WorldWideScience

Sample records for marked intergroup variability

  1. Variable features on Mars. VII - Dark filamentary markings on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverka, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the location, variability, and possible nature of well-developed patterns of dark filamentary markings in the Mariner 9 photographic records. Although not common on Mars, the markings are concentrated in at least two areas: Depressio Hellespontica and Cerberus/Trivium Charontis. In certain localities, strong winds are required to bring these markings into prominence. The dark filamentary markings seem to be true albedo features controlled by local topography, it being unlikely that they are free linear dunes. The distinctive criss-cross pattern seen in many of the pictures suggests that jointing provides the controlling topographic grid. At this stage it cannot be inferred whether the markings are erosional or depositional in character.

  2. INTERGROUP RELATIONS IN NIGERIA: THE DYNAMICS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    production/generation and its associated social relations of production in the country. ... Intergroup relations, as a subject matter, have been subjected under .... Its emergence marked a new line of thought in the field of intergroup relations. The ..... the role of the emergent nationalists like Chief Nnamdi Azikiwe, Alhaji Tafewa.

  3. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  4. The anatomy of Intergroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    Intergroups are key components in the European Parliament's modus operandi, allowing members from different political groups to focus on specific political topics. Hitherto, the defining characteristics of Intergroups have not received much attention in academic literature. This article remedies ...

  5. Meta-Statistics for Variable Selection: The R Package BioMark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wehrens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker identification is an ever more important topic in the life sciences. With the advent of measurement methodologies based on microarrays and mass spectrometry, thousands of variables are routinely being measured on complex biological samples. Often, the question is what makes two groups of samples different. Classical hypothesis testing suffers from the multiple testing problem; however, correcting for this often leads to a lack of power. In addition, choosing α cutoff levels remains somewhat arbitrary. Also in a regression context, a model depending on few but relevant variables will be more accurate and precise, and easier to interpret biologically.We propose an R package, BioMark, implementing two meta-statistics for variable selection. The first, higher criticism, presents a data-dependent selection threshold for significance, instead of a cookbook value of α = 0.05. It is applicable in all cases where two groups are compared. The second, stability selection, is more general, and can also be applied in a regression context. This approach uses repeated subsampling of the data in order to assess the variability of the model coefficients and selects those that remain consistently important. It is shown using experimental spike-in data from the field of metabolomics that both approaches work well with real data. BioMark also contains functionality for simulating data with specific characteristics for algorithm development and testing.

  6. Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between Isoko and her immediate neighbours in the western Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... The article shows that the discovery of crude oil petroleum in the western Niger Delta marked a watershed in the history of intergroup relations in the area. Keywords: Discovery ...

  7. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  8. Live cell imaging reveals marked variability in myoblast proliferation and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the process of muscle regeneration, activated stem cells termed satellite cells proliferate, and then differentiate to form new myofibers that restore the injured area. Yet not all satellite cells contribute to muscle repair. Some continue to proliferate, others die, and others become quiescent and are available for regeneration following subsequent injury. The mechanisms that regulate the adoption of different cell fates in a muscle cell precursor population remain unclear. Methods We have used live cell imaging and lineage tracing to study cell fate in the C2 myoblast line. Results Analyzing the behavior of individual myoblasts revealed marked variability in both cell cycle duration and viability, but similarities between cells derived from the same parental lineage. As a consequence, lineage sizes and outcomes differed dramatically, and individual lineages made uneven contributions toward the terminally differentiated population. Thus, the cohort of myoblasts undergoing differentiation at the end of an experiment differed dramatically from the lineages present at the beginning. Treatment with IGF-I increased myoblast number by maintaining viability and by stimulating a fraction of cells to complete one additional cell cycle in differentiation medium, and as a consequence reduced the variability of the terminal population compared with controls. Conclusion Our results reveal that heterogeneity of responses to external cues is an intrinsic property of cultured myoblasts that may be explained in part by parental lineage, and demonstrate the power of live cell imaging for understanding how muscle differentiation is regulated. PMID:23638706

  9. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  10. The Effects of Handwriting and Other Incidental Variables on GCE 'A' Level Marks in English Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Alf

    1983-01-01

    The effects of penmanship, complexity and accuracy of prose, length of answers, and use of quotations on marks awarded by English literature examiners were studied. The sex of students and examiners, untidiness, and prose complexity and accuracy were unrelated to grades. The results suggested that examiners avoid crediting students for…

  11. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  12. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  13. Marked variability in the extent of protein disorder within and between viral families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Pushker

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues, and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively. Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses, except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel

  14. Acute low back pain is marked by variability: An internet-based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain variability in acute LBP has received limited study. The objectives of this pilot study were to characterize fluctuations in pain during acute LBP, to determine whether self-reported 'flares' of pain represent discrete periods of increased pain intensity, and to examine whether the frequency of flares was associated with back-related disability outcomes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of acute LBP patients utilizing frequent serial assessments and Internet-based data collection. Adults with acute LBP (lasting ≤3 months completed questionnaires at the time of seeking care, and at both 3-day and 1-week intervals, for 6 weeks. Back pain was measured using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS, and disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. A pain flare was defined as 'a period of increased pain lasting at least 2 hours, when your pain intensity is distinctly worse than it has been recently'. We used mixed-effects linear regression to model longitudinal changes in pain intensity, and multivariate linear regression to model associations between flare frequency and disability outcomes. Results 42 of 47 participants (89% reported pain flares, and the average number of discrete flare periods per patient was 3.5 over 6 weeks of follow-up. More than half of flares were less than 4 hours in duration, and about 75% of flares were less than one day in duration. A model with a quadratic trend for time best characterized improvements in pain. Pain decreased rapidly during the first 14 days after seeking care, and leveled off after about 28 days. Patients who reported a pain flare experienced an almost 3-point greater current NPRS than those not reporting a flare (mean difference [SD] 2.70 [0.11]; p ß [SE} 0.28 (0.08; p = 0.002. Conclusions Acute LBP is characterized by variability. Patients with acute LBP report multiple distinct flares of pain, which correspond to discrete increases in pain intensity. A

  15. Steeling Ourselves : Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The

  16. Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hogg (Michael); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); D.E. Rast III (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup leadership-leadership of collaborative performance of different organizational groups or organizations-is associated with unique intergroup challenges that are not addressed by traditional leadership theories. To address this lacuna, we describe a theory of intergroup

  17. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  18. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  19. Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The group discussions of stigmatized group members who anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact revolved more around intergroup hostility. This boosted ingroup identification and increased social creativity but also led to steeling (a hardening of perceived intergroup relations). In Experiment 2, new participants listened to the taped group discussions. The discussions of groups anticipating face-to-face intergroup contact evoked more intergroup anxiety-related discomfort than discussions of groups not anticipating face-to-face intergroup encounters. Together, these results support the idea that steeling is a defensive reaction to prepare for an anxiety-arousing intergroup confrontation. Although steeling is also associated with positive consequences such as increased ingroup solidarity and social creativity, this hardened stance may be an obstacle to conflict de-escalation.

  20. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  1. Status-Based Asymmetry in Intergroup Responses: Implications for Intergroup Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Ristikari, Tiina; Berrios-Candelaria, Rosalie; Lewis, Beth; Agatstein, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    We studied intergroup responses as a function of relative intergroup status and familiarity. In Study 1, 34 African Americans and 34 European Americans interacted with two members of the out-group in separate, 20 minute dyadic interactions. Intergroup perception, affect, and behavior were asymmetric; Blacks differentiated the traits of and the quality of interactions with Whites, whereas Whites did not make these differentiations. Blacks and Whites predicted that different out-group partners perceived them similarly. Study 2 showed that the failure to differentiate an out-group member is due to intergroup status differences. Asymmetric intergroup responses pose a barrier to intergroup reconciliation and explain, in part, why increased interracial contact has not eradicated disparities in life outcomes for Black Americans. PMID:21341895

  2. Promoting intergroup contact by changing beliefs: group malleability, intergroup anxiety, and contact motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Eran; Crisp, Richard J; Husnu, Shenel; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Intergroup contact plays a crucial role in moderating long-term conflicts. Unfortunately, the motivation to make contact with outgroup members is usually very low in such conflicts. We hypothesized that one limiting factor is the belief that groups cannot change, which leads to increased intergroup anxiety and decreased contact motivation. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated beliefs about group malleability in the context of the conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and then assessed intergroup anxiety and motivation to engage in intergroup contact. Turkish Cypriots who were led to believe that groups can change (with no mention of the specific groups involved) reported lower levels of intergroup anxiety and higher motivation to interact and communicate with Greek Cypriots in the future, compared with those who were led to believe that groups cannot change. This effect of group malleability manipulation on contact motivation was mediated by intergroup anxiety. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  4. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  5. High outgroup entitativity can inhibit intergroup retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dovidio, John F

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the psychological processes that are involved in the perpetuation and escalation of intergroup conflict remains an important goal for intergroup relations research. In the present research, we examined perceived outgroup entitativity as a potential determinant of intergroup hostility. In intergroup conflict situations, high-entitative outgroups are perceived as particularly deserving of retribution; however, high-entitative outgroups are also perceived as efficacious and capable of retaliating successfully, suggesting that people may inhibit hostility against high-entitative (vs. low-entitative) outgroups that are in a position to retaliate. We tested this prediction in two studies. In Study 1, we manipulated intergroup provocation and outgroup entitativity, and found that higher negative mood predicted greater aggression against a low-entitative provoker outgroup, but failed to predict aggression against a high-entitative provoker outgroup that was plausibly in a position to retaliate. In Study 2, we held provocation constant while manipulating outgroup entitativity and the possibility of retaliation by the outgroup, and found that people acted in a retributive manner against a high-entitative provoker outgroup only when the outgroup was not in a position to retaliate. Implications for intergroup conflict are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Intergroup contact and team functioning among nursing students: the mediation role of intergroup anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletta, Giuseppe; Sarli, Leopoldo; Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana

    2017-07-18

    The improvement of team effectivity is one of the main concerns for healthcare organizations. Moreover, healthcare organizations must cope with increasing multicultural composition of both workforce and patients. The intergroup contact theory suggests that frequent and positive face-to-face contact among professionals or students with different cultural heritage can help to reach both increasing team effectiveness and adequate care in a multicultural setting. The aim was then to verify whether intergroup contact during practical training would decrease intergroup anxiety and then increase team functioning. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 83 nursing students. According to the intergroup contact theory, frequent and positive contact with non-native professionals decreased the intergroup anxiety which, in turn, increased prejudice and, more importantly, decreased team functioning. Moreover, intergroup anxiety showed a complete mediation effect on the relations between intergroup contact during practical training and both negative attitude toward immigrants and team functioning. Intergroup contact with non-native professionals or students during practical training is able to indirectly decrease prejudice and improve team functioning by lowering the anxiety that is aroused by encounter with non-native individuals.

  7. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  8. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  9. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  10. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement in a sample of employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-12-01

    The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement.

  11. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups

  12. Understanding interprofessional education as an intergroup encounter: The use of contact theory in programme planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John; Dickinson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A key underlying assumption of interprofessional education (IPE) is that if the professions are brought together they have the opportunity to learn about each other and dispel the negative stereotypes which are presumed to hamper interprofessional collaboration in practice. This article explores the application of contact theory in IPE with reference to eight evaluation studies (1995-2012) which adopted this theoretical perspective. It proposes that educators should pay explicit attention to an intergroup perspective in designing IPE programmes and specifically to the "contact variables" identified by social psychologists studying intergroup encounters. This would increase the chances of the planned contact having a positive effect on attitude change.

  13. Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölfer, R.; van Zalk, M.H.W.; Schmid, K.; Hewstone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network

  14. Measuring Intergroup Attitudes in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…

  15. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-01-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity (“we”), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership (“ours”) for intergroup relations. We make a case for

  16. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which P...... of clear rules, complete observability, and a tradition of parliamentary cooperation....

  17. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  18. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  19. Method and Theory of Intergroups in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-29

    Relations and Organizational Diagnosis " (T.R. #3) identified the philosophical formulations of clinical methods for studying organizations, reviewed the...earliest clinical studies of organizations that 4- took a group and intergroup perspective, and critiqued existing approaches to organizational diagnosis . This

  20. Vicarious retribution: the role of collective blame in intergroup aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickel, Brian; Miller, Norman; Stenstrom, Douglas M; Denson, Thomas F; Schmader, Toni

    2006-01-01

    We provide a new framework for understanding 1 aspect of aggressive conflict between groups, which we refer to as vicarious retribution. Vicarious retribution occurs when a member of a group commits an act of aggression toward the members of an outgroup for an assault or provocation that had no personal consequences for him or her but which did harm a fellow ingroup member. Furthermore, retribution is often directed at outgroup members who, themselves, were not the direct causal agents in the original attack against the person's ingroup. Thus, retribution is vicarious in that neither the agent of retaliation nor the target of retribution were directly involved in the original event that precipitated the intergroup conflict. We describe how ingroup identification, outgroup entitativity, and other variables, such as group power, influence vicarious retribution. We conclude by considering a variety of conflict reduction strategies in light of this new theoretical framework.

  1. Social Exclusion in Childhood: A Developmental Intergroup Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    "Interpersonal" rejection and "intergroup" exclusion in childhood reflect different, but complementary, aspects of child development. Interpersonal rejection focuses on individual differences in personality traits, such as wariness and being fearful, to explain bully-victim relationships. In contrast, intergroup exclusion focuses on how in-group…

  2. Intergroup relations in Nigeria: The dynamics and complexities | Ofili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is observed that intergroup conflict is caused by an incompatibility of goals regarding material resources. It is the struggle over such material resources as land, oil, gold, and labour that is the source of intergroup conflict in the country and not ethnicity nor prejudiced personality. This explains the checkered history of ...

  3. Intergroup Differences and Their Impact on African American Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…

  4. Nouns cut slices: Effects of linguistic forms on intergroup bias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Bilewicz, M.; Finell, E.; Geschke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-61 ISSN 0261-927X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : nouns * adjectives * intergroup bias * intergroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2013

  5. Using Intergroup Dialogue to Promote Social Justice and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…

  6. Comparing intergroup contact effects on blatant and subtle prejudice in adolescents: a multivariate multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Olaizola, Juan; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The literature has rarely paid attention to the differential influence of intergroup contact on subtle and blatant prejudice. In this study, we hypothesized that the influence of intergroup contact on subtle prejudice will be smaller than its influence on blatant prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with data from a cross-sectional design on 1,655 school-aged native Spanish adolescents. Prejudice was measured with a shortened version of the Meertens and Pettigrew scale of blatant and subtle prejudice adapted to Spanish adolescent population. Results from multivariate multilevel analyses for correlated outcome variables supported the hypothesis. Students tended to score higher on the subtle prejudice scale; contact with the outgroup was statistically related both to levels of blatant and subtle prejudice; and, the negative relationship of contact with the outgroup and prejudice is greater for blatant prejudice as compared to subtle prejudice. Overall, results provide statistical evidence supporting the greater resistance to change of subtle forms of prejudice.

  7. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  8. US Intergroup Anal Carcinoma Trial: Tumor Diameter Predicts for Colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy. Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown. Methods A secondary analysis was performed by combining patients in the two treatment arms to evaluate whether new predictive and prognostic variables would emerge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and time to colostomy (TTC) with pretreatment and treatment variables. Results Of 682 patients enrolled, 644 patients were assessable and analyzed. In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P ≤ .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016). In the treatment-related categories, cisplatin-based therapy was statistically significantly associated with a higher rate of colostomy (P = .03) than was mitomycin-based therapy. In the pretreatment variables category, only large tumor diameter independently predicted for TTC (P = .008). Similarly, the cumulative 5-year colostomy rate was statistically significantly higher for large tumor diameter than for small tumor diameter (Gray's test; P = .0074). Clinical nodal status and sex were not predictive of TTC. Conclusion The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma. PMID:19139424

  9. Intergroup contact as a tool for reducing, resolving, and preventing intergroup conflict: evidence, limitations, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2013-10-01

    We propose that intergroup contact provides an effective means by which to reduce, resolve, and prevent conflict of all kinds, including violent conflict. We review the vast literature on the effectiveness of intergroup contact and discuss when and how it reduces prejudice. We also discuss key features of successful interventions, highlighting examples from conflict zones around the world. Rather than accepting, as some scholars do, that conflict is inevitable, we argue that intergroup contact, in its various forms, can play a pivotal and preemptive role in conflict prevention. We suggest that a blunt application of contact theory, particularly when groups are of unequal status, can have some unfortunate consequences, and contact interventions can, and should, be designed to overcome these pitfalls. We argue that, ultimately, contact is a powerful tool that needs to be used alongside other means of conflict reduction, resolution, and prevention in order to frame sound public policy and build lasting peace. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Group rationale, collective sense: beyond intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Russell

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I contest the view of the group as a source of bias and irrationality, especially prevalent within social psychology. I argue that this negative evaluation often arises by applying inappropriate standards, relating to the wrong level of analysis (often the individual level). Second, the image of the group as bad and biasing is often overstated. For example, the evidence suggests that intergroup discrimination, rather than being universal or generic, is often constrained, proportionate and reflects functional and rational strategies for managing threats and opportunities at the group level. Third, although the recent upsurge of interest in group emotions could be seen to reinforce the dualism between rationality and emotion, the contemporary functional approach argues for group emotions as augmenting rather than contradicting rationality. However, we should be wary (and weary) of narrow economic and individualist notions of rationality; group identity may offer the opportunity to redefine rationality in more collective and prosocial ways.

  11. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  12. The effects of indirect intergroup contact on willingness to engage in direct contact with former adversary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voca, S.; Graf, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-57 ISSN 2309-3455 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-14387S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : positive intergroup contact * negative intergroup contact * extended intergroup contact * mass-mediated intergroup contact * willingness to engage in intergroup contact * empathy * outgroup trust Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  13. Ideology and intergroup inequality : Emerging directions and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Aaron; Brandt, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose that two guiding frameworks characterize psychological research on the relation between ideology and inequality. The first, called the product approach, focuses on ideologies directly concerned with intergroup relations, in which beliefs about inequality can be considered a

  14. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism).

  15. Cultural Values in Intergroup and Single-Group Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst; Carnevale; Triandis

    1999-03-01

    Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  17. Prayer marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmi, Abdullah A; Al Zouman, Abdulrahman Y; Al Hussaini, Husa; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2002-07-01

    Prayer marks (PMs) are asymptomatic, chronic skin changes that consist mainly of thickening, lichenification, and hyperpigmentation, and develop over a long period of time as a consequence of repeated, extended pressure on bony prominences during prayer. Three hundred and forty-nine Muslims and 24 non-Muslims were examined for the appearance of PMs at different body sites. The prospective study of 349 Muslims (both males and females) with regular praying habits showed the occurrence of PMs on specific locations, such as the forehead, knees, ankles, and dorsa of the feet, leading to dermatologic changes consisting of lichenification and hyperpigmentation. The incidence of PMs was significantly higher in males than in females. Older subjects (over 50 years of age) demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of lichenification and hyperpigmentation, suggesting that repeated pressure and friction for prolonged periods are the causative factors for the development of PMs. Histologic examination of skin biopsies from the affected sites showed compact orthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, dermal papillary fibrosis, and dermal vascularization. PMs were not associated with any risk of secondary complications, such as erythema, bullous formation, and infections. PMs are commonly occurring dermatologic changes in Muslims who pray for prolonged periods.

  18. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  19. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  20. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  1. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  2. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  3. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  4. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.

  5. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner's dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  6. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual—Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWildschut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism. Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent. A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  7. Intergroup Reconciliation between Flemings and Walloons: The Predictive Value of Cognitive Style, Authoritarian Ideology, and Intergroup Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Van Assche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium. By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies, and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions, we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish ('N' = 310 and one Walloon ('N' = 365 undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict.

  8. Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children's Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan; McGeorge, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social norms and children's concern for self-presentation affect their intergroup attitudes. Study 1 examined racial intergroup attitudes and normative beliefs among children aged 6 to 16 years (n=155). Accountability (i.e., public self-focus) was experimentally manipulated, and intergroup attitudes were assessed using…

  9. Learning to Manage Intergroup Dynamics in Changing Task Environments: An Experiential Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that allows participants to experience the challenges of managing intergroup behavior as an organization's task environment grows and becomes more complex. The article begins with a brief review of models and concepts relating to intergroup dynamics, intergroup conflict, and interventions for effectively managing…

  10. The multicultural workplace: interactive acculturation and intergroup relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.; Peeters, M.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : – The paper's aim is to introduce the interactive acculturation model (IAM) of Bourhis et al. to predict how disconcordance in acculturation orientations between host community and immigrant workers relates to the quality of intergroup work-relations. Design/methodology/approach : – The

  11. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  12. The intergroup protocols: Scalable group communication for the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2000-12-04

    Reliable group ordered delivery of multicast messages in a distributed system is a useful service that simplifies the programming of distributed applications. Such a service helps to maintain the consistency of replicated information and to coordinate the activities of the various processes. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, there is an increasing interest in scaling the protocols that provide this service to the environment of the Internet. The InterGroup protocol suite, described in this dissertation, provides such a service, and is intended for the environment of the Internet with scalability to large numbers of nodes and high latency links. The InterGroup protocols approach the scalability problem from various directions. They redefine the meaning of group membership, allow voluntary membership changes, add a receiver-oriented selection of delivery guarantees that permits heterogeneity of the receiver set, and provide a scalable reliability service. The InterGroup system comprises several components, executing at various sites within the system. Each component provides part of the services necessary to implement a group communication system for the wide-area. The components can be categorized as: (1) control hierarchy, (2) reliable multicast, (3) message distribution and delivery, and (4) process group membership. We have implemented a prototype of the InterGroup protocols in Java, and have tested the system performance in both local-area and wide-area networks.

  13. Emotion and aggressive intergroup cognitions: The ANCODI hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C; Frank, Mark G

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an important role for the emotion of hatred in intergroup aggression. Recent theoretical and empirical work has strongly suggested that the combination of anger, contempt, and disgust (ANCODI) comprise the basic elements of hatred, and are the key emotions associated with intergroup aggression. No study, however, has provided evidence that these emotions cause hostile cognitions about specific groups. We report two studies that provide initial evidence. In both, participants were members of ideologically motivated groups and were primed with ANCODI. In Study 1 participants primed with ANCODI produced more aggressive cognitions relative to their opponent outgroup than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with fear-sadness. In Study 2 participants primed with ANCODI engaged in more competitive decision making against their opponent outgroups than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with disgust only. These findings contribute to the literature on the role of emotion in intergroup aggression and hostility, and provide a more nuanced view of the role of emotions in intergroup relations, possibly identifying the basic emotional elements of hatred. Aggr. Behav. 43:93-107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  15. Predicting Performance in Art College: How Useful Are the Entry Portfolio and Other Variables in Explaining Variance in First Year Marks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2009-01-01

    This article examines if and to what extent a set of pre-enrolment variables and background characteristics predict first year performance in art college. The article comes from a four-year longitudinal study that followed a cohort of tertiary art entrants in Ireland from their time of entry in 2002 to their time of exit in 2006 (or before, for…

  16. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  17. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  18. Political ideology and American intergroup discrimination: A patriotism perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Hoyt, Crystal; Goldin, Aleah

    2016-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases, and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to American, as opposed to ethnic-minority American, organizations. We further show that the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger "American = White" associations. These findings have important implications for intergroup relations and diversity-related policy issues in the United States.

  19. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dil...

  20. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lebiere

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics (IPD^2 is a new game paradigm for studying human behavior in conflict situations. IPD^2 adds the concept of intragroup power to an intergroup version of the standard Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We conducted a laboratory study in which individual human participants played the game against computer strategies of various complexities. The results show that participants tend to cooperate more when they have greater power status within their groups. IPD^2 yields increasing levels of mutual cooperation and decreasing levels of mutual defection, in contrast to a variant of Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma without intragroup power dynamics where mutual cooperation and mutual defection are equally likely. We developed a cognitive model of human decision making in this game inspired by the Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT and implemented within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was run in place of a human participant using the same paradigm as the human study. The results from the model show a pattern of behavior similar to that of human data. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the IPD^2 paradigm can be applied to studying human behavior in conflict situations. In particular, we present the current study as a possible contribution to corroborating the conjecture that democracy reduces the risk of wars.

  2. The Joint Effect of Bias Awareness and Self-Reported Prejudice on Intergroup Anxiety and Intentions for Intergroup Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P.; Dovidio, John F.; Murphy, Mary C.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of Bias Awareness—a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites’ awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased—and prejudice on Whites’ intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in Bias Awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students’ intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students’ intentions to work with minority populations. PMID:25111552

  3. The joint effect of bias awareness and self-reported prejudice on intergroup anxiety and intentions for intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  6. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Ethnicity, Language and Intergroup Relations in Malaysia and Singapore: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C.; Hewstone, M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a review of literature and a historical and sociopolitical overview of ethnic relations and intergroup processes in Malaysia and Singapore. The paper reviews data on intergroup relations and ethnolinguistics in these countries from a social-psychological perspective, and in terms of assimilation and integration. (SED)

  8. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  9. Communicating anger and contempt in intergroup conflict : Exploring their relational functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bartholomeus

    2015-01-01

    Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the

  10. Intergroup Relations in Integrated Schools: A Glimpse inside Interdistrict Magnet Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian; Cobb, Casey

    2012-01-01

    The frequency and quality of intergroup contact within racially and ethnically diverse schools has potentially important implications for the achievement of desegregation goals. The analyses presented here use survey data to assess intergroup contact within a sample of ten interdistrict magnet schools in Connecticut. Findings indicate frequent…

  11. Aspect of Intergroup Relations in 21st Century Nigeria: Emblem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is on the aspects of intergroup relations in 21st century Nigeria: Emblem of Ethnicity, Religious Fundamentalism and National Security Crisis, 2000-2014. The objective of the paper is to contribute to some existing literature on the state of intergroup relations in Nigeria. Besides, it would provoke further ...

  12. To know you is to love you: Effects of intergroup contact and knowledge on intergroup anxiety and prejudice among indigenous Chileans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás

    2017-08-01

    Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Multicultural experiences reduce intergroup bias through epistemic unfreezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Carmit T; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chao, Melody M; Wiruchnipawan, Fon; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    In 6 studies, we systematically explored for the 1st time the ameliorative effects of multicultural experience on intergroup bias and investigated the role of epistemic unfreezing as the motivational mechanism underlying these effects. We found that multicultural exposure led to a reduction in stereotype endorsement (Studies 1, 4, and 6), symbolic racism (Study 5), and discriminatory hiring decisions (Study 2). We further demonstrated that experimental exposure to multicultural experience caused a reduction in need for cognitive closure (NFCC; Studies 3 and 6) and that the ameliorative effects of multiculturalism experience on intergroup bias were fully mediated by lower levels of NFCC (Studies 4, 5, and 6). The beneficial effects of multiculturalism were found regardless of the targeted stereotype group (African Americans, Ethiopians, homosexuals, and native Israelis), regardless of whether multicultural experience was measured or manipulated, and regardless of the population sampled (Caucasian Americans or native Israelis), demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon. Overall, these results demonstrate that multicultural experience plays a critical role in increasing social tolerance through its relationship to motivated cognitive processes.

  14. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  15. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  16. Us versus Them in Context: Meta-Analysis as a Tool for Geotemporal Trends in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania B. Huedo-Medina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The increasing availability of studies from many nations offers important potential insights into group-based psychology and behavior, conflict, and violence. Nonetheless, to date, few cross-national or cultural comparisons of study findings have been made, representing a gap in our understanding of the historical causes and courses of inter-group conflict in current comparative approaches. Meta-analytic methods offer researchers the ability to combine data from studies with groups as well as across time. Our review of statistical methods available for comparative analyses in inter-group research found strengths and limitations for understanding group differences, conflict, and violence, and meta-analytic methods address these limitations by exploring potential structural-level moderators and by identifying how temporal and geographical variations may relate directly to group-based variables. Such methods can contribute to our understanding of broad structural effects on group-based variables by elucidating the mechanisms underlying them.

  17. Equal but different: Effects of equality/inclusion and cultural pluralism on intergroup outcomes in multiethnic classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenthal, Miriam; Schachner, Maja K; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Juang, Linda P

    2018-04-01

    Integrating research on intergroup contact and intercultural relations, we investigated effects of 2 types of cultural diversity norms (equality/inclusion and cultural pluralism) on outgroup orientation and perceived discrimination among students of immigrant and nonimmigrant background. Our sample comprised 1,975 6th graders (M age = 11.53, SD age = 0.69, 47% female) in Germany, of whom 1,213 (61%) were of immigrant background, defined as having at least 1 parent born in a different country. A total of 83 countries of origin were represented. We applied a multilevel framework to assess the impact of individual-level and class-level predictors on intergroup outcomes, controlling for the classroom ethnic composition, school track, and individual-level covariates. Immigrant background was treated as a moderator. The 2 types of cultural diversity norms were generally associated with more positive intergroup outcomes. Some of the associations differed in strength between students of immigrant and nonimmigrant background. There were stronger associations of equality/inclusion with higher outgroup orientation among students of nonimmigrant background and with lower perceived discrimination among students of immigrant background. Ethnic composition, as well as the classroom-aggregated diversity norms (diversity climate) showed weaker relations with the outcome variables. Equality/inclusion norms and cultural pluralism norms can make complementary contributions to positive relations between students of immigrant and nonimmigrant background. Equality/inclusion norms foster positive contact and equal treatment, while cultural pluralism norms emphasize that it is also important to value diversity.¹ (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Intergroup Competition in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

    novel evidence on the interplay between social networks (urban resident group and rural migrant group) and peer effects. Specifically, we find that a worker puts in more effort when she is working with more able outgroup teammates but not when working with more able ingroup teammates, pointing...... to intergroup competition as a powerful source of the peer effects. Such peer effects across the social network, combined with the presence of incentive to outperform teammates at this firm, are largely consistent with recent experimental evidence on the important role that group identities play in facilitating......Using weekly data for defect rates (proportion of defective output) for all weavers in a Chinese textile firm during a 12 months (April 2003 - March 2004) period, we provide some of the first rigorous evidence on the presence and nature of peer effects in the manufacturing workplace. First...

  19. Perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in intergroup contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S Wang

    Full Text Available The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man, but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent. Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members.

  20. Perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cynthia S; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members.

  1. Feeling (Mis)Understood and Intergroup Friendships in Interracial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  3. Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    2018-01-01

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord is a senior technologist for ecosystem and water resources management in SEC SAID Oakland, California office. In his career which lasts over fifteen years Mark has worked on project involving lake restorations, clean water engineering, ecological engineering and management, hydrology, hydraulics, sediment transport and other projects for environmental planning all over the country. Mark Tompkins Canaccord tries to blend his skills of planning and engineering with s...

  4. The roles of ingroup identification and outgroup entitativity in intergroup retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrom, Douglas M; Lickel, Brian; Denson, Thomas F; Miller, Norman

    2008-11-01

    A new aspect of intergroup conflict was investigated- vicarious retribution-in which neither the agent of retribution nor the target of retribution are directly involved in the initial intergroup provocation. The underlying processes involved in vicarious intergroup retribution were tested correlationally (Study 1) and experimentally (Study 2). Both ingroup identification and outgroup entitativity predict the degree of vicarious retribution. In both studies, there was evidence of motivated cognition, specifically that highly identified individuals perceived the outgroup as higher in entitativity than individuals low in identification. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that part of the effect of identification on retribution against the outgroup was mediated through perceptions of entitativity.

  5. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  6. Mark Stock | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock Mark Stock Scientific Visualization Specialist Mark.Stock@nrel.gov | 303-275-4174 Dr. Stock , virtual reality, parallel computing, and manipulation of large spatial data sets. As an artist, he creates . Stock built the SUNLIGHT artwork that is installed on the Webb Building in downtown Denver. In addition

  7. An analysis of intergroup rivalry using Ising model and reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Fei; Qin, Zheng; Shao, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of intergroup rivalry can help us better understand economic competitions, political elections and other similar activities. The result of intergroup rivalry depends on the co-evolution of individual behavior within one group and the impact from the rival group. In this paper, we model the rivalry behavior using Ising model. Different from other simulation studies using Ising model, the evolution rules of each individual in our model are not static, but have the ability to learn from historical experience using reinforcement learning technique, which makes the simulation more close to real human behavior. We studied the phase transition in intergroup rivalry and focused on the impact of the degree of social freedom, the personality of group members and the social experience of individuals. The results of computer simulation show that a society with a low degree of social freedom and highly educated, experienced individuals is more likely to be one-sided in intergroup rivalry.

  8. A two-dimensional model of intergroup leadership: the case of national diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittinsky, Todd L

    2010-04-01

    The model presented argues that leadership involves bringing together not only diverse individuals but also the subgroups to which they belong. The model further argues that this does not require replacing people's subgroup identities with a superordinate group identity (turning "us" and "them" into "we"); bringing together diverse individuals and their subgroups can be accomplished by promoting positive relations among subgroups, even as their distinctive identities (their senses of "us" and "them") remain. The model conceptualizes positive and negative intergroup attitudes as two independent dimensions of intergroup relations, each with distinct antecedents and distinct associated outcomes. Leaders seeking to create a collective from diverse subgroups must therefore (a) reduce negative intergroup attitudes and (b) increase positive intergroup attitudes. The author applies the model to organizational contexts of national diversity, but it can be applied to leadership across other forms of diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews w...

  10. Effects of Promotion and Compunction Interventions on Real Intergroup Interactions: Promotion Helps but High Compunction Hurts

    OpenAIRE

    Greenland, Katy; Xenias, Dimitrios; Maio, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discriminatio...

  11. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  13. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  14. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  15. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  16. Cultural influences on neural basis of intergroup empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Im, Dong-Mi; Harada, Tokiko; Kim, Ji-Sook; Mathur, Vani A; Scimeca, Jason M; Parrish, Todd B; Park, Hyun Wook; Chiao, Joan Y

    2011-07-15

    Cultures vary in the extent to which people prefer social hierarchical or egalitarian relations between individuals and groups. Here we examined the effect of cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy on the neural basis of intergroup empathy. Using cross-cultural neuroimaging, we measured neural responses while Korean and American participants observed scenes of racial ingroup and outgroup members in emotional pain. Compared to Caucasian-American participants, Korean participants reported experiencing greater empathy and elicited stronger activity in the left temporo-parietal junction (L-TPJ), a region previously associated with mental state inference, for ingroup compared to outgroup members. Furthermore, preferential reactivity within this region to the pain of ingroup relative to outgroup members was associated with greater preference for social hierarchy and ingroup biases in empathy. Together, these results suggest that cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy leads to cultural variation in ingroup-preferences in empathy, due to increased engagement of brain regions associated with representing and inferring the mental states of others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trust in organizations — organizational, intergroup, and value research perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiainen J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this overview article, we discuss the importance of trust for organizations by employing a multilevel and multidisciplinary perspective. We complement and contribute to the existing reviews by (1 considering trust not only within and between individuals and organizations, but also at the societal level, (2 bridging findings and literature from the fields of organizational, intergroup, and value research, and (3 summarizing recent research on the dynamics of trust and its development in organizations. Related to contemplating trust at various levels, we present multiple topics such as individual’s tendency to trust, employees’ trust in leaders, trust between groups with examples from organizational mergers and interethnic relations, and the relationship between trust and societies’ economic competitiveness. We conclude by summarizing recent organizational literature about the development of trust, transfers of trust towards different levels of leadership, and reciprocity in employees’ trust and fairness perceptions. In so doing, we contribute to the means to promote trust, active citizenship and socially sustainable growth of organizations and our societies.

  18. White and Black American Children’s Implicit Intergroup Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Olson, Kristina R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a decline in explicit prejudice, adults and children from majority groups (e.g., White Americans) often express bias implicitly, as assessed by the Implicit Association Test. In contrast, minority-group (e.g., Black American) adults on average show no bias on the IAT. In the present research, representing the first empirical investigation of whether Black children’s IAT responses parallel those of Black adults, we examined implicit bias in 7–11-year-old White and Black American children. Replicating previous findings with adults, whereas White children showed a robust ingroup bias, Black children showed no bias. Additionally, we investigated the role of valuing status in the development of implicit bias. For Black children, explicit preference for high status predicted implicit outgroup bias: Black children who explicitly expressed high preference for rich (vs. poor) people showed an implicit preference for Whites comparable in magnitude to White children’s ingroup bias. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:22184478

  19. Gender and Intergroup Contact: the Case of Arab Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BENITTO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of various ethnic groups within the American and British societies made newspaper headlines following the events of 9/11 in the United States and of July 7 in Great Britain. This article based on survey research and focus group interviews aims to address intergroup contact. In a heterogeneous society, two major tendencies with regard to relation of the Arab community with the mainstream society surface. On the one hand, we notice a tendency to forge a new identity that is deep-rooted in the Arab culture, but with a declared belonging to the host society. On the other hand, there is a tendency of restraint and isolation. This choice of restraint and isolation is sometimes allotted to the ambivalent feelings generated by cultural disparity and stubborn attachment to certain values and traditions. In this context, our study targets the exploration of relationship of Arab women with the mainstream society with the stress laying on the reasons governing ups and downs of their integration within a new cultural environment

  20. Ethnic Diversity, Inter-group Attitudes and Countervailing Pathways of Positive and Negative Inter-group Contact: An Analysis Across Workplaces and Neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2018-01-01

    This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact. This results in exposure exhibiting both positive and negative indirect associations with prejudice via more frequent inter-group mixing. These countervailing contact-pathways help explain how out-group exposure is associated with inter-group attitudes. In neighbourhoods, increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive-contact suppress an otherwise negative effect of neighbourhood diversity (driven partly by increasing numbers of individuals reporting negative contact). Across workplaces the effect differs such that increasing numbers of individuals experiencing negative-contact suppress an otherwise positive effect of workplace diversity (driven largely by increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive contact).

  1. Negative intergroup contact is more influential, but positive intergroup contact is more common: Assessing contact prominence and contact prevalence in five Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Paolini, S.; Rubin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 96 (2014), 536–547 ISSN 0046-2772 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : intergroup contact * negative contact * outgroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2014

  2. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  3. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Identification markings for gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

  6. A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2006-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently

  7. MULTIVARIANT AND UNIVARIANT INTERGROUP DIFFERENCES IN THE INVESTIGATED SPECIFIC MOTOR SPACE BETWEEN RESPONDENTS JUNIORS AND SENIORS MEMBERS OF THE MACEDONIAN NATIONAL KARATE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kеnan Аsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to establish intergroup multivariant and univariant investigated differences in specific motor space between respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. The sample of 30 male karate respondents covers juniors on 16,17 and seniors over 18 years.In the research were applied 20 specific motor tests. Based on Graph 1 where it is presented multivariant analysis of variance Manova and Anova can be noted that respondents juniors and seniors, although not belonging to the same population are not different in multivariant understudied area.W. lambda of .19, Rao-wool R - Approximation of 1.91 degrees of freedom df 1 = 20 and df 2 = 9 provides the level of significance of p =, 16. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in sagital plane for 15 sec. SUDMNR (hitting a moving target with weaker hand and SUDMPN (hitting a moving target with favoritism foot of twenty applied manifest variables. There are no intergroup differences in multivariant investigated specific - motor space among the respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in

  8. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Inter-group and intra-group assertiveness: adolescents' social skills following cultural transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), 242 immigrants from Ethiopia and 333 non-immigrants. Compared to non-immigrants, FSU and Ethiopian immigrants' inter-group assertiveness was lower. Girls reported higher levels of inter-group assertiveness than boys. Each of the immigrant groups rates itself as equally assertive as the non-immigrant group and more assertive than the other immigrant group. Also, a difference between inter-group and intra-group assertiveness was found among the FSU immigrants. It is argued that adolescents' assertiveness following cultural transition is associated with socio-cultural context, and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C.; Vignoles, Vivian L.

    2018-01-01

    The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias. PMID:29681878

  11. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  12. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines.

  13. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482

  14. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2018-01-01

    The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  15. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  16. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  17. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  19. Inter-Group Variation in Non-Conceptive Sexual Activity in Female Japanese Macaques: Could it be Cultural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared two non-conceptive sexual behavioral patterns (female-male mounting – FMM – and female-female mounting – FFM across four free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata living at three different field sites in Japan (Arashiyama, Minoo, and Jigokudani. We found marked inter-group differences and covariation in the frequency and form of FMM and FFM. This result supports the view that FMM and FFM in Japanese macaques are developmentally and evolutionarily linked. The customary occurrence, high prevalence, and great diversity of FMM and FFM at Arashiyama may be the result of combined favorable socio-demographic conditions, namely few resident males, most of them being old, sexually under-motivated, and less aggressive and controlling than the average male Japanese macaques. We suggest that FMM and FFM may be cultural sexual practices in the Arashiyama-E group. In most other populations, all the aforementioned favorable socio-demographic conditions are not met, and although female mounting may occasionally be expressed by several group members, it does not reach the group-level tradition status. Our cultural interpretation of female mounting in Japanese macaques is consistent with evidence of the social transmission of courtship behaviors and mating preferences in various animal taxa, including nonhuman primates and humans. Our study may have implications for the evolution of non-conceptive sexuality in humans, including sexual fluidity in women.

  20. The apple does not fall far from the tree, or does it? A meta-analysis of parent-child similarity in intergroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Juliane; Dalege, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the formation of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination has long been a core topic of social psychology. Since the seminal theorizing by Allport in 1954, different views on childhood origins of prejudice have been discussed, in which the role of parental socialization varies on a scale from fundamental to negligible. This meta-analysis integrates the available empirical evidence of the past 60 years and critically discusses the current state of knowledge on parental socialization of intergroup attitudes. A random-effects model analysis of data from 131 studies on over 45,000 parent-child dyads indicated a significant medium-sized average effect size for the correlation between parental and child intergroup attitudes. The average effect size was related to study-specific variables, such as the source of parental attitude report (self vs. child reported), the conceptual overlap between measures, and the privacy of assessment. We also found significant moderations by ingroup status and size as well as child age. The latter was, however, mediated by measurement overlap. No significant effect size differences were found in relation to different components of intergroup attitudes (i.e., affective, cognitive, behavioral), nor to child or parent gender. The results unequivocally demonstrate that parent-child attitudes are related throughout childhood and adolescence. We discuss in detail whether and to what extent this interrelation can be interpreted as an indicator of parent-child socialization to allow a critical evaluation of the available contradicting theories. We furthermore address limitations of the available research and the current meta-analysis and derive implications and suggestions for future research. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  1. Intergroup jealousy: Effects of perceived group characteristics and intrasexual competition between groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, A.P.; Park, Justin; Høgh-Olesen, Hendrik; Tønnesvang, Jan; Bertelsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of intergroup conflict is competition for mates, especially among men. Because different outgroups pose different levels of threat, the group membership of rivals can be a characteristic that evokes jealousy. Outgroups perceived to pose greater threat to one’s mating resources

  2. Children's intergroup helping: The role of empathy and peer group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies

  3. Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

  4. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

  5. Trade and inter-group relations in the lower Niger 1830-1960 | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on trade and intergroup relations in the Lower Niger in the period 1830-1960. Trade constitutes an integral aspect of communal relationship in the Lower Niger region from 1830 to 1960. The objective of the study is to show how the people of the Lower Niger related with each other in trade and other ...

  6. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  7. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  8. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  9. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations : the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  11. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Y.; Srinivasan, M.; Dotsch, R.; Barner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  12. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  13. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  14. Intergroup Contact is Related to Evaluations of Interracial Peer Exclusion in African American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Martin D; Park, Henry; Crystal, David S; Killen, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    There are few published studies on the influence of intergroup contact on ethnic minority public school students' evaluations of interracial exclusion. In this study, African American children and adolescents (N = 158, 4th, 7th, and 10th grade; 67.1%) were individually interviewed regarding peer exclusion for scenarios depicting cross-race peer exclusion in various contexts. The level of positive intergroup contact, attribution of motives for exclusion, wrongfulness ratings, reasoning about exclusion, estimations of the frequency of exclusion, and awareness of the use of stereotypes to justify racial exclusion were assessed. Intergroup contact was significantly related to attributions of racial motives, higher ratings of wrongfulness, greater use of moral reasoning, and higher estimations of the frequency of exclusion. In addition to context effects, with increasing grade participants were more likely to refer to the historical and social circumstances contributing to the manifestation of racial stereotypes used to justify exclusion. The findings are discussed in terms of the existing research on intergroup relations and evaluations of social exclusion.

  15. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  16. How intergroup friendship works: a longitudinal study of friendship effects on outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.N.; Feddes, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that frequency of self-disclosure to outgroup members mediates the positive relationship between intergroup friendship and outgroup attitudes. The current research investigated the relationship between self-disclosure and attitudes in more depth. New undergraduate

  17. Preferences for religious education and inter-group attitudes among Indonesian students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkens, C.J.A.; Yusuf, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses Indonesian students’ preferences for different types of religious education, with the help of their personal characteristics and inter-group attitudes. We investigate a comparative understanding of Muslim, Christian and Hindu students of different types of religious education.

  18. Opposing effects of personal and collective self-esteem on interpersonal and intergroup comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, KM; Spears, R

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between self-esteem deriving from both personal and social identity and comparisons at both interpersonal and intergroup level was examined. Participants took part in individual and group brainstorming tasks which they later had the opportunity to evaluate. In the case of the

  19. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  20. Intergroup communication between hospital doctors: implications for quality of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, David G; Watson, Bernadette M; Gallois, Cindy; Ward, Michael; Leggett, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    Hospitals involve a complex socio-technical health system, where communication failures influence the quality of patient care. Research indicates the importance of social identity and intergroup relationships articulated through power, control, status and competition. This study focused on interspecialty communication among doctors for patients requiring the involvement of multiple specialist departments. The paper reports on an interview study in Australia, framed by social identity and communication accommodation theories of doctors' experiences of managing such patients, to explore the impact of communication. Interviews were undertaken with 45 doctors working in a large metropolitan hospital, and were analysed using Leximancer (text mining software) and interpretation of major themes. Findings indicated that intergroup conflict is a central influence on communication. Contested responsibilities emerged from a model of care driven by single-specialty ownership of the patient, with doctors allowed to evade responsibility for patients over whom they had no sense of ownership. Counter-accommodative communication, particularly involving interpersonal control, appeared as important for reinforcing social identity and winning conflicts. Strategies to resolve intergroup conflict must address structural issues generating an intergroup climate and evoke interpersonal salience to moderate their effect.

  1. And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age  = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age  = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

  2. SLARette Mark 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs

  3. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Facing the situation: Testing a biosocial contingency model of leadership in intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spisak, B.R.; Homan, A.C.; Grabo, A.E.; van Vugt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using an evolutionary psychology framework we propose that leadership and followership are evolved traits to solve recurrent group coordination problems. We argue that adaptive problems such as those concerning intergroup conflict or cooperation activate different cognitive leadership prototypes,

  5. Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Nils Karl; Becker, Julia C; Benz, Angelika; Christ, Oliver; Dhont, Kristof; Klocke, Ulrich; Neji, Sybille; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 ( n = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students' engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 ( N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students' collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students' LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.

  6. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  7. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David; Van Vugt, Mark

    2012-03-05

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism-the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by 'warrior males' in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional aggression could have affected the social psychologies of men and women differently and present preliminary evidence from experimental social psychological studies testing various predictions from the 'male warrior' hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the theoretical implications of our research for studying intergroup relations both in humans and non-humans and discuss some practical implications.

  8. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  9. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  10. Admiration regulates social hierarchy: Antecedents, dispositions, and effects on intergroup behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Joseph; Spears, Russell; Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R

    2013-05-01

    In four studies, we report evidence that admiration affects intergroup behaviors that regulate social hierarchy. We demonstrate that manipulating the legitimacy of status relations affects admiration for the dominant and that this emotion negatively predicts political action tendencies aimed at social change. In addition, we show that greater warmth and competence lead to greater admiration for an outgroup, which in turn positively predicts deferential behavior and intergroup learning. We also demonstrate that, for those with a disposition to feel admiration, increasing admiration for an outgroup decreases willingness to take political action against that outgroup. Finally, we show that when the object of admiration is a subversive "martyr," admiration positively predicts political action tendencies and behavior aimed at challenging the status quo. These findings provide the first evidence for the important role of admiration in regulating social hierarchy.

  11. Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. How does social essentialism affect the development of inter-group relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Saunders, Katya; Dunham, Yarrow; Cimpian, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    Psychological essentialism is a pervasive conceptual bias to view categories as reflecting something deep, stable, and informative about their members. Scholars from diverse disciplines have long theorized that psychological essentialism has negative ramifications for inter-group relations, yet little previous empirical work has experimentally tested the social implications of essentialist beliefs. Three studies (N = 127, ages 4.5-6) found that experimentally inducing essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led children to share fewer resources with category members, but did not lead to the out-group dislike that defines social prejudice. These findings indicate that essentialism negatively influences some key components of inter-group relations, but does not lead directly to the development of prejudice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Advantaged group's emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: the dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Nicole Syringa; Kessler, Thomas; Leach, Colin Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Three studies establish intergroup inequality to investigate how it is emotionally experienced by the advantaged. Studies 1 and 2 examine psychology students' emotional experience of their unequal job situation with worse-off pedagogy students. When inequality is ingroup focused and legitimate, participants experience more pride. However, when inequality is ingroup focused and illegitimate, participants experience more guilt. Sympathy is increased when inequality is outgroup focused and illegitimate. These emotions have particular effects on behavioral tendencies. In Study 2 group-based pride predicts greater ingroup favoritism in a resource distribution task, whereas group-based sympathy predicts less ingroup favoritism. Study 3 replicates these findings in the context of students' willingness to let young immigrants take part in a university sport. Pride predicts less willingness to let immigrants take part whereas sympathy predicts greater willingness. Guilt is a weak predictor of behavioral tendencies in all studies. This shows the specificity of emotions experienced about intergroup inequality.

  14. “Ingroup love” and “outgroup hate” in intergroup conflict between natural groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Böhm, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on two studies investigating the motivations (“ingroup love” and “outgroup hate”) underlying individual participation in intergroup conflict between natural groups (fans of football clubs, supporters of political parties), by employing the Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma Maximizing-Difference (IPD-MD) game. In this game group members can contribute to the ingroup (at a personal cost) and benefit ingroup members with or without harming members of an outgroup. Additionally, we devised a novel version of the IPD-MD in which the choice is between benefiting ingroup members with or without helping members of the outgroup. Our results show an overall reluctance to display outgroup hate by actively harming outgroup members, except when the outgroup was morality-based. More enmity between groups induced more outgroup hate only when it was operationalized as refraining from help. PMID:26339099

  15. Differentiating in-group favoritism from shared reality in intergroup perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimdins, Girts; Montgomery, Henry

    2004-11-01

    Two basic factors influence mutual ratings of social groups: in-group favoritism (related to the evaluative aspects of a rating) and the perception of shared reality (related to the descriptive aspects). In two studies, we examine the usefulness of Peabody's (1968) method of separating evaluative and descriptive aspects of rating in intergroup judgments. In Study 1, Latvian and Russian students made different evaluations of both groups, but the same groups agreed on the descriptive ratings. In Study 2, male and female psychology students rated each other from own, in-group, and out-group perspectives. The participants did not show any in-group favoritism in their own ratings, but they expected their fellow students to be in-group biased. The participants agreed on the descriptive ratings of both groups. The results demonstrate that shared reality influences intergroup ratings, despite differences in evaluations.

  16. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research.......57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or the doses...... and schedules used. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in doses and dose per fraction with external beam. There is a moderate discrepancy in the brachytherapy practice after hysterectomy. There are no serious impediments to intergroup participation in radiation...

  17. Shared reality in intergroup communication: Increasing the epistemic authority of an out-group audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Kopietz, René; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-06-01

    Communicators typically tune messages to their audience's attitude. Such audience tuning biases communicators' memory for the topic toward the audience's attitude to the extent that they create a shared reality with the audience. To investigate shared reality in intergroup communication, we first established that a reduced memory bias after tuning messages to an out-group (vs. in-group) audience is a subtle index of communicators' denial of shared reality to that out-group audience (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then examined whether the audience-tuning memory bias might emerge when the out-group audience's epistemic authority is enhanced, either by increasing epistemic expertise concerning the communication topic or by creating epistemic consensus among members of a multiperson out-group audience. In Experiment 2, when Germans communicated to a Turkish audience with an attitude about a Turkish (vs. German) target, the audience-tuning memory bias appeared. In Experiment 3, when the audience of German communicators consisted of 3 Turks who all held the same attitude toward the target, the memory bias again appeared. The association between message valence and memory valence was consistently higher when the audience's epistemic authority was high (vs. low). An integrative analysis across all studies also suggested that the memory bias increases with increasing strength of epistemic inputs (epistemic expertise, epistemic consensus, and audience-tuned message production). The findings suggest novel ways of overcoming intergroup biases in intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Intergroup Contact and Peacebuilding: Promoting Youth Civic Engagement in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley McKeown

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the post-accord generation in Northern Ireland, this study aimed to examine the role of intergroup contact in promoting support for peacebuilding and youth civic engagement. The sample comprised 466 youth (aged 14-15; 51% Catholic, 49% Protestant who were born after the 1998 Good Friday/Belfast Agreement and therefore represent a ‘post-accord’ generation. Recruited through their schools, youth completed scales on intergroup contact (quality and quantity, support for peacebuilding, and civic engagement. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling and bootstrapped mediation in MPlus. Results found that support for peacebuilding partially mediated the association between higher quality and higher quantity contact and greater civic engagement (volunteering and political participation. Findings demonstrate that youth who are living with the legacy of protracted intergroup conflict can support peacebuilding and engage in constructive behaviours such as civic engagement. By recognising the peacebuilding potential of youth, especially in a post-accord generation, the findings may inform how to promote youth civic engagement and social reconstruction after conflict.

  19. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  20. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  1. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  2. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  3. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  4. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  5. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  6. Preoperative Site Marking: Are We Adhering to Good Surgical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Sonia; Chadwick, Michael; Nevins, Edward J; Seward, Joanna

    2017-06-29

    Wrong-site surgery is a never event and a serious, preventable patient safety incident. Within the United Kingdom, national guidance has been issued to minimize the risk of such events. The mandate includes preoperative marking of all surgical patients. This study aimed to quantify regional variation in practice within general surgery and opinions of the surgeons, to help guide the formulation and implementation of a regional general surgery preoperative marking protocol. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 surgeons within the Mersey region, United Kingdom. This included all surgical trainees in Mersey (47 registrars, 56 core trainees), 15 consultants, and 2 surgical care practitioners. This sought to ascertain their routine practice and how they would choose to mark for 12 index procedures in general surgery, if mandated to do so. A total of 72 responses (60%) were obtained to the SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Only 26 (36.1%) said that they routinely marked all of their patients preoperatively. The operating surgeon marked the patient in 69% of responses, with the remainder delegating this task. Markings were visible after draping in only 55.6% of marked cases. Based on our findings, surgeons may not be adhering to "Good Surgical Practice"; practice is widely variable and surgeons are largely opposed and resistant to marking patients unless laterality is involved. We suggest that all surgeons need to be actively engaged in the design of local marking protocols to gain support, change practice, and reduce errors.

  7. A Closer Look at Intergroup Threat Within the Dual Process Model Framework: The Mediating Role of Moral Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigated how right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO are related to perceived intergroup threat, and also tested the potential mediating role of individualizing and binding moral foundations within this relationship pattern. According to our results, both RWA and SDO enhanced the perceived threat related to immigration. Furthermore, the effect of SDO was partly mediated by individualizing moral foundations, while the effect of RWA was partly mediated by both kinds of moral foundations. It seems that perceived intergroup threat, at least to some extent, is influenced by personal moral preferences that can be derived from individual dispositions and motivations.

  8. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  9. Parochial cooperation in nested intergroup dilemmas is reduced when it harms out-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Hillie; Ten Velden, Femke S; van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2018-06-01

    In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory. Across three experiments we find, first, that individuals choose parochial over universal cooperation. Second, there was no evidence for a motive to maximize differences between in- and out-group, which is central to both group selection and social identity theory. However, fitting bounded generalized reciprocity theory, we find that individuals with a prosocial value orientation display parochial cooperation, provided that this does not harm the out-group; individualists, in contrast, display parochialism whether or not nut it hurts the out-group. Our findings were insensitive to cognitive taxation (Experiments 2-3), and emerged even when universal cooperation served social welfare more than parochialism (Experiment 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kauff

    Full Text Available Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO, and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753, Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948, and England (Study 5; N = 594. Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO. Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5, but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5, the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  12. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  14. Sources of implicit and explicit intergroup race bias among African-American children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley L Gibson

    Full Text Available Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe. Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias. Understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the absence of an implicit ingroup bias among people from culturally lower status groups is critical for advancing theories of implicit intergroup cognition. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors that shape racial group bias among African-American children and young adults by examining their relationship with age, school composition (predominantly Black schools or racially mixed schools, parental racial attitudes and socialization messages among African-American children (N = 86 and young adults (N = 130. Age, school-type and parents' racial socialization messages were all found to be related to the strength of pro-Black (ingroup bias. We also found that relationships between implicit and explicit bias and frequency of parents' racial socialization messages depended on the type of school participants attended. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors in shaping the magnitude and direction of implicit and explicit race bias among African-Americans rather than treating them as a monolithic group.

  15. Listen to the band! How sound can realize group identity and enact intergroup domination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegh, John; Drury, John; Stevenson, Clifford

    2017-03-01

    Recent research suggests that sound appraisal can be moderated by social identity. We validate this finding, and also extend it, by examining the extent to which sound can also be understood as instrumental in intergroup relations. We interviewed nine members of a Catholic enclave in predominantly Protestant East Belfast about their experiences of an outgroup (Orange Order) parade, where intrusive sound was a feature. Participants reported experiencing the sounds as a manifestation of the Orange Order identity and said that it made them feel threatened and anxious because they felt it was targeted at them by the outgroup (e.g., through aggressive volume increases). There was also evidence that the sounds produced community disempowerment, which interviewees explicitly linked to the invasiveness of the music. Some interviewees described organizing to collectively 'drown out' the bands' sounds, an activity which appeared to be uplifting. These findings develop the elaborated social identity model of empowerment, by showing that intergroup struggle and collective self-objectification can operate through sound as well as through physical actions. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. That's what friends are for: how intergroup friendships promote historically disadvantaged groups' substantive political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Andrej; Karlsson, David

    2017-12-01

    The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation. We test our argument with a unique survey that asks all elected political representatives in Sweden's 290 municipalities (response rate 79 per cent) about their friendship ties to, and their representation of, five historically disadvantaged groups: women, immigrants, youths, pensioners and blue-collar workers. We find a strong correlation between representatives' friendship ties to these groups and their commitment to represent them. The correlation is especially strong for youths and blue-collar workers, which likely can be explained by the fact that these groups usually lack crucial political resources (such as experience and education). We conclude that friendship ties function as an important complement to descriptive representation for achieving substantive representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  17. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  18. Laser marking method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Mukai, Narihiko; Sano, Yuji; Yamamoto, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)

  19. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  20. Interdependent Construal of Self and the Endorsement of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Interpersonal, Intergroup, and International Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Cukur, Cem Safak; Kuang, Jenny C. Y.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    2002-01-01

    College students from countries with collectivistic and individualistic cultures completed a self-construal measure, then identified how they would respond to conflicts with another individual between their group and another group, or between their country and another country. Participants responded more negatively to intergroup and international…

  1. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  2. Warriors and peacekeepers: Testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spisak, B.R.; Dekker, P.H.; Krüger, M.; van Vugt, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued

  3. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  4. Improving Racial and Ethnic Distribution and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Vallejo Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsky, Frederic R.; And Others

    As the result of field observation and a review of school data, this report presents the findings of a study of minority-group education and intergroup relations in the Vallejo Unified School District in California. It analyzes the racial and ethnic distribution o f students in the school district and describes the amount of equal educational…

  5. Languages of borderlands, borders of languages: Native and foreign language use in intergroup contact between Czechs and their neighbours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrjánošová, M.; Leix, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 658-679 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : native language * foreign language * intergroup contact Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  6. Collective self and individual choice : The effects of inter-group comparative context on environmental values and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom; Verplanken, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Self-categorization theory suggests that inter-group comparisons inform individual behaviour by affecting perceived in-group stereotypes that are internalized by group members. The present paper provides evidence for this chain of effects in the domain of environmental behaviour. In two studies,

  7. Power and threat in intergroup conflict : How emotional and behavioral responses depend on amount and content of threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamans, Elanor; Otten, Sabine; Gordijn, Ernestine H.

    We propose that in intergroup conflict threat content is important in understanding the reactions of those who experience threats the most: the powerless. Studies 1 and 2 show that powerless groups experience more threat than powerful groups, resulting in the experience of both more anger and fear.

  8. Support for Kurdish language rights in Turkey : The roles of ethnic group, group identifications, contact, and intergroup perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuyten, Maykel; Smyrnioti, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    The question of Kurdish language rights has been a central issue in the Turkish–Kurdish conflict. The current study examined endorsement of Kurdish language rights in relation to intergroup factors (i.e. group identifications, cross-group friendships, perceived discrimination, and perceived

  9. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  10. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  11. Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems.

  12. Contested collaboration: A descriptive model of intergroup communication in information system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    . The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of ''contested collaboration.'' It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants......Many information system design situations today include users, designers, and developers who, with their own unique group and individual perspectives, need to interact so that they can come to a working understanding of how the information system being developed will coexist with and ideally...... support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance...

  13. Group Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Intergroup Negotiation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Tang, Chen; Qu, Xiaofei; Wang, Chao; Denson, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have found that the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) is associated with a range of traits and behaviors that are possibly important to dyadic negotiations. However, it is unknown whether the FWHR would have an impact on intergroup negotiations, which happen frequently and often have higher stakes in the real world. To examine this question, in the current study, we randomly assigned 1,337 Chinese business executives into 288 groups and they completed a multi-issue negotiation exercise against each other. Results showed that groups with larger maximum individual FWHRs achieved objectively better negotiation outcomes. We conclude that groups containing individuals with relatively large FWHRs can claim more value in negotiations between groups.

  14. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    2014-03-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Communal and Agentic Interpersonal and Intergroup Motives Predict Preferences for Status Versus Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D; Heller, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Seven studies involving 1,343 participants showed how circumplex models of social motives can help explain individual differences in preferences for status (having others' admiration) versus power (controlling valuable resources). Studies 1 to 3 and 7 concerned interpersonal motives in workplace contexts, and found that stronger communal motives (to have mutual trust, support, and cooperation) predicted being more attracted to status (but not power) and achieving more workplace status, while stronger agentic motives (to be firm, decisive, and influential) predicted being more attracted to and achieving more workplace power, and experiencing a stronger connection between workplace power and job satisfaction. Studies 4 to 6 found similar effects for intergroup motives: Stronger communal motives predicted wanting one's ingroup (e.g., country) to have status-but not power-relative to other groups. Finally, most people preferred status over power, and this was especially true for women, which was partially explained by women having stronger communal motives.

  16. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  17. Student Teaching Abroad Inter-Group Outcomes: A Comparative, Country-Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As student diversity becomes the norm in U.S. schools, future teachers must be comprehensively prepared to work with the increasingly diverse student population through application of informed instruction that enhances general and individual student learning and outcomes. Teacher Education programs increasingly promote student teaching in international settings as a substantive step to develop teachers who embody these new competencies and instructional practices. The proposed paper presentation offers a framework and analysis highlighting similarities and differences between two groups of student teachers in Belize (2005 and 2008. Findings are comparative and relate to the type and degree of (1 cultural-, professional-, and character-development influences on student teachers, and (2 emergent common intergroup patterns.

  18. Taking one for the team: Physiological trajectories of painful intergroup retaliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Elizabeth M; Hohman, Zachary P; Harris, Breanna N; Abide, Alexandra C

    2018-06-13

    Retaliating against a threatening outgroup offers group members specific rewards, such as restored group esteem, a reduction in anger, and a sense of gratification. Because retaliation is rewarding, group members may appraise an attack on the outgroup to be beneficial, even if it feels physically painful. We hypothesized that group members would be more willing to endure pain to retaliate against a threatening outgroup, and that appraising the painful retaliation as rewarding would down-regulate their physiological stress response to pain. Participants were manipulated to feel threatened by a rival group and then completed the cold-pressor. During the cold-pressor, participants either retaliated against the outgroup or not. Results showed that retaliation inhibited physiological responses to pain, alleviated intergroup anger, and felt less aversive. We propose that these responses are caused by a cognitive reappraisal of pain, where painful retaliation is expected to be rewarding instead of threatening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Beyond dark and bright: towards a more holistic understanding of inter-group networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnova, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Networks are becoming a popular organizational form for structuring human activities. To date, scholars have addressed networks in a variety of fields, including sociology, economics, public administration, criminology, political science, and international security. However, little has been done so far to systematically examine the similarities, differences, and connections between network forms of organization across different academic disciplines. This has important implications for both theory and practice. The lack of attention paid to organizational similarities and differences prevents the exchange of knowledge developed across fields. In turn, policy-makers cannot take full advantage of existing research, and may miss opportunities to improve the work of some networks and combat that of others. To address this gap in the literature, this paper uses the combination of organizational environments and organizational goals to develop a new typology of inter-group networks, and thus improve our understanding of how human behaviour is coordinated through networks.

  1. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  2. Threat and parochialism in intergroup relations: lab-in-the-field evidence from rural Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Max

    2017-10-25

    Competition between groups is widely considered to foster cooperation within groups. Evidence from laboratory experiments hints at the existence of a proximate mechanism by which humans increase their level of cooperation with their ingroup when faced with an external threat. Further work suggests that ingroup cooperation should go along with aggressive behaviour towards the outgroup, although these theories are at odds with others that see high investments in outgroup relations as important means of stabilizing intergroup relations. Surprisingly, few of these arguments have been tested in the field, and existing studies are also limited by the lack of a direct measure of threat perception and aggressive behaviour. This study presents lab-in-the-field results from a rural context where exposure to an ethnic outgroup varies between villages. This context makes it possible to capture levels of threat perception, aggressive behaviour and cooperation without inducing intergroup competition artificially in the laboratory. All concepts are measured behaviourally. In- and outgroup cooperation was measured with a standard public goods game, and a novel experimental protocol was developed that measures perceived threat and aggressive behaviour: the threat game. The results show that levels of perceived threat, ingroup cooperation and aggressive behaviour are higher in regions more strongly exposed to ethnic outsiders. However, exposed regions also show high levels of outgroup cooperation and a concomitant lack of elevated ingroup bias. This pattern is explained by theorizing that communities show parochial altruism when faced with an ethnic outgroup, but balance aggressive behaviour with cooperative offers to diffuse tensions and to keep open channels of mutually beneficial exchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  5. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  6. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  7. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  8. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  9. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  10. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  11. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  12. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  13. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-01-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed. (author)

  14. From outgroups to allied forces: Effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and nonviolent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Hodson, Gordon; Willoughby, Teena; Blank, Carolyn; Ha, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i.e., feeling psychologically on the same team and connected with the outgroup member). In Experiment 2 (N = 239), effects of cooperation (vs. solo play) held whether playing a violent or nonviolent video game. Importantly, our findings offer an engaging and pragmatic solution to the pervasive issue of setting up and negotiating opportunities for successful intergroup cooperation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. [Effects of subliminal mere exposure to group members on intergroup evaluation: category evaluation measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of subliminal mere exposure to ingroup or outgroup members on intergroup evaluation as measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants first memorized the members of two groups. Then, they were assigned to either group by lot, and completed the IAT for intergroup evaluation (Time 1). In the next phase, half the participants were subliminally exposed to ingroup members and half to outgroup members. Upon completion of the exposure, the same IAT was administered at Time 2. The results showed that participants who were exposed to ingroup members evaluated the ingroup more positively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Participants who were exposed to outgroup members did not show an effect toward the outgroup. The finding that the mere exposure effect occurred only for the ingroup exposure condition suggests that unconscious awareness of the ingroup enhances the mere exposure effect.

  16. Changing Lenses: Using participatory photography for wide-angle intergroup perspectives on peace and conflict for social change

    OpenAIRE

    Tan de Bibiana, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The potential for art in peacebuilding has shown success but not complete acceptance in the peacebuilding field. Participatory photography’s method of photovoice has shown effective as a unique participatory action research tool able to allow users to communicate deeply on sensitive subjects with potential to influence larger social change. Participatory photography programs involving intergroup conflict or tensions presents an important relational component for practitioners and stakeholders...

  17. Intergroup friendships in intractable conflicts : a case study of the Middle East Program for Young Leaders (MEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Breivik, Norunn

    2006-01-01

    The contact hypothesis proposes that interaction of different groups reduces intergroup prejudice if certain optimal conditions are present (e.g. Allport, 1958). Critics, though, have pointed to the danger of research built on the contact hypothesis of Gordon Allport being applicable only in rare contexts, under highly idealized conditions (e.g. Dixon et al. 2005: 1). The generalisation of such research may not be useful in specific contexts where these conditions are lacking. When applied to...

  18. Multiplexing clonality: combining RGB marking and genetic barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornils, Kerstin; Thielecke, Lars; Hüser, Svenja; Forgber, Michael; Thomaschewski, Michael; Kleist, Nadja; Hussein, Kais; Riecken, Kristoffer; Volz, Tassilo; Gerdes, Sebastian; Glauche, Ingmar; Dahl, Andreas; Dandri, Maura; Roeder, Ingo; Fehse, Boris

    2014-01-01

    RGB marking and DNA barcoding are two cutting-edge technologies in the field of clonal cell marking. To combine the virtues of both approaches, we equipped LeGO vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins with complex DNA barcodes carrying color-specific signatures. For these vectors, we generated highly complex plasmid libraries that were used for the production of barcoded lentiviral vector particles. In proof-of-principle experiments, we used barcoded vectors for RGB marking of cell lines and primary murine hepatocytes. We applied single-cell polymerase chain reaction to decipher barcode signatures of individual RGB-marked cells expressing defined color hues. This enabled us to prove clonal identity of cells with one and the same RGB color. Also, we made use of barcoded vectors to investigate clonal development of leukemia induced by ectopic oncogene expression in murine hematopoietic cells. In conclusion, by combining RGB marking and DNA barcoding, we have established a novel technique for the unambiguous genetic marking of individual cells in the context of normal regeneration as well as malignant outgrowth. Moreover, the introduction of color-specific signatures in barcodes will facilitate studies on the impact of different variables (e.g. vector type, transgenes, culture conditions) in the context of competitive repopulation studies. PMID:24476916

  19. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R; Dekker, Peter H; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  20. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  1. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Dekker, Peter H.; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  2. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  3. Disappointment expression evokes collective guilt and collective action in intergroup conflict: the moderating role of legitimacy perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Nevin; Reifen Tagar, Michal; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2017-09-01

    Research on intergroup emotions has largely focused on the experience of emotions and surprisingly little attention has been given to the expression of emotions. Drawing on the social-functional approach to emotions, we argue that in the context of intergroup conflicts, outgroup members' expression of disappointment with one's ingroup induces the complementary emotion of collective guilt and correspondingly a collective action protesting ingroup actions against the outgroup. In Study 1 conducted immediately after the 2014 Gaza war, Jewish-Israeli participants received information about outgroup's (Palestinians) expression of emotions (disappointment, fear, or none). As predicted, outgroup's expression of disappointment increased collective guilt and willingness to participate in collective action, but only among those who saw the intergroup situation as illegitimate. Moreover, collective guilt mediated the relationship between disappointment expression and collective action, moderated, again, by legitimacy perception. In Study 2, we replicated these results in the context of racial tension between Black and White Americans in the US. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of the findings.

  4. Why are all the white (Asian) kids sitting together in the cafeteria? Resegregation and the role of intergroup attributions and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Floe, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Over three studies, we identified the phenomenon of ethnic 'resegregation' and assessed the extent to which it was predicted by attributions and norms, among other variables. Study 1, an observational study, showed extensive resegregation between White and Asian students in the cafeteria of a highly mixed school. In Study 2, we found evidence of attributional correspondence for White students, who attributed both their own and the outgroup's contact avoidance more to a lack of interest than fear of rejection, whereas Asian students attributed the outgroup's contact avoidance more to lack of interest, but preferred neither explanation of their own avoidance. In Study 3, we observed a pattern of attributional correspondence among both White and Asian students who attributed both their own and the outgroup's inaction in a hypothetical intergroup cafeteria scenario more to a lack of interest than fear of rejection. Study 3 also demonstrated longitudinally, for both groups, that own lack of interest in the outgroup reduced likelihood of cafeteria contact, whereas having outgroup friends and perceiving positive ingroup norms promoted it. In addition, positive outgroup norms promoted likelihood of cafeteria contact only for Asian students. We discuss how an understanding of the factors driving resegregation is critical to effectively realizing the potential of desegregated settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  6. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  7. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  8. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  9. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  10. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  11. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  12. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the vessel. (2) The type of vessel. (3) Specific purpose or limitation approved by the Coast Guard...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-23 Marking. (a) General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be marked with the information required by this section. Each marking must be...

  13. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  14. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  15. Situation-based social anxiety enhances the neural processing of faces: evidence from an intergroup context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofan, Renana H.; Rubin, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the intense fear of negative evaluation by others, and it emerges uniquely from a social situation. Given its social origin, we asked whether an anxiety-inducing social situation could enhance the processing of faces linked to the situational threat. While past research has focused on how individual differences in social anxiety relate to face processing, we tested the effect of manipulated social anxiety in the context of anxiety about appearing racially prejudiced in front of a peer. Visual processing of faces was indexed by the N170 component of the event-related potential. Participants viewed faces of Black and White males, along with nonfaces, either in private or while being monitored by the experimenter for signs of prejudice in a ‘public’ condition. Results revealed a difference in the N170 response to Black and Whites faces that emerged only in the public condition and only among participants high in dispositional social anxiety. These results provide new evidence that anxiety arising from the social situation modulates the earliest stages of face processing in a way that is specific to a social threat, and they shed new light on how anxiety effects on perception may contribute to the regulation of intergroup responses. PMID:23709354

  16. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  17. Does social deprivation influence inter-group contact outcomes for pupils in Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Hughes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The education system in Northern Ireland is characterized by division, with around 95% of the pupil population attending predominantly co-religionist schools. In a society that is transitioning from a thirty year conflict that has been framed by hostilities between the main Catholic and Protestant communities, reconciliation interventions in education have sought to promote the value of intergroup contact between pupils attending separate schools. Some qualitative research suggests that such initiatives are more likely to have positive outcomes for pupils from more middle class backgrounds than those from more disadvantaged communities and areas that experienced high levels of conflict related incidents and deaths during the pre-ceasefire years. Drawing on contact theory and empirical evidence from a large scale quantitative study, we seek to examine this theory. Using free school meals as a proxy for social class, our findings are consistent in finding that there is a differential impact of contact for those from less affluent backgrounds, and we conclude by arguing that this should be reflected in policy responses.

  18. Diminishing parochialism in intergroup conflict by disrupting the right temporo-parietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Schiller, Bastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Knoch, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Individuals react to violation of social norms by outgroup members differently than to transgressions of those same norms by ingroup members: namely outgroup perpetrators are punished much more harshly than ingroup perpetrators. This parochial punishment pattern has been observed and extensively studied in social psychology and behavioral economics. Despite progress in recent years, however, little is known about the neural underpinnings of this intergroup bias. Here, we demonstrate by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that the transient disruption of the right, but not the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), reduces parochial punishment in a third-party punishment paradigm with real social groups. Moreover, we show that this observed TMS effect on parochial punishment is mediated by a classical punishment motive, i.e. retaliation. Finally, our data suggests that a change in perspective-taking might be the underlying mechanism that explains the impact of right TPJ disruption on retaliation motivation and parochial punishment. These findings provide the first causal evidence that the right TPJ plays a pivotal role in the implementation of parochial behaviors.

  19. Changes of Personal Network Composition and Inter-Group Ties from 1987 to 2005 in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGA V., Attila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents the changes and stability of assortative mixing, and inter-group ties in Hungary from 1987 to 2005. The demographic categories under investigation are age, sex, and education. The analysis has a special focus on the rearrangement of the context of tie formation, and the inequality of receiving choices into personal networks along social categories. The most substantial change during the period, is the strong decrease in gender homophily, and some strengthening of intergenerationalties. Both of these findings are in line with the observation that personal networks are recruited more often among the members of the nuclear-family. This latter phenomenon is probably due to the shrinking network size. However, this set of finding is prone to the methodological criticism formulated in the US context, that these observations are in fact the result of the interviewer effect. Finally, the study found stable patterns of educational network prestige, and describes the changes of social capital attached to categories of gender and age.

  20. The implicit power motive in intergroup dialogues about the history of slavery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlmann, Ruth K; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Dovidio, John F; Naft, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i.e., open, attentive, and motivated) if they receive an affiliation message rather than a no-affiliation message from an African American partner (Study 2). In interracial dyads we find that African American participants' implicit power motives moderate how much they intend to signal warmth to a White American discussion partner, how much they display immediacy behaviors and use affiliation imagery in the discussion, and with what level of engagement White American participants respond (Study 3). High but not low implicit power African Americans thus employ a communication strategy-expressing affiliation and warmth-that can be effective for engaging White Americans with uncomfortable, race-identity-relevant topics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report, Inter-group comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The Cortisol Response to Anticipated Intergroup Interactions Predicts Self-Reported Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat–prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Methodology/Principal findings Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. Conclusions These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience. PMID:22442709

  3. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Intergroup conflict management strategies as related to perceptions of dual identity and separate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined the relations between (a) the perceptions of dual identity and separate groups and (b) intergroup conflict management strategies, in two contexts: the conflict between the secular and religious sectors in Israel and the allocation of resources among organizational subunits. In both contexts, contention (i.e., forcing one's will on the other party) was associated with the perception of separate groups. Only in the organizational context, avoidance (i.e., doing nothing or discontinuing participation in the conflict) was associated with the perception of dual identity. Problem solving (i.e., finding a solution that is acceptable to both parties) was related to the perception of dual identity in the secular-religious context. In the organizational context, this relation appeared only under a low perception of separate groups. Yielding (i.e., satisfying the other party's needs at the expense of one's own) was related to the perception of dual identity in the organizational context. In the secular-religious context, this relation appeared only under a high perception of separate groups. The authors discussed the varying pattern of the associations between (a) the perceptions of dual identity and separate groups and (b) the conflict management strategies in the two contexts in terms of the Dual Concern Model and the perceived feasibility of the strategies.

  5. The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.

  6. How Is Existential Threat Related to Intergroup Conflict? Introducing the Multidimensional Existential Threat (MET) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561

  7. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser marking of alumina using near infrared (NIR) lasers was experimentally analyzed. • Color change produced by NIR lasers is due to thermally induced oxygen vacancies. • Laser marking results obtained using NIR lasers and green laser are compared. • High contrast marks on alumina were achieved. - Abstract: Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks

  8. Entitativity and intergroup bias: How belonging to a cohesive group allows people to express their prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D

    2015-02-01

    We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash; Reed, Nick; Toita, Takafumi; Pignata, Sandro; Blake, Peter; Portelance, Lorraine; Sadoyze, Azmat; Pötter, Richard; Colombo, Alessandro; Randall, Marcus; Mirza, Mansoor R; Trimble, Edward L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy (mean + SD) and 79.1 + 7.9 Gy, respectively. Point A doses were not different between the North American cooperative groups compared with the others (p = 0.103). All groups used concomitant chemotherapy, with 30 of 36 respondents using weekly cisplatin. Of 33 respondents, 31 intervened for a low hemoglobin level. For a para-aortic field, the upper border was most commonly (15 of 24) at the T12-L1 interspace. Maintenance chemotherapy (after radiotherapy) was not performed by 68% of respondents. For vaginal brachytherapy after hysterectomy, 23 groups performed HDR brachytherapy and four groups used LDR brachytherapy. In the use of brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in dose prescription. Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in terms of both doses and use of chemotherapy.

  10. Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Giraud, Gwennan; Gunst, Noëlle; Fuentes, Agustín; Wandia, I Nengah; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Poncin, Pascal; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-10-01

    Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species.

  11. Intergroup Variation of Social Relationships in Wild Vervet Monkeys: A Dynamic Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Sosa, Sebastian; Bshary, Redouan; Sueur, Cédric; van de Waal, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool that enables us to describe and quantify relationships between individuals. So far most of the studies rely on the analyses of various network snapshots, but do not capture changes over time. Here we use a stochastic actor-oriented model (SAOM) to test both the structure and the dynamics of relationships of three groups of wild vervet monkeys. We found that triadic closure (i.e., the friend of a friend is a friend) was significant in all three groups while degree popularity (i.e., the willingness to associate with individuals with high degree of connections) was significant in only two groups (AK, BD). The structure and dynamics of relationships according to the attributes of sex, matrilineand age differed significantly among groups. With respect to the structure, when analyzing the likelihood of bonds according to the different attributes, we found that individuals associate themselves preferably to individuals of the same sex only in two groups (AK, NH), while significant results for attachment to individuals of the same matriline were found also in two groups (BD, NH). With respect to the dynamics, i.e., how quickly relationships are modified, we found in two groups (AK, BD) that females' relationships were more prone to variation than males.' In the BD group, relationships within high-ranking matrilines were less stable than low-ranking ones while in the NH group, juveniles' relationships were also less stable than adults' ones. The intergroup variation indicates that establishing species-specific or even population specific characteristics of social networks for later between-species comparisons will be challenging. Although, such variation could also indicate some methodological issue, we are quite confident that data was collected similarly within the different groups. Our study therefore provides a potential new method to quantify social complexity according to natural demographic variation.

  12. Mark II magnetic detector for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mark II Detector, presently in the design stage, is a SLAC/LBL detector project to replace the Mark I now in operation at SPEAR. While similar in concept to the Mark I it will have improved momentum resolution, shower detection, solid angle coverage for both triggering and tracking and a magnet design providing easier access to those particles transmitted through the aluminum coil

  13. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  14. Why does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Pyszczynski, Tom; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N = 209), mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N = 112), examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran's nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems - even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  15. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records... back cover, including a binder cover or folder, if the document has a front and back cover; (2) Any.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  16. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  17. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic liquid). Marked rated holding marking for additional cryogenic liquids may be displayed on or adjacent to the...

  18. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of the...

  19. Do employers prefer Mark over Mohammed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Eline Nievers; Laila Faulk; Jaco Dagevos

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Liever Mark dan Mohammed? Does Mohammed have less chance of succeeding on the Dutch labour market than Mark, even though they both have the same qualifications and work experience? And are employers less friendly towards Sonaya than Paula? This study investigates the

  20. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions except...

  1. International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Creutzberg, Carien L. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Craighead, Peter [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); McCormack, Mary [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Narayan, Kailash [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Reed, Nicholas [Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Long, Harry [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Kim, Hak-Jae [Department of Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Marth, Christian [Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cerrotta, Annmarie [Department of Radiation Therapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy); Small, William [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Trimble, Edward [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). Methods and Materials: A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results: A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB-IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials.

  2. Specific emotions as mediators of the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: findings across multiple participant and target groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2017-08-01

    Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.

  3. How Affectively-Based and Cognitively-Based Attitudes Drive Intergroup Behaviours: The Moderating Role of Affective-Cognitive Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Dovidio, John; Wang, Erping

    2013-01-01

    The moderating role of affective-cognitive consistency in the effects of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes on consummatory and instrumental behaviors was explored using two experimental studies in the intergroup context. Study 1 revealed that affectively-based attitudes were better predictors than cognitively-based attitudes regardless of affective-cognitive consistency for consummatory behaviors (e.g., undergraduates’ supportive behaviors toward government officials). Study 2, which investigated task groups’ supportive behaviors toward an immediate supervisory group, found that for these instrumental behaviors cognitively-based attitudes were better predictors than affectively-based attitudes only when affective-cognitive consistency was high. The present research also examined the mechanism by which affective-cognitive consistency moderates the relative roles of affectively-based and cognitively-based attitudes in attitude-behavior consistency. Results indicated that attitude-behavior consistency is eroded primarily because of the weaker relationship of affective or cognitive components to behaviors than to general attitudes. The reciprocal implications of research on attitudes and work on intergroup relations are considered. PMID:24244751

  4. The Politicized Motivations of Volunteers in the Refugee Crisis: Intergroup Helping as the Means to Achieve Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kende

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The refugee crisis in the summer of 2015 mobilized thousands of volunteers in Hungary to help refugees on their journey through Europe despite the government’s hostile stance. We conducted a survey (N = 1459 among people who were active in supporting refugees and providing services to them to test the hypothesis of whether volunteers in the context of this humanitarian crisis had social change motivations similar to those engaged in direct political activism. Hierarchical regression analysis and mediation analysis revealed the importance of opinion-based identity and moral convictions as predictors of volunteerism, while efficacy beliefs and anger only predicted political activism. Our findings suggest that volunteers engaged in helping refugees based on motivations previously described as drivers of mobilization for political activism, but chose volunteerism to alleviate the problems embedded in the intergroup situation. Although the context of the refugee crisis in Hungary may have been somewhat unique, these findings have implications for other asymmetrical politicized intergroup relations in which advantaged group members can choose to offer humanitarian aid, engage in political actions to change the situation, or do both.

  5. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  7. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  8. Changing Context of Trade Mark Protection in India: A Review of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2004-01-01

    With liberalisation and globalisation of the Indian economy, it has become possible for anyone to get into production and services in most of the sectors. This has led to rampant misuse and appropriation of trade marks. In an insulated economy, with monopoly markets, law protecting trade marks had a limited role. In the changed context, however, trade mark law will be a field of much interest for academics and practitioners. Towards this, the paper explores the formation of trade mark law in ...

  9. Surface laser marking optimization using an experimental design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brihmat-Hamadi, F.; Amara, E. H.; Lavisse, L.; Jouvard, J. M.; Cicala, E.; Kellou, H.

    2017-04-01

    Laser surface marking is performed on a titanium substrate using a pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser ( λ= 532 nm, τ pulse=5 ns) to process the substrate surface under normal atmospheric conditions. The aim of the work is to investigate, following experimental and statistical approaches, the correlation between the process parameters and the response variables (output), using a Design of Experiment method (DOE): Taguchi methodology and a response surface methodology (RSM). A design is first created using MINTAB program, and then the laser marking process is performed according to the planned design. The response variables; surface roughness and surface reflectance were measured for each sample, and incorporated into the design matrix. The results are then analyzed and the RSM model is developed and verified for predicting the process output for the given set of process parameters values. The analysis shows that the laser beam scanning speed is the most influential operating factor followed by the laser pumping intensity during marking, while the other factors show complex influences on the objective functions.

  10. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  11. First results from Mark III at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsweiler, K.F.

    The paper presents data on meson decays obtained using the MARK III detector operating at SPEAR. Results on hadronic decays; decays of the etasub(e); and results on radiative decays; are all described. (U.K.)

  12. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  13. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  14. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “To Close, Press Together Full Length”. The marking may be applied to the container by the silk screen process, using a suitable ink or paint, or may be applied by other means shown to be acceptable. (b...

  15. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eddy current examination combined with a visual inspection, the marking is as illustrated in paragraph..., securely affixed in a manner prescribed by the cylinder manufacturer, near the original manufacturer's...

  16. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  17. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  18. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  19. Social identity as both cause and effect : The development of group identification in response to anticipated and actual changes in the intergroup status hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B; Spears, R; Ellemers, N

    This study investigates how in-group identification develops during group interaction and forms a dynamic input and output that changes over time. Phase I of the study shows how initial level of identification in combination with anticipated changes in the intergroup status hierarchy, predicts

  20. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Dussel, D.B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict

  1. Explaining Gender-Based Language Use: Effects of Gender Identity Salience on References to Emotion and Tentative Language in Intra- and Intergroup Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment tested hypotheses derived from self-categorization theory's explanation for gender-based language use. Under high or low conditions of gender salience, men and women sent e-mail to an ostensible male or female recipient yielding either an intra- or an intergroup setting. Gender salience was manipulated so that the stereotypically…

  2. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-11-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  4. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  5. The Influence of Psychological Mechanisms on Intergroup Adaptation as a Resource for Corporate Management and Organizational Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulgacov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author provides the findings of the empiric study, involving the employees of construction companies, with account for their diverse social statuses. Top executives, directors of departments, and engineers participated in the research project, covered by the article. One hundred and forty employees of six construction companies were involved in the empiric study. The project comprises quantitative and qualitative correlation of management situations, based on the methodology, developed by D. Snowden; contributions made by the psychological mechanisms of intergroup adaptation, as well as the resolution of management situations. The findings have proven that by getting adjusted to versa-tile management situations, group members alter the motivation potential of their groups by urging other groups, interacting with theirs, to get adjusted to the new environment of social interaction. Therefore, the difference in the motivation potentials of interacting groups may cause the resonance, leading to constructive solutions.

  6. Radiographic appearance of Ewing sarcoma of the hands and feet: report from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinus, W.R.; Gilula, L.A.; Shirley, S.K.; Askin, F.B.; Siegal, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Review of current data from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study (IESS) shows that Ewing sarcoma is rare in bones of the hands and feet. The 12 patients from the IESS protocols with hand or foot Ewing sarcoma are comparable to those already reported in the literature. With the exception of lesions in the calcaneus, the prognosis for disease-free survival is excellent. The radiographic features of hand and foot Ewing sarcoma are generally those of classic Ewing sarcoma: permeation, soft-tissue mass, and often, associated sclerotic reaction. However, with the exception of sclerosis, features suggesting bone reaction and slow tumor growth in these patients were distinctly uncommon compared with Ewing sarcoma in general. Apparently location of the lesion is important, since in the reported cases in the literature and in this series, lesions of the calcaneus fared poorly. The importance of this set of patients therefore relates to awareness and early recognition of an unusual appearance and location of Ewing sarcoma

  7. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  8. Tense Marking in the English Narrative Retells of Dual Language Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusewski, Svenja; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-07-26

    This longitudinal study investigated the emergence of English tense marking in young (Spanish-English) dual language learners (DLLs) over 4 consecutive academic semesters, addressing the need for longitudinal data on typical acquisition trajectories of English in DLL preschoolers. Language sample analysis was conducted on 139 English narrative retells elicited from 39 preschool-age (Spanish-English) DLLs (range = 39-65 months). Growth curve models captured within- and between-individual change in tense-marking accuracy over time. Tense-marking accuracy was indexed by the finite verb morphology composite and by 2 specifically developed adaptations. Individual tense markers were systematically described in terms of overall accuracy and specific error patterns. Tense-marking accuracy exhibited significant growth over time for each composite. Initially, irregular past-tense accuracy was higher than regular past-tense accuracy; over time, however, regular past-tense marking outpaced accuracy on irregular verbs. These findings suggest that young DLLs can achieve high tense-marking accuracy assuming 2 years of immersive exposure to English. Monitoring the growth in tense-marking accuracy over time and considering productive tense-marking errors as partially correct more precisely captured the emergence of English tense marking in this population with highly variable expressive language skills. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5176942.

  9. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO 2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  10. THE MARK I BUSINESS SYSTEM SIMULATION MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    of a large-scale business simulation model as a vehicle for doing research in management controls. The major results of the program were the...development of the Mark I business simulation model and the Simulation Package (SIMPAC). SIMPAC is a method and set of programs facilitating the construction...of large simulation models. The object of this document is to describe the Mark I Corporation model, state why parts of the business were modeled as they were, and indicate the research applications of the model. (Author)

  11. Regionaalpoliitika ja arhitektuur / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar

    1999-01-01

    Kagu-Eesti Regionaalarengu Programmi raames Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuurikateedri IV kursuse eriala valikaines 1998/99 tehtud tööst "HyperMobiilne Reaalsus & Kagu Eesti" (juhendajad Ralf Tamm, Ülar Mark). Ühises töös osalesid Tartu Ülikooli geograafiatudengid (juhendaja Rein Ahas). 4 illustratsiooni

  12. Nekroloog turundusele / Mark Earls ; interv. Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Earls, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Turunduskommunikatsioonifirma Ogilvy & Mather suunajuht Mark Earls leiab, et kuna turg on üle ujutatud võrdselt heade toodetega ja tarbija teab, et tegelikult pole oluline, millise toote ta valib, muutub turundusrevolutsiooni keskne idee - tarbijavajaduste kindlakstegemine ja rahuldamine - tähtsusetuks.

  13. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must... limitation statement on the bottom, of— (1) The outside of any front and back cover, including a binder cover... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  14. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear

  15. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  16. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... question, eliciting answers that range from Mark as in direct and open ... or armed response, especially in a context where such actions were unrealistic. (whether ..... identity; social memory; to name a few) of power. It implies ... an elite-driven enterprise in the simplistic sense of the word, although the elite's ...

  17. First results from Mark II at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Blocker, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    First results from the SLAC-LBL Mark II magnetic detector at SPEAR are presented. The performance of the detector is discussed and preliminary results are given on inclusive baryon production R/sub p + anti p/, R/sub Λ + anti Λ/, on decay modes of the D mesons and on two-photon production of eta' mesons

  18. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... permanently affixed to the exterior surface of the barrel, covering the circumference of the barrel from the...

  19. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Miscellaneous § 226.91 Marking. (a) USAID policy is that all programs, projects, activities... support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The...

  20. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  1. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  2. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  3. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  4. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  5. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  6. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  7. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?a-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process,...

  8. Alignment of the measurement scale mark during immersion hydrometer calibration using an image processing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-10-24

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration.

  9. Mark and recapture studies of two reef sparids in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Buxton

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A mark and recapture study of two reef sparids, Chrysoblephus laticeps and C. cristiceps, was done in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Fish were marked with plastic anchor tags and an intraperitoneal injection of oxytetracycline. All recaptures were taken within two kilometres of the tagging locality, suggesting that both species are resident in the area. Growth in length during the period at liberty was very variable and sometimes negative, but was comparable with published growth rates.

  10. Distinguishing butchery cut marks from crocodile bite marks through machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Baquedano, Enrique

    2018-04-10

    All models of evolution of human behaviour depend on the correct identification and interpretation of bone surface modifications (BSM) on archaeofaunal assemblages. Crucial evolutionary features, such as the origin of stone tool use, meat-eating, food-sharing, cooperation and sociality can only be addressed through confident identification and interpretation of BSM, and more specifically, cut marks. Recently, it has been argued that linear marks with the same properties as cut marks can be created by crocodiles, thereby questioning whether secure cut mark identifications can be made in the Early Pleistocene fossil record. Powerful classification methods based on multivariate statistics and machine learning (ML) algorithms have previously successfully discriminated cut marks from most other potentially confounding BSM. However, crocodile-made marks were marginal to or played no role in these comparative analyses. Here, for the first time, we apply state-of-the-art ML methods on crocodile linear BSM and experimental butchery cut marks, showing that the combination of multivariate taphonomy and ML methods provides accurate identification of BSM, including cut and crocodile bite marks. This enables empirically-supported hominin behavioural modelling, provided that these methods are applied to fossil assemblages.

  11. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  12. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  13. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  14. A Novel Marking Reader for Progressive Addition Lenses Based on Gabor Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; Micó, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are marked with permanent engraved marks (PEMs) at standardized locations. Permanent engraved marks are very useful through the manufacturing and mounting processes, act as locator marks to re-ink the removable marks, and contain useful information about the PAL. However, PEMs are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, partially occluded, and difficult to recognize on tinted lenses or with antireflection or scratch-resistant coatings. The aim of this article is to present a new generation of portable marking reader based on an extremely simplified concept for visualization and identification of PEMs in PALs. Permanent engraved marks on different PALs are visualized using classical Gabor holography as underlying principle. Gabor holography allows phase sample visualization with adjustable magnification and can be implemented in either classical or digital versions. Here, visual Gabor holography is used to provide a magnified defocused image of the PEMs onto a translucent visualization screen where the PEM is clearly identified. Different types of PALs (conventional, personalized, old and scratched, sunglasses, etc.) have been tested to visualize PEMs with the proposed marking reader. The PEMs are visible in every case, and variable magnification factor can be achieved simply moving up and down the PAL in the instrument. In addition, a second illumination wavelength is also tested, showing the applicability of this novel marking reader for different illuminations. A new concept of marking reader ophthalmic instrument has been presented and validated in the laboratory. The configuration involves only a commercial-grade laser diode and a visualization screen for PEM identification. The instrument is portable, economic, and easy to use, and it can be used for identifying patient's current PAL model and for marking removable PALs again or finding test points regardless of the age of the PAL, its scratches, tints, or coatings.

  15. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  16. EcoMark 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Yang, Bin; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Eco-routing is a simple yet effective approach to substantially reducing the environmental impact, e.g., fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of vehicular transportation. Eco-routing relies on the ability to reliably quantify the environmental impact of vehicles as they travel...... in a spatial network. The procedure of quantifying such vehicular impact for road segments of a spatial network is called eco-weight assignment. EcoMark 2.0 proposes a general framework for eco-weight assignment to enable eco-routing. It studies the abilities of six instantaneous and five aggregated models......, and experiments for assessing the utility of the impact models in assigning eco-weights. The application of EcoMark 2.0 indicates that the instantaneous model EMIT and the aggregated model SIDRA-Running are suitable for assigning eco-weights under varying circumstances. In contrast, other instantaneous models...

  17. Geologic bench marks by terrestrial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.

    1973-01-01

    A photograph made with a level camera, if taken at a known height above a permanent mark on the ground, can be later repeated with exactness for measurement of changes in terrain. Such a photograph is one of several means for establishing a geologic bench mark and is especially useful for monitoring the subtle qualities of a landscape that are otherwise hard to map and describe, including the effects of man's use. Moreover, the geometry of such a photograph provides the same angular measurements between objects as can be made with a transit. A measurement of distance on a single photograph, however, requires control points. These can be surveyed at any convenient time, not necessarily when the initial photograph is made. Distances can also be determined by simple stereophotography from a base line of suitable length.

  18. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  19. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear demand or, even within the constant elasticity framework, dependence is introduced. The analysis provides a single Generalized Inverse Elasticity Rule for the problems of monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey.

  20. Utilization of Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoj, L.; Smodis, B.

    2010-01-01

    TRIGA Mark II research reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute [JSI] is extensively used for various applications, such as: irradiation of various samples, training and education, verification and validation of nuclear data and computer codes, testing and development of experimental equipment used for core physics tests at a nuclear power plant. The paper briefly describes the aforementioned activities and shows that even such small reactors are still indispensable in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  1. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  2. Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Kanazayire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.

  3. Association of Systemic Inflammation with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao; Lv, Peng; Zhong, Mianhua; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Tzan, Kevin; Jiang, Silis Y.; Lippmann, Morton; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution to increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the general population, but the biologic mechanisms of these associations are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between daily variations in exposure to PM2.5 and inflammatory responses in mice during and for 2 months after the Beijing Olympic Games. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Beijing PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) in 2008 during the 2 months of Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games, and for 2 months after the end of the Games. During the Games, circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 6 were increased significantly in the PM2.5 exposure group, when compared with the FA control group, although there were no significant inter-group differences in tumor necrosis factor α or interferon γ, or in macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the spleen or thymus between these 2 groups. However, macrophages were significantly increased in the lung and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5. After the Olympic Games, there were no significant PM2.5-associated differences for macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the thymus, but macrophages were significantly elevated in the lung, spleen, subcutaneous and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5, and the numbers of macrophages were even higher after than those during the Games. Moreover, the number of neutrophils was markedly higher in the spleen for the PM2.5-exposed- than the FA-group. These data suggest that short-term increases in exposure to ambient PM2.5 leads to increased systemic inflammatory responses, primarily macrophages and neutrophils in the lung, spleen, and visceral adipose tissue. Short-term air quality improvements were significantly associated with reduced overall inflammatory responses. PMID:22617750

  4. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  5. The Influence of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem on the Interpersonal and Inter-group Evaluations of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 236 Japanese college students evaluated themselves, two in-groups, and two outgroups,on five positive and five negative traits. They also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scaleand two subscales of the Luhtanen & Crocker Collective Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed thatthe personal and collective self-esteem of Japanese college students is unaffected by perceptions of interpersonal or inter-group superiority or inferiority. It is therefore inferred that personal or group e...

  6. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  7. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  8. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: Exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori eWeisel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help.Previous work established that this distinction---whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive---has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict.The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behaviour of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup.Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced.The main results are that(1 behaviour is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2 People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3 emph{Groupness}---the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being---is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it. In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  9. Destined to die but not to wage war: how existential threat can contribute to escalation or de-escalation of violent intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-10-01

    War means threat to people's lives. Research derived from terror management theory (TMT) illustrates that the awareness of death leads people to defend cultural ingroups and their worldviews to attain a sense of symbolic immortality and thereby buffer existential anxiety. This can result in hostile effects of mortality salience (MS), such as derogation of outgroup members, prejudice, stereotyping, aggression, and racism, which, in turn, can lead to the escalation of violent intergroup conflict and, thus, the escalation of war. Yet, escalation of destructive conflict following MS is not automatic. Instead, research on TMT suggests that MS does not necessarily result in conflict and intolerance but can also foster positive tendencies, such as intergroup fairness or approval of pacifism, depending on how existential threat is perceived, whether the need for symbolic self-transcendence is satisfied, which social norms are salient, and how social situations are interpreted. In the present article, we review current TMT research with the aim of reconciling the seemingly contradictory findings of hostile and peaceful reactions to reminders of death. We present a terror management model of escalation and de-escalation of violent intergroup conflicts, which takes into account the interaction between threat salience and features of the social situation. We also discuss possible intervention strategies to override detrimental consequences of existential threat and argue that war is not the inevitable consequence of threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. How we think they see us? Valence and difficulty of retrieval as moderators of the effect of meta-stereotype activation on intergroup orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Alexandra; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Dovidio, John F; Gómez, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicates that meta-stereotypes are predominantly negative. However, the valence of the meta-stereotypes may not be the only factor accounting for the detrimental effects associated with their activation. In addition to valence, we propose that the subjective difficulty of retrieving the meta-stereotype might critically determine whether its activation deteriorates intergroup orientations. An experimental study showed that the effect of the meta-stereotype activation on the desire to interact with outgroup members was moderated by the interaction between the valence of the meta-stereotype and its difficulty of retrieval. In particular, the activation of a positive meta-stereotype deteriorated intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was high as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was low. In sharp contrast, the activation of a negative meta-stereotype worsened intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was low as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was high. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  12. Children’s Marking of Verbal –s by Nonmainstream English Dialect and Clinical Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lesli H.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children’s marking of verbal –s was examined by their dialect (African American English [AAE] vs. Southern White English [SWE]) and clinical status (specific language impairment [SLI] vs. typically developing [TD]) and as a function of 4 linguistic variables (verb regularity, negation, expression of a habitual activity, and expression of historical present tense). Method The data were language samples from 57 six-year-olds who varied by their dialect and clinical status (AAE: SLI = 14, TD = 12; SWE: SLI = 12, TD = 19). Results The AAE groups produced lower rates of marking than did the SWE groups, and the SWE SLI group produced lower rates of marking than did the SWE TD group. Although low numbers of verb contexts made it difficult to evaluate the linguistic variables, there was evidence of their influence, especially for verb regularity and negation. The direction and magnitude of the effects were often (but not always) consistent with what has been described in the adult dialect literature. Conclusion Verbal –s can be used to help distinguish children with and without SLI in SWE but not in AAE. Clinicians can apply these findings to other varieties of AAE and SWE and other dialects by considering rates of marking and the effects of linguistic variables on marking. PMID:23813205

  13. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, H.; Daryoko, M.; Goeritno, A.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  14. The Mark II detector for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.; Baden, A.R.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Drell, P.S.; Fay, J.; Gidal, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Haggerty, J.; Harr, R.; Hearty, C.; Herrup, D.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jaffre, M.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kral, J.F.; Levi, M.E.; Lynch, G.R.; Richman, J.D.; Rouse, F.R.; Schaad, M.W.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schumm, B.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Wood, D.R.; Akerlof, C.; Bonvicini, G.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Frey, R.; Gero, E.; Hong, S.J.; Koska, W.; Nitz, D.; Petradza, M.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R.; Veltman, H.; Alexander, J.P.; Ballam, J.; Barklow, T.; Bartelt, J.; De Boer, W.; Boyarski, A.; Braune, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.L.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Destaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Fordham, C.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Glanzman, T.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Hayes, K.; Himel, T.; Hutchinson, D.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Karlen, D.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.; Komamiya, M.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lankford, A.J.; Larsen, R.R.; Lueth, V.; Mattison, T.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mueller, L.; Munger, C.T.; Nash, J.; Ong, R.A.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Perl, J.; Perl, M.L.; Perrier, F.; Petersen, A.; Pitthan, R.; Riles, K.; Swartz, M.; Taylor, R.E.; Van Kooten, R.; Voruganti, P.; Weigend, A.; Woods, M.; Wormser, G.; Wright, R.; Alvarez, M.; Calvino, F.; Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Wagner, S.R.; Weber, P.; White, S.L.; Averill, D.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Murray, W.N.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.R.; Snyder, A.; Yurko, M.; Barish, B.C.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hoenk, M.; Kuhlen, M.; Li, Z.; McKenna, J.A.; Milliken, B.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Peck, C.; Porter, F.C.; Soderstrom, E.; Stroynowski, R.; Weinstein, A.J.; Weir, A.J.; Wicklund, E.; Wolf, R.C.; Wu, D.Y.; Barnett, B.A.; Boswell, C.; Dauncey, P.; Drewer, D.C.; Harral, B.; Hylen, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Stoker, D.P.; Vejcik, S.; Breakstone, A.; Cence, R.J.; Gong, X.; Harris, F.A.; Koide, A.; Parker, S.I.; Green, A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1989-01-01

    The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring (√s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  16. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  17. Perceived Peer and Parent Out-Group Norms, Cultural Identity, and Adolescents' Reasoning About Peer Intergroup Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Romano, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Cultural group identity and group norms are significantly related to social exclusion evaluations (Bennett, ). This study examined 241 Jewish-American mid (M = 14.18 years, SD = 0.42) to late (M = 17.21 years, SD = 0.43; MageTOTAL  = 15.54 years, SD = 1.57) adolescents' cultural identities and contextually salient perceived group norms in relation to their evaluations of Arab-American inclusion and exclusion across two contexts (peers vs. family at home). Results suggest that perceived group norms are related to the context in which they are applied: parents in the home and peers in the peer context. Peers remained a significant source of perceived group norms in the home context. Significant interactions emerged between perceived parent group norms and cultural identity. Findings highlight the need to address group-specific norms by context to ensure maximum effectiveness for intergroup interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Belief in the malleability of groups strengthens the tenuous link between a collective apology and intergroup forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Caouette, Julie; Hayes, Nicole; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Although it is widely assumed that collective apologies for intergroup harms facilitate forgiveness, evidence for a strong link between the two remains elusive. In four studies we tested the proposition that the apology-forgiveness link exists, but only among people who hold an implicit belief that groups can change. In Studies 1 and 2, perceived group malleability (measured and manipulated, respectively) moderated the responses to an apology by Palestinian leadership toward Israelis: Positive responses such as forgiveness increased with greater belief in group malleability. In Study 3, university students who believed in group malleability were more forgiving of a rival university's derogatory comments in the presence (as opposed to the absence) of an apology. In Study 4, perceived perpetrator group remorse mediated the moderating effect of group malleability on the apology-forgiveness link (assessed in the context of a corporate transgression). Implications for collective apologies and movement toward reconciliation are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.

  20. 'Hooligans' abroad? Inter-group dynamics, social identity and participation in collective 'disorder' at the 1998 World Cup Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, C; Hutchison, P; Drury, J

    2001-09-01

    During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were, once again, involved in major incidents of collective 'disorder'. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by 'hooligans'. In contrast, Scottish supporters attending the tournament displayed norms of non-violence, explained by the popular press in terms of the absence of 'hooligans'. This study challenges this tendency to explain the presence or absence of 'disorder' in the context of football solely in terms of the presence or absence of 'hooligan' fans. Using data obtained from an ethnographic study of both Scottish and English supporters attending the tournament (N = 121), we examine the processes through which ordinarily 'peaceful' supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behaviour, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was understood as illegitimate in in-group terms, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members came to be understood as legitimate. By contrast, where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the 'hooligan' supporters of rival teams. This analysis represents an advance on previous studies of crowd behaviour by demonstrating how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective 'disorder'.

  1. Intergroup Contact: Using Storytelling to Increase Awareness of Lesbian and Gay Older Adults in Long-Term Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelts, Michael D; Galambos, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Due to societally imposed stigmatization, lesbian and gay (LG) older adults fear and prolong accessing long-term care (LTC) even though they need LTC at higher rates. Interventions that decrease negative attitudes toward LG older adults among LTC staff are a first step in addressing this problem. In this study, the influence of intergroup contact (IGC) on LTC staff members' attitudes toward LG was explored through the use of storytelling as a training mechanism. An embedded mixed-method approach was employed to collect and analyze responses of 60 LTC staff who participated in a storytelling event. Participants completed pretests, posttests, and participated in audio-recorded group discussions. The findings showed that storytelling had a significant (p =0.001) and positive effect (d =0.57) on participants attitudes toward LG. Qualitative analysis revealed 90 codes, 13 process codes, and 4 themes: making meaning of stories, seeking understanding, application to LTC setting, and debating. When guided by IGC theory, storytelling has potential for positively influencing attitudes of LTC staff members toward LG older adults. There is a need for longitudinal work to further test this model.

  2. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. [CGD 72...

  3. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter...

  4. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this...

  5. Circulatory Markings at Double-Lane Traffic Roundabout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.; Wong, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two types of circulatory markings at a double-lane traffic roundabout: the concentric marking scheme and the Alberta marking scheme. The effects of these two marking schemes on drivers' lane choice behavior, delay, and safety, are compared based on data collected from before and

  6. Identifying persistent and characteristic features in firearm tool marks on cartridge cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel; Soons, Johannes; Thompson, Robert; Song, John

    2017-12-01

    Recent concerns about subjectivity in forensic firearm identification have motivated the development of algorithms to compare firearm tool marks that are imparted on ammunition and to generate quantitative measures of similarity. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that identifies impressed tool marks on a cartridge case that are both consistent between firings and contribute strongly to a surface similarity metric. The result is a representation of the tool mark topography that emphasizes both significant and persistent features across firings. This characteristic surface map is useful for understanding the variability and persistence of the tool marks created by a firearm and can provide improved discrimination between the comparison scores of samples fired from the same firearm and the scores of samples fired from different firearms. The algorithm also provides a convenient method for visualizing areas of similarity that may be useful in providing quantitative support for visual comparisons by trained examiners.

  7. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  8. Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiangming; Yan Yushun; Zhang Quanrong

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark is a new type of forgery-proof product after engraving gravure printing, thermocolour, fluorescence, laser hologram and metal concealed anti-bogus mark. The mark is manufactured by intricate high technology and the state strictly controlled sensitive nuclear facilities to ensure the mark not to be copied. The pattern of the mark is specially characterized by permeability of liquid to be discriminated from forgery. The genuine mark can be distinguished from sham one by transparent liquid (e.g. water), colorful pen and chemical reagent. The mark has passed the official examination of health safety. It is no danger of nuclear irradiation. (author)

  9. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  10. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K.

    2017-01-01

    The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity) are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations. PMID:28736537

  11. Support to Military or Humanitarian Counterterrorism Interventions: The Effect of Interpersonal and Intergroup Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.

  12. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets

  13. Cognitive Levels Regarding Articulation Marks among Violin Students in Department of Music Education in Gazi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taninmis, Gamze Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine violin students' cognitive levels about articulation marks in Department of Music Education, Fine Arts Education, Gazi Faculty of Education, Gazi University (GUGEF), and to identify the variables on which the cognitive levels vary. It is a descriptive research considering the study purpose, method and…

  14. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  15. Decommissioning of TRIGA Mark II type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Jeong, Gyeonghwan; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The first research reactor in Korea, KRR 1, is a TRIGA Mark II type with open pool and fixed core. Its power was 100 kWth at its construction and it was upgraded to 250 kWth. Its construction was started in 1957. The first criticality was reached in 1962 and it had been operated for 36,000 hours. The second reactor, KRR 2, is a TRIGA Mark III type with open pool and movable core. These reactors were shut down in 1995, and the decision was made to decommission both reactors. The aim of the decommissioning activities is to decommission the KRR 2 reactor and decontaminate the residual building structures and site, and to release them as unrestricted areas. The KRR 1 reactor was decided to be preserve as a historical monument. A project was launched for the decommissioning of these reactors in 1997, and approved by the regulatory body in 2000. A total budget for the project was 20.0 million US dollars. It was anticipated that this project would be completed and the site turned over to KEPCO by 2010. However, it was discovered that the pool water of the KRR 1 reactor was leaked into the environment in 2009. As a result, preservation of the KRR 1 reactor as a monument had to be reviewed, and it was decided to fully decommission the KRR 1 reactor. Dismantling of the KRR 1 reactor takes place from 2011 to 2014 with a budget of 3.25 million US dollars. The scope of the work includes licensing of the decommissioning plan change, removal of pool internals including the reactor core, removal of the thermal and thermalizing columns, removal of beam port tubes and the aluminum liner in the reactor tank, removal of the radioactive concrete (the entire concrete structure will not be demolished), sorting the radioactive waste (concrete and soil) and conditioning the radioactive waste for final disposal, and final statuses of the survey and free release of the site and building, and turning over the site to KEPCO. In this paper, the current status of the TRIGA Mark-II type reactor

  16. Intergroup contact and religiosity as predictor of between group attitudes in conflict environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Bojan R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify relations between level of religiosity and level of contact on one side and social attitudes towards members of religious out-groups in conflict environment on the other side. This research was conducted on the sample of Christian Orthodox students in Kosovska Mitrovica (which is partially conflict environment and the Muslims were the out-group towards whom attitudes were analyzed. Attitudes measures we used were social distance scale and semantic differential. Likert type scale was used for religiosity measure, quantity and quality of contact. Controlled variables in this research were: gender, age and social status. Results showed that significant amount of variance was explained by independent variables (R2=.270, F(7,779=9.241, p=.000 for semantic differential and R2=.306, F(5,105=9.241, p=.000. However, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and attitude level towards Muslims. Most of the variance for semantic differential was explained by quality of contact (R2=.255, F(1,109=37,285, p=.000 and this was the only significant predictor for this attitude measure. Quantity of contact was significant predictor for social distance attitude measure, with highest incremental value - calculated by hierarchical linear regression (R2change=.216, F(l,109=30,076, p=.000. Following predictor was quality of contact (R2????????=.049, F(l,108=7,269, p=.008 and the last predictor was sex, with the lowest incremental value (R2=.034, F(1,107=5,159, p=.025. These results are interpreted by probable existence of several types of religiosity. There is possibility that general religiosity we measured in this research, was influenced by different types of religiosity, which could be the reason why correlation was not identified. Correlation between quality of contact confirms results published by other authors (Allport, Pettigrew who claimed that contact by itself cannot diminish prejudices and lead to change

  17. Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99+ percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. This information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly

  18. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  19. Results on the iota from Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of Mark III results on the iota(1440), a possible glueball state observed in radiative J/psi decays. The measurements include a spin-parity determination using both the iota → Ksub(s) 0 K +- π +- and iota → K + K - π 0 decay modes; an upper limit on the K*anti-K content of the Kanti-Kπ Dalitz plot; branching fractions and isospin; stringent upper limits for several hadronic channels, including iota → zetaπ→etaππ; and results from a search for iota radiative decays into vector mesons. These measurements are discussed in the context of theoretical ideas about the iota and results on the E(1420), a state observed in hadronic interactions. 11 refs., 7 figs

  20. Decommissioning plan for the TRIGA mark-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Jung, K. H.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) is the second research reactor in Korea. Construction of KRR-2 was started in 1969 and first criticality was achieved in 1972. After 24 years operation, KRR-2 has stopped its operation at the end of 1995 due to normal operation of HANARO. KRR-2 was then decided to decommission in 1996 by government. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) will be conducted in accordance with domestic laws and international regulations. Selected method of D and D will be devoted to protect workers and environment and to minimize radioactive wastes produced. The major D and D work will be conducted safely by using conventional industrial equipment because of relatively low radioactivity and contamination in the facility. When removing activated concrete from reactor pool, it will be installed a temporary containment and ventilation system. In this paper, structure of KRR-2 and method of D and D in each step are presented and discussed

  1. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view.......v. xenon-133 technique in seven young, normotensive volunteers before and 15, 60 and 180 min after 6.25 mg i.v. dihydralazine, corresponding approximately to 0.1 mg kg-1 body weight. For comparison the CBF reactivity to inhalation of 5% CO2 in air was investigated. Dihydralazine increased CBF throughout...... the period of study, in median 16, 27 and 23% at the three periods of measurements, respectively. The arterial blood pressure remained unchanged, whereas heart rate increased significantly. During CO2 inhalation, CBF increased on average 29%. Thus, the cerebral vasodilation exerted by a small i.v. dose...

  2. [The scent marking of territory of gerbils: a comparative analysis exemplified by 4 species of the genus Meriones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, V S

    1997-01-01

    Sex-age and seasonal variability of the ventral glands and different stereotypes of scent marking behaviour in four Meriones species (M. unguiculatus, M. meridianus, M. libycus, M. tamariscinus) have been studied in nature and under semi-natural conditions. Two major ways of olfactory marking are considered: by secretion of the ventral glands and by "signal heaps" with urine and feces. Intraspecific and inter-species variability of marking activity is investigated. The ventral glands start to function at the period of preparation of a generative system to reproduction. The peak of secretary activity of gland and maximum of two types of marking activity is observed in spring and early summer, i.e. the period of active reproduction. The maximum of two types of the marking activity is observed during this period. In M. tamariscinus and M. meridianus the marking by the ventral gland is prevailing mode of the territory scent marking, while Mongolian gerbils (M. unguiculatus) prefer to use "signal heaps" Libyan gerbils (M. libycus) in this relation take an intermediate position. At the non-productive period a level of marking activity is on 10-20 times lower than at the reproductive season. Besides hormonal, social factors were also important for regulation of marking activity. By influence of these factors the differences in the level of marking activity in high-rank and low-rank individuals and differences in patterns of a spatial distribution of scent marks in individuals of different hierarchical rank is explained. Functional significance of various ways of territory scent marking is discussed.

  3. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  4. Role of radiation therapy in the management of nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone. Report of the intergroup Ewing's sarcoma study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.A.; Tefft, M.; Nesbit, M.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.; Vietti, T.; Kissane, J.; Pritchard, D.J.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy in local tumor control and decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis is reported in 271 patients who were entered into the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study with more than one year follow-up and on whom all radiotherapy records were reviewed. The majority of the patients were irradiated to the primary tumor with doses of 4500 to 6500 rad in five to six weeks in combination with systemic administration of three drugs (vincristine, actinomycin-D and cyclophosphamide) or four drugs (vincristine, actinomycin-D, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin). One of the groups of patients was treated with three drugs and bilateral pulmonary irradiation (1500 rad, uncorrected dose, in two weeks). Preliminary analysis shows an overall local primary tumor control of 89%. Patients with lesions in the pelvis had a local failure rate of 17% (9 of 52) and in the humerus 23% (7 of 31). Factors affecting local recurrences are analyzed in detail. Distant metastases have been noted in 40% of all patients; the highest proportion was noted in the pelvis (49%). There was a significant difference in the appearance of pulmonary metastases in the patients who were treated with four drugs (9.7%) and in the group who received three drugs and pulmonary irradiation (23.5%) when compared with the patients treated with three drugs only (37%). Intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy significantly improve local tumor control and survival of patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma. However, the high incidence of metastasis suggests the need for more effective systemic chemotherapy to further improve treatment results. It is very important to determine the optimal dose of irradiation and minimal volume to be treated in order to achieve optimal survival and primary tumor control with the least sequela

  5. Radiation therapy in the multimodal management of Ewing's sarcoma of bone: report of the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.A.; Tefft, M.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.; Vietti, T.J.; Kissane, J.; Pritchard, D.J.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the role of radiation therapy (RT) in local tumor control and the decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis in 251 patients entered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study. All were followed for more that 1 year, and their RT records were reviewed. Doses to the primary tumor in the range of 4,500--6,500 rad were administered over approximately 5 to 6 weeks in combination with 4 drugs, i.e., vincristine (VCR), dactinomycin (DAC), cyclophosphamide (CY), and adriamycin, or only the first 3. One group of patients received the 3 drugs and bilateral pulmonary irradiation (approximately 1,500 rad in 2 wk). Preliminary analysis showed a local primary tumor control of approximately 90%. Patients with lesions in the pelvis and humerus had local failure rates of 13% (7 of 54) and 21.4% (6 of 28), respectively. The treatment groups differed significantly in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Patients treated with the 4 drugs (regimen 1) had a 14% incidence, whereas 42% of those treated with only 3 drugs (regimen 2) developed pulmonary metastases. Of all patients treated with 3 drugs and pulmonary irradiation (regimen 3), 18% showed lung metastases. The study indicated that intensive chemotherapy and RT significantly improved the local control and survival of patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma. However, the high incidence of metastasis indicated the need for more effective systemic chemotherapy for further improvement of treatment results. More studies are needed so we can define the volume to be treated and the optimal dose of irradiation to determine a therapeutic strategy that will yield optimal survival and tumor control with the fewest sequelae

  6. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  7. Influences of Phonological Context on Tense Marking in Spanish–English Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.; Potapova, Irina; Pruitt-Lord, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. Method In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish–English dual language learners aged 56–66 months (M = 61.7, SD = 3.4), we examined marking rates of past tense -ed and third person singular -s morphemes in different environments, using multiple measures of phonological context. Results Both morphemes were found to exhibit notably contrastive marking patterns in some contexts. Each was most sensitive to a different combination of phonological influences in the verb stem and the following word. Conclusions These findings extend existing evidence from monolingual speakers for the influence of word-final phonological context on morpheme production to a bilingual population. Further, novel findings not yet attested in previous research support an expanded consideration of phonological context in clinical decision making and future research related to word-final morphology. PMID:28750415

  8. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  9. The probability of Mark-1 liner failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H.; Ratnam, U.; Amarasooriya, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are proposing a probabilistic methodology, the risk-oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) as an overall systematic, disciplined approach for addressing the Mark-1 liner attack issue. The probabilistic framework encompasses the key features of the phenomenology, yet it is flexible enough to allow independent quantification of individual components as it may arise from independent research efforts. As a first step in this direction, the authors assembled, discussed, and took into consideration in the quantification proposed all relevant prior work. Furthermore, as an essential aspect of the overall methodology, most of those whose work has been referenced and/or used in this report have been asked to comment. The details of this work, the comments received, and the authors' responses are included in NUREG/CR-5423. As an even more important characteristic of the methodology, it is hoped that other quantifications (or information relevant to such) of independent components will become available in the future so that one can aim for convergence and closure

  10. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  11. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  12. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Emilio Vargas-Soto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration.

  13. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

  14. Trade Mark Cluttering: An Exploratory Report Commissioned by UKIPO

    OpenAIRE

    von Graevenitz, Georg; Greenhalgh, Christine; Helmers, Christian; Schautschick, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the problem of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The report consists of two parts: the first presents a conceptual discussion of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The second part provides an exploratory empirical analysis of trade mark applications at the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) and the European trade mark office (OHIM). This part contains results of a descriptive and an econometric analysis. According to our definition, cluttering arises where fir...

  15. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  16. 9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging...) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.418 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval... has on file evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official...

  17. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings...

  18. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.176 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must be plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block...

  19. 27 CFR 19.612 - Authorized abbreviations to identify marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... T Tax Determined TD Wine Spirits Addition WSA (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1360, as amended... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks... to identify certain marks: Mark Abbreviation Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Distilled Spirits...

  20. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a... domestic commerce is moved from an official establishment, the outside container shall bear an official...

  1. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  2. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  3. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  4. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a...

  5. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  6. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  7. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  8. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  9. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  10. Trends in the use of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection marked variability between countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Andersen A.; Carlsen, E.; Loft, A.

    2008-01-01

    to determine specific factors that explain the differences. As ICSI does not give higher pregnancy rates than IVF in couples without male factors, and as it adds additional costs, infertile couples and society may benefit from a less frequent use of ICSI in some countries Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11......BACKGROUND: ICSI is used increasingly often compared with standard IVF. The aim of the present study was to analyse the changes in the use of ICSI, and discuss possible causes and consequences. METHODS: Data from National and Regional registers were analysed for trends in the use of ICSI...

  11. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can...

  12. Negative Marking and the Student Physician–-A Descriptive Study of Nigerian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenna Kingsley Ndu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background There is considerable debate about the two most commonly used scoring methods, namely, the formula scoring (popularly referred to as negative marking method in our environment and number right scoring methods. Although the negative marking scoring system attempts to discourage students from guessing in order to increase test reliability and validity, there is the view that it is an excessive and unfair penalty that also increases anxiety. Feedback from students is part of the education process; thus, this study assessed the perception of medical students about negative marking method for multiple choice question (MCQ examination formats and also the effect of gender and risk-taking behavior on scores obtained with this assessment method. Methods This was a prospective multicenter survey carried out among fifth year medical students in Enugu State University and the University of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 175 medical students from the two schools, while a class test was administered to medical students from Enugu State University. Qualitative statistical methods including frequencies, percentages, and chi square were used to analyze categorical variables. Quantitative statistics using analysis of variance was used to analyze continuous variables. Results Inquiry into assessment format revealed that most of the respondents preferred MCQs (65.9%. One hundred and thirty students (74.3% had an unfavorable perception of negative marking. Thirty-nine students (22.3% agreed that negative marking reduces the tendency to guess and increases the validity of MCQs examination format in testing knowledge content of a subject compared to 108 (61.3% who disagreed with this assertion (χ 2 = 23.0, df = 1, P = 0.000. The median score of the students who were not graded with negative marking was significantly higher than the score of the students graded with negative marking ( P = 0.001. There was no statistically

  13. The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects for its extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-11-07

    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesized that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed 'parochial altruism', is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against the out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of 'parochial altruism'. After a brief synopsis of the existing literature, two pitfalls in the interpretation of the most widely used models are discussed: potential direct benefits and high relatedness between group members implicitly induced by assumptions about conflict structure and frequency. Then, a number of simplifying assumptions made in the construction of these models are pointed out which currently limit their explanatory power. Next, relevant empirical evidence from several disciplines which could guide future theoretical extensions is reviewed. Finally, selected alternative accounts of evolutionary links between intergroup conflict and intragroup cooperation are briefly discussed which could be integrated with parochial altruism in the future. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects for its extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesized that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against the out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of ‘parochial altruism’. After a brief synopsis of the existing literature, two pitfalls in the interpretation of the most widely used models are discussed: potential direct benefits and high relatedness between group members implicitly induced by assumptions about conflict structure and frequency. Then, a number of simplifying assumptions made in the construction of these models are pointed out which currently limit their explanatory power. Next, relevant empirical evidence from several disciplines which could guide future theoretical extensions is reviewed. Finally, selected alternative accounts of evolutionary links between intergroup conflict and intragroup cooperation are briefly discussed which could be integrated with parochial altruism in the future. PMID:25253457

  15. Trajectories in a marked temperature inversion in mountainous country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppert, H.J.; Wippermann, F.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigates the flow conditions occurring in marked temperature inversions in mountainous country, which frequently arise in winter in high-pressure areas with low wind speeds. The problem is reduced to a two-dimensional one by vertical integration; since the highest mountains may extend into the inversion, the calculations must of course be carried out on a multi-compartment interdependent basis. The properties of the boundary layer are not taken into account in the vertical integration; only surface friction with the ground is introduced. Three comparisons are made for the three variables in the model (vertically averaged stream function, vertically averaged velocity potential and vertically averaged vorticity) and the conditions at the external and internal boundaries are defined. For the external boundaries, a distinction is drawn between the inflow and outflow boundaries of the area considered; the conditions for the former being determined by the overall (i.e. synoptic) wind conditions. As an example of application of the method, the flow pattern is calculated for the RHINE-MAIN area for an inversion height of 300 m above mean sea level. Trajectories from any chosen point can be obtained as subsidiary results and are given for 16 different overall wind directions, starting from the site of the BIBLIS nuclear power station

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  17. The Things of Caesar: Mark-ing the Plural (Mk 12:13–17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article observes the rarely-discussed phenomenon that the Marcan paying-the-tax scene refers to tax in the singular, whilst the concluding saying uses the plural ‘the things of Caesar and of God’. The article accounts for this phenomenon by means of developing traditions. The section under the heading ‘Mark’s scene and saying about taxes (12:13–17’ counters the common claim that scene and saying originated as a unit from the historical Jesus. It proposes that whilst the saying may have originated with Jesus, the scene as we have it did not. The section under the heading ‘Social memory, orality, and a multi-referential saying?’ suggests some contexts that the saying about the things of Caesar addressed pre-Mark. And under the section ‘Trauma and Mark’s scene’ it is argued that Mark created a unit comprising scene and saying to negotiate the ‘ trauma’ of the 66–70 war. The unit evaluates freshly-asserted Roman power as idolatrous and blasphemous whilst simultaneously authorising the continued involvement of Jesus-believers in imperial society.

  18. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  19. [Evaluation of the lifetime of nail markings during polio vaccinations in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Cuong, Huong; Schlumberger, Martin; Garba Tchang, Salomon; Ould Cheikh, Dah; Savès, Marianne; Mallah, Barah; Demtilo Attilo, Jacques; Ngangro Mosurel, Ndeikoundam; Gamatié, Youssouf

    2010-01-01

    days, visually and by photographs, to determine the factors associated with the lifetime of the markings. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were applied to estimate their survival curve and the variables significant for their lifetime; the Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios. Of the 184 children surveyed through the end of the study, the markings disappeared after 35 days of follow-up for 35% of them. The average lifetime of markings on these children was 28 days (SD: 4.95) and was associated, according to the Cox model, with 3 variables: the quality of the marking (RR = 0.335, 95% CI: 0.182-0.617, p vaccination. These evaluations, which take place well before the disappearance of markings, help to determine the precise coverage of SID.

  20. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  1. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A.; Delaloye, B.

    1961-01-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [fr

  2. Refusing intergroup help from the morally superior: How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help. : How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; van Zomeren, Martijn

    We examine how group members paradoxically refuse intergroup help where they might need it most: in the moral status domain. Based on the Sacred Value Protection Model (Tetlock, 2002), we predicted and found that group members felt stronger group-based anger and a stronger motivation to reaffirm

  3. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  4. 9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging... § 592.340 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval. Inspection program... evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official identification has...

  5. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  6. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.16 - Derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.16 Derivative classification markings. (a) Documents... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification markings. 2400.16..., as described in § 2400.12 of this part, the information may not be used as a basis for derivative...

  8. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  9. 76 FR 11432 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...] Coding of Design Marks in Registrations AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce... practice of coding newly registered trademarks that include a design element with design mark codes based... notice and request for comments at 75 FR 81587, proposing to discontinue a secondary system of coding...

  10. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  11. Selection of gender marked morphemes in speech production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriefers, H.J.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Hantsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    N.O. Schiller and A. Caramazza (2003) and A. Costa, D. Kovacic, E. Fedorenko, and A. Caramazza (2003) have argued that the processing of freestanding gender-marked morphemes (e.g., determiners) and bound gender-marked morphemes (e.g., adjective suffixes) during syntactic encoding in speech

  12. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  13. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar containers...

  14. Mark's story as oral traditional literature: Rethinking the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interpretation of Mark's gospel is inextricably linked to a conception of the gospel's genesis. By basing his argument on an aspect of the 'oral formulaic theory' the author of this paper argues that Mark's gospel can be seen as an example of oral traditional composition. The primary asset of this perspective is that it ...

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article for...

  16. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  17. 46 CFR 160.077-31 - PFD Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) General. Each hybrid PFD must be marked with the applicable information required by this... text of special purpose or limitation and vessel(s) or vessel type(s), noted on approval certificate... and be presented in the exact order shown: Type [II, III, or V, as applicable] PFD [See paragraph (k...

  18. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  19. Object marking in Swahili: Definiteness, specificity, or both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the role of object marking in relation to definiteness and specificity in Swahili. Object marking in general has attracted the attention of many scholars in the field of Bantu linguistics due to the complex nature of object markers (OMs) and varying functions they fulfil in Bantu. Opinions differ on the role of ...

  20. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  1. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  2. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear on...

  3. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  4. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.

  5. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  6. [Werkgartner's muzzle imprint mark--a literature study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Since Werkgartner described and correctly interpreted the muzzle imprint mark around the gunshot entrance wound in 1922, this finding has been generally accepted as a sign of a contact shot. In further studies, it could finally be clarified that the muzzle imprint mark is caused by the expansive power of the powder gases with pressure on and abrasion of the skin at the muzzle (weapon imprint). Its shape depends on the firearm, the ammunition and the anatomical conditions, but does not require a bullet. Examinations under a magnifying glass microscope and histological investigations can complete the macroscopic findings. Occasionally, the muzzle imprint mark requires a certain "drying period" in order to become clearly visible. In rare cases, muzzle imprint marks also form on textiles perforated by the projectile. Characteristically shaped muzzled imprint marks can provide clues to the type of the firearm and its position at the time of discharge.

  7. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  8. Using road markings as a continuous cue for speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J; Malhotra, Neha

    2018-08-01

    The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings). The Explicit groups were instructed about the meaning of the road markings while those in the Implicit and Control groups did not receive any explanation. Participants drove five 10 km simulated roads containing three speed zones (60, 80 and 100 km/h) during the first session. The participants returned to the laboratory approximately 3 days later to drive five more trials including roads they had not seen before, a trial that included a secondary task, and a trial where speed signs were removed and only markings were present. The findings indicated that both types of road markings improved drivers' compliance with speed limits compared to the control group, but that explicit instruction as to the meaning of the markings was needed to realise their full benefit. Although previous research has indicated the benefit of road markings used as warnings to indicate speed reductions in advance of horizontal or vertical curves, the findings of the present experiment also suggest that systematically associating road markings with specific speed limits may be a useful way to improve speed limit compliance and increase speed homogeneity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  10. Definitions for response and progression in ovarian cancer clinical trials incorporating RECIST 1.1 and CA 125 agreed by the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustin, Gordon John Sampson; Vergote, Ignace; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    . Thus, we recommend that the definitions described later in detail are incorporated into clinical trial protocols to maintain consistency. The criteria for defining progression are now acceptable in clinical trials of recurrent disease as they have since been validated (Pujade-Lauraine, personal...... communication, 2010). The GCIG requests that data from all clinical trials using these definitions are made available to GCIG trial centers so that continual validation and improvement can be accomplished. These definitions were developed from analyzing patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and have not yet......The Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) has previously reached consensus regarding the criteria that should be used in clinical trial protocols to define progression-free survival after first-line therapy as well as the criteria to define response to treatment in recurrent disease using...

  11. Right-wing authoritarianism and stereotype-driven expectations interact in shaping intergroup trust in one-shot vs multiple-round social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsi, Giorgia; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Liuzza, Marco Tullio

    2017-01-01

    Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation). Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM)-Warmth (W) and Competence (C)-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions) when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust), but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust). Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived warmth in shaping

  12. Right-wing authoritarianism and stereotype-driven expectations interact in shaping intergroup trust in one-shot vs multiple-round social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Ponsi

    Full Text Available Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation. Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM-Warmth (W and Competence (C-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA. In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust, but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust. Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived

  13. Experimental applications for the MARK-1 and MARK-1A pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lones, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This report is the third volume in a three volume set describing the MARK series of pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. This volume describes the MARK-1A detection system, compares it with the MARK-1 system, and describes the experimental testing of the detection systems. Volume 1 of this set presents the technical specifications for the MARK-1 detection system. Volume 2 is an operations manual specifically for the MARK-1 system, but it generally applies to the MARK-1A system as well. These detection systems operate remotely and detect photon radiation from a single or a multiple pulsed source. They contain multiple detector (eight in the MARK-1 and ten in the MARK-1A) for determination of does and incident photon effective energy. The multiple detector arrangement, having different detector sizes and shield thicknesses, provides the capability of determining the effective photon energy of the radiation spectrum. Dose measurements using these units are consistent with TLD measurements. The detection range is from 3 nanorads to 90 microrads per source burst; the response is linear over that range. Three units were built and are ready for field deployment

  14. Simulating forensic casework scenarios in experimental studies: The generation of footwear marks in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, Rachel L; Meakin, Georgina E; French, James C; Alexander, Tracy; Morgan, Ruth M

    2016-07-01

    A study was designed to investigate the effects of external variables, including blood type, flooring surface, footwear tread depth and blood dryness, on the appearance of blood-based footwear marks, with particular reference to simulating a specific casework scenario. Results showed that footwear marks left in human blood tended to be of greater quality than those in equine blood, highlighting a potential issue in applying data generated with equine blood to human bloodstains in casework. Footwear tread effects were also dependent on blood type, but the type of flooring surface did not affect the appearance of the mark. Under some conditions, as the blood dried, the amount of detail retained from footwear contact decreased. These results provide the beginnings of an empirical evidence base to allow a more accurate interpretation of blood-based footwear marks in forensic casework. When applied to a disputed bloodstain in a specific case, these results also demonstrate the importance of such experiments in narrowing the range of explanations possible in the interpretation of forensic evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  16. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-09-01

    To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. Observational. Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. 75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection and recognition of road markings in panoramic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Detection of road lane markings is attractive for practical applications such as advanced driver assistance systems and road maintenance. This paper proposes a system to detect and recognize road lane markings in panoramic images. The system can be divided into four stages. First, an inverse perspective mapping is applied to the original panoramic image to generate a top-view road view, in which the potential road markings are segmented based on their intensity difference compared to the surrounding pixels. Second, a feature vector of each potential road marking segment is extracted by calculating the Euclidean distance between the center and the boundary at regular angular steps. Third, the shape of each segment is classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, by modeling the lane markings, previous falsely detected segments can be rejected based on their orientation and position relative to the lane markings. Our experiments show that the system is promising and is capable of recognizing 93%, 95% and 91% of striped line segments, blocks and arrows respectively, as well as 94% of the lane markings.

  18. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  19. Plea to lower English test pass marks for EEA nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2017-08-09

    Nurses from a group campaigning for the rights of EU citizens in the UK after Brexit are meeting the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) to press for the pass mark for English language tests to be lowered.

  20. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University, Chennai-600025, INDIA .... Most of the Taguchi based studies used sink mark index or sink index as the parameter. It is an .... Maintaining higher pack pressure requires additional power and cost.

  1. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  2. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuti Malinda

    2017-08-01

    Conclution: Dentist should carefully determine the conclusion among these possibilities , the mark is “possible biter”, “probable biter”, or “with a high level of confidence, is the biter”

  3. Full-Scale Mark II CRT Program data report, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-12-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in April 1976 to provide a full-scale data basis for the evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a hypothetical LOCA in a BWR Mark II Containment. The test facility, completed in March 1979, is 1/18 in volume of a typical 1100 MWe Mark II, and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of the reference Mark II. The present report documents experimental data from TEST 0002, a medium size (100 mm) water blowdown test, performed by Hitachi Ltd. for JAERI as the second of the four shakedown tests. Test data is provided for the vessel depressurization, the pressure and temperature responses in the test containment, and especially for the chugging phenomena associated with low flux steam condensation in the pool. (author)

  4. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  5. Campus lecture marks Conflict Resolution Day Oct. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Conflict Resolution Program will sponsor a video conference presentation by Craig Runde and Tim Flanagan, co-authors of three books on conflict in the workplace, as the university marks International Conflict Resolution Day Thursday, Oct. 21.

  6. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  7. 46 CFR 160.021-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when igniting or flare is burning. Service Life....__). Manufactured by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No.__ (b) Marking of expiration...

  8. 46 CFR 160.037-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Caution: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when igniting or signal is burning. Service Life.... __). Manufactured by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. __. (b) Marking of expiration...

  9. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  10. 27 CFR 19.605 - Additional marks on portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “Tax-Free.” (b) The proprietor may show other information such as brand or trade name; caution notices... plant control data. However, marks or attachments shall not conceal, obscure, interfere with or conflict...

  11. Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servaas van der Berg

    2015-12-01

    This study compares CASS data to the externally assessed matric exam marks for a number of subjects. There are two signalling dimensions to inaccurate assessments: (i Inflated CASS marks can give students a false sense of security and lead to diminished exam effort. (ii A weak correlation between CASS and the exam marks could mean poor signalling in another dimension: Relatively good students may get relatively low CASS marks. Such low correlations indicate poor assessment reliability, as the examination and continuous assessment should both be testing mastery of the same national curriculum. The paper analyses the extent of each of these dimensions of weak signalling in South African schools and draws disturbing conclusions for a large part of the school system.

  12. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  13. Skype'i kaasasutajad investeerivad MarkIT-isse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nelja eestlasest Skype'i kaasasutaja loodud Ambient Sound Investments (ASI) investeerib 2 miljonit eurot, et aidata kaasa MarkIT e-hankekeskkonna arendamisele ning ettevõtte laienemisele viide Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riiki

  14. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  15. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANTOSH KUMAR SHARMA

    packaging of eukaryotic DNA in nucleoprotein complex known as .... The plant material used in the present study has ... materials (root tips/flower buds) were fixed in PHEMES ..... fications that mark active chromatin, while there are no data.

  16. 27 CFR 26.206 - Marking packages and cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.206 Marking packages and cases. The distiller... distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with durable coloring material, in...

  17. 131 The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'tender' art in Nigerian higher institutions where most learners start at a relatively ... expression/performance marks as 'symbols and words or phrases and their .... involves the study of the teaching of the motor, intellectual, problem solving, ...

  18. Linguistic gender marking and its international business ramifications

    OpenAIRE

    Estefania Santacreu-Vasut; Oded Shenkar; Amir Shoham

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the impact of language-based gender distinctions within languages’ grammatical structures on women’s corporate presence. Using four different data sets, we find that countries where the dominant language marks gender more intensely have significantly lower female participation on boards of directors and in senior management, as well as smaller female-led corporate teams. We also find that the gender marking of the language used in the headquarters’ home country impacts female prese...

  19. Aksel Mark: kõik algaski Otsal / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Mark Beijer, Mai. Landkänning : Brevväxling mellan Anu och Aksel Mark under deras första år som flyktingar från Estland 1944-45. Stockholm : Bokverksta´n Förlag, 2008; Allt började på Otsa : minnen från min barndom och skoláren. Stockholm : Beijer Bok & Skog, 2011

  20. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Klutho

    Full Text Available Protein scaffolds control the intensity and duration of signaling and dictate the specificity of signaling through MAP kinase pathways. KSR1 is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade that regulates the intensity and duration of ERK activation. Relative to wild-type mice, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice are modestly glucose intolerant, but show a normal response to exogenous insulin. However, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice also demonstrate a three-fold increase in serum insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge, suggesting a role for KSR1 in insulin secretion. The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1. Mice lacking MARK2 have an increased rate of glucose disposal in response to exogenous insulin, increased glucose tolerance, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. mark2⁻/⁻ksr1⁻/⁻ (DKO mice were compared to wild type, mark2⁻/⁻, and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice for their ability to regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we show that disruption of KSR1 in mark2⁻/⁻ mice reverses the increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin resulting from MARK2 deletion. DKO mice respond to exogenous insulin similarly to wild type and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest a model whereby MARK2 negatively regulates insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue through inhibition of KSR1. Consistent with this model, we found that MARK2 binds and phosphorylates KSR1 on Ser392. Phosphorylation of Ser392 is a critical regulator of KSR1 stability, subcellular location, and ERK activation. These data reveal an unexpected role for the molecular scaffold KSR1 in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism.

  1. Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m satellite imageries for 2000 to 2014 were used to determine the temporal dynamics of P. juliflora invasion in the study area. Both temperature and rainfall trends showed marked variability over ...

  2. Preoperative stoma site marking in the general surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.

  3. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  4. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  5. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  6. Individual-specific transgenerational marking of fish populations based on a barium dual-isotope procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga-Suarez, Gonzalo; Moldovan, Mariella; Garcia-Valiente, America; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2012-01-03

    The present study focuses on the development and evaluation of an individual-specific transgenerational marking procedure using two enriched barium isotopes, (135)Ba and (137)Ba, mixed at a given and selectable molar ratio. The method is based on the deconvolution of the isotope patterns found in the sample into four molar contribution factors: natural xenon (Xe nat), natural barium (Ba nat), Ba135, and Ba137. The ratio of molar contributions between Ba137 and Ba135 is constant and independent of the contribution of natural barium in the sample. This procedure was tested in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) kept in captivity. Trout were injected with three different Ba137/Ba135 isotopic signatures ca. 7 months and 7 days before spawning to compare the efficiency of the marking procedure at long and short term, respectively. The barium isotopic profiles were measured in the offspring by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each of the three different isotopic signatures was unequivocally identified in the offspring in both whole eggs and larvae. For 9 month old offspring, the characteristic barium isotope signatures could also be detected in the otoliths even in the presence of a high and variable amount of barium of natural isotope abundance. In conclusion, it can be stated that the proposed dual-isotope marking is inheritable and can be detected after both long-term and short-term marking. Furthermore, the dual-isotope marking can be made individual-specific, so that it allows identification of offspring from a single individual or a group of individuals within a given fish group. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  8. Reproducibility of Computer-Aided Detection Marks in Digital Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Im, Jung Gi; Cha, Joo Hee

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and reproducibility of a computeraided detection (CAD) system in mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital mammograms taken serially, without release of breast compression. A CAD system was applied preoperatively to the fulfilled digital mammograms of two MLO views taken without release of breast compression in 82 patients (age range: 33 83 years; mean age: 49 years) with previously diagnosed breast cancers. The total number of visible lesion components in 82 patients was 101: 66 masses and 35 microcalcifications. We analyzed the sensitivity and reproducibility of the CAD marks. The sensitivity of the CAD system for first MLO views was 71% (47/66) for masses and 80% (28/35) for microcalcifications. The sensitivity of the CAD system for second MLO views was 68% (45/66) for masses and 17% (6/35) for microcalcifications. In 84 ipsilateral serial MLO image sets (two patients had bilateral cancers), identical images, regardless of the existence of CAD marks, were obtained for 35% (29/84) and identical images with CAD marks were obtained for 29% (23/78). Identical images, regardless of the existence of CAD marks, for contralateral MLO images were 65% (52/80) and identical images with CAD marks were obtained for 28% (11/39). The reproducibility of CAD marks for the true positive masses in serial MLO views was 84% (42/50) and that for the true positive microcalcifications was 0% (0/34). The CAD system in digital mammograms showed a high sensitivity for detecting masses and microcalcifications. However, reproducibility of microcalcification marks was very low in MLO views taken serially without release of breast compression. Minute positional change and patient movement can alter the images and result in a significant effect on the algorithm utilized by the CAD for detecting microcalcifications

  9. Scent marking behavior as an odorant communication in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Arakawa, Keiko; Dunlap, Christopher; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In rodents, where chemical signals play a particularly important role in determining intraspecies interactions including social dominance and intersexual relationships, various studies have shown that behavior is sensitive to conspecific odor cues. Mice use urinary scent marks for communication with individual conspecifics in many social contexts. Urinary scent involves genetic information about individuals such as species, sex, and individual identity as well as metabolic information such as social dominance, and reproductive and health status, which are mediated by chemical proteins in scent marks including the major histocompatibility complex and the major urinary proteins. The odor of the predator which can be considered to be a threatening signal for the prey also modulate mouse behavior in which scent marking is suppressed in response to the cat odor exposure in mice. These odorant chemicals are detected and recognized through two olfactory bulbs, the role of which in detection of chemosignals with biological relevant appears to be differential, but partly overlapped. Mice deposit scent marks toward conspecifics to maintain their social relationships, and inhibit scent marking in a context where natural predator, cat odor is contained. This suppression of scent marking is long-lasting (for at least 7 days) and context-dependent, while the odorant signaling to conspecifics tends to appear frequently (over 24 hrs but less than 7 days intervals) depending on the familiarity of each signal-recipient. It has been discussed that scent marking is a communicative behavior associated with territoriality toward conspecifics, indicating that the social signaling within species are sensitive to predator odor cues in terms of vulnerability to predation risk. PMID:18565582

  10. A method for studying knife tool marks on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kai-Ping; Chung, Ju-Hui; Chung, Fang-Chun; Tseng, Bo-Yuan; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Kai-Ting; Yang, Chun-Pang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of knife tool marks retained on hard tissues can be used to outline the shape and angle of a knife. The purpose of this study was to describe such marks on bone tissues that had been chopped with knives. A chopping stage with a gravity accelerator and a fixed bone platform was designed to reconstruct the chopping action. A digital microscope was also used to measure the knife angle (θ) and retained V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) in a pig skull. The κ value (elasticity coefficient; θ/ψ) was derived and recorded after the knife angle (θ) and the accompanied velocity were compared with the proportional impulsive force of the knife and ψ on the bone. The constant impulsive force revealed a correlation between the V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) and the elasticity coefficient (κ). These results describe the tool marks--crucial in the medicolegal investigation--of a knife on hard tissues. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Recognition in context: Implications for trade mark law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Burt, Jennifer S; Kelly, Sarah J; Weatherall, Kimberlee G; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-10-01

    Context effects in recognition have played a major role in evaluating theories of recognition. Understanding how context impacts recognition is also important for making sound trade mark law. Consumers attempting to discriminate between the brand they are looking for and a look-alike product often have to differentiate products which share a great deal of common context: positioning on the supermarket shelf, the type of store, aspects of the packaging, or brand claims. Trade mark and related laws aim to protect brands and reduce consumer confusion, but courts assessing allegations of trade mark infringement often lack careful empirical evidence concerning the impact of brand and context similarity, and, in the absence of such evidence, make assumptions about how consumers respond to brands that downplay the importance of context and focus on the similarity of registered marks. The experiments reported in this paper aimed to test certain common assumptions in trade mark law, providing evidence that shared context can cause mistakes even where brand similarity is low.

  12. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  13. The impact of preoperative stoma site marking on the incidence of complications, quality of life, and patient's independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Benjamin; Ifargan, Ruth; Lachter, Jesse; Duek, Simon D; Kluger, Yoram; Assalia, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Preoperative stoma site marking and counseling aim to improve patients' rehabilitation and adaptation to a new medical condition. Objective studies are needed to provide evidence of the impact of care by stoma therapists. Key quality indicators include patients' quality of life, independence, and complication rates as affected by the variable modes of stoma site marking and planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative stoma site marking on patients' quality of life, independence, and complication rates. : A validated stoma quality-of-life questionnaire was used as the main assessment tool. Complications were noted on regular postoperative visits. This is a single-center, clinical study. The study was conducted at the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, Israel. Rambam Health Care Campus is a tertiary university hospital. All patients who underwent an elective stoma creation between 2006 and 2008 were included. Evaluated parameters included demographics, stoma type, marking status, complication rates, quality of life, and independence parameters. : One hundred five patients (60 men and 45 women) were included, of whom 52 (49.5%) were preoperatively marked and 53 (50.5%) were not marked. Sixty stomas (57%) were permanent, and 45 (43%) stomas were temporary. The quality of life of patients whose stoma sites were preoperatively marked was significantly better than that of the unmarked patients (p stoma type. Preoperative stoma site marking is crucial for improving patients' postoperative quality of life, promoting their independence, and reducing the rates of postoperative complications. The role of the enterostomal therapist is very important in the ostomates' pre- and postoperative care.

  14. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  15. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  16. Evaluation of TRIGA Mark II reactor in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilge, Ali Nezihi

    1990-01-01

    There are two research reactors in Turkey and one of them is the university Triga Mark II reactor which was in service since 1979 both for education and industrial application purposes. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the spectrum of the services carried by Turkish Triga Mark II reactor. In this work, statistical distribution of the graduate works and applications, by using Triga Mark II reactor is examined and evaluated. In addition to this, technical and scientific uses of this above mentioned reactor are also investigated. It was already showed that the uses and benefits of this reactor can not be limited. If the sufficient work and service is given, NDT and industrial applications can also be carried economically. (orig.)

  17. Full-scale mark II CRT program data report, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in 1977 to provide a data base for evaluation of the LOCA hydrodynamic loads for the Mark II pressure suppression system. The test facility is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a fullscale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report documents test data obtained from TEST 2101, which is a medium size (74 mm) water break test performed on April 27, 1979. TEST 2101 was designed to roughly approximate an intermediate break accident in which so-called chugging phenomenon associated with low-flux steam condensation is anticipated to continue for a longer duration than in a large break accident. (author)

  18. Full-scale mark II CRT program facility description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Ito, Hideo; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    Started in fiscal year 1977, the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program is proceeding for the period of five years. The primary objective of the CRT Program is to provide a data base for evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in the BWR Mark II containment system. The test facility was designed and constructed from fiscal year 1977 to 1978, and completed in March 1979. It is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report describes design concepts, dimensions and constructions of the test facility, as well as specifications, locations and installation schemes of the measuring equipments. Results of soil structure inspection, vacuum breaker test and shaker test of the containment shell are given in the appendices. (author)

  19. RAPID INSPECTION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS USING MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu’s thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  20. Combined pump and marking tests for determining protection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Brauns, J.

    1982-02-01

    Under difficult conditions the determination of the protection area II on the basis of Mear pump tests becomes uncertain. The report shows how in such cases the results of supplementary marking tests can establish a more accurate finding. The execution of combined pump and marking tests enables us to check data gained on a theoretical basis and possibly alter these. This method is described in an example, in which certain hydrogeological conditions and rival interests of ground water protection prevail on the one side and utilization of land on the other side. A general tendency exists to take the utmost protective measure in safeguarding ground water, however in cases of collision of interests the boundary of the protective area should be optimized. Supplementary marking tests can be of great significance.