moiety in sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB, HPN-100). Both are approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) - rare genetic disorders characterized by hyperammonemia. PAA is conjugated with glutamine in the liver to form phenylacetyleglutamine (PAGN), which is excreted in urine. PAA plasma levels ≥ 500 μg/dL have been reported to be associated with reversible neurological adverse events (AEs) in cancer patients receiving PAA intravenously. Therefore, we have investigated the relationship between PAA levels and neurological AEs in patients treated with these PAA pro-drugs as well as approaches to identifying patients most likely to experience high PAA levels. The relationship between nervous system AEs, PAA levels and the ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN were examined in 4683 blood samples taken serially from: [1] healthy adults [2], UCD patients of ≥ 2 months of age, and [3] patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The plasma ratio of PAA to PAGN was analyzed with respect to its utility in identifying patients at risk of high PAA values. Only 0.2% (11) of 4683 samples exceeded 500 μg/ml. There was no relationship between neurological AEs and PAA levels in UCD or HE patients, but transient AEs including headache and nausea that correlated with PAA levels were observed in healthy adults. Irrespective of population, a curvilinear relationship was observed between PAA levels and the plasma PAA:PAGN ratio, and a ratio>2.5 (both in μg/mL) in a random blood draw identified patients at risk for PAA levels>500 μg/ml. The presence of a relationship between PAA levels and reversible AEs in healthy adults but not in UCD or HE patients may reflect intrinsic differences among the populations and/or metabolic adaptation with continued dosing. The plasma PAA:PAGN ratio is a functional measure of the rate of PAA metabolism and represents a useful dosing biomarker. © 2013.

  20. Elevated temperature fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics concepts to cracks at elevated temperatures is examined. Particular consideration is given to the characterisation of crack tip stress-strain fields and parameters controlling crack extension under static and cyclic loads. (author)

  1. Markedly Elevated Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide/Carbamazepine Ratio in a Fatal Carbamazepine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is a widely used anticonvulsant. Its metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, has been found to display similar anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties. While the ratio of parent to metabolite concentration varies significantly, at therapeutic doses the epoxide concentration is generally about 20% of the parent. We report a case of fatal carbamazepine overdose in which the epoxide metabolite concentration was found to be 450% higher than the parent compound, suggesting a potential role for metabolite quantification in severe toxicity.

  2. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  3. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  4. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Herrrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Roggenthien, Maren; Nolte, Kathleen; Pieske, Burkert; Wachter, Rolf; Edelmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1) is linked to anxiety. Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2%) who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410), there were 118 subjects (8.4%) with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013). In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β) = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067-0.914, p = 0.036). Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β) = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023-0.566, p = 0.008). Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways.

  5. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    Full Text Available The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1 is linked to anxiety.Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2% who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire.Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410, there were 118 subjects (8.4% with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013. In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067-0.914, p = 0.036. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023-0.566, p = 0.008.Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways.

  6. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  7. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  8. Changing Context of Trade Mark Protection in India: A Review of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2004-01-01

    With liberalisation and globalisation of the Indian economy, it has become possible for anyone to get into production and services in most of the sectors. This has led to rampant misuse and appropriation of trade marks. In an insulated economy, with monopoly markets, law protecting trade marks had a limited role. In the changed context, however, trade mark law will be a field of much interest for academics and practitioners. Towards this, the paper explores the formation of trade mark law in ...

  9. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  10. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  11. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  12. First results from Mark III at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsweiler, K.F.

    The paper presents data on meson decays obtained using the MARK III detector operating at SPEAR. Results on hadronic decays; decays of the etasub(e); and results on radiative decays; are all described. (U.K.)

  13. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  14. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  15. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “To Close, Press Together Full Length”. The marking may be applied to the container by the silk screen process, using a suitable ink or paint, or may be applied by other means shown to be acceptable. (b...

  16. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eddy current examination combined with a visual inspection, the marking is as illustrated in paragraph..., securely affixed in a manner prescribed by the cylinder manufacturer, near the original manufacturer's...

  17. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  19. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  20. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  1. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoforms composition regulates cellular pH homeostasis in differentiating PC12 cells in a manner dependent on cytosolic Ca2+ elevations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boczek, Tomasz; Lisek, Malwina; Ferenc, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    isoforms (PMCA1-4) but only PMCA2 and PMCA3, due to their unique localization and features, perform more specialized function. Using differentiated PC12 cells we assessed the role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in the regulation of intracellular pH in steady-state conditions and during Ca2+ overload evoked by 59 m....... In steady-state conditions, higher TMRE uptake in PMCA2-knockdown line was driven by plasma membrane potential (Ψp). Nonetheless, mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) in this line was dissipated during Ca2+ overload. Cyclosporin and bongkrekic acid prevented Ψm loss suggesting the involvement of Ca2......+-driven opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore as putative underlying mechanism. The findings presented here demonstrate a crucial role of PMCA2 and PMCA3 in regulation of cellular pH and indicate PMCA membrane composition important for preservation of electrochemical gradient...

  2. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  3. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  4. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  5. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  6. Basic conditions for radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin, and plasma levels of erythropoietin in normal subjects and anemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Ueda, Masatsugu; Sasaki, Ryuzou; Chiba, Hideo

    1987-02-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin. The sensitivity of our assay is 0.5 mU or 5 mU/ml and is sufficient to detect normal plasma erythropoietin levels. The mean plasma erythropoietin titer of normal Japanese with our radioimmunoassay was found to be 21.9 +- 12.0 mU/ml (n = 199). The validity of the method was further confirmed by the observations that the plasma erythropoietin titers were inversely related to hemoglobin levels in patients with nonuremic anemias, lower in uremic patients than in patients with nonuremic anemias with similar hemoglobin levels, markedly elevated in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia, and in a low normal range in patients with polycythemia vera.

  7. Relations between plasma oxytocin and cortisol: The stress buffering role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn J. McQuaid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.

  8. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  9. Elevated 1-hour postload plasma glucose levels identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance but impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and worse cardiovascular risk profile: the GENFIEV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Cristina; Miccoli, Roberto; Trombetta, Maddalena; Giorgino, Francesco; Frontoni, Simona; Faloia, Emanuela; Marchesini, Giulio; Dolci, Maria A; Cavalot, Franco; Cavallo, Gisella; Leonetti, Frida; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Del Prato, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    In subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) of >155 mg/dL predicts type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate β-cell function, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile in subjects with NGT with a 1-h OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL. The GENFIEV (Genetics, PHYsiopathology, and Evolution of Type 2 diabetes) study is a multicenter study recruiting individuals at high risk of T2DM. A total of 926 subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT for assessment of plasma glucose and C-peptide for mathematical modeling of β-cell function (derivative and proportional control). Fasting insulin, lipid profile, and clinical parameters were determined as well. A 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL was found in 39% of subjects with NGT, 76% with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 90% with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 99% and 98% with IFG + IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM, respectively. Among subjects with NGT (n = 474), those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL were more insulin-resistant and had worse β-cell function than those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Moreover, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were higher in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower compared with that in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Compared with subjects with IGT, those with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL had comparable cardiovascular risk profile and insulin resistance but slightly better β-cell function. Among subjects with NGT, those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL showed lower insulin sensitivity, impaired β-cell function, and worse cardiovascular risk profile and therefore are at greater risk of developing T2DM and cardiovascular disease.

  10. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  11. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  12. Corn oil improves the plasma lipoprotein lipid profile compared with extra-virgin olive oil consumption in men and women with elevated cholesterol: results from a randomized controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Kaden, Valerie N; Geiger, Constance J; Dicklin, Mary R

    2015-01-01

    Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids is emphasized in heart-healthy diets, and replacement with poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids is encouraged. To compare the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich corn oil (CO) and monounsaturated fatty acid-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) on plasma lipids in men and women (N = 54) with fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL and consumption away from the clinic. Baseline mean (standard error) lipids in mg/dL were: LDL-C 153.3 (3.5), total cholesterol (total-C) 225.7 (3.9), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C 178.3 (3.7), HDL-C 47.4 (1.7), total-C/HDL-C 5.0 (0.2), and TG 124.8 (7.2). CO resulted in significantly larger least-squares mean % changes (all P Consumption of CO in a weight-maintenance, low saturated fat and cholesterol diet resulted in more favorable changes in LDL-C and other atherogenic lipids vs EVOO. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-11-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  15. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  16. Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Vlug, Pauline; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-09-01

    Treatment with olanzapine is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Reports have indicated that orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) cause less weight gain than oral standard tablets (OST). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short-term treatment with these 2 distinct olanzapine formulations on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy men. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SEM age: 25.1 ± 5.5 years) received olanzapine ODT (10 mg od, 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg od, 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and triglyceride concentrations were measured at 10-minute intervals from 30 minutes prior to 2 hours after ingestion of standard meals. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured at 20- and 30-minute intervals, respectively, between 0000h-1200h. Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer. Fuel oxidation was measured in fasting condition by indirect calorimetry. The study was conducted from April 2006 through September 2006. Treatment with olanzapine ODT and OST equally elevated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005). At breakfast, both formulations equally increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = .013 and P = .005, respectively) while decreasing fasting and postprandial FFA concentrations (P = .004 and P = .009, respectively). Body weight, body composition, physical activity, or fuel oxidation did not differ between treatment modalities. Eight days of treatment with both olanzapine formulations similarly increased HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and decreased FFA concentrations in response to standard meals without affecting anthropometrics or physical activity. These data suggest that olanzapine hampers insulin action via mechanistic routes other than body adiposity or physical inactivity. controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN17632637. © Copyright

  17. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  18. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  19. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G.; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  20. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  1. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO 2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  2. THE MARK I BUSINESS SYSTEM SIMULATION MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    of a large-scale business simulation model as a vehicle for doing research in management controls. The major results of the program were the...development of the Mark I business simulation model and the Simulation Package (SIMPAC). SIMPAC is a method and set of programs facilitating the construction...of large simulation models. The object of this document is to describe the Mark I Corporation model, state why parts of the business were modeled as they were, and indicate the research applications of the model. (Author)

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  4. Plasma YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Wiell, C; Milting, K

    2013-01-01

    Background  Plasma YKL-40 is an inflammatory biomarker. No useful biomarker exists in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Objective  To measure YKL-40 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis before and during treatment. Methods......-CRP at inclusion and during 48 weeks of adalimumab treatment. The patients with psoriatic arthritis were divided into responders and non-responders. Results  In patients with psoriasis, the baseline median PASI score was 10.8 and baseline YKL-40 was 45 μg/L. Seventeen per cent had elevated plasma YKL-40 compared...

  5. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  6. Regionaalpoliitika ja arhitektuur / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar

    1999-01-01

    Kagu-Eesti Regionaalarengu Programmi raames Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuurikateedri IV kursuse eriala valikaines 1998/99 tehtud tööst "HyperMobiilne Reaalsus & Kagu Eesti" (juhendajad Ralf Tamm, Ülar Mark). Ühises töös osalesid Tartu Ülikooli geograafiatudengid (juhendaja Rein Ahas). 4 illustratsiooni

  7. Nekroloog turundusele / Mark Earls ; interv. Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Earls, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Turunduskommunikatsioonifirma Ogilvy & Mather suunajuht Mark Earls leiab, et kuna turg on üle ujutatud võrdselt heade toodetega ja tarbija teab, et tegelikult pole oluline, millise toote ta valib, muutub turundusrevolutsiooni keskne idee - tarbijavajaduste kindlakstegemine ja rahuldamine - tähtsusetuks.

  8. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must... limitation statement on the bottom, of— (1) The outside of any front and back cover, including a binder cover... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  9. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear

  10. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  11. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... question, eliciting answers that range from Mark as in direct and open ... or armed response, especially in a context where such actions were unrealistic. (whether ..... identity; social memory; to name a few) of power. It implies ... an elite-driven enterprise in the simplistic sense of the word, although the elite's ...

  12. First results from Mark II at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Blocker, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    First results from the SLAC-LBL Mark II magnetic detector at SPEAR are presented. The performance of the detector is discussed and preliminary results are given on inclusive baryon production R/sub p + anti p/, R/sub Λ + anti Λ/, on decay modes of the D mesons and on two-photon production of eta' mesons

  13. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... permanently affixed to the exterior surface of the barrel, covering the circumference of the barrel from the...

  14. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Miscellaneous § 226.91 Marking. (a) USAID policy is that all programs, projects, activities... support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The...

  15. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  16. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  17. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  18. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  19. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  20. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  1. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  2. Distinguishing butchery cut marks from crocodile bite marks through machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Baquedano, Enrique

    2018-04-10

    All models of evolution of human behaviour depend on the correct identification and interpretation of bone surface modifications (BSM) on archaeofaunal assemblages. Crucial evolutionary features, such as the origin of stone tool use, meat-eating, food-sharing, cooperation and sociality can only be addressed through confident identification and interpretation of BSM, and more specifically, cut marks. Recently, it has been argued that linear marks with the same properties as cut marks can be created by crocodiles, thereby questioning whether secure cut mark identifications can be made in the Early Pleistocene fossil record. Powerful classification methods based on multivariate statistics and machine learning (ML) algorithms have previously successfully discriminated cut marks from most other potentially confounding BSM. However, crocodile-made marks were marginal to or played no role in these comparative analyses. Here, for the first time, we apply state-of-the-art ML methods on crocodile linear BSM and experimental butchery cut marks, showing that the combination of multivariate taphonomy and ML methods provides accurate identification of BSM, including cut and crocodile bite marks. This enables empirically-supported hominin behavioural modelling, provided that these methods are applied to fossil assemblages.

  3. The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Lynch,; Phillippe Hensel,; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service, in response to the growing evidence and awareness of the effects of climate change on federal lands, determined that monitoring wetland elevation change is a top priority in North Atlantic Coastal parks (Stevens et al, 2010). As a result, the NPS Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) in collaboration with colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a protocol for monitoring wetland elevation change and other processes important for determining the viability of wetland communities. Although focused on North Atlantic Coastal parks, this document is applicable to all coastal and inland wetland regions. Wetlands exist within a narrow range of elevation which is influenced by local hydrologic conditions. For coastal wetlands in particular, local hydrologic conditions may be changing as sea levels continue to rise. As sea level rises, coastal wetland systems may respond by building elevation to maintain favorable hydrologic conditions for their survival. This protocol provides the reader with instructions and guidelines on designing a monitoring plan or study to: A) Quantify elevation change in wetlands with the Surface Elevation Table (SET). B) Understand the processes that influence elevation change, including vertical accretion (SET and Marker Horizon methods). C) Survey the wetland surface and SET mark to a common reference datum to allow for comparing sample stations to each other and to local tidal datums. D) Survey the SET mark to monitor its relative stability. This document is divided into two parts; the main body that presents an overview of all aspects of monitoring wetland elevation dynamics, and a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) that describes in detail how to perform or execute each step of the methodology. Detailed instruction on the installation, data collection, data management and analysis are provided in this report

  4. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  5. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  6. A spider elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butylkin, A.V.; Butylkin, V.A.; Izosimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A spider elevator is proposed which contains a body, a wedge clamp with wedges hinged to each other, a subassembly for holding the wedge clamp in the open and closed positions and a mechanism for changing the wedge clamp, which is made in the form of levers with ears for cleats and installed in the body with the capability of turning. To increase reliability in the operational mode through using the external force for clamping the pipe, the free ends of the levers are hinged with the body by a power cylinder.

  7. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  8. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  9. Automatic pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  10. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  11. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  12. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  13. Clinical Significance of Plasma CEA Levels in the Patients with Cervical Carcinoma during Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sung Beom; Kim, Joo Young; Choi, Myung Sun; Rha, Joong Yeol; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been studied in the field of gynecologic malignancy to determine whether it can be used as a tumor marker for early detection of recurrence or evaluation of therapeutic results. From January 1985 through December 1989, a total of 239 cervical cancer patients were entered for an analysis of plasma CEA level in the group with cervical cancer compared to the control group consisting of 65 normal healthy women and 18 women with benign gynecologic disease. Plasma CEA levels appear to be directly related with the tumor extension and as stages advance, the incidence of patients with abnormal plasma CEA levels is increased. Also, there seems to be a little higher incidence of abnormal CEA levels in patients with adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinoma but not statistically significant because of small number of patients. When the patients developed recurrence, plasma CEA levels are markedly elevated in the majority, particularly in patients with hepatic metastases. In conclusion, serial plasma CEA checks could be used to detect recurrence during follow-up after treatment of cervical cancer.

  14. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  15. EcoMark 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Yang, Bin; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Eco-routing is a simple yet effective approach to substantially reducing the environmental impact, e.g., fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of vehicular transportation. Eco-routing relies on the ability to reliably quantify the environmental impact of vehicles as they travel...... in a spatial network. The procedure of quantifying such vehicular impact for road segments of a spatial network is called eco-weight assignment. EcoMark 2.0 proposes a general framework for eco-weight assignment to enable eco-routing. It studies the abilities of six instantaneous and five aggregated models......, and experiments for assessing the utility of the impact models in assigning eco-weights. The application of EcoMark 2.0 indicates that the instantaneous model EMIT and the aggregated model SIDRA-Running are suitable for assigning eco-weights under varying circumstances. In contrast, other instantaneous models...

  16. Geologic bench marks by terrestrial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.

    1973-01-01

    A photograph made with a level camera, if taken at a known height above a permanent mark on the ground, can be later repeated with exactness for measurement of changes in terrain. Such a photograph is one of several means for establishing a geologic bench mark and is especially useful for monitoring the subtle qualities of a landscape that are otherwise hard to map and describe, including the effects of man's use. Moreover, the geometry of such a photograph provides the same angular measurements between objects as can be made with a transit. A measurement of distance on a single photograph, however, requires control points. These can be surveyed at any convenient time, not necessarily when the initial photograph is made. Distances can also be determined by simple stereophotography from a base line of suitable length.

  17. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  18. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  19. Atrial natriuretic peptides in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Hansen, Lasse H; Terzic, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma has gained a diagnostic role in the assessment of heart failure. Plasma measurement is though hampered by the marked instability of the hormones, which has led to the development of analyses that target N-terminal fragments from the prohormone....... These fragments are stable in plasma and represent surrogate markers of the actual natriuretic hormone. Post-translational processing of the precursors, however, is revealing itself to be a complex event with new information still being reported on proteolysis, covalent modifications, and amino acid...

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptides in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Holst Hansen, Lasse; Terzic, Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma has gained a diagnostic role in the assessment of heart failure. Plasma measurement is though hampered by the marked instability of the hormones, which has led to the development of analyses that target N-terminal fragments from the prohormone....... These fragments are stable in plasma and represent surrogate markers of the actual natriuretic hormone. Post-translational processing of the precursors, however, is revealing itself to be a complex event with new information still being reported on proteolysis, covalent modifications, and amino acid...

  1. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear demand or, even within the constant elasticity framework, dependence is introduced. The analysis provides a single Generalized Inverse Elasticity Rule for the problems of monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey.

  2. Utilization of Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoj, L.; Smodis, B.

    2010-01-01

    TRIGA Mark II research reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute [JSI] is extensively used for various applications, such as: irradiation of various samples, training and education, verification and validation of nuclear data and computer codes, testing and development of experimental equipment used for core physics tests at a nuclear power plant. The paper briefly describes the aforementioned activities and shows that even such small reactors are still indispensable in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  3. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  4. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  5. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  6. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... the metabolic responses, we performed a supervised multivariate data analyses used for pattern recognition, which revealed marked effects of the diets on both plasma and urine metabolic profiles. Diverse pools of metabolites were responsible for the discrimination between the diets. Elevated levels of phenolic...... compounds and dicarboxylic acids were detected in urine of pigs after rye consumption compared to refined wheat. Furthermore, consumption of rye was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in the plasma metabolic profiles. These results indicate that higher...

  7. An elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  8. Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

    2004-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time.

  9. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  10. Strength analysis and optimization of writing mechanism of steel billet marking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to steel billet marking theory of plasma arc nicking, the paper designs a dual laser ranging marking machine against online marking of special steel billet and realizes multi-character marking of the end face of hot steel billet. Writing mechanism bases on the rectangular coordinates marking form, Z axis adopts cantilever structure. It completes the overall marking task utilizing the synergy of KK module in X axis, Y axis and Z axis. It makes modal analysis on the writing mechanism model established by Pro/Enginner utilizing ANSYS Workbench at the position of X1Y1Z1, and obtains the first six order modal frequency and analyzes the vibration in the writing process. Moreover, the paper analyzes the static structure of the cantilever of writing mechanism, computes its maximum stress and total deformation. To make the writing mechanism reach the target of light weight, the paper optimizes Z-axis cantilever of writing mechanism. According to the analysis, it is known that the optimized Z-axis cantilever of the writing mechanism still meets the strength and rigidity requirement and total mass declines approximately 30%.

  11. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, H.; Daryoko, M.; Goeritno, A.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  12. The Mark II detector for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.; Baden, A.R.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Drell, P.S.; Fay, J.; Gidal, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Haggerty, J.; Harr, R.; Hearty, C.; Herrup, D.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jaffre, M.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kral, J.F.; Levi, M.E.; Lynch, G.R.; Richman, J.D.; Rouse, F.R.; Schaad, M.W.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schumm, B.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Wood, D.R.; Akerlof, C.; Bonvicini, G.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Frey, R.; Gero, E.; Hong, S.J.; Koska, W.; Nitz, D.; Petradza, M.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R.; Veltman, H.; Alexander, J.P.; Ballam, J.; Barklow, T.; Bartelt, J.; De Boer, W.; Boyarski, A.; Braune, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.L.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Destaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Fordham, C.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Glanzman, T.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Hayes, K.; Himel, T.; Hutchinson, D.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Karlen, D.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.; Komamiya, M.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lankford, A.J.; Larsen, R.R.; Lueth, V.; Mattison, T.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mueller, L.; Munger, C.T.; Nash, J.; Ong, R.A.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Perl, J.; Perl, M.L.; Perrier, F.; Petersen, A.; Pitthan, R.; Riles, K.; Swartz, M.; Taylor, R.E.; Van Kooten, R.; Voruganti, P.; Weigend, A.; Woods, M.; Wormser, G.; Wright, R.; Alvarez, M.; Calvino, F.; Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Wagner, S.R.; Weber, P.; White, S.L.; Averill, D.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Murray, W.N.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.R.; Snyder, A.; Yurko, M.; Barish, B.C.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hoenk, M.; Kuhlen, M.; Li, Z.; McKenna, J.A.; Milliken, B.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Peck, C.; Porter, F.C.; Soderstrom, E.; Stroynowski, R.; Weinstein, A.J.; Weir, A.J.; Wicklund, E.; Wolf, R.C.; Wu, D.Y.; Barnett, B.A.; Boswell, C.; Dauncey, P.; Drewer, D.C.; Harral, B.; Hylen, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Stoker, D.P.; Vejcik, S.; Breakstone, A.; Cence, R.J.; Gong, X.; Harris, F.A.; Koide, A.; Parker, S.I.; Green, A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1989-01-01

    The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring (√s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  13. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  14. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  15. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. [CGD 72...

  16. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter...

  17. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this...

  18. Circulatory Markings at Double-Lane Traffic Roundabout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.; Wong, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two types of circulatory markings at a double-lane traffic roundabout: the concentric marking scheme and the Alberta marking scheme. The effects of these two marking schemes on drivers' lane choice behavior, delay, and safety, are compared based on data collected from before and

  19. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  20. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  1. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  2. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  3. Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiangming; Yan Yushun; Zhang Quanrong

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark is a new type of forgery-proof product after engraving gravure printing, thermocolour, fluorescence, laser hologram and metal concealed anti-bogus mark. The mark is manufactured by intricate high technology and the state strictly controlled sensitive nuclear facilities to ensure the mark not to be copied. The pattern of the mark is specially characterized by permeability of liquid to be discriminated from forgery. The genuine mark can be distinguished from sham one by transparent liquid (e.g. water), colorful pen and chemical reagent. The mark has passed the official examination of health safety. It is no danger of nuclear irradiation. (author)

  4. Group control of elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  5. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  6. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K.

    2017-01-01

    The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity) are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations. PMID:28736537

  7. Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Larissa J; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A

    2010-04-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13.5% HFD for 4 weeks showed modest weight gain but a 2- to 3-fold greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with control rabbits. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased by 8%, 26%, and 87%, respectively (Pdiet rabbits and was correlated to plasma leptin (r=0.87; Pfat accumulation through consumption of a HFD leads to marked sympathetic activation, which is related to increased responsiveness to central sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin. The paradoxical reduction in hypothalamic neuronal activation by leptin suggests a marked "selective leptin resistance" in these animals.

  8. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets

  10. Plasma YKL-40: a potential new cancer biomarker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Schultz, Nicolai A; Jensen, Benny V

    2009-01-01

    tissue remodeling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are elevated in a subgroup of patients with primary or advanced cancer compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but also in patients with many different diseases characterized by inflammation. Elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are an independent prognostic...... by inflammation. Large prospective, longitudinal clinical cancer studies are needed to determine if plasma YKL-40 is a new cancer biomarker, or is mainly a biomarker of inflammation....

  11. Elevation of circulating miR-210-3p in high-altitude hypoxic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eYan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The induction of miR-210-3p, a master hypoxamir, is a consistent feature of the hypoxic response in both normal and malignant cells. However, whether miR-210-3p acts as a circulating factor in response to a hypoxic environment remains unknown. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a high-altitude hypoxic environment on circulating miR-210-3p.Methods: We examined and compared the levels of miR-210-3p using TaqMan-based qRT-PCR in both peripheral blood cells and plasma from 84 ethnic Chinese Tibetans residing at 3560 m, 46 newly arrived migrant Han Chinese (Tibet Han and 82 Han Chinese residing at 8.9 m (Nanjing Han. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlations of miR-210-3p with hematological indices. Results: The relative concentrations of miR-210-3p to internal reference U6 in blood cells were significantly higher in the Tibet Han group (1.01±0.11, P<0.001 and in the Tibetan group (1.17±0.09, P<0.001 than in the Nanjing Han group (0.51±0.04. The absolute concentrations of plasma miR-210-3p were also markedly elevated in the Tibet Han group (503.54±42.95 fmol/L, P=0.004 and in the Tibetan group (557.78±39.84 fmol/L, P<0.001 compared to the Nanjing Han group (358.39±16.16 fmol/L. However, in both blood cells and plasma, miR-210-3p levels were not significantly different between the Tibet Han group and the Tibetan group (P=0.280, P=0.620, respectively. Plasma miR-210-3p concentrations were positively correlated with miR-210-3p levels in blood cells (r=0.192, P=0.005. Furthermore, miR-210-3p levels in both blood cells and plasma showed strong positive correlations with red blood cell counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Conclusion: These data demonstrated, for the first time, that miR-210-3p might act as a circulating factor in response to hypoxic environments and could be associated with human adaptation to life at high altitudes.

  12. Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern Nigeria. ... Results: Although there were marked individual variations with 16.7% of individuals demonstrating fasting ... Key Words: Plasma Insulin, northern Nigeria Annals of ...

  13. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  14. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  15. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  16. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  17. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  18. Decommissioning of TRIGA Mark II type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Jeong, Gyeonghwan; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The first research reactor in Korea, KRR 1, is a TRIGA Mark II type with open pool and fixed core. Its power was 100 kWth at its construction and it was upgraded to 250 kWth. Its construction was started in 1957. The first criticality was reached in 1962 and it had been operated for 36,000 hours. The second reactor, KRR 2, is a TRIGA Mark III type with open pool and movable core. These reactors were shut down in 1995, and the decision was made to decommission both reactors. The aim of the decommissioning activities is to decommission the KRR 2 reactor and decontaminate the residual building structures and site, and to release them as unrestricted areas. The KRR 1 reactor was decided to be preserve as a historical monument. A project was launched for the decommissioning of these reactors in 1997, and approved by the regulatory body in 2000. A total budget for the project was 20.0 million US dollars. It was anticipated that this project would be completed and the site turned over to KEPCO by 2010. However, it was discovered that the pool water of the KRR 1 reactor was leaked into the environment in 2009. As a result, preservation of the KRR 1 reactor as a monument had to be reviewed, and it was decided to fully decommission the KRR 1 reactor. Dismantling of the KRR 1 reactor takes place from 2011 to 2014 with a budget of 3.25 million US dollars. The scope of the work includes licensing of the decommissioning plan change, removal of pool internals including the reactor core, removal of the thermal and thermalizing columns, removal of beam port tubes and the aluminum liner in the reactor tank, removal of the radioactive concrete (the entire concrete structure will not be demolished), sorting the radioactive waste (concrete and soil) and conditioning the radioactive waste for final disposal, and final statuses of the survey and free release of the site and building, and turning over the site to KEPCO. In this paper, the current status of the TRIGA Mark-II type reactor

  19. Reduction of Zygomatic Arch Isolated Fracture Using Ultra Sound and Needle Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Park, Young Ji; Lee, Yoon Jung; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    Zygomatic arch is a bony arch constituting the lateral midface, which consists of 25% of all midface fractures. There are a number of ways to evaluate the extent of zygomatic arch fracture. Some authors have reported successful treatment outcomes using ultrasound (U/S). To add to the previous methods, we have considered ways to accurately display the location of the fracture line while using U/S with 23 gauge needle marking. We introduce our method, which provided satisfactory results for reduction using a portable U/S, and it can evaluate the fracture line simultaneously when reduction of an isolated zygomatic arch fracture is necessary, and needle marking, which can easily point out the fracture line on U/S. We studied 21 patients with an isolated zygomatic arch fracture who underwent closed reduction using U/S and needle marking between 2013 and 2015. We achieved satisfactory results in all our cases with respect to reduction by using the Dingman elevator after performing a temporal approach incision, while confirming relative positioning between needle marking and zygomatic fracture at the same time, after insertion of a 23 gauge needle in the skin above the zygomatic arch fracture line parallel to it. We treated 21 patients with an isolated zygomatic arch fracture using U/S and the needle marking method, which provided satisfactory results because the extent of reduction of the fracture could be evaluated in real-time during the operation and exposure to radiation was reduced.

  20. Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99+ percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. This information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly

  1. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  2. Results on the iota from Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of Mark III results on the iota(1440), a possible glueball state observed in radiative J/psi decays. The measurements include a spin-parity determination using both the iota → Ksub(s) 0 K +- π +- and iota → K + K - π 0 decay modes; an upper limit on the K*anti-K content of the Kanti-Kπ Dalitz plot; branching fractions and isospin; stringent upper limits for several hadronic channels, including iota → zetaπ→etaππ; and results from a search for iota radiative decays into vector mesons. These measurements are discussed in the context of theoretical ideas about the iota and results on the E(1420), a state observed in hadronic interactions. 11 refs., 7 figs

  3. Decommissioning plan for the TRIGA mark-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Jung, K. H.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) is the second research reactor in Korea. Construction of KRR-2 was started in 1969 and first criticality was achieved in 1972. After 24 years operation, KRR-2 has stopped its operation at the end of 1995 due to normal operation of HANARO. KRR-2 was then decided to decommission in 1996 by government. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) will be conducted in accordance with domestic laws and international regulations. Selected method of D and D will be devoted to protect workers and environment and to minimize radioactive wastes produced. The major D and D work will be conducted safely by using conventional industrial equipment because of relatively low radioactivity and contamination in the facility. When removing activated concrete from reactor pool, it will be installed a temporary containment and ventilation system. In this paper, structure of KRR-2 and method of D and D in each step are presented and discussed

  4. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view.......v. xenon-133 technique in seven young, normotensive volunteers before and 15, 60 and 180 min after 6.25 mg i.v. dihydralazine, corresponding approximately to 0.1 mg kg-1 body weight. For comparison the CBF reactivity to inhalation of 5% CO2 in air was investigated. Dihydralazine increased CBF throughout...... the period of study, in median 16, 27 and 23% at the three periods of measurements, respectively. The arterial blood pressure remained unchanged, whereas heart rate increased significantly. During CO2 inhalation, CBF increased on average 29%. Thus, the cerebral vasodilation exerted by a small i.v. dose...

  5. Preanalytic process linked to spuriously elevated HIV viral loads: improvement on an FDA-approved process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Taege, Alan J; Starkey, Colleen; Tungsiripat, Marisa; Warner, Diane; Schold, Jesse D; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda

    2017-09-01

    The processing of specimens often occurs in a central processing area within laboratories. We demonstrated that plasma centrifuged in the central laboratory but allowed to remain within the primary tube following centrifugation was associated with spuriously elevated HIV viral loads compared with recentrifugation of the plasma just prior to testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma apolipoprotein A5 and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Hattori, H.; van Vark-van der Zee, L. C.; Jansen, H.; Sijbrands, E. J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the human apolipoprotein (APO) A5 gene (APOA5) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. However, data on the exact role of plasma concentrations of APOA5 in human triglyceride homeostasis are lacking. In the present study, we estimated plasma APOA5 levels in patients with type

  7. Plasma apolipoprotein A5 and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, GM; Van Tol, A; Hattori, H; van Vark-van de Zee, LC; Jansen, H; Sijbrands, EJG

    Aims/hypothesis: Variation in the human apolipoprotein (APO) A5 gene (APOA5) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. However, data on the exact role of plasma concentrations of APOA5 in human triglyceride homeostasis are lacking. In the present study, we estimated plasma APOA5 levels in

  8. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  9. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma

  10. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    to 1990 with only 31 papers per year on average, and a total of some 1300 papers, precedes a considerable growth of some 35-50% in research activity every five years, over the last 20 years or so. As shown in the table, the annual dissemination of the field is more than 1600 papers and the total number of papers is in excess of 20000. This upwards trajectory is typical of a strong and growing subject area in physical science, with considerable capacity in both fundamental science and applications. PeriodNumber of papersPapers per annum 1948-1990130031 1991-19952279456 1996-20003447689 2001-20054571914 2006-201066401328 2011 1658 In many of the dense plasma jets discussed above, strong physical forces generated by the plasma are often desired and this favours plasma generation at elevated gas pressure, including atmospheric pressure, which favours a high level of gas ionization. Historically it has been challenging to reduce and control the strong physical forces in high-pressure plasmas for applications where these are unwanted, for example, surface modification of polymeric sheets [5]. Indeed, there is a real need for a vast range of material processing applications at temperatures below 100oC (or below 400 K) and this favours atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained far from thermal equilibrium with the dissipated electrical energy largely used not in heat generation but in unleashing non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The long-standing difficulty of effectively controlling the level of gas ionization at atmospheric pressure was overcome by the technological breakthrough of achieving atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in the late 1980s [6]. A related challenge stemming from high collisionality of atmospheric-pressure plasmas (v >> ω0) means that large-area plasmas sustained between parallel-plate electrodes are very susceptible to strong plasma instabilities when molecular gases are introduced for processing applications. This led to an effective

  11. Magnetospheric plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.

    1989-09-01

    The discovery of the earth's radiation belts in 1957 by Van Allen marked the beginning of what is now known as magnetospheric physics. In this study of plasma physics in the magnetosphere, we shall take the magnetosphere to be that part of the earth's ionized atmosphere which is formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's dipole-like magnetic field. It extends from approximately 100km above the earth's surface where the proton-neutral atom collision frequency is equal to the proton gyrofrequency to about ten earth radii (R E ∼ 6380km) in the sunward direction and to several hundred earth radii in the anti-sunward direction. The collision dominated region is called the ionosphere and is sometimes considered separate from the collisionless plasma region. In the ionosphere ion-neutral collisions are dominant and one may think of the ionosphere as a frictional boundary layer ∼ 1000km thick. Other planets are also considered. (author)

  12. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  13. Elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.M.; Talesnik, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 45 patients with elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola were examined. A high frequency of erroneous initial interpretation of examination results was noted in inflammatory and tumorous lesions and congenital conditions. Routine and contrast methods (pneumoperitoneum, bronchography, pleurography and fistulography) were used. Disease-related methods of X-ray investigation were proposed. A variety of causes of diaphragm elevation was indicated

  14. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  15. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  16. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  17. The probability of Mark-1 liner failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H.; Ratnam, U.; Amarasooriya, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are proposing a probabilistic methodology, the risk-oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) as an overall systematic, disciplined approach for addressing the Mark-1 liner attack issue. The probabilistic framework encompasses the key features of the phenomenology, yet it is flexible enough to allow independent quantification of individual components as it may arise from independent research efforts. As a first step in this direction, the authors assembled, discussed, and took into consideration in the quantification proposed all relevant prior work. Furthermore, as an essential aspect of the overall methodology, most of those whose work has been referenced and/or used in this report have been asked to comment. The details of this work, the comments received, and the authors' responses are included in NUREG/CR-5423. As an even more important characteristic of the methodology, it is hoped that other quantifications (or information relevant to such) of independent components will become available in the future so that one can aim for convergence and closure

  18. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  19. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  20. Trade Mark Cluttering: An Exploratory Report Commissioned by UKIPO

    OpenAIRE

    von Graevenitz, Georg; Greenhalgh, Christine; Helmers, Christian; Schautschick, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the problem of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The report consists of two parts: the first presents a conceptual discussion of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The second part provides an exploratory empirical analysis of trade mark applications at the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) and the European trade mark office (OHIM). This part contains results of a descriptive and an econometric analysis. According to our definition, cluttering arises where fir...

  1. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  2. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  3. 9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging...) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.418 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval... has on file evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings...

  5. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.176 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must be plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block...

  6. 27 CFR 19.612 - Authorized abbreviations to identify marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... T Tax Determined TD Wine Spirits Addition WSA (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1360, as amended... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks... to identify certain marks: Mark Abbreviation Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Distilled Spirits...

  7. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a... domestic commerce is moved from an official establishment, the outside container shall bear an official...

  8. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  9. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  10. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  11. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a...

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  13. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  14. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  15. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  17. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  18. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  19. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  20. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  1. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  2. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  3. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  4. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.

  5. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  6. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  7. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  8. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  9. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  10. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  12. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  13. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  14. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  15. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  16. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  17. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  18. Electrofishing mark-recapture and depletion methodologies evoke behavioral and physiological changes in cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M. G.; Schreck, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the behavioral and physiological responses of wild and hatchery-reared cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki subjected to a single electroshock, electroshock plus marking, and multiple electroshocks in natural and artificial streams. In a natural stream, cutthroat trout released after capture by electrofishing and marking showed distinct behavioral changes: fish immediately sought cover, remained relatively inactive, did not feed, and were easily approached by a diver. An average of 3–4 h was required for 50% of the fish to return to a seemingly normal mode of behavior, although responses varied widely among collection sites. Using the depletion method, we observed little change in normal behavior offish remaining in the stream section (i.e., uncaptured fish) after successive passes with electrofishing gear. In an artificial stream, hatchery-reared and wild cutthroat trout immediately decreased their rates of feeding and aggression after they were electroshocked and marked. Hatchery fish generally recovered in 2–3 h; wild fish required at least 24 h to recover. Analysis of feeding and aggression data by hierarchical rank revealed no distinct recovery trends among hatchery fish of different ranks; among wild cutthroat trout, however, socially dominant fish seemed to recover faster than intermediate and subordinate fish. Physiological indicators of stress (plasma cortisol and blood lactic acid) increased significantly in cutthroat trout subjected to electroshock plus marking or single or multiple electroshocks. As judged by the magnitude of the greatest change in cortisol and lactate, multiple electroshocks elicited the most severe stress response; however, plasma concentrations of both substances had returned to unstressed control levels by 6 h after treatment. It was evident that electrofishing and the procedures involved with estimating fish population size elicited a general stress response that was manifested not only physiologically but also

  19. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  20. Vessels for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (background; elevated temperature concerns; design tools); design of pressure vessels for elevated temperature per ASME code; basic elevated temperature failure modes; allowable stresses and strains per ASME code (basic allowable stress limits; ASME code limits for bending; time-fraction summations; strain limits; buckling and instability; negligible creep and stress-rupture effects); combined membrane and bending stresses in creep regime; thermal stress cycles; bounding methods based on elastic core concept (bounds on accumulated strains; more accurate bounds; strain ranges; maximum stresses; strains at discontinuities); elastic follow-up; creep strain concentrations; time-dependent fatigue (combined creep rupture and fatigue damage; limits for inelastic design analyses; limits for elastic design analyses); flaw evaluation techniques; type 316 stainless steel; type 304 stainless steel; steel 2 1/4Cr1Mo; Inconel 718; Incolloy 800; Hastelloy X; detailed inelastic design analyses. (U.K.)

  1. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  2. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  3. The Things of Caesar: Mark-ing the Plural (Mk 12:13–17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article observes the rarely-discussed phenomenon that the Marcan paying-the-tax scene refers to tax in the singular, whilst the concluding saying uses the plural ‘the things of Caesar and of God’. The article accounts for this phenomenon by means of developing traditions. The section under the heading ‘Mark’s scene and saying about taxes (12:13–17’ counters the common claim that scene and saying originated as a unit from the historical Jesus. It proposes that whilst the saying may have originated with Jesus, the scene as we have it did not. The section under the heading ‘Social memory, orality, and a multi-referential saying?’ suggests some contexts that the saying about the things of Caesar addressed pre-Mark. And under the section ‘Trauma and Mark’s scene’ it is argued that Mark created a unit comprising scene and saying to negotiate the ‘ trauma’ of the 66–70 war. The unit evaluates freshly-asserted Roman power as idolatrous and blasphemous whilst simultaneously authorising the continued involvement of Jesus-believers in imperial society.

  4. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  5. Historie i spillefilm - for elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Lone Guldbrandt

    2016-01-01

    MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem.......MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem....

  6. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  7. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  8. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  9. Preoperative Site Marking: Are We Adhering to Good Surgical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Sonia; Chadwick, Michael; Nevins, Edward J; Seward, Joanna

    2017-06-29

    Wrong-site surgery is a never event and a serious, preventable patient safety incident. Within the United Kingdom, national guidance has been issued to minimize the risk of such events. The mandate includes preoperative marking of all surgical patients. This study aimed to quantify regional variation in practice within general surgery and opinions of the surgeons, to help guide the formulation and implementation of a regional general surgery preoperative marking protocol. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 surgeons within the Mersey region, United Kingdom. This included all surgical trainees in Mersey (47 registrars, 56 core trainees), 15 consultants, and 2 surgical care practitioners. This sought to ascertain their routine practice and how they would choose to mark for 12 index procedures in general surgery, if mandated to do so. A total of 72 responses (60%) were obtained to the SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Only 26 (36.1%) said that they routinely marked all of their patients preoperatively. The operating surgeon marked the patient in 69% of responses, with the remainder delegating this task. Markings were visible after draping in only 55.6% of marked cases. Based on our findings, surgeons may not be adhering to "Good Surgical Practice"; practice is widely variable and surgeons are largely opposed and resistant to marking patients unless laterality is involved. We suggest that all surgeons need to be actively engaged in the design of local marking protocols to gain support, change practice, and reduce errors.

  10. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  11. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  12. Osbpl8 deficiency in mouse causes an elevation of high-density lipoproteins and gender-specific alterations of lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8 encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8(-/- (KO C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (+79% and phospholipids (+35%, while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27% was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT or hepatic lipase (HL activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model

  13. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  14. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  15. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  16. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  17. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  18. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  19. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  20. Elevated Lipoprotein(A Impairs Platelet Radiolabeling Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Granegger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet radiolabeling in clinical routine usually results in labeling efficiencies (LE above 80%. A variety of risk factors and clinical conditions are known to impair platelet labeling yield, among them elevated triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. The potential influence of lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, an atherogenic lipoprotein particle containing a kringle subunit, which is widely found in the proteins of fibrinolysis pathway, has never been studied. Normal Lp(a levels range below 30 mg/ dl. The exact prevalence of elevated Lp(a is unknown, most likely ranging below 10%. Even more rare is an isolated elevation despite an otherwise normal lipoprotein profile. Methods: We examined the role of isolated elevated Lp(a (> 50 mg/dl, ranging up to 440 mg/dl compared to patients with normal lipid profile. Platelets were radiolabeled with in-111-oxine at 37 °C for 5 minutes using ISORBE-consensus methodology. Results: The findings indicate that already at levels below 100 mg/dl Lp(a decreases LE. LE assessment after cross-incubation of hyper-Lp(a platelets with normal Lp(a plasma and vice versa reveals that platelets rather than the plasmatic environment are responsible for the deterioration of labeling yield. This behavior already has been reported for elevated low-density lipoproteins. Apparently, the quantitative influence of LDL and Lp(a/mg is comparable. Plotting the sum of LDL and Lp(a versus LE reveals a clear significant negative correlation. Conclusion: As extremely elevated Lp(a, particularly above 150 mg/dl, may significantly impair labeling results. We therefore recommend to include extremely elevated Lp(a into the list of parameters, which should be known before performing radiolabeling of human platelets.