Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.
The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…
Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward
This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…
Shapiro, Adam; Remle, R Corey
Transitions into and out of marriage are becoming more commonplace among persons in middle and later life. We assess the extent to which parental marital transitions influence inter vivos financial transfers to adult children at the family level. Panel data from 6,017 households with adult children in the 1992-1998 waves of the Health and Retirement Study are analyzed in this study. Net of familial characteristics, those families experiencing a parental marriage were less likely than stably married households to make a financial transfer to an adult child. The effects of divorce or widowhood were modest. Divorce was associated with a slight increase in the probability of providing a transfer. Widowhood was associated with a slight increase in the total amount transferred to children. The study adds weight to the growing argument that marital transitions may alter intergenerational exchanges. The results prompt us to further question how broader demographic and marriage patterns will influence relationships between parents and children in aging societies.
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married ... correlate significantly with marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary ... In other words, it refers to the management of ... dealing with each other so as to reduce ill-feeling. ..... Behavior exchange in happy.
Williams, Kristi; Umberson, Debra
We work from a life course perspective to assess the impact of marital status and marital transitions on subsequent changes in the self-assessed physical health of men and women. Our results suggest three central conclusions regarding the association of marital status and marital transitions with self-assessed health. First, marital status differences in health appear to reflect the strains of marital dissolution more than they reflect any benefits of marriage. Second, the strains of marital ...
Edgington, Shawn Corey
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of communication variables and parent marital variables with the fulfillment of marital expectations among newlyweds. Little research has been done on newlywed expectations and communication. This is an exploratory study conducted to determine how newlyweds' exposure to parents' marital interactions and communication styles correlated with newlyweds' fulfillment of marital expectations. Fifty newlywed couples (married 3-6 months) fill...
Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.
The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…
... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...
The data obtained from these instruments were subjected to multiple regression analysis using SPSS and the results showed that there was a low, positive and significant relationship between authoritative parenting style and marital adjustment. The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment ...
... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...
... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...
Toller, Paige W.; Braithwaite, Dawn O.
The researchers adopted relational dialectics theory (Baxter & Montgomery, 1996) to examine the discourse of 37 bereaved parents. Research questions guiding the study were what dialectical contradictions do bereaved parents experience when communicating with their marital partner after their child's death and how do bereaved parents and their…
Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.
Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…
Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang
This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.530 Marital or parental status. (a) General. A recipient... household or principal wage earner in such employee's or applicant's family unit. (b) Pregnancy. A recipient...
... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status generally. A... status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.530 Section 8a.530 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... of seniority and any other benefit or service, and reinstatement, and under any fringe benefit...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.445 Section 8a.445 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit...
The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...
Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian
OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and
Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra
We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children's marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children's marital quality depend on the adult child's gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating effects of parenting alliance on the relationship between marital adjustment, as represented by the dimensions dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, and affectional expression, and maternal and paternal stress. Self-report data were gathered from 236 Italian families (236 mothers: M = 40.9; SD = 4.4 and 236 fathers: M = 42.9; SD = 4.8 of children aged 6–11 years (M = 8.6; SD = 1.7. A set of regression analyses were conducted to examine whether parenting alliance mediates or moderates the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. Regression analyses were consistent with a model of coparenting as a mediator but not as a moderator of the relationship between marital adjustment and parenting stress. In the case of mothers, parenting alliance mediates the relationships between two dimensions of marital adjustment (dyadic consensus and dyadic cohesion on parenting stress; in the case of fathers, parenting alliance serves as a mediator of the relationship between the marital adjustment (in terms of dyadic satisfaction and parenting stress. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra
We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children’s marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children’s marital quality depend on the adult child’s gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data (Americans’ Changing Lives) indicated that relationships with fathers (n = 336) and mothers (n = 520) differentially affected the marital quality o...
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519
Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.
Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…
Ponnet, K.; Vermeiren, R; Jespers, I.; Mussche, B.; Ruchkin, V.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Deboutte, D.
Background: Because equivocal findings exist with regard to the relationship between adolescents' suicidal behaviour and parental marital status, the aim of this study was to investigate this relationship and in particular the effect of the perceived parent-adolescent relationship on this
Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E
This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menéndez, Susana; Hidalgo, M Victoria; Jiménez, Lucía; Moreno, M Carmen
Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding father involvement on childrearing. Dual-earner families were characterized by a specific pattern of changes, with greater stability than single-earner families in marital and parental roles during transition to parenthood and a significant role played by spouse support as a partner, but not as a parent.
Kaczynski, Karen J; Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe
Parenting was examined as a mediator of associations between marital and child adjustment, and parent gender was examined as a moderator of associations among marital, parental, and child functioning in 226 families with a school-age child (146 boys). Parenting fully mediated associations between marital conflict and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent gender did not moderate associations when data from the full sample or families with girls only were evaluated. Parent gender did moderate associations when families with boys were evaluated, with the association between marital conflict and parenting stronger for fathers than mothers. A trend suggested fathers' parenting may be more strongly related to internalizing behavior and mothers' parenting may be more strongly related to externalizing behavior in boys. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David
This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Borges, Marilyn A.; Clothier, Tamara A.
Women and men tend to be defined by their marital and parental status; thus, these factors may be crucial in understanding societal attitudes toward working men and women. The influence of marital and parental status on perceived job performance was investigated with a college undergraduate sample (N=128). From paragraph descriptions that varied…
Niesman, Cindy S.
A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…
Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…
Full Text Available While psychopathology in general is linked to poorer marital and parental satisfaction, there is a paucity of data regarding these interactions in parents with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The current study addresses this issue among a civilian population. Two hundred trauma-exposed parents, mean age of 37.2, 62% mothers, were assessed using self-report questionnaires, for background variables, PTSD symptoms using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale, DAS-7, parenting behavior (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ-9, and parenting satisfaction (Parenting Satisfaction Questionnaire. We hypothesized that positive parenting behavior and parenting satisfaction would be negatively correlated with PTSD symptom levels, and that this relationship would be mediated by marital satisfaction; the independent effects of depression on marital and parenting functioning were also examined. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Results indicated that PTSD was related to poorer parenting behavior (B = 0.089, p = 0.033, depression had a negative impact on parenting satisfaction (B = 0.983, p = 0.003, and marital satisfaction (B = −0.672, p = 0.004, and marital satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between depression and parenting. The findings demonstrated that the effects of PTSD can cast a pall not only over the individual but over the entire family. Interventions are needed to address these issues.
Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Dopkins Stright, Anne; Yen, Lee-Lan
The study examined how child and parent characteristics, and contextual sources of stress, such as marital conflict predict initial status and trajectories of parent involvement, support, and harsh control, over a 4-year period in families in Taiwan (n = 4,754). Based on Belsky's (1984) ecological model of parenting, three domains predicting parenting were tested, child characteristics (age cohort and gender), father and mother characteristics (education and depressive symptoms), and contextual sources of stress (marital conflict). The study followed two cohorts of children; the younger cohort was followed from first to fourth grade and the older cohort from fourth to seventh grade. Initially, fourth graders reported more parental involvement, support, and harsh control than first graders. However, involvement, support, and harsh control decreased across the 4 years for the older cohort as they transitioned to early adolescence. In the first year, girls reported more parental involvement and support and less harsh control than boys. Across the 4 years, involvement and support increased, and harsh control decreased for boys; whereas involvement stayed the same, support slightly decreased, and harsh control slightly increased for girls. Children whose parents were more educated reported more parent involvement, support, and harsh control in the first year. Children whose fathers were chronically depressed and whose parents were experiencing marital conflict reported decreasing parent involvement and support over the years. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki
This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices. Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the Social skills scale. Path analyses revealed significant direct paths from destructive marital conflict to negative parenting practices and lower scores on the self-control component of social skills. In addition, negative parenting practices mediated the relationship between destructive marital conflict and lower scores on cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Our analyses also revealed significant direct paths from constructive marital conflict to positive parenting practices, and higher scores on cooperation and assertion. Positive parenting practices mediated the relationship between constructive marital conflict and higher scores on self-control and assertion. These findings suggest that destructive and constructive marital conflict may directly and indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediation of parenting practices.
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark
Parents' marital conflict styles were investigated as mediators in the associations between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms. A community sample of 267 children, ages 8 to 16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that marital discord, in particular, depressive conflict styles, mediated the relationship between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Furthermore, whereas for dysphoric mothers, depressive conflict styles partially mediated the links with children's internalizing, for fathers, depressive conflict styles fully mediated the links. Destructive and constructive marital conflict were associated with parental dysphoria (positively and negatively, respectively) but did not mediate the relations with children's internalizing.
Polenick, Courtney A.; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Seidel, Amber J.; Fingerman, Karen L.
Everyday support given to aging parents is a salient aspect of married life that may have implications for marital quality. Among 132 middle-aged couples drawn from Wave 1 of the Family Exchanges Study, we examined the moderating effects of each spouse’s normative and motivational beliefs about helping parents on associations between the frequency of everyday support that wives and husbands gave to their own parents and marital satisfaction. Husbands' more frequent provision of support was linked to wives' greater marital satisfaction when reports of personal rewards linked to helping parents were high for wives or low for husbands. Conversely, wives’ more frequent provision of support was linked to husbands’ lower marital satisfaction when reports of filial obligation were low for husbands or high for wives. Findings highlight the interdependence within couples, and indicate that both spouses' perceptions are important in understanding linkages between intergenerational support and marital satisfaction. PMID:28154427
Gallegos, Martin I; Murphy, Sarah E; Benner, Aprile D; Jacobvitz, Deborah B; Hazen, Nancy L
The present study aims to address how dyadic and triadic family interactions across the transition to parenthood contribute to the later development of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation using structural equation modeling methods. Specifically, we examined the interrelations of observed marital negative affect before childbirth, parents' emotional withdrawal during parent-infant interactions at 8 months, and coparenting conflict at 24 months as predictors of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation at 24 months. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal dataset in which 125 families were observed across the transition to parenthood. Results suggested that prenatal marital negativity predicted mothers' and fathers' emotional withdrawal toward their infants at 8 months postbirth as well as coparenting conflict at 24 months postbirth. Coparenting conflict and father-infant emotional withdrawal were negatively associated with toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation; however, mother-infant emotional withdrawal was not related. The implications of our study extend family systems research to demonstrate how multiple levels of detrimental family functioning over the first 2 years of parenthood influence toddlers' emotion regulation and highlight the importance of fathers' emotional involvement with their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Mannering, Anne M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David
The current study examined two family process predictors of parent-reported child sleep problems at 4.5 years in an adoption sample: marital hostility and hostile parenting. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to child sleep problems via hostile parenting. Mothers' marital hostility at 9 months was associated with child sleep problems at 4.5 years. Fathers' marital hostility at 9 months evidenced an indirect effect on child sleep problems at 4.5 years via fathers' hostile parenting at 27 months. Findings were significant even after controlling for genetic influences on child sleep (i.e., birth parent internalizing disorders). The findings suggest targets for prevention and intervention programs that are potentially modifiable (e.g., hostile parenting, marital hostility), and inform theory by demonstrating that relations among marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child sleep problems are significant after accounting for genetic influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
McCoy, K P; George, M R W; Cummings, E M; Davies, P T
This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' parenting to understand associations with children's social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers' and fathers' warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers' use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers' and fathers' use of psychological control was related to children's school adjustment, and mothers' warmth was related to children's social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children's functioning.
van Eldik, Willemijn M; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7.70 years; 368 mothers, 355 fathers). Marital stress related to having a child, children's externalizing behavior, and perceived parental competence were assessed three times across 8 years. Multigroup analyses were used to examine models for both parents simultaneously and test for similarity in associations across spouses. A bivariate latent growth model indicated positive associated change between marital stress and externalizing behavior, supporting the idea of codevelopment. The cross-lagged panel model revealed a reciprocal relation between marital stress and perceived parental competence across a time interval of 6 years. Additionally, two elicitation effects appeared during adolescence, showing that parents who reported higher externalizing problems in early adolescence reported more marital stress and a lower sense of competence two years later. Similar associations were found for mothers and fathers. Overall, this study indicates that marital stress and externalizing behavior codevelop over time and supports literature on developmental differences regarding interrelations between subsystems and individuals within the family system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Norton, Michelle; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Harper, James M.; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Caldarella, Paul
Parents of children with disabilities are at risk for high stress and low marital quality; therefore, this study surveyed couples (n = 112) of children with Down syndrome (n = 120), assessing whether respite hours, stress, and uplifts were related to marital quality. Structural equation modeling indicated that respite hours were negatively related…
Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.
We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…
Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay
Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…
Cappelli, M; McGarth, P J; Daniels, T; Manion, I; Schillinger, J
The impact of childhood chronic illness on parents' marital quality has received limited attention. Most studies have relied solely on mothers' reports and have not examined differences between mothers and fathers. Using a case-control design, this study compared the marital quality within and between dyads of 46 couples with children matched on the age and children matched on the age and sex of the child. During a home visit, parents completed both self-report measures and a communication observational task. Mothers' and fathers' reports of marital quality did not differ between the two groups. Also, no significant differences were found on other marital and psychosocial measures. The most interesting correlations were observed for fathers of children with spinal bifida whose marital quality was associated with parenting stress (r = -.51), depression (r = -.34), and role strain (r = -.34). Overall, the results of this study contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that parents of children with a chronic condition are at no greater risk for psychosocial dysfunction, including marital distress, than parents of healthy children. However, to generalize the results, additional research on marital quality with other chronic conditions is required.
Zhang, Hui; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Luo, Yun; Wang, Zhenhong
The aim of the current study was to address the potential moderating roles of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; baseline and suppression) and participant sex in the relation between parents' marital conflict and young adults' internet addiction. Participants included 105 (65 men) Chinese young adults who reported on their internet addiction and their parents' marital conflict. Marital conflict interacted with RSA suppression to predict internet addiction. Specifically, high RSA suppression was associated with low internet addiction, regardless of parental marital conflict; however, for participants with low RSA suppression, a positive relation between marital conflict and internet addiction was found. Internet addiction also was predicted by a significant three-way interaction among baseline RSA, marital conflict, and participant sex. Specifically, for men, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of low (but not high) baseline RSA. For women, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of high (but not low) baseline RSA. Findings highlight the importance of simultaneous consideration of physiological factors, in conjunction with family factors, in the prediction of young adults' internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L
Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. Pathways were examined within a longitudinal mediation model testing for moderation by parent gender (N = 276 mothers, N = 229 fathers). Children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood was found to more strongly inversely predict mothers' versus fathers' monitoring in early adolescence. In contrast, marital stress more strongly predicted low monitoring for fathers than for mothers. Regardless of parent gender, marital stress predicted lower levels of parental consistency, and children's externalizing behavior predicted lower levels of parental support. Mothers' monitoring and fathers' support in early adolescence predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior 1.5 years later. The results are discussed with respect to family transactions relative to parent gender and implications for intervention.
Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan
Among 1,243 adults nationwide, individuals who experienced parental divorce as children scored lower than those from happily intact families of origin on measures of psychological, social, and marital well-being. Multiple parental divorces and divorces involving deterioration of parent-child relations appeared particularly problematic. Contains 39…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…
CUNNINGHAM, MICK; THORNTON, ARLAND
Drawing on a panel study of parents and children, we investigate linkages between parents' marital quality and adult children's attitudes toward a range of family issues, including premarital sex, cohabitation, lifelong singlehood, and divorce. We hypothesize that parents' marital quality will be negatively related to children's support for these behaviors in adulthood and that parents' marital quality will condition the intergenerational transmission of attitudes toward these issues. We find...
Full Text Available BackgroundShifting the focus of parent management training (PMT to parents and discussing implications for maximizing the outcomes of PMT for the entire family is new and promising.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the efficacy of work place PMT on job and marital satisfaction among staff members of an academic center.MethodsWe held 8 PMT sessions (1.5 h each for 20 staff members who were parents to children in the age range of 2–12 years. Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Occupational Descriptive Index [Health and Safety Executive (HSE] were used for baseline and post-intervention data gathering. DAS higher scores indicate higher marital adjustment satisfaction and higher HSE scores indicate higher occupational stress. To analyze changes in HSE and DAS scores over time, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, respectively.ResultsAll DAS subscales show significant increased from baseline to the final session except for affectional expression which was not significant. We found no significant changes in total or subscale HSE scores among participants.ConclusionFindings of this study underscore the role of psycho-education usage in work environment and provide evidence about the importance of designing interventions concerning working parents. Implications of PMT are discussed in the text.
Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy
According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen
The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.
Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen
The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu
This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…
Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon
This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Examines the extent to which parents' marital disruption process affects children's academic performance and well-being both before and after parental divorce. Compared with peers in intact families, children of divorce faired less well. Discusses how family resources mediate detrimental effects over time. Similar results are noted for girls and…
Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Keim, Madelaine; Kawamura, Joy; King, Kevin M; Friedman, Debra L; Compas, Bruce E; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana J; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
When a child is diagnosed with cancer, problems may arise in family relationships and negatively affect child adjustment. The current study examined patterns of spillover between marital and parent-child relationships to identify targets for intervention aimed at ameliorating family conflict. Families (N = 117) were recruited from two US children's hospitals within 2-week postdiagnosis to participate in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Children with cancer were 2-10 years old (M = 5.42 years, SD = 2.59). Primary caregivers provided reports of marital and parent-child conflict at 1-, 6-, and 12-month postdiagnosis. Results indicated that a unidirectional model of spillover from the marital to the parent-child relationship best explained the data. In terms of specific temporal patterns, lower marital adjustment soon after diagnosis was associated with an increase in parent-child conflict 6 months later, though this pattern was not repeated in the latter 6 months of treatment. Targeting problems in marital relationships soon after diagnosis may prevent conflict from developing in the parent-child relationship.
Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G
Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.
Claxton, Amy; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
This study examines changes in leisure patterns across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, working-class couples, as well as the relationship between leisure and marital quality. To this end, 147 heterosexual couples were interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Findings indicate that during the transition to parenthood, husbands…
Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers' partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first 5 years of their children's lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between…
Although many empirical findings support associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, gaps remain in our understanding of the magnitude and direction of the associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms as well as the associations in a collectivistic culture. The present study examined autoregressive cross-lagged associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms across a 3-year investigation in a sample of Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood. The sample consisted of 2,078 mothers in the Panel Study of Korean Children. The mothers reported marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms annually for 3 years. The results of an autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed bidirectional associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence of an interactional model of depression in a sample of Korean mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Zirakidana, Akram; Kazemi, Ashraf; Beigi, Nastaran Mohhamad Ali; Alijanpoor, Masoomeh
Gender role attitude pertains to individuals' attitude toward proper role activities for men and women. Most of the factors relevant to family and society may affect individuals' attitudes toward their role. Meanwhile, parents' behaviors can act as an important factor in formation of different dimensions of children's personality. Accordingly, the present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between maltreatment and girls' attitudes toward parental and marital roles. This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 with 190 female students as the sample. Participants were selected using the random-proportional sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, researcher-made maltreatment questionnaire, and Homami's gender role attitudes questionnaire were used as the data collection instruments. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results indicated that the feminine attitude was the dominant attitude in gender roles. Findings also revealed no significant correlation between the type of gender role attitude in parental role and maltreatment. However, the correlation was meaningful in marital role of sexual and fertility affairs ( P = 0.02). Results revealed that participants had traditional female attitudes toward their gender roles in two aspects. First, taking the cultural domination on attitudes into account, that type of attitude is appreciated in which the individual feels relaxed and has an acceptable performance in the society. Furthermore, to promote certain types of attitudes, the entire socio-cultural and economic dimensions of the society must be taken into account. Family and social policy makings are regarded as starting points for different attitudes toward maltreatment.
Full Text Available Background: Gender role attitude pertains to individuals' attitude toward proper role activities for men and women. Most of the factors relevant to family and society may affect individuals' attitudes toward their role. Meanwhile, parents' behaviors can act as an important factor in formation of different dimensions of children's personality. Accordingly, the present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between maltreatment and girls' attitudes toward parental and marital roles. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 with 190 female students as the sample. Participants were selected using the random-proportional sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, researcher-made maltreatment questionnaire, and Homami's gender role attitudes questionnaire were used as the data collection instruments. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: Results indicated that the feminine attitude was the dominant attitude in gender roles. Findings also revealed no significant correlation between the type of gender role attitude in parental role and maltreatment. However, the correlation was meaningful in marital role of sexual and fertility affairs (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Results revealed that participants had traditional female attitudes toward their gender roles in two aspects. First, taking the cultural domination on attitudes into account, that type of attitude is appreciated in which the individual feels relaxed and has an acceptable performance in the society. Furthermore, to promote certain types of attitudes, the entire socio-cultural and economic dimensions of the society must be taken into account. Family and social policy makings are regarded as starting points for different attitudes toward maltreatment.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.
Kerstis, Birgitta; Berglund, Anders; Engström, Gabriella; Edlund, Birgitta; Sylvén, Sara; Aarts, Clara
To study whether there is an association between dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms, and parental stress during early parenthood and marital separation 6-8 years after childbirth, among couples in Sweden. At baseline, 393 couples were included. The couples answered three questionnaires, including: Dyadic consensus at 1 week post-partum, depressive symptoms at 3 months post-partum and parental stress at 18 months post-partum. The parents' addresses were followed up after 6-8 years, to study the marital separation rate. We found, 6-8 years after childbirth, that 20% of study couples were separated. Separation was associated with less dyadic consensus (mothers p parental stress (mothers p = 0.002; fathers p = 0.040). The hazard ratio (HR) for marital separation was related to dyadic consensus for fathers (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92), depressive symptoms for mothers (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.01-2.84) and fathers (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.28), and the mother's parental stress (HR 2.16; 95% CI 1.14-4.07). Understanding how dyadic consensus, depressive symptoms and parental stress are associated with marital separation is important for health professionals it could be useful in developing interventions to provide parents with adequate support during pregnancy and early parenthood this knowledge is also important for the public parents should get support in pregnancy and while bringing up children, which may help prevent marital separation and optimize conditions for the children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
McCoy, K. P.; George, M. R. W.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.
This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ parenting to understand associations with children’s social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers’ and fathers’ warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers’ use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers’ and fathers’ use of psychological control was related to children’s school adjustment, and mothers’ warmth was related to children’s social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children’s functioning. PMID:24249973
Nur Atikah Mohamed Hussin
Full Text Available The death of a child is difficult to the bereaved parents. Literature had associated the loss with marriage disruption. The issues on that the difficulties to communicate, gender-related coping mechanisms and sexual need were discussed as reasons for bereaved parents to have conflict in their relationship. However there is limited knowledge about this issue. A pilot study has been conducted among six bereaved parents. The bereaved parents were Malaysian Muslim bereaved parents. They were interviewed individually to explore the challenges or conflicts that they had experienced after the death of their child. This study revealed that there were situations which bereaved parents described as having difficulties in their relationship. However, this study also revealed that the mutual understanding and respect to each other are the most of important components for bereaved parents to maintain their relationship post-loss. This study suggested the importance of suggesting couple counselling to bereaved parents after the death of their child.
Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J; Van de Wiel, Harry B M; Kamps, Willem; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of communication styles on marital satisfaction and distress of parents of children treated for cancer. Marital dissatisfaction (Maudsley Marital Questionnaire), intimacy, avoidance, destructive and incongruent communication (Communication Skills Inventory) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) were assessed in 115 parents of pediatric cancer patients shortly after diagnosis (T1) and 5 years later (T2). Only mothers' marital dissatisfaction increased significantly over time. No gender differences in dissatisfaction were found. Mothers had a significantly higher lack of intimacy score than fathers. All T1 communication styles were significantly univariately related to fathers' and mothers' T2 marital dissatisfaction, while not to T2 distress. Mothers' T1 marital dissatisfaction accounted for 67% and fathers' for 12% in the explained variance of T2 dissatisfaction. T1 destructive communication uniquely affected fathers' T2 marital dissatisfaction and T1 avoidant communication that of mothers. Five years after cancer diagnosis in their children, the quality of parents' marital relationships seemed largely unchanged. Parents' use of communication skills at diagnosis appeared to have limited effect on their marital dissatisfaction and no effect on their distress 5 years later. While avoidant communication seemed indicative of mothers' marital distress, fathers' seemed affected by destructive communication. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Berger, Lawrence M.; Carlson, Marcia J.; Bzostek, Sharon H.; Osborne, Cynthia
This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,098) to examine differences in the parenting practices of four types of resident fathers, defined by their biological relationship to a focal child and their marital status with regard to the focal child's mother. Regression results suggest that biological fathers and…
Essex, Elizabeth Lehr; Hong, Jinkuk
Based on a sample of 126 families, this study investigated how division of household labor is related to marital satisfaction and caregiving burden among older married parents caring for adult children with intellectual disabilities. For mothers, greater spousal participation in household work and satisfaction with the division of labor were…
Kolak, Amy M.; Volling, Brenda L.
Driven by theory and extant research on the communication of emotions within the family, the current investigation examined marital quality and parents' emotional expressiveness as determinants of coparenting in a sample of 57 couples with young children. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' expressiveness was examined as moderators of the…
Kahn, Sharon E.; And Others
Examined marital and parental status in relation to perceptions of quality of work and family roles (psychological well-being, job satisfaction, work involvement, non-occupational environment, and role demands) in female clerical workers (N=148). Found income differentiated married and unmarried women and presence of school-age children related to…
Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.
We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark
Evidence has emerged for emotional security as an explanatory variable linking marital conflict to children's adjustment. Further evidence suggests parental psychopathology is a key factor in child development. To advance understanding of the pathways by which these family risk factors impact children's development, the mediational role of…
The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…
Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.
The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…
Whitton, Sarah W.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.
Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that, compared to offspring of non-divorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes towards marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that, when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their ...
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Lavi, Iris; King, Kevin; Kawamura, Joy; Friedman, Debra; Compas, Bruce; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Stettler, Nicole
The stress of having a child with cancer can impact the quality of relationships within the family. The current study describes the longitudinal trajectory of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict beginning around the time of diagnosis through the first year of treatment. We examined the average level of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each monthly time point in the first year of treatment; the proportion of families that fall into the distressed range of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each time point; the typical trajectory of conflict during the first year of treatment and whether there are differences in trajectories across families. A total of 160 families of children newly diagnosed with cancer (Mage = 5.6 years; range = 2-18 years) participated in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Primary caregivers provided monthly reports of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), most families showed stability in quality of family relationships, although considerable between-family variability was observed. For married couples, 25-36% of couples were in the distressed range at one time point over the first year of treatment. For married couples, more distress occurred at earlier months, particularly month 3. For parent-child and sibling dyads, the most difficult time periods were during later months. Implications for development of interventions that target at-risk family relationships are discussed. Identifying processes that predict between-family variability in trajectories of family relationships is an important next step, particularly for the marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Davis, Eden M; Kim, Kyungmin; Fingerman, Karen L
Since the Great Recession, the proportion of young adults living with their parents has risen steadily in the United States. Research on coresidence with adult children and parental marital quality is mixed, but marital quality may suffer if children coreside under certain circumstances. When coresidence signifies a deviation from normative expectations, it may be a source of stress in parents' marriages. Further, living with adult children who are suffering problems may be especially detrimental to parental marital quality. Middle-aged parents (N = 287; mean age = 50.65) completed measures of marital quality, child problems, and coresidence at 2 time points, at the onset of the Great Recession in 2008 and again in 2013. Regression analyses estimating marital quality from coresidence status revealed that coresidence with a child was associated with lower parental marital quality in 2008, but not in 2013 (when it may be considered more normative to have adult children living in the home). Additional analyses showed living with a child who was suffering problems was associated with lower marital quality in 2013. These findings suggest that coresidence may be detrimental to marital quality, but perhaps only when coresidence is nonnormative or when coresidence co-occurs with child problems.
Previous research suggests that stepparenting can be stressful, although the mechanisms that contribute to the experience of parenting stress in stepfamilies are less clear. This study examines gender, marital quality, and views about gendered family roles as correlates of parenting stress among 310 stepmothers, stepfathers, and biological mothers and fathers. Findings suggest that stepparents, and especially stepmothers, experience higher levels of parenting stress than biological parents. Findings also suggest that less traditional views about gendered family roles and higher dyadic adjustment are associated with lower parenting stress for stepparents, particularly in combination. Stepparents reporting both of these protective factors were indistinguishable in terms of parenting stress from biological parents. These findings indicate potential pathways to mitigate the stress associated with stepparenting. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J
Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Kitzmann, K M
This study examined marital conflict's indirect effects on children through disruptions in family alliances and parenting. Forty married couples were observed interacting with their 6-8-year-old sons after pleasant and conflictual discussions. After conflictual discussion, fathers showed lower support/engagement toward sons, and coparenting styles were less democratic. Couple negativity was correlated with family negativity, regardless of the topic of discussion, which suggests continuity in the affective quality of the two family subsystems. Mothers' marital satisfaction moderated families' responses to the experimental manipulation. The results provide stronger evidence than previously available of a causal link between conflict and disrupted parenting. Further research is needed to identify which conflict-related disruptions in parenting influence the development of children's problems.
Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Rose, Hilary A.
Examines familial and extrafamilial factors associated with adolescent well-being in intact, blended, and divorced single-parent families. Findings indicate that divorced and blended families have some of the same forms of resiliency as intact families. For adolescents in a divorced single-parent family, peer support moderated the effect of low…
Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan; Fan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiunv
This study aimed to examine the associations between marital relationships and parent-child relationships on children's mental health. Participants included 19,487 students from the 2013-2014 baseline China Education Panel Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data and results revealed that marital and parent-child relationships positively affected children's mental health. Parent-child relationship also played a mediating role between marital relationship and children's mental health. The unique contributions of this study and its theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan
The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.
van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R
Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is the source of many problems in human-kind lives and threatens people's life constantly. Having hearing-impaired child, not only causes stress in parents, but also affects their marital satisfaction. The purpose of this study was comparing the stress and marital satisfaction status between the normal and hearing-impaired children's parents.Methods: This was a causal-comparative study. Eighty parents of normal children and 80 parents of hearing-impaired children were chosen from rehabilitation centers and kindergartens in city of Tabriz, Iran by available and clustering sampling method. All parents were asked to complete the Friedrich's source of stress and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires.Results: Parents of hearing-impaired children endure more stress than the normal hearing ones (p<0.001. The marital satisfaction of hearing-impaired children's parents was lower than the parents of normal hearing children, too (p<0.001.Conclusion: Having a hearing-impaired child causes stress and threatens the levels of marital satisfaction. This requires much more attention and a distinct planning for parents of handicap children to reduce their stress.
Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable
Scharf, M; Mayseless, O
This study examined, in a longitudinal design, the contributions of three different relationships, namely marital, parent-child and best friend, to the capacity for intimacy in romantic relationships of Israeli male adolescents, as well as the mediating role of socio-emotional capacities. Eighty-four 17-year-old adolescents and their parents filled out questionnaires concerning the quality of these relational contexts. Four years later the Intimacy Status Interview was administered to the adolescents at the conclusion of their mandatory military service to examine closeness, separateness, and commitment within their romantic relationships. Results showed that all relational contexts were related to capacity for intimacy (directly or indirectly), with higher relational qualities associated with better capability for intimacy. The marital relationship was associated with intimacy through its effect on the parent-child relationships. The effects of the parent-child relationships on the capacity for intimacy were mediated through the adolescents' socio-emotional capabilities. The contribution of the parent-adolescent relationships to the capacity for closeness and commitment was further mediated through relationships with the best friend, whereas the contribution to the capacity for separateness was not. A substantial number of our participants showed high capability for intimacy although in the military service context the circumstances for the development of intimacy were quite limited and non-optimal. Exploration of the separateness and closeness facets of intimacy in romantic relationships in the two sexes and in other contexts is recommended. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Peris, Tara S.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Emery, Robert E.
Parentification, a parent–child dynamic wherein children come to provide ongoing emotional support for their parents, has been documented extensively in the clinical literature; however, it rarely has been studied systematically. Using a community sample of 83 couples and their adolescent children (mean age = 15.26 years; 52% male, 48% female), the authors linked adolescent self-report of parentification to specific youth and adult behaviors using multiple methods and examined its associations with youth adjustment problems. The parentification measure demonstrated strong internal consistency and 1-year stability. Parentification was associated with marital conflict, youth perceptions of threat, low warmth in the parent–child relationship, and the tendency for youths to intervene in marital conflict. Links were also found with youth reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior and poorer competency in close friendships. These findings thus support the parentification construct and provide evidence that parentification may contribute to poor youth outcomes by burdening children with developmentally inappropriate responsibilities. PMID:18729677
Leung, Shirley S L; Leung, Cynthia; Chan, Ruth
To compare parental perception of child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction in new arrival and local parents. Cross-sectional survey; semi-structured interview. Maternal and Child Health Centres, social service centres, preschools. Parents of preschool children, including new arrival parents and local parents. Child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction. After controlling for socio-economic factors, new arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour problems and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. There were no differences in parent-reported severity of child behaviour problems, parental distress, and marital satisfaction. New arrival parents reported difficulties in adapting to the new living environment and lack of social support. New arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour, and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. These might in part be related to their settlement difficulties. Parenting programmes should address their specific settlement needs.
Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David
We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to toddler anger/frustration via harsh parenting and parental depressive symptoms, with an additional focus on the moderating role of genetic influences as inferred from birth parent anger/frustration. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children who were 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months old across the study period. Results indicated an indirect effect from T1 marital hostility to T2 toddler anger/frustration via T2 parental harsh discipline. Results also indicated that the association between marital hostility and toddler anger was moderated by birth mother anger/frustration. For children whose birth mothers reported high levels of anger/frustration, adoptive parents' marital hostility at T1 predicted toddler anger/frustration at T2. This relation did not hold for children whose birth mothers reported low levels of anger/frustration. The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility.
Full Text Available The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (destructive and constructive tactics, childrearing disagreement and parent-child relationships, in order to verify if there are different pathways for fathers and mothers in spillover effects. Method. 110 parents (children aged 6-12 years completed the Styles of Conflict Scale (marital conflict style, the Parent Problem Checklist (disagreements about childrearing, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (parenting practices, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results. The links between conflict tactics and parenting practices change in function of parent’s gender. Mothers refer more frequent childrearing disagreements and increasing in punishment; furthermore - in line with the spillover hypothesis - attack and violence tactics are associated negatively with positive parenting (involvement and warmth. For fathers compromise, avoidance and attack correlate positively with effective parenting (more involvement, affection and consistency disciplinary. Conclusions. A spillover effect, that is, an extension of marital tensions in the relationship with their children with reduced quality of parenting, seems to manifest only for women. These findings, if confirmed by other studies, would be relevant from an clinical point of view to understand how paternal and maternal parenting mediate the effects of the marital disharmony on children’s adjustment.
Loredana Benedetto; Massimo Ingrassia
The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (des...
Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David
This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own te...
Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David
Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This study investigated whether Japanese women's perceived marital and social support affect their parenting self-efficacy directly or indirectly through their levels of parenting stress. Participants were 98 mothers of children in the second grade living in Sapporo or Osaka, Japan. Data collected through surveys were submitted to a structural…
Næss, Siri; Blekesaune, Morten; Jakobsson, Niklas
This article is based on three waves of data collected by the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. It investigates changes in life satisfaction associated with transition both into and out of marital unions (marriages and cohabitations). It provides longitudinal data on life satisfaction for a larger sample (N¼57,446), a longer age span (19–101 years) and over a longer observation period (22 years) than previously published research on this topic. The large sample permits interaction a...
Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.
Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…
Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L
This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals.
Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.
Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850
Keller, Peggy S.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Background: Research suggests that children exposed to parental drinking problems are at risk for maladjustment. However, the potential impact of drinking problems in a community sample and the processes involved in the relationship between parental drinking and child outcomes have rarely been examined. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers…
Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David
Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18--36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced…
Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie
Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.
van Eldik, W. M.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, M.; de Haan, A.D.
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children’s externalizing behavior, (b) mediation
Eldik, W.M. van; Prinzie, P.; Dekoviç, M.; Haan, A.D. de
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation
McClain, Lauren Rinelli
Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,702 couples) are employed to examine the association between mother- and father-reported parenting characteristics (father involvement and coparenting) and transitions out of cohabitation through marriage or separation in the 5 years after a child is born. Father involvement and…
Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…
Lindsey, Eric W; Caldera, Yvonne M; Tankersley, Laura
Parent-child attachment security and dyadic measures of parent-child positive and negative emotional reciprocity were examined as possible mediators and moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior. Eighty parents were observed in a laboratory play session with their 15- to 18-month-old child. Subsequently, at 36 months children were observed interacting with peers at their child care setting. Connections between marital conflict and children's positive peer interaction were mediated by mother-child attachment security, mother-child positive emotional reciprocity, and father-child negative emotional reciprocity. Connections between marital conflict and children's negative peer interaction were mediated by mother-child positive emotional reciprocity and father-child attachment security. Parent-child attachment security and negative emotional reciprocity emerged as important moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior.
Jacobson, Doris S.
This is the third of a series of reports on the findings from a study directed at further understanding the impact of marital separation/divorce on children during the 12-month period following the parental separation. This paper reports on parent-child communication regarding cognitive preparation of children for the parental separation. (Author)
Schmidt, Anne Catherine
Findings from this study support the notion that marital satisfaction in couples with a child with cerebral palsy may be enhanced by couple cohesion and adaptability. Wives who cope by strengthening family life and relationships, and who have a positive outlook on liFe may also experience greater levels of marital satisfaction. Future research with larger samples of couples is needed to replicate these findings.
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Slatcher, Richard B; Robles, Theodore F; Repetti, Rena L; Fellows, Michelle D
To investigate whether worries about work are linked to people's own cortisol levels and their spouses' cortisol levels in everyday life and whether marital factors may moderate these links. Although research has shown that satisfying marriages can buffer the physiological effects of everyday stress, the specific mechanisms through which marriage influences the processing and transmission of stress have not yet been identified. Thirty-seven healthy married couples completed baseline measures and then provided saliva samples and indicated their worries about work for six times a day from a Saturday morning through a Monday evening. Wives' cortisol levels were associated positively with their own work worries (p = .008) and with their husbands' work worries (p = .006). Husbands' cortisol levels were associated positively only with their own work worries (p = .015). Wives low in both marital satisfaction and disclosure showed a stronger association between work worries and cortisol compared with wives reporting either high marital satisfaction and/or high marital disclosure. These results suggest that momentary feelings of stress affect not only one's own cortisol levels but affect close others' cortisol levels as well. Furthermore, they suggest that, for women, the stress-buffering effects of a happy marriage may be partially explained by the extent to which they disclose their thoughts and feelings with their spouses.
Mao, Dung Minh
In this study, the relationship between the perception of financial stress (measured by income inadequacy), parenting quality (measured by positive parenting, consistent discipline, and good supervision), and the moderating effect that cooperative co-parenting (measured by co-parenting alliance) were investigated within a sample of parents who…
Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Sullivan, Jason M.
New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Midwestern U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated…
Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara
Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…
Teresa A. Mauldin
Full Text Available How do youth and parents perceive their communication with each other? How do they perceive communication about money with each other? Are there differences between married-parent families and single-parent families? The reported study examined the discrepancies in perception between parents and youth and compares these differences between married and single-parent families. Although single-parent families had greater discrepancies in perceptions regarding communication in general, there was no evidence of such differences in discrepancies regarding communication about money. The finding suggests the importance of youth development programs to provide information and encouragement to both youth and their parents.
Trias Llimós, Sergi; Muszynska, Magdalena M.; Cámara, Antonio D.; Janssen, Fanny
Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on
Trias Llimós, S.; Muszyńska, M.; Cámara, A.D.; Janssen, F.
Knowledge about the potential effects of stressful events on smoking cessation is helpful for the design of health interventions. Previous studies on this topic tended to group together adults of all ages and of both genders. We investigate the contribution of marital and employment losses on
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Cummings, E. Mark
Dimensions of martial conflict, children's emotional security regarding interparental conflict, and parenting style were examined as mediators between parental dysphoria and child adjustment. A community sample of 262 children, ages 8-16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital…
The comparison of marital status ( married vs . all other categories) approached statistical significance χ2 (1, N=315) =3.27, p = .071, with a...relationship status, participants that were unmarried had higher restrictiveness scores than married participants. In terms of race, Black...categorical demographic variables between military and civilian groups. Collapsed comparisons as follows: a Two groups: married vs . all other categories; b
Flykt, Marjo; Palosaari, Esa; Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
Parent-child relationship is created already in prenatal fantasies and expectations of the child-to-be. Negative violation of these expectations after the child is born is known to be harmful for the parent-child relationship. Yet, research is scarce about the medical and psychological factors contributing to violated expectations (VE). This study models the role of parent-, delivery- and infant-related underlying mechanisms for VE. It further compares parents with assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC), and primi- and multiparous couples. The couples (n = 743) separately filled in questionnaires concerning their prenatal expectations (T1) and 2 months postnatal representations (T2) of intimacy and autonomy in the relationship with their child, measured with Subjective Family Picture Test. A negative or positive discrepancy indicated violated expectations. The parent-related (mental health and marital quality), delivery-related (maternal and paternal birth experience, unplanned Caesarean, and amount of analgesia) and infant-related (infant health problems, difficult infant characteristics, and parental worry) factors were assessed at T2. Results show that among mothers, the associations were mostly indirect and mediated via mental health problems. Among fathers, the associations were direct, marital problems most crucially predicting VE. ART fathers were less susceptible to VE resulting from infant-related problems than SC fathers, but more susceptible to VE resulting from delivery problems. Delivery- and infant-related factors also predicted VE differently among primi- and multiparous mothers. Considering factors that contribute to VE is important when working with couples in transition to parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Udry, J. Richard
Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)
Fine, J-D; Johnson, L B; Weiner, M; Suchindran, C
The presence in a family of a child or children with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) may have profound psychological implications for other family members. To assess the impact of the presence of EB in one or more children on the personal relationships between their parents. Standardized questionnaires were used. In general, the presence of a child severely affected with EB had profound effects on many aspects of marriage. This included a lack of interest in participating in activities as couples [junctional EB (JEB), 45%; recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB), 25%], a lack of energy to invest in such pursuits (JEB, 82%; RDEB, 50%), limitations in opportunities for sharing nonintimate physical activities (reported by most parents having children with some type of generalized EB), and negatively altered parental sex life (JEB, 55%; RDEB, 39%). This is consistent with the fact that 10%, 64%, 25% and 36% of parents of an affected child with EB simplex (EBS), JEB, dominant dystrophic EB (DDEB) and RDEB, respectively, characterized their relationships as couples as revolving almost exclusively around the day-to-day care of their affected children. The severity of disease in an affected child clearly influenced parental decisions about having more children: 24% and 64% of parents of children with JEB and RDEB, respectively, chose not to have additional children, compared with 26% and 54% of parents with children having EBS or DDEB. This choice was most often pursued via tubal ligation; less often, alternative means of surgical sterilization were chosen. Divorce was common among parents of children with EB (range: 17% in EBS to 31% in JEB) and, with the exception of parents of children with EBS, was usually directly attributed by one or both parents to the profound impact that this disease had exerted on their marriage. Physicians caring for children with EB need to give more consideration to the many psychological factors that may contribute to their patients' well being. They may
Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Glassman, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Sullivan, Jason M
New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers' Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress.
Fisman, S; Wolf, L
Although the nature and severity of a handicapping condition are not the sole determinants of family functioning, the presence of a child with a pervasive developmental disorder has a significant effect on family members. Maternal mental health suffers, and the resulting depression affects her role as mother and marriage partner. Unlike other handicapping conditions with obvious physical stigmata, the invisible handicap of the autistic child and the frequent delay in diagnosis contribute to the mother's self-doubt about her parental competence. While the impact on paternal psychological health is less, the fathers of autistic children are nevertheless highly stressed and appear to be particularly vulnerable to the stress generated by these difficult children. Living within this family climate, the risks for emotional and behavioral problems for siblings must be evaluated, along with their intrinsic strengths, to plan preventive interventions for these children. Effective work with these families requires an understanding of the evolution of family system problems and their dynamic and reciprocal interaction over time.
Laquale, Michele Giovanni; Coppola, Gabrielle; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Pasceri, Maria; Pietralunga, Susanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Semeraro, Cristina; Grattagliano, Ignazio
The study aimed at investigating the role of confidence in attachment relationships and marital status as protective factors for incarcerated fathers' self-perceived parental role and in-person contacts with their children. Participants included 150 inmate fathers and 145 nonincarcerated control fathers who provided background sociodemographic information and completed two self-reports, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Self-Perception of Parental Role. A two-phased cluster analytic plan allowed us to highlight two profiles of self-perceived parental roles, with incarceration and low confidence in attachment relationships increasing the risk of the less optimal of the two profiles. Higher confidence in attachment relationships and having a stable romantic relationship increased the likelihood of incarcerated fathers engaging in frequent contacts with their children, while the profile of self-perceived parental role had no effect. Implications for practice are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Foli, Karen J; Hebdon, Megan; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C
As adoptive parents create a new family, they face myriad changes both pre-and post-placement of their child. The aim of this study was to describe parent perceptions and depressive symptoms during this transition via reports collected with an online survey. Using content analysis, we analyzed a total of 110 responses from 64 parents at three time points: 4-6weeks pre-placement, and 4-6weeks and 5-6months post-placement. Five main themes were revealed: Transition from uncertainty to a new normal; unique experiences related to adoption; rest/fatigue: out of balance; life stressors; and faith/spirituality. Two subthemes were also identified: previous losses (pre-placement) and joy and love (post-placement). During the transition from pre-to post-placement, adoptive parents experience a unique passage, with both challenges and strengths exclusive to this group of parents. While acknowledging the commonalities of some parenting experiences, healthcare and adoption professionals should recognize the unique dynamics that adoption brings to families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuhnly, J E; Freston, M S
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions and the concepts involved in their preterm infant's back transport from a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit to their home community hospital. A convenience sample of fourteen parents were interviewed five to seven days after the back transport. Following data collection, the analysis of the parents' perceptions regarding the back transport of their premature infant identified a crisis theme that was influenced by several concepts. The subject's positive or negative meaning of the back transport during the pre-crisis phase defined the extent of the crisis during a three day transition period which led to an acceptance of events in the resolution phase. The subjects' perceptions of the previous events of hospitalization and communication of information regarding back transport influenced the meaning of the back transport for them. The extent of crisis during the transition phase was influenced by subjects' perceptions of medical complications, caretaking practice changes, environmental changes, feelings of powerlessness or empowerment, personal coping resources, and support systems available. Resolution in all cases occurred with an acceptance of events. Implications for practice and future research can be identified such as developing and testing education programs to prepare parents for the transition and strengthening the relationship between tertiary and community hospitals.
Gross, Thomas J; Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P
The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire nine-item short form (APQ-9) is an often used assessment of parenting in research and applied settings. It uses parent and youth ratings for three scales: Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal invariance of the APQ-9 for both parents and youth, and the multigroup invariance between parents and youth during the transition from middle school to high school. Parent and youth longitudinal configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the APQ-9 were supported when tested separately. However, the multigroup invariance tests indicated that scalar invariance was not achieved between parent and youth ratings. Essentially, parent and youth mean scores for Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision can be independently compared across the transition from middle school to high school. However, comparing parent and youth scores across the APQ-9 scales may not be meaningful.
Marcela Pereira Braz
Full Text Available It is important to study the interrelatedness between marital and parental relationships in order to understand children's social adjustment and development. Therefore, this study aims to describe aspects of the quality of marital and parental relationships from Brazilian working and middle class families. Fourteen families consisting of father, mother, and target preschool children at the age of 4-5 years were selected to participate in this study. A questionnaire on social-demographic data, family structure, lifestyles, and division of home tasks was answered by mothers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with mothers and fathers, separately, including questions on marital satisfaction, conflict, coalition, values and beliefs on marriage and parenting, and their influence on parents-child interactions. The results indicate that a good marital relationship fosters sharing domestic tasks and childrearing practices between wives and husbands and promotes the development of security feelings in their children. The discussion is based on the differences between working and middle class families in terms of mutual influences between both kinds of relationships.
Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Stainton, Tim; Wall, Jessie M.; Curle, Deirdre; Zhu, Ma; Munro, David; Murray, John; El Bouhali, Asmae; Parada, Filomena; Zaidman-Zait, Anat
Introduction: Parents have found the transition to adulthood for their sons or daughters with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) particularly challenging. The literature has not examined how parents work together and with others in face of this transition nor has it highlighted parental goals in this process. This study used a…
Young, John; Morgan, Robert L.; Callow-Heusser, Catherine A.; Lindstrom, Lauren
This study examined effects of two parent-training approaches to increase knowledge of transition resources by (a) giving parents a brochure describing local transition services or (b) providing the same brochure plus 60 min of small-group training. We randomly assigned parents to groups who completed pre- and posttests on knowledge of transition…
Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Myung Ho; Lim, Ji-Ae; Ha, Mina
The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead level and parental marital status that might influence the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-aged children. The participants in the survey included elementary school children, and they were followed up biennially. The participants' parents or caregivers were administered a questionnaire including ADHD rating scale. Among 2967 who were not suspected to have ADHD at baseline survey, 2195 children who took follow-up test for ADHD were evaluated. The incidence rate of suspected ADHD was 5.0% (107 cases) during the two years of the follow-up period. The geometric mean blood lead level was 1.56μg/dL. Relative risk ratio for ADHD was estimated using logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for potential confounders, ADHD developed more frequently in children with blood lead levels of >2.17μg/dL (highest quartile) (RR 1.552, 95% CI 1.002-2.403) and in children with a single parent (RR 1.805, 95% CI 1.002-3.254). The RR was 3.567 (95% CI 1.595-7.980) in children with relatively high blood lead levels (>2.17μg/dL) from single-parent families, compared with those with low blood lead and a two-parent family. The ADHD risk in association with blood lead level was modified by family status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia
Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…
Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J
Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D
Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care
Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle
In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…
Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi
Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…
Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G
To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.
Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl
Not all youth exposed to hostile marital interactions develop negative responses to marital conflict. Cooperative marital conflict has long been considered as an important way of managing conflict and may serve as an important context in which hostility might convey during marital interactions. In light of little prior attention placed on the positive side of conflict processes, the main and moderating effects of cooperative marital conflict on youth responses to marital conflict were examined in a sample of 416 2-parent families using a multimethod, 2-year prospective design. Cooperative marital conflict was associated with decreases in youth emotional dysregulation, perceived threat, and behavioral dysregulation, and increases in constructive family representations and coping efficacy. As a specific dimension of cooperation, effective conflict resolution was associated uniquely with elevated youth coping efficacy, and decreased emotional and behavioral dysregulation; marital warmth was associated uniquely with increased constructive family representations. Significant interactions between marital hostility and marital cooperation also were found. These findings highlight the importance of examining cooperation above and beyond hostility in studies of marital conflict in order to better understand youth development during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rehm, Roberta S; Fisher, Lucille T; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Chesla, Catherine A
In an ethnographic study of planning for the transition to adulthood, we explored parental advocacy styles in special education settings for youth and young adults with chronic health conditions and developmental disabilities. Of 61 parents, 43 were satisfied with outcomes in negotiations for school services for their children. We identified three parental advocacy styles for these parents: (a) high-profile parents, who insisted on specific, wide-ranging services for their children that often resulted in conflict with educators; (b) strategic parents, who negotiated for selected goals and were willing to compromise, and (c) grateful-gratifier parents, who formed close relationships with educators and trusted them to make appropriate decisions. Eighteen parents were overwhelmed, burned out, or unfocused, and generally dissatisfied with outcomes of educational planning meetings. Professional efforts to enhance parental advocacy can target development of skills and strategies that have worked for successful negotiators.
Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.
Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…
Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Consistent with the bidirectional perspective on parent-child relations, the current study examined children's perceptions of agency in the context of marital conflict. A storytelling task was completed by 11 5 five-year-old children, tapping perceived agency. These children and their mothers and fathers completed measures of marital conflict at…
Ness, Jean E.
Issues that face learning-disabled students and their parents during the transition from a secondary to a postsecondary setting are explored, and recommendations are offered for consideration in resolving problems during this period. (JDD)
Effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and reducing harsh parenting practices and parental stress in preparing children for their transition to primary school: a randomised controlled trial.
Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia S C; Mak, Yim Wah; Lam, Tai Hing
Entering primary school is an important childhood milestone, marking the beginning of a child's formal education. Yet the change creates a time of vulnerability for the child, the parents and the parent-child relationship. Failure to adjust to the transition may place the family in a psychologically devastating position. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress by reducing harsh parenting in preparing children for the transition to primary school. A randomised controlled trial incorporating a two-group pre-test and repeated post-test was conducted in one of the largest public housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 142 parents were recruited, with 72 parents randomly assigned to the experimental group and 70 to the control group. Harsh parenting practices, parent-child relationships and parental stress were assessed. In comparison to parents in the control group, those in the experimental group engaged in less harsh parenting practices and reported better parent-child relationships. However, parental stress scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the effectiveness of the training programme for enhancing parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress at the time of a child's transition to primary school. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the parental training programme and highlight the significance of parenting in promoting a smooth transition for children from kindergarten to primary 1. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01845948.
Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, René
This study focused on the possible links between parental residential and partnering transitions (a parent's move out of the household, introduction of a new maternal and paternal partner) and the initiation of romantic relationships in adolescence. Using data from a prospective cohort study of
Cavendish, Wendy; Connor, David
This mixed-methods study examined perspectives on factors that influence meaningful student and parent involvement in Individualized Education Program (IEP) transition planning. Survey data and open-ended qualitative interviews with urban high school students with a learning disability (LD; n = 16), their parents (n = 9), and their teachers (n =…
There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.
Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Vieux, Rachel; Spitz, Elisabeth
Parental (parent-to-infant) attachment and parenting alliance are defined as two important components of psychoaffective adjustment to the parental role. This study aimed to build a predictive model of parental attachment and parenting alliance for mothers and fathers using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Specifically, we were interested in assessing how adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress influenced parental attachment (parent-to-infant) and parenting alliance. Forty heterosexual couples completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy and 2 months after childbirth. Results showed that adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress were important antenatal determinants of parental attachment and parenting alliance, although they behaved differently for mothers and fathers. Hence, different predictive models were therefore proposed for mothers and fathers. Mothers' attachment to the child was influenced by internal factors as adult attachment dimensions; for fathers, it also depended on mothers' antenatal attachment to the child and on marital quality. Concerning parenting alliance, both mothers and fathers depended on own and partner's variables. Antenatal variables are important for what occurs during the transition to parenthood in terms of parenting adjustment and act differently for mothers and fathers. It thus is important to assess the psychological functioning of both mothers and fathers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Coyne, Imelda; Malone, Helen; Chubb, Emma; While, Alison E
Parents of young people with cystic fibrosis (YPWCF) play an important role during the transition from paediatric to adult health services. There is limited evidence on parental information needs and the extent to which they are met. An online survey was conducted targeting a finite population of 190 parents of YPWCF in Ireland. Fifty-nine parents responded (31% response rate). Parents reported the need for more general preparation and timing of the transfer, more information regarding the differences between adult and child health services and how their child will self-manage his/her illness in the future. Most parents received information on the timing of transfer and new healthcare providers but reported being insufficiently informed about their legal status relating to medical confidentiality for their adult child and community resources available for their child after transition to adult health services. The findings highlight the importance of information and preparation for caregivers as well as young people to promote successful transition to adult healthcare. Providing parents with clear information and anticipatory guidance are simple changes in practice that may lead to improvements in transition experiences.
Espasa, Francisco Palacio
In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…
Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the changes in parent-child relationships during the transition to adulthood, that implies a modification of the balance of connectedness and autonomy. The principal aim was twofold: 1 to verify how relational support and style of decision making - respectively markers of family connectedness and autonomy - change from adolescence to young adulthood; 2 to compare the perceptions of parents and children through a measure of agreement. The sample was composed of 259 Italian families with a child between 17 and 25 years of age. Participants filled out a self report questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Support Scale and the Style of Decision Making Scale. Results highlighted that children perceived a significant increase in relational support and in autonomy from late adolescence to young adulthood. Furthermore, agreement between parents and children increased by aging. Therefore, near the transition to adulthood, parents and young adults are closer to each other than during late adolescence.
Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; McLaughlin, Heather; Mortimer, Jeylan T
Responding to the longer and more variable transition to adulthood, parents are stepping in to help their young adult children. Little is known, however, about the extent to which parental support promotes success, and whether parental support has different effects for young adult sons and daughters. Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that parental scaffolding assistance for educational expenses predicts college graduation for both men and women. Negative life events experienced during the transition to adulthood are associated with lower earnings by the early 30s, although there is some variation by type of event. More frequent parental support during times of need does not predict long-term economic attainment for sons or daughters.
Grolnick, Wendy S.; Kurowski, Carolyn O.; Dunlap, Kelly G.; Hevey, Cheryl
This study examined whether maternal resources of involvement and autonomy support might buffer children against the negative effects of the transition to junior high. School, cognitive, and personal involvement were examined. Findings highlight the importance of the home environment in children's coping with the transition to junior high.…
Steingrimsdottir, Herdis; Vardardottir, Arna
by the father while parents who had a child before were did not get this option. This created large economic incentives for parents to involve fathers in caring for their children during their first months. In this paper we use the precise timing of the introduction of the paternal quota in Iceland to evaluate...... the causal effects of paternity leave on parents’ earnings, the gender wage gap and marital stability. The results are obtained using detailed register based panel data, comparing families who had a child just before or just after the reform. Spouses who are entitled to paternity leave are less likely...
Lam, Mei Seung
The transition from home to early childhood education can be stressful for both children and parents. How parents cope with this potentially stressful event affects both the children's adaptation and the parents' lives during the preschooler stage of the family lifecycle. This paper examines how parents respond to their children's adjustment…
Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Caemmerer, Jacqueline M.
Parent Involvement and parent expectations are important factors in successful academic and career outcomes for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Parental roles are particularly important during the transition planning process for students with disabilities. Results are presented from an exploratory study of 56 parents that measured…
Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Stainton, Tim; Wall, Jessie M; Curle, Deirdre; Zhu, Ma; Munro, David; Murray, John; El Bouhali, Asmae; Parada, Filomena; Zaidman-Zait, Anat
Parents have found the transition to adulthood for their sons or daughters with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) particularly challenging. The literature has not examined how parents work together and with others in face of this transition nor has it highlighted parental goals in this process. This study used a perspective based on joint, goal-direct action to describe the projects that Canadian parents engaged in together and with others relative to this transition. Using the qualitative action-project method, joint projects between parents and with others were identified from their conversations and followed for 6 months. Three groups of projects were described: equipping the young adult for adult life, connecting for personal support and managing day-to-day while planning for the future. Parents act together and with others relative to the transition to adulthood of their young adult children with IDD. These projects are complex and differ in goals, steps, resources and emotional regulation and motivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina
Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, A C; Starling, B P
Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.
van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter
The present study examined how changes in child Big Five personality characteristics and overreactive parenting during the transition from childhood to adolescence predict adolescent adjustment problems. The sample included 290 children, aged 8-9 years. At three moments, with 2-year intervals, mothers, fathers, and a teacher reported on the child's personality, and mothers and fathers reported on their parenting behavior. At the third measurement moment, mothers, fathers, and children reported on the child's adjustment problems. Rank-order stability of the personality dimensions and overreactive parenting were high. Univariate latent growth models revealed mean-level decreases for extraversion, conscientiousness, and imagination. Mean levels of benevolence, emotional stability, and overreactive parenting were stable. Multivariate latent growth models revealed that decreases in extraversion and emotional stability predicted internalizing problems, whereas decreases in benevolence, conscientiousness, and emotional stability predicted externalizing problems. Increases in overreactive parenting predicted externalizing, but not internalizing problems. The associations were similar for boys and girls. The results indicate that changes in child personality and overreactive parenting during the transition to adolescence are associated with adolescent adjustment problems. Overall, child personality was more important than overreactive parenting, and children were more likely to "act out" than to "withdraw" in reaction to overreactive parenting.
Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M
Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.
Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H
Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other
Maria Stella Epifanio
Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.
Dr. A.L. van Staa; O.K. Helder; J.C.M. Verweij
To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five
Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen
Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…
This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…
This Canadian study reports on the experiences of parents whose children use cochlear implants and on their perspectives prior to and following the transition to Auditory-Verbal therapy. A qualitative case study design, framed in social-ecological theory, guided this research. Data collection procedures included a family information questionnaire,…
Jarnecke, Amber M; South, Susan C
Previous research suggests that there is an intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, such that parents' marital satisfaction predicts their adult child's marital satisfaction. The mechanisms that explain this phenomenon remain relatively unknown. In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child attachment orientations and romantic relationship attachment orientations as mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction. Participants (N = 199) were cohabiting newlywed couples who had been married for 12 months or less. All participants separately completed measures of own marital satisfaction, attachment orientations to romantic partners, attachment orientations to rearing parents, and perceptions of parents' marital satisfaction. Data was analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model in a structural equation modeling framework to account for the nonindependent nature of the data. This allowed for examination of gender differences across husbands and wives and provided overall fit of the hypothesized model. Results supported a partially mediating effect of parent-child attachment and romantic partner attachment on the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, although effects differed by gender. For husbands, the direct effect from parents' marital satisfaction to own satisfaction was partially mediated through anxious attachment styles. There was no direct effect from parents to own marital satisfaction for wives; however, there were significant links from parent's satisfaction to attachment orientations in childhood and adulthood, which in turn impacted wives satisfaction. Findings from this study provide an integrated look at the implications that attachment has on the intergenerational transmission of marital functioning. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy
Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…
Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth
Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…
Ganong, Lawrence; And Others
Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)
Cawthon, Stephanie W; Caemmerer, Jacqueline M
Parent involvement and parent expectations are important factors in successful academic and career outcomes for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Parental roles are particularly important during the transition planning process for students with disabilities. Results are presented from an exploratory study of 56 parents that measured their involvement, perceptions, and expectations during the transition process. Parents positively rated their experiences with the individualized education program (IEP) process and held high expectations for both their child's educational attainment and employment. However, differences in expectations and perceptions emerged among parents whose children had co-occurring disabilities. Future directions for research and practice are discussed, including the implications of the demographics of the study sample and the relationship between parental demographics and parents' expectations for their children.
Hetherington, E. Mavis
Discusses results of a longitudinal study of effects of divorce and remarriage on children's adjustment. Results suggest that individual characteristics play an important role in either protecting children from negative consequences associated with their parents' marital transitions or in making children vulnerable to such consequences. (RJC)
Holtrop, Kendal; Holcomb, Jamila E
Intervention adaptation is a promising approach for extending the reach of evidence-based interventions to underserved families. One highly relevant population in need of services are homeless families. In particular, homeless families with children constitute more than one third of the total homeless population in the United States and face several unique challenges to parenting. The purpose of this study was to adapt and pilot test a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing. An established adaptation model was used to guide this process. The systematic adaptation efforts included: (a) examining the theory of change in the original intervention, (b) identifying population differences relevant to homeless families in transitional housing, (c) adapting the content of the intervention, and (d) adapting the evaluation strategy. Next, a pilot test of the adapted intervention was conducted to examine implementation feasibility and acceptability. Feasibility data indicate an intervention spanning several weeks may be difficult to implement in the context of transitional housing. Yet, acceptability of the adapted intervention among participants was consistently high. The findings of this pilot work suggest several implications for informing continued parenting intervention research and practice with homeless families in transitional housing. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Kim, Minzee; Staff, Jeremy; Vuolo, Mike
Youth unemployment reduces the capacity to achieve diverse markers of adulthood, potentially undermining the young adult’s sense of confidence and independence. While parents often come to the aid of their unemployed young adult children, such support may also have negative psychological repercussions. Applying a hierarchical modeling strategy to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that both unemployment and parental financial support have negative consequences for youth’s self-efficacy. These common experiences may thus diminish youth’s personal psychological resources as they make the increasingly lengthy and precarious transition to adulthood. PMID:27840554
Greenfeld, Dorothy A
Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.
Using data from a subset of 606 families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we assessed emotional intimacy in the marriage as a buffer of the negative effects of parental depression on the quality of parent-child interaction. Maternal and paternal…
Gooden, W; Toye, R
Assessed the impact of difficulty forming an occupational dream and relating to parents on depression among college students in their late teens and early twenties. Becoming independent of parents and forming an occupational dream are seen as two central issues during this period of life. Results from 64 students suggest that having to give up a valued dream, viewing one's relation to mother as authority-obeyer, and doing little exploring of occupational choices are related significantly to depression (p less than .0004). The significance of these results is discussed in light of theories of depression and the possible importance of different parenting styles for young adults who are facing the early adult transition.
Khalifa, Hind; Alnuaim, Aziza A; Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Popadiuk, Natalee
Little is known about the transition to adulthood in traditional, developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. Previous research in other countries has revealed the importance of considering parents' support during the transition to adulthood. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine how two generations negotiated the transition to adulthood. We asked the research question, What are the joint projects in which parents and youth plan and act on their plans for the youth's future? We used the action project method, an established qualitative approach, to answer these questions by observing the joint conversations of 14 parent and youth dyads. Our results provided evidence of an overarching higher level goal, or intentional framework, of crafting generational change and continuity within which participants' joint projects were embedded. Joint projects were organized into three groups: (a) negotiating educational and career futures, (b) promoting gender roles and marriage, and (c) shaping independence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.
Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis
Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
It is widely believed that warm and supportive parenting fosters all kinds of prosocial behaviors in the offspring, including civic engagement. However, accumulating international evidence suggests that the effects of family support on civic engagement may sometimes be negative. To address this apparent controversy, we identified several scenarios for the negative effects of supportive parenting on youth civic engagement and tested them using four waves of data from the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies. They followed 1549 students (55 % female) from late adolescence into young adulthood, included both maternal (n = 231) and offspring reports of parental support, and assessed civic engagement in young adulthood. Control variables included socioeconomic status, other sociodemographic indicators, church belonging, personality traits, and earlier civic engagement. Higher maternal warmth and support and a stronger identification with the parental family in adolescence predicted offspring's lower political activism up to 10 years later. Perceived parental support in young adulthood predicted lower volunteering 2 years later. There were no significant effects on general organizational involvement (e.g., in student and hobby associations). None of the a priori scenarios that we identified from the literature appeared to explain the pattern of results satisfactorily. We put forth cultural and life stage explanations of our findings.
Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.
We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase…
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David
Background: Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and…
Becher, Christine; Regamey, Nicolas; Spichiger, Elisabeth
Cystic Fibrosis is the most common autosomal-recessive hereditary disease among white Europeans. The average survival of CF patients has increased to above 40 years and transition from paediatric to adult care has therefore become a significant issue. With this study, experiences of adolescents with CF and their parents with the transition from the paediatric to the adult care were explored. At a Swiss university CF centre, six adolescents and their mothers were recruited. Twelve narrative interviews were conducted on how the phase of transition was experienced. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to the method of hermeneutic phenomenology. Positive and negative experiences with long term routine care in the paediatric service, general themes of adolescence and the quality of the relationship with paediatric doctors influenced the families' experience during transition significantly. For mothers, insensitive information on the CF diagnosis might have influenced the transition experience. The adolescents welcomed an individualized and age appropriate care. Continuity in care, the announcement of, and involvement in the planning of the transfer were of great importance. The families particularly appreciated the timed adaptations of the transfer to individual needs. Flexibility and a strong collaboration between paediatric and adult CF teams are most relevant in the care of families.
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Barnes, G G
This paper gives an account of qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. The transitions that accompany divorce and family reordering are shown by many studies in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as well as in the United Kingdom to have stressful effects for children that can lead to long-term negative outcomes. Other studies have focused on the differential social and family factors that may contribute to the "differences that make a difference" to whether divorce has harmful effects on children. This paper describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and postdivorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. The focus of the work is one promoting long-term connections between parents and children in reordered+ families. Some interactions that may promote resilience in children as well as in their parents are alluded to briefly.
Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.
Abstract: By analysing the effect of internal and external risks on marital happiness this paper concludes that social welfare is maximised by employment status and limiting the negative effect of children. Muslim, Christian and Sikh marriages were predominantly found to be unhappier as a parent in the household specialised in domestic labour and didn’t enter the workforce. ‘Non-religious’ groups have higher levels of female employment and consequently happier marriages. The discussion sugges...
Okigbo, Chinelo C; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien
Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people's sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from young people living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya were used. The sample was restricted to unmarried adolescents aged 12-19 years at Wave 1 (weighted n = 1927). Parental factors at Wave 1 were used to predict adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse by Wave 2. Relevant covariates including the adolescents' age, sex, residence, school enrollment, religiosity, delinquency, and peer models for risk behavior were controlled for. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were conducted using Stata version 13. Approximately 6% of our sample transitioned to first sexual intercourse within the one-year study period; there was no sex difference in the transition rate. In the multivariate analyses, male adolescents who reported communication with their mothers were less likely to transition to first sexual intercourse compared to those who did not (p impacts on delaying sexual debut, and possibly reducing sexual risk behaviors, among young people in high-risk settings such as slums.
Ellison, Christopher G.; Henderson, Andrea K.; Glenn, Norval D.; Harkrider, Kristine E.
This article contributes to recent work investigating the role of religious sanctification, that is, the process via which one's spouse or marital relationship is perceived as having divine character or sacred significance. We outline a series of theoretical arguments linking marital sanctification with specific aspects of marital quality. A…
Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth--which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances--among first-time parents and to examine the contribution of the parents' personal resources of self-esteem and attachment style, and their infant's temperament and medical condition, to their self-efficacy and stress-related growth. Forty-nine sets of parents of preterm babies and 50 sets of parents of full-term babies completed questionnaires about one month after the birth of their child. Parents of premature infants reported a higher level of stress-related growth than those of full-term infants, but no difference was found between them on parental self-efficacy In addition, gender differences in the dependent variables, as well as significant contributions of attachment style and self-esteem, were found. Professional guidance during pregnancy, aimed at expanding parents' knowledge and understanding of the changes they can expect to undergo, may serve to enhance the positive experience of growth in the transition to parenthood.
Sawicki, Gregory S; Kelemen, Skyler; Weitzman, Elissa R
Health care transition (HCT) from pediatric to adult-focused systems is a key milestone for youth. Developing self-care skills and HCT planning are key elements. In a survey at 4 pediatric specialty clinics to 79 youth aged 16 to 25 years and 52 parents, skill-based HCT readiness was assessed using the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ). Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between TRAQ scores and self-care beliefs. In all, 70% of youth and 67% of parents believed that they/their child could manage their care. Only 38% of youth and 53% of parents reported thinking about HCT; only 18% of youth and 27% of parents reported having a HCT plan. Youth with higher TRAQ scores were more likely to believe they could manage their care, controlling for age and gender (adjusted odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-9.5). Transition readiness skills are associated with self-care beliefs. However, a mismatch exists between high reported self-care beliefs and low levels of transition planning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.
Silverstein, Merril D.
Objective. Although intergenerational relationships have been extensively examined, studies applying dynamic multidimensional treatments are rare. Employing the life course framework and the intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence paradigms, a typology of intergenerational relationships was derived and propositions about dynamics of intergenerational relationships were tested. Method. Using latent transition analysis, we modeled 4 waves of panel data spanning 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Generations to examine how older parent–child relationships (N = 938) transitioned in and out of complex relational configurations. Results. We derived 5 relationship types roughly corresponding to those found in earlier research. Transitions in relationship type occurred mostly when both generations were relatively young, and along the lines of what attachment, ambivalence, and latent kinship theories would predict. When change did occur, it was primarily structured by factors affecting the availability of adult children, as well as circumstances that elevated the dependency of older parents and promoted both positive and negative reactivity in their adult children. Discussion. This study has demonstrated how typological analysis captures both the complexities and dynamics of intergenerational relationships in mature families. By including behavioral, emotional, and normative aspects of later life intergenerational relationships, we told a story that was more about continuity than change. PMID:24958693
Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Murshid, Navine
The present study assesses the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and perpetration of marital violence as adults among a representative sample of 3,396 men in Bangladesh. We used secondary analysis of survey data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 to examine factors associated with perpetration of martial violence among 3,396 ever-married men between the ages of 16 and 50 years. Outcome measure, marital violence perpetration, was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale, and predictor variables included childhood exposure to parental violence, justification of marital violence, marital duration, religion, and demographic variables. Results indicate that marital violence perpetration is significantly associated with childhood exposure to marital violence, suggesting a cycle of violence that is maintained across generations. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Thomet, Corina; Lindenberg, Carina; Schwerzmann, Markus; Spichiger, Elisabeth
Background: Up to 90 % of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) now reach adulthood. To avoid lapses in care during the change from pediatric to adult care, a nurse-led transition program (TP) was implemented at a Swiss University Hospital. Aim: This study explored the experiences and expectations of adolescents with CHD and their parents regarding a nurse-led TP. Method: This qualitative study used an interpretive, phenomenological approach. Individual interviews were conducted with seven adolescent CHD patients in the transition period and their parents (six mothers, two fathers). Analysis followed an iterative process. Results: For most study participants, the transfer from pediatric to adult medicine as part of the TP went smoothly. They experienced the TP positively. Patients valued the provision of a constant contact person to provide CHD-related information; parents welcomed the support of an informed, neutral clinician for their children. To varying degrees, adolescents were willing to take over self-responsibility; conversely, parents found it difficult to turn their responsibility over to their children. Parents wished to give the adolescent as much time as needed to act responsibility on their own. Conclusions: A transition program is a key element for establishing a continuous care in adolescents with a chronic disease. It facilitates the parents' process of allowing their youths to assume increasing responsibility for their own health.
Full Text Available In 2004, with the closing of the last Hmong refugee camp, Wat Tham Krabok, the latest group of Hmong refugees resettled to the US. To facilitate the language transition of approximately 1,000 school-aged newcomer Hmong children, the Saint Paul Public Schools, developed and established Transitional Language Centers. In this article, we examine the experiences and perspectives of principals, teachers and educational assistants who worked with newcomer Hmong children in the newly-established Transitional Language Centers and well-established Language Academy programs. We also elucidate the experiences of Hmong parents with the schools that served their children. Our research offers insights into the important work of the Transitional Language Centers as well as the need to better support newcomer Hmong parents.
Martz, Kim; Morse, Janice M
Older adults cared for at home by family members at the end of life are at risk for care transitions to residential and institutional care settings. These transitions are emotionally distressing and fraught with suffering for both families and the older adult. A theoretical model titled "The Changing Nature of Guilt in Family Caregivers: Living Through Care Transitions of Parents at the End of Life" was developed using the method of grounded theory. When a dying parent cannot remain at home to die, family members experience guilt throughout the transition process. Findings indicated that guilt surrounding transfers escalated during the initial stages of the transfer but was mitigated by achieving what family members deemed as a "good" death when relatives were receiving hospice care. The findings of this interpretative approach provide new insights into family-focused perspectives in care transfers of the dying.
Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D
a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital......OBJECTIVE: To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. SETTING: Fertility centers. PATIENT(S): Childless men and women evaluated before...... starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...
Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David
Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers. Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting. A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting. Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for
Nyirő, Judit; Hauser, Péter; Zörgő, Szilvia; Hegedűs, Katalin
Adequate communication by medical personnel is especially important at certain points during the treatment of childhood cancer patients. To investigate the timing and manner of communication with parents concerning the introduction of palliative care in pediatric oncology. Structured interviews, containing 14 questions, were carried out with physicians working in pediatric oncology (n = 22). Codes were generated inductively with the aid of Atlas.ti 6.0 software. Interviews show a tendency of a one-step transition to palliative care following curative therapy. Another expert is usually involved in communication, most likely a psychologist. Regarding communication, there are expressions utilized or avoided, such as expressing clarity, self-defense and empathy. The communication of death and dying was the most contradictory. This was the first investigation regarding communication in pediatric palliative care in Hungary. Our results show that a modern perspective of palliative communication is present, but necessitates more time to become entrenched. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(30): 1175-1181.
Burazeri, Genc; Qirjako, Gentiana; Roshi, Enver; Brand, Helmut
We aimed to assess the extent and the socioeconomic correlates of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in Albania, a country in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. 2797 students (93% of all students) at the Medical Faculty, Tirana, filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire in April-June 2009. Information on witnessed father-to-mother physical violence during childhood and/or adolescence and sociodemographic and socioeconomic data were collected. The association of witnessed parental violence with socioeconomic factors was assessed with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. 736 (26.7%) of students witnessed father-to-mother physical violence, and 36 (1.3%) reported 'very often' witnessing episodes. In multivariable-adjusted models, independent predictors of witnessed violence were: low family income [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-3.2], rural origin (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), father's lower education and unemployment (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 4.1-7.1 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.2, respectively) and mother's educational and employment advantage compared with the spouse (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8 and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8, respectively). Father's socioeconomic disadvantage and mother's socioeconomic empowerment were each independently related to increased risk for witnessed father-to-mother physical violence among university students in this transitional patriarchal society. Health professionals in post-communist Albania should be aware of the ways in which witnessed domestic violence influences physical and psychological health of young adults.
Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Murdoch, Jamee; Siu, Daphne; Sharp, Mary
To explore the experiences of parents with babies born between 28-32 weeks' gestation during transition through the neonatal intensive care unit and discharge to home. Following birth of a preterm baby, parents undergo a momentous journey through the neonatal intensive care unit prior to their arrival home. The complexity of the journey varies on the degree of prematurity and problems faced by each baby. The neonatal intensive care unit environment has many stressors and facilitating education to assist parents to feel ready for discharge can be challenging for all health professionals. Qualitative descriptive design. The project included two phases, pre- and postdischarge, to capture the experiences of 20 couples (40 parents), whilst their baby was a neonatal intensive care unit inpatient and then after discharge. Face-to-face interviews, an online survey and telephone interviews were employed to gather parent's experiences. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify commonalities between experiences. Recruitment and data collection occurred from October 2014-February 2015. Overlapping themes from both phases revealed three overarching concepts: effective parent staff communication; feeling informed and involved; and being prepared to go home. Our findings can be used to develop strategies to improve the neonatal intensive care unit stay and discharge experience for parents. Proposed strategies would be to improve information transfer, promote parental contact with the multidisciplinary team, encourage input from fathers to identify their needs and facilitate parental involvement according to individual needs within families. Providing information to parents during their time in hospital, in a consistent and timely manner is an essential component of their preparation when transitioning to home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gauthier-Boudreault, Camille; Couture, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances
Background: At age 21, access to specialised services for youth with profound intellectual disability is reduced. Few studies have focused on parents' views concerning potential solutions to ease the transition to adulthood, and most existing solutions target young adults with less severe intellectual disability. The aim of this study is to…
... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...
Lehrer, Joanne S.
This article explores how documents play a role in shaping perceptions of children, professionals, and parents during the transition from childcare to kindergarten in Québec. Positioning analysis was used to explore governmentality, documentality, and interobjectivity in the communication agendas and child assessment documents of seven children.…
Traum, Linda C.; Moran, Mary Jane
This qualitative study considered values, beliefs, perspectives, and meanings of 7 parents and 3 teachers within the context of daily home-to-child care transitions in one infant-toddler center in an early childhood laboratory school. Sociocultural and attachment theories anchored the study and the developmental niche framework informed…
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…
This small-scale study explores a group of English parents' perceptions of their relationships with their child's nursery school and, after the transition to Reception class, their primary school. It references current research and literature on the issues of transition and the role of parents in their children's education. Findings from…
Cummings, E Mark; Faircloth, W Brad; Mitchell, Patricia M; Cummings, Jennifer S; Schermerhorn, Alice C
Marital conflict is related to well-being in children and adults (E. M. Cummings & P. T. Davies, 2002). Marital conflict is likely most effectively ameliorated before it becomes clinically significant. However, families without significant problems may be unwilling to participate in couples therapies or other lengthy or intensive interventions. Responding to this gap, the authors developed a 4-session psychoeducational program about marital conflict for community families. Couples with children 4-8 years of age were randomly blocked into 1 of 3 groups: (1) a parent-only group (n = 24), (2) a parent-child group (n = 33), or (3) a self-study group (n = 33). Pre- and posttest and 6-month and 1-year assessments were conducted. This report evaluates (a) whether participation in a psychoeducational program for parents improved marital conflict, especially concerning ways of expressing disagreements, and (b) whether changes in marital conflict subsequently improved marital satisfaction, parenting, and child adjustment. Greater constructive and less destructive marital conflict was observed at all assessments for treatment groups, and these changes were linked with improvements in other family processes. The findings support the promise of brief, psychoeducational programs for improving marital conflict for community samples. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Göllner, Richard; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica I; Lüdtke, Oliver; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Trautwein, Ulrich
The present study investigated Big Five personality trait development in the transition to early adolescence (from the fifth to eighth grade). Personality traits were assessed in 2,761 (47% female) students over a 3-year period of time. Youths' self-reports and parent ratings were used to test for cross-informant agreement. Acquiescent responding and measurement invariance were established with latent variable modeling. Growth curve models revealed three main findings: (a) Normative mean-level changes occurred for youths' self-report data and parent ratings with modest effects in both cases. (b) Agreeableness and Openness decreased for self-reports and parent ratings, whereas data source differences were found for Conscientiousness (decreased for self-reports and remained stable for parent ratings), Extraversion (increased for self-reports and decreased for parent ratings), and Neuroticism (remained stable for self-reports and decreased for parent ratings). (c) Girls showed a more mature personality overall (self-reports and parent ratings revealed higher levels of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) and became more extraverted in the middle of adolescence (self-reports). Personality changes modestly during early adolescence whereby change does not occur in the direction of maturation, and substantial differences exist between parent ratings and self-reports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DiFazio, Rachel L; Harris, Marie; Vessey, Judith A; Glader, Laurie; Shanske, Susan
To describe and define the experiences of adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and parents of adults with CP who have been involved in a transfer of physiatry care from pediatric to adult healthcare and to explore their experiences more generally in the transition from pediatric to adult services. A qualitative research approach was used. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adults with CP (n=5) and parents of adults with CP (n=8) to explore the health care transition (HCT) process from pediatric to adult healthcare. Four key content domains were used to facilitate the focus groups; 1) Transition Planning, 2) Accessibility of Services, 3) Experience with Adult Providers, and 4) Recommendations for Improving the Transition Process. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the focus groups; Lost in Transition, Roadmap to Care, List of None, and One Stop Shopping. Participants felt lost in the HCT process, requested a transparent transition plan, expressed concern regarding access to adult healthcare, and made recommendations for improvements. Challenges in transitioning from pediatric to adult health care were identified by all participants and several strategies were recommended for improvement.
Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B
The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk.
Halloran, Elizabeth C.
Drawing on sex-role theory, the learned-helplessness model of depression, and a review of empirical research, this article explores inequity in marital power as a potential third variable that explains how depression and the quality of marriage are related. Aims to generate broad-minded thinking about how marital power, depression, and marital…
Jacobson, Doris S.
Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)
Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.
The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)
Sergey A. Kapustin
Full Text Available As it was mentioned in one of the previous papers, basic styles of parenting in families with parent-child problems were hyperprotection and overexactness. Another paper described a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality based on the works of Erich Fromm. Applying this criterion to personality evaluation of overprotecting and overexacting parents in families with parent-child problems showed that their personality could be identified as abnormal. Research on the influence of hyperprotection and overexactness at children personality development in these families, where existential criterion was also applied, showed that these parenting styles contribute to promoting child specific abnormal personality types: oriented on external assistance, oriented on compliance with other people’s requirements and oriented on protest against such compliance. In the present study, the direct or indirect hyperprotection or overexactness in 80 per cent of cases was observed. Direct hyperprotection or overexactness means that theyare clearly determined in relationship of the married couple. Indirect hyperprotection or overexactness indicates that the couple has abnormal personality types that date have roots in the childhood under the influence of the hyperprotection and overexactness. Classification of these cases was developed, based on various types of direct or indirect input of hyperprotection and overexactness in emerging marital problems. A variety of problems in couples are shown to be closely connected with abnormality of their own personality or the personality of their immediate environment, primarily wives, husbands and parents.
Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Hammond, Ivy; Eastman, Andrea Lane; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Webster, Daniel
This analysis examined California county birth rate variations among girls in foster care. The objective was to generate data to assess potential intervention points tied to federal legislation extending foster care beyond age 18 years. Child protection records for all adolescent girls in foster care at age 17 years between 2003 and 2007 (N = 20,222) were linked to vital birth records through 2011. The cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth by age 21 years was calculated by county and race/ethnicity. One in three (35.2%) adolescent girls in foster care had given birth at least once before age 21 years. Although significant birth rate variations emerged, even at the low end of the county range, more than one in four girls had given birth by age 21 years. Child welfare systems are now charged with coordinating transitional services for foster youth beyond age 18 years. Extended foster care provides new opportunities for pregnancy prevention work and targeted parenting support. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.
Feldman, S. Shirley; Wentzel, Kathryn R.
Examined connection between parents' marital relationship and parenting styles to peer-related outcomes. Analysis of boys' (n=62) and parents' reports on marriage over a four-year period indicate that children who experience emotional closeness within the family might not need high levels of social attention and approval from peers. (RJM)
Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta
This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...
Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.
An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184
Van Hees, Valérie; Roeyers, Herbert; De Mol, Jan
This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services. These differences caused tensions in the parent-child relationship, hindering the transformation of the relationship into an adult-like mutual relationship. Clinical implications are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.
Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Spliid, Mette; Fegran, Liv
The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available studies exploring parents' experiences of transition when their infants are discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).The review questions are: Giving birth to a premature or sick infant is a stressful event for parents. The parents' presence and participation in the care of the infant is fundamental to reduce this stress and to provide optimal care for both the premature or sick infant and family. A full term pregnancy is estimated to last between 37 and 40 weeks. Preterm infants born before 28 week (5.1%) are defined as extremely preterm, while those who are born between 28 to 31 weeks (10.3%) are defined as very preterm. The majority of the preterm (84.1%) are born between 32 to 37 week and may have significant medical problems requiring prolonged hospitalization.The prevalence of preterm birth is increasing worldwide. More than one in ten babies are born preterm annually. This is equal to 15 million preterm infants born globally and the second largest direct cause of deaths in children below five. The highest rates of preterm birth are in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (more than 60%) and the lowest rates are in Northern Africa, Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The preterm birth rates in the developing countries vary widely and follow a different pattern than in high income countries.The preterm birth rate has increased between 1990 and 2010 with an average of 0.8% annually in almost all countries. Morbidity among critically ill newborn and preterm infants vary widely from no late effects to severe complications, such as visual or hearing impairment, chronic lung disease, growth failure in infancy and specific learning impairments, dyslexia and reduced academic achievement. Full term infants may also experience significant health problems requiring neonatal intensive care. The most common reasons for a full term infant to be admitted to a NICU
issues, love and trust, socio-cultural factors, anti-social vices and lastly economic factors. ... (Dimkpa, 2007). Attitude developed by married women could be negative .... through the news and print media by encouraging women to seek marital.
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S
We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child's autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent-child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers' marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother-child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers' marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child's departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents' marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.
Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…
Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Lifjeld, J.T.; Mehlum, F.
Understanding differences in male and female care in biparental care systems can help interpret the selective pressures that shape parental strategies. We examined Little Auk Alle alle parental care at a breeding colony during the chick-rearing and fledging periods by conducting observations on marked, known-sex pairs, and by examining the sex ratio of birds carrying food to the colony. Little Auks transitioned from biparental to mostly paternal-only care during late chick-rearing. Males delivered more meals and spent more time at the colony than females during late chick-rearing. Very few females were present at the colony by the end of chick-rearing and through the fledging period, and all marked parents observed accompanying their chick to sea were male. Chick mass loss prior to fledging was associated with the lack of provisioning by the female parent, rather than a reduction in feeding frequency by both parents. The occurrence of paternal-only care during and after fledging is discussed in relation to physiological, ecological and phylogenetic constraints.
Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.
Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Wills, Howard P.; Custer, Beth A.; Miller, Elaine
Transition planning is a mandated component of individualized education plans (IEPs) designed to ensure successful transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs experience poor post-school outcomes, suggesting a need for more effective transition planning. This study evaluated…
Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S
This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.
Fernandez, A C; Wood, M D; Laforge, R; Black, J T
Matriculation from high school to college is typified by an increase in alcohol use and related harm for many students. Therefore, this transition period is an ideal time for preventive interventions to target alcohol use and related problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods used in the Transitions Project, a randomized controlled trial of two interventions designed to prevent and reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences among incoming college students. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of a two-session brief motivational intervention delivered to students and a handbook-based parent intervention. Interventions were administered to students and parents. Follow-up assessment took place at 10- and 22-months post-baseline. The Transitions Project successfully recruited and retained participants across a major transition period (i.e., entering college), administered and compared two distinct but complementary interventions, and collected and analyzed highly skewed data. The application of a factorial design and two-part latent growth curve modeling allowed us to examine main and interactive intervention effects in terms of both initiation and growth in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. While we conducted successful tests of our primary and secondary study hypotheses over a lengthy follow-up period, our study design did not permit full interpretation of null findings. We suggest that researchers carefully consider assessment timing, tests of assessment reactivity, and ensure objective tests of intervention efficacy when conducting clinical trials of motivational interventions. The lessons we learned while conducting this trial have the potential to assist other researchers designing and conducting future preventive interventions targeting parents and college students. The data analytic procedures presented can also help guide trials that plan to analyze
Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna
Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel
Compared adolescents attending college to adolescent nonenrollees and found that (1) college attendees experienced improved means of perceived security to parents, decreased perceptions of social support, and increased feelings of loneliness and social anxiety; and (2) perceived security to parents at end of high school predicted positive changes…
Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy
This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…
Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena
The current study examined the process by which attachment to parents influences satisfaction with and ease in forming friendships at college. One hundred seventy-two female college freshmen completed a measure of parental attachment security the summer before their first semester of college (July 2006) and measures to assess satisfaction with and…
Sarigiani, Pamela A.; Trumbell, Jill M.; Camarena, Phame M.
Electronic communications technologies (ECTs) help college students and parents remain in contact. Because recent reports have emphasized a link between ECTs, helicopter parenting, and autonomy issues, this study focused on the significance of contact patterns for attachment and student adjustment. First-semester college students (199 female, 81…
Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp
Time in parenting was compared for new mothers and fathers in a sample of 182 dual-earner families. Parenting domains included positive engagement, responsibility, routine childcare, and accessibility. Time diaries captured parents’ time use over a 24-hour workday and nonworkday when infants were 3 and 9 months old. Parents were highly involved with their infants. Mothers were more involved than fathers in positive engagement and routine childcare on both days and at each assessment, and allocated more available time on workdays to these domains than fathers, with one exception. Fathers and mothers allocated similar shares of available workday time to positive engagement at 9 months. Greater equity in responsibility and accessibility was found; Mothers spent more, and a greater share of, parenting time in responsibility than fathers on the 9-month workday only, and were more accessible on the 3 month workday only. Implications for parents in today's diverse families are discussed. PMID:26405367
Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol
This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…
Kaye Dan K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.
Lavner, Justin A; Clark, Malissa A
Although many studies have found that higher workloads covary with lower levels of marital satisfaction, the question of whether workloads may also predict changes in marital satisfaction over time has been overlooked. To address this question, we investigated the lagged association between own and partner workload and marital satisfaction using eight waves of data collected every 6 months over the first four years of marriage from 172 heterosexual couples. Significant crossover, but not spillover, effects were found, indicating that partners of individuals with higher workloads at one time point experience greater declines in marital satisfaction by the following time point compared to the partners of individuals with lower workloads. These effects were not moderated by gender or parental status. These findings suggest that higher partner workloads can prove deleterious for relationship functioning over time and call for increased attention to the long-term effects of spillover and crossover from work to marital functioning.
Arndt, Ann-Kathrin; Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf
When children move from preschool to primary school in Germany, this involves a transition between two distinct systems with regard to political responsibility. Following Rimm-Kaufman and Pianta's (2000) ecological and dynamic model of transition, the research project focuses on the perspectives of parents and professionals on the learning…
Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.
Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…
Shin, YoungJu; Lee, Jeong-Kyu; Lu, Yu; Hecht, Michael
Mexican-heritage youth are members of the fastest growing minority group and are at particular risk for substance use including alcohol consumption. Youth face numerous risk factors including positive descriptions of substance use on media and peer offers that are potentially ameliorated by parental anti-substance use socialization efforts. Guided by primary socialization theory and the theory of planned behavior, the present study posited eight research questions to identify discrete subgroups/patterns of Mexican-heritage youth alcohol use behavior and parental influence on youth outcomes. Longitudinal survey data (n = 1,147) from youth in 29 public schools located in Phoenix, Arizona were collected over three years. Latent class and transition analyses identified four discrete subgroups characterized by response patterns of alcohol use behaviors and perceptions in Mexican-heritage youth: 1) Non-drinker, 2) Potential drinker, 3) Experimenter, and 4) Regular drinker. Targeted parent-child communication about alcohol and parental monitoring were found to be significant predictors for youth alcohol use. Research implications and future directions are suggested. PMID:26300049
Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.
Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)
Neece, Cameron L.; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan
The transition from high school to adulthood is a critical life stage that entails many changes, especially for youth with severe intellectual disability. The transition period may be especially stressful for the families of these young adults, who often experience a sudden change, or decrease, in services. However, little research has examined…
Brown, Meta; Flinn, Christopher J.
Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In…
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Findler, Liora; Bendet, Chaya; Stanger, Varda; Ben-Shlomo, Shirley; Kuint, Jacob
Parenting twins is typically portrayed as more stressful than is parenting single children and, therefore, more of a strain on the marital relationship. With this in mind, the present study examined the contribution of infant characteristics and mother's internal resources (attachment style) and external resources (maternal and paternal…
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father…
Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Simpson, Gaynell M
The literature establishes clearly the health benefit of marriage. Much less clear from published data is whether work-related health (dis)advantages accruing to marital transitions persist over time or are limited to the short term. Informed by the marital resources and marital crisis perspectives, this study sought links between marital status measured via three approaches and work-related health limitation, exploring these relationships across genders. The study employed data from eight recent waves (1996-2010) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It applied generalized estimating equations to estimate the impacts, on work-related health limitation, of current marital status; of marital transition 2 years in the past; and of marital transition 8 years in the past. Our gender-specific results indicated that lower likelihood of work-related health limitation was associated with a married status, a stable married status, and an entry into marriage. Results are consistent overall with the marital resources perspective. The use of three different approaches to evaluate the relationship of marital status to work-related health limitation may explain the gender-specific results.
López, Pilar Montero; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Baali, Abdellatif; Lopez, Santiago Rodriguez
In Morocco, the beginning of the nutritional transition is closely linked to social and economic transformations and changes in behaviour and traditional lifestyles. The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of food consumption and the nutritional status of adolescents in the province of Ouarzazate and its association with parents' educational level. The sample comprises 327 high school students from Ouarzazate: 135 (41.3%) boys and 192 (58.7%) girls (age range 15-20 years). For both boys and girls, the results show lower height and BMI z-scores than the WHO reference values. Adolescents whose parents have a low educational level have lower height/age and BMI/age z-scores than those whose fathers have a high educational level. No differences are observed in total daily energy intake depending on fathers' educational level, but the energy provided by lipids is higher in adolescents whose fathers have a high educational background. The quality of fats consumed (MUFA+PUFA/SFA) is better among those boys whose fathers have low education, but no differences are observed for girls. The process of nutritional transition is not uniform in the sample, but depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of population groups, which include, among others, accessibility of certain food, differences in habits and lifestyles related to energy expenditure, and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in more favoured groups.
Gaskin, Kerry L
The purpose of this study was to explore parents' experiences of one specific timepoint in their infant's journey: the transition from hospital to home, following the first stage of their infant's cardiac surgery for complex congenital heart disease. A prospective longitudinal mixed methods study, underpinned with Middle Range Transition Theory (Meleis, Sawyer, Im, Hilfinger Messias, & Schumacher, 2000). Face to face and telephone interviews were conducted and self-report forms completed by parents at four-time points: before discharge (T0), 2weeks after discharge (T1), 8weeks after discharge (T2) and after stage two surgery (T3). Interviews were transcribed verbatim before inductive thematic analysis. Parents were recruited over a 15-month period from 2013 to 2015. Twelve mothers and 4 fathers took part. The infants had functionally univentricular heart (left n=10, right n=1) and a systemic shunt dependent lesion, tetralogy of Fallot (n=1). Dynamic constructivist and constructionist social processes occurred for all parents, involving physical, physiological, psychological and cognitive elements within four 'patterns of experience', two of which 'safety and security' and 'love and support' are presented in this paper. Parental support is essential; parents need to be engaged in discharge planning process and given the opportunity to express their needs to ensure that discharge care is truly patient and family centered. Transition from hospital to home was complex and multi-faceted, with unanticipated physical and emotional transitions superimposed upon those that were expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maloney, Raelynn; Altmaier, Elizabeth
A growing number of children are experiencing marital transition. The effects of divorce on children have typically been considered deleterious, although factors can buffer the difficulty of postdivorce adjustment. One of these factors is a positive relationship with a parental figure. Unfortunately, divorce often overwhelms parents with a series of changes that compromise their parenting skills. One new approach to improving parenting after divorce is mindful parenting, which aims to enhance interpersonal and emotional connection in the parent-child relationship. This program is intended to facilitate parents' self-awareness, their mindfulness, and their intentionality in responding to their child's needs. The present study reports on the implementation of the Mindful Parenting Program, delivered in two groups to 12 recently divorced parents with preschool-aged children. Program effectiveness was conducted on two levels. First, mindfulness measured by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale revealed significant increases over the intervention and posttest period. Second, in-home behavioral observations conducted pre- and postintervention revealed no changes in parent-child relationships. These findings are discussed within the larger context of facilitating effective parenting postdivorce.
Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele
Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ersig, Anne L; Tsalikian, Eva; Coffey, Julie; Williams, Janet K
Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents experience every day and illness-related stress; however, understanding of how these stressors relate to the transition to adulthood is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors of teens with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their parents related to the impending transition to adulthood. This study used open-ended questions to identify every day and illness-related stressors among 15 teens with T1DM and 25 parents seen in one pediatric diabetes clinic. Qualitative descriptive analysis identified themes in interview transcripts. The primary teen stressor related to impending transition centered on ineffective self-management, often when they were taking over responsibility for T1DM management. Parents' concerns included immediate and long-term negative outcomes of teen self-management as well as financial resources and health insurance for the teen. Teens and parents both expressed specific concerns about outcomes and prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and identified uncertainties related to teen health and diabetes-focused health care when no longer living in the parent's home. Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents understand that independent teen self-management is a component of transition to adulthood, but worry about teen self-management outcomes. Concerns specific to health care transition included health insurance, T1DM resources, and teens' abilities to handle new situations. Identifying current and future self-management concerns of individuals and families can facilitate targeted education and interventions to support successful transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.
Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)
Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Ebenézer A. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transmissão intergeracional do estilo autoritário, mas não do democrático-recíproco, mediada por uma atitude conjugal conflituosa. O estilo autoritário materno previu tanto externalização como internalização, enquanto a atitude conjugal conflituosa previu apenas externalização. Embora significativo, o modelo aditivo não gerou efeitos longitudinais significativos de cada fator sobre externalização. Mas, ao se levar em conta a relação entre o estilo autoritário e a atitude conjugal conflituosa, efeitos principais foram encontrados para ambos os fatores. A obtenção de resultados significativos apenas no modelo de risco é considerada sob os pontos de vista teórico e metodológico.Mediational models of risk and protection were tested to predict longitudinally both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in young children, with conflicted marital attitude and transgenerational, authoritarian vs. authoritative parenting as predictors. Drawn from two private and one public schools, the sample consisted of 25 boys and 25 girls with 4 and 5 years of age, and their respective mothers. Bivariate Pearson correlations and multiple regressions showed intergenerational transmission for the authoritarian style, but not for the authoritative style, mediated by a conflicted attitude toward marriage. The maternal authoritarian style predicted both externalizing and internalizing behaviors, whereas the conflicted marital attitude predicted only
Parade, Stephanie H; Leerkes, Esther M; Blankson, A Nayena
The current study examined the process by which attachment to parents influences satisfaction with and ease in forming friendships at college. One hundred seventy-two female college freshmen completed a measure of parental attachment security the summer before their first semester of college (July 2006) and measures to assess satisfaction with and ease in forming close relationships at the end of their first semester (December 2006). Students ranged in age from 18 to 20 years (M = 18.09, SD = 0.33) and were diverse in their racial makeup (30% racial minority). Consistent with predictions derived from attachment theory, secure attachment to parents was positively associated with ease in forming friendships among racial minority and white participants and satisfaction with friendships among minority participants. Moreover, indirect effects of parental attachment security on relationship outcomes through social anxiety were significant for minority participants but not for white participants. Findings may be useful in the development of retention programs targeted at incoming university freshmen, particularly minority students.
Kirby, James B.
This study addresses two questions: Is stepfamily formation associated with the likelihood that adolescents will initiate alcohol use, and if so, does this association differ by the type of single-parent families from which adolescents move or the type of stepfamilies to which they move? The author found that adolescents who moved to stepfamilies…
Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen
Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunter, K A
A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.
Muhammad Endriyo Susila
Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law. Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she
Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.
The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…
Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon
Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)
Snyder, Douglas K.; Smith, Gregory T.
Derives an empirically based classification system of marital relationships, employing a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Spouses' profiles on the Marital Satisfaction Inventory for samples of clinic and nonclinic couples were subjected to cluster analysis, resulting in separate five-group typologies for husbands and…
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…
Muhammad, Ali; Gagnon, Alain
Using the Canadian Community and Health Survey (2000), this study examines self-perceived stress across marital and parental statuses, adjusting for age, education, work status, income and sense of community belonging. Results show that fatherhood increases perceived stress regardless of marital status, particularly among singles. Motherhood does not affect perceived stress among married or cohabitating women but single and post-married mothers endure the highest levels of stress. Interactions between working and parental or marital statuses are also observed. Community belonging acts as a coping mechanism in lowering stress levels. Results are discussed in the context of changing familial roles.
Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M; Dukewich, Tammy L
Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional responding. When parents' emotions and tactics were considered in the same model, negative emotionality was more consistently related to children's negative reactions than were destructive conflict tactics, whereas constructive conflict tactics were more consistently related to children's positive reactions than parents' positive emotionality. Differences in children's responding as a function of specific parental negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear) and parent gender were identified.
Nataša Rijavec Klobučar
Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.
Fink, Brandi C.; Shapiro, Alyson F.
The association between marital discord and depression is well established. Marital discord is hypothesized to be a stressful life event that would evoke one’s efforts to cope with it. In an effort to further understand the nature of this association, the current study investigated coping as a mediating variable between marital dissatisfaction and depression and between marital instability and depression. Both marital dissatisfaction and instability, reflecting orthogonal dimensions of marita...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...
Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Wilson, Sarah; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Bancroft, Angus; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn
Recent policy responses to the risks entailed in "fast-track" school-work transitions have targeted careleavers and young people identified as "not in education, employment or training" (NEET). However, this approach has been criticised as diverting attention away from the fragile circumstances of others who may receive little…
Kirk, S; Fallon, D; Fraser, C; Robinson, G; Vassallo, G
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and acquired disability in childhood. Research has demonstrated that TBI can lead to long-term physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioural difficulties for children and parental stress. Less is known about how parents experience a childhood brain injury and their information and support needs. This study aimed to examine parents' experiences and support needs following a childhood TBI from the time of the accident to their child's discharge home. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 parents/carers of children who had experienced a severe TBI. Participants were recruited from one children's tertiary centre in the UK. Data were analysed using the Framework approach. Parents had unmet information and emotional support needs across the care trajectory from the time of the accident to their child's return home. Information needs related to the impact of the TBI on their child; current and future treatment/rehabilitation plans; helping their child and managing their behaviour; accessing services/support. They lacked information and support for care transitions. In different settings parents faced particular barriers to having their information needs met. Parents' felt they needed emotional support in coming to terms with witnessing the accident and the loss of their former child. Lack of community support related not only to service availability but to a general lack of understanding of the impact of TBI on children, particularly when this was invisible. Overall parents felt unsupported in coping with children's behavioural and psychological difficulties. Taking a holistic approach to examining parents' experiences and support needs has enabled their changing needs to be highlighted across key care transitions within hospital and community settings and the service implications identified. Improvements in care co-ordination across care transitions are needed to ensure continuity of care
Full Text Available Background: Despite widespread attention paid to the negative correlation between female education and divorce, we lack an explanation for it. In this study we use social exchange theory to assess two broad groups of explanations. According to the 'marital attraction' explanation, educated women's marriages have higher marital quality and marital satisfaction. According to the 'barriers to divorce' explanation, educated women's marriages include factors that raise the cost of divorcing. Many previous studies have referred to variants of the former explanation, whereas the latter has been less prominent. Our objective is to investigate the explanatory power of these two explanations. Methods: We use discrete-time event history models to document the educational gradient of divorce from first marriages using the British Household Panel Survey (N = 1,263 for the years 1996-2009. We subsequently perform a mediation analysis to explain the educational gradient in divorce and a path analysis to distinguish which factors shape marital attraction and barriers to divorce. Results: Female education is positively related to marital stability, but this association is only partly explained by educational differences in marital satisfaction and variables that shape attractions. Variables interpreted as affecting barriers to divorce, such as home ownership and having divorced parents, provide an at least equally important explanation of the educational gradient in divorce. Contribution: This paper shows that the negative female educational gradient of divorce is shaped not only by educational differences in marital attraction, but also by differences in barriers to divorce.
Full Text Available Objective: The association between marital adjustment and psychological disorders has been well described. The aim of this work was to analyse that adjustment between mothers and fathers of patients with Eating Disorders (ED and its relationship with some eatingand aesthetic body shape model-related variables. Method: A total of 104 mothers and fathers of ED patients were included in the study. They fulfilled some marital adjustment-, irrational food beliefs- and aesthetic body shape model (CIMEC-related questionnaires. Results: With respect to marital adjustment and areas of CIMEC, no significant correlations between mothers and fathers were found. A significant and positive correlation was found in the case of the irrational food beliefs subscale. Mothers showed higher scores on this subscale than fathers did. In addition, mothers scored higher on concerns of being thin, influence of friends, interpersonal influences, body anxiety, influence of advertisements and global CIMEC. The degree of marital adjustment was in the range obtained in clinical populations. Conclusions: The marital adjustment among parents of ED patients is moderate, similar to the described in clinical populations, worse than the found in non-clinical populations and no specific. The more presence of irrational food beliefs in the case of mothers along with a greater influence of the current aesthetic body shape model and the distress caused by the marital maladjustment could be a negative factor to bear in mind during the therapeutic process in ED, especially when working with parents as co-therapists.
The aim of the study was to explore the literature related to transitions in healthcare between the hospital and home that caregivers experience with a child who has a congenital heart defect (CHD), specifically related to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A systematic literature review was conducted searching OVID Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed to discover the caregivers' perceptions on their transitions between hospital care and home care of their child with a CHD. Articles included those with focus on the transitions of caregivers between hospital and home care for children with CHD. Excluded articles were studies focused on adolescents, transition to adult healthcare, mortality results, other diseases associated with CHDs, comparison of CHD treatments, feasibility studies, differences in care between hospitals, home monitoring, and comparison of videoconference and telephone home communication. Ten articles were selected. Many parents voiced their concerns with feeding their child, learning medical skills and knowledge, reported a disrupted relationship between parents and their child, and identified stress and anxiety associated with taking care of a child with a CHD. There were limited studies on caregivers' transitions with a child with HLHS, but there also was limited focus on the caregivers' experiences with transitions between hospital and home care for their child with any CHD. Research on the transition experience between hospital care and home care for caregivers of children born with a CHD, and a specific focus on HLHS from the caregivers' viewpoint, would provide insight into the perspective of caregivers during the numerous transitions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wieland, Natalie; Baker, B L
Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. The relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems was examined in 132 families of 6-year-olds with and without ID. Using hierarchical regression, these relationships were also studied over time from child ages 6-8 years. Child behaviour problems were assessed with mother-reported Child Behavior Checklist. The marital domain was measured using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 and the Spousal Support and Agreement Scale. Mother-reported parenting stress and observed parenting practices were tested as potential mediators of the relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems. Mean levels of the marital domain were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) and ID groups, but there were significantly greater levels of variance in reported marital quality in the ID group at ages 6, 7 and 8. The marital domain score at child age 6 years predicted child behaviour problems at age 8 for the TD group only. This predictive relationship appeared to be a unidirectional effect, as child behaviour problems at age 6 were not found to predict levels of the marital domain at age 8. Parenting stress partially mediated this relationship for the TD group. The marital domain may have a greater impact on behavioural outcomes for TD children. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study assessed the direct relation between young adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and mothers’ democratic childrearing practices as well as the potential mediating role of mothers’ perceived influence during the transition to adolescence. Design Three years of self-reported adolescent noncompliance, perceived influence, and parenting democracy were gathered from 166 mothers and their firstborn children (55% female), ages 9 – 11 years at time 1. Results Longitudinal path analysis indicated a total effect between adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and higher maternal democracy. In addition, the total effect was mediated by mothers’ perceived influence, such that adolescents’ regulated noncompliance at time 1 was associated with greater perceptions of influence at time 2, which, in turn, was associated with greater maternal democracy at time 3. Conclusions Mothers with young adolescents who resist in a relatively mature, regulated manner tend to have more positive perceptions of their influence on their emerging adolescents’ behavior. In turn, mothers expecting to maintain their influence despite normative adolescent resistance are more likely to use democratic parenting strategies, granting their adolescents more input in decisions. PMID:22844228
Lussier, Gretchen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dunn, Judy; Davies, Lisa
There has been relatively little research on the role of grandparents as a source of support for children during and following their parents' marital transitions. In this study, we examined children's contact with and closeness to grandparents in different family types (i.e., two biological parents, single mother, stepparent). Participants included 155 children from the Avon Brothers and Sisters Study. Parent and child interviews and questionnaires regarding the children's relationships with maternal and paternal biological and stepgrandparents were examined. There were family type differences in rates of contact with grandparents as well as children's closeness to grandparents. Furthermore, children's and parents' view about these relationships with grandparents were modestly correlated, suggesting that children often held different views about their closeness to their grandparents than did their parents. Greater closeness to grandparents was associated with fewer adjustment problems.
Transitioning from elementary school to middle school can be a difficult time for many adolescents. It is a period often correlated with a decline in students' academic achievement, perceptions of performance, potential, and value in schooling. Research has shown evidence that parents' involvement in their children's education significantly…
Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.
An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…
Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G
Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hostetler, Andrew J.; Desrochers, Stephan; Kopko, Kimberly; Moen, Phyllis
This study uses individual- and couple-level analyses to examine the influence of work-family demands and community resources on marital and family satisfaction within a sample of dual-earner parents with dependent children (N = 260 couples, 520 individuals). Total couple work hours were strongly negatively associated with marital satisfaction for…
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....
Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Findler, Liora; Bendet, Chaya; Stanger, Varda; Ben-Shlomo, Shirley; Kuint, Jacob
Parenting twins is typically portrayed as more stressful than is parenting single children and, therefore, more of a strain on the marital relationship. With this in mind, the present study examined the contribution of infant characteristics and mother's internal resources (attachment style) and external resources (maternal and paternal grandmothers' perceived support) to their marital adaptation during the first month following delivery, comparing mothers of twins (n = 88) with mothers of singletons (n = 82). The findings indicate that both internal and external resources contribute to the marital adaptation of the two groups, even beyond the contribution of specific circumstances. Thus, it seems that the birth of twins and the birth of a single child are normative life events that have more in common than previously acknowledged. The implications for the focus of social work interventions, particularly in the case of the birth of twins, are discussed.
Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.
Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…
Discussion: The compiled parenting program is recommended to improve parental empowerment for the families of autistic children, because it is capable of reducing autistic symptoms in social interaction and relationships as well as improving marital adjustment in such families.
Based on the findings, the implications for counselling include organizing seminars and workshops by counsellors to teach women skills that will enhance positive marital attitudes, adoption of marital counselling programmes by employers of labour to assist women maintain desirable marital attitudes in order to promote ...
Halford, W. Kim; And Others
Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)
Videon, Tami M.
Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to investigate the effects of parental separation on adolescent delinquency and depression. Parent-adolescent relationship prior to marital dissolution moderated the effects of parental separation on adolescent delinquency. Opposite-sex parents had a significant influence on…
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Crossman, Kimberly A; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela
Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples' coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on coparenting quality (i.e., levels of support and conflict). In the overall sample, divorce and violence variables independently predicted coparenting quality. Mothers were then classified into three groups: no violence (NV; n = 74), situational couple violence (SCV; n = 46), or coercive controlling violence (CCV; n = 34). Of the 3, coparenting quality was lowest in the CCV group. While the SCV group was similar to the NV group on most divorce-related variables, the CCV group reported more hostility at separation and placed less importance on father-child relationships. Finally, patterns of association between study variables and coparenting quality showed some parallels between the SCV and NV groups. For CCV, postseparation harassment and fear were negatively associated with coparenting quality. Findings contribute to understanding predictors of coparenting quality and support the need for individualized assessments of divorce cases with attention to IPV dynamics. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…
Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda
Family systems theory was employed to study sibling relationships in 50 families with a child (ages 4-12) with autism. Typically developing siblings expressed satisfaction with their sibling relationships. Parents were somewhat less positive about the sibling relationships. Stress in the marital relationship was associated with compromised sibling…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir
The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…
Mannering, Anne M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Conger, Rand D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David
This study examined the longitudinal association between marital instability and child sleep problems at ages 9 and 18 months in 357 families with a genetically unrelated infant adopted at birth. This design eliminates shared genes as an explanation for similarities between parent and child. Structural equation modeling indicated that T1 marital…
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.
This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…
Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika
Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…
Engr E. Egbochukwu
marital stability on the basis of gender and length of years in marriage. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended, amongst others, that marriage ... now to work on the communication between husband and wife. ..... the critical value of 1.96. .... assume more active role in encouraging marital communication.
Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.
Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…
Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…
Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.
In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…
Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth - which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances - among first-time parents and to examine the…
Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.
This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser
There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples' unique transitional
Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser
addressing couples' unique transitional needs in marital life. PMID:25053956
Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Kalhori, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Reyhaneh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah
Infertile couples only think of having children during their sexual intercourse, and their constant concern about this issue increases their stress level. Psychosocial and social stress leads to decreased life satisfaction, increased marital problems, and reduced sexual confidence. This study aims to determine the effect of enrichment program on marital and sexual satisfaction as well as marital intimacy among infertile couples. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 infertile couples in 2013 in Hamedan. The marital relationship enrichment program was taught to the experimental group during seven 90 minutes sessions. Enrich marital satisfaction, Linda Berg sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy questionnaires were completed by both groups in 3 pretest steps immediately after the end of training sessions, and 8 weeks later. The results were analyzed in STATA11 software using t test, Chi-square, ANCOVA, RM-ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-hoc test. To check the data normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Pintimacy immediately after the test (P=0.04) and 8 weeks after the test (Pintimacy and also marital and sexual satisfaction in infertile couples (Registration Number: IRCT201604299014N97). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Harold, Gordon T; Shelton, Katherine H
Categories and continua of parents' marital conflict tactics based on multiple, conceptually grounded criteria were tested. Participants were 175 U.S. children, ages 8-16 years (88 boys, 87 girls) and 327 Welsh children, ages 11-12 years (159 boys, 168 girls). Children's responses (affective, cognitive, behavioral) to analog presentations of 10 everyday marital conflict tactics enacted by fathers or mothers showed substantial variation as a function of tactic used. Orderings of conflict tactics on the various response criteria varied as a function of moderators, particularly the gender of the parent expressing the conflict tactic. Conflict tactics were classified as either constructive or destructive according to criteria derived from the emotional security hypothesis. Except for calm discussion, classifications did not change regardless of cultural group, parent gender, or child age or gender. Recommendations for negotiating everyday marital conflict for the children's sake are discussed.
Wang, Meifang; Xing, Xiaopei; Zhao, Jinxia
The goal of this study was to examine the intergenerational patterns in the transmission of parental corporal punishment in China and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction (of the second generation: G2) and gender (of three generations: G1, G2 and G3) on these patterns. Six hundred thirty-five father-mother dyads with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this survey. The results provided evidence of cross-generational continuity in parental corporal punishment in Chinese society and also supported the hypothesis that same-gender continuity in parental corporal punishment is stronger than cross-gender continuity. Moreover, it was found that marital satisfaction moderated the transmission of parental corporal punishment, and there were some interesting gender differences in the moderator effect. Specifically, marital satisfaction buffered the transmission of corporal punishment from grandmothers to mothers of daughters and to fathers of sons but strengthened the transmission from grandfathers to fathers of sons. The findings broaden our understanding of the factors and processes that account for both discontinuity and continuity in parental corporal punishment, particularly within the Chinese cultural context.
Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William
This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.
Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu
Prospective associations of mothers’ parenting processes, youth disclosure and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a three year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and negatively related to problem behavior, and coercive parenting was negatively associated with youth disclosure and positively related to problem behavior. When the influence of olde...
Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME
Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...
Randall, Ashley K; Bodenmann, Guy
Stress is a concept that has received increased attention in marital research during the last decade, showing that it plays an important role in understanding the quality and stability of close relationships. Evidence suggests that stress is a threat to marital satisfaction and its longevity. Research has been based upon theoretical models of stress in close relationships, specifically family stress models [e.g., Hill, R. (1958). Generic features of families under stress. Social Casework, 39, 139-150.; McCubbin, H. I., & Patterson, J. M. (1983). Family transitions: Adaptation to stress. In H. I. McCubbin & C. R. Figley (Eds.), Stress and the family: Coping with normative transitions (Vol. 2, pp. 5-25). New York: Brunner/Mazel] and couple's stress model's proposed by Karney, Story, and Bradbury [Karney, B. R., Story, L. B., & Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Marriages in context: Interactions between chronic an acute stress among newlyweds. In T. A. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.), Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp.13-32). American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.] and Bodenmann [Bodenmann, G. (1995). A systemic-transactional conceptualization of stress and coping in couples. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 54, 34-49.; Bodenmann, G. (2005). Dyadic coping and its significant for marital functioning. In T. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.), Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp.33-50). American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.]. In this review we: (1) examine the various theoretical models of stress, (2) analyze and summarize the typologies relating to stress models (internal versus external, major versus minor, acute versus chronic), and (3) summarize findings from stress research in couples that has practical significance and may inspire clinical work. Future directions in research and clincial significance are suggested.
Yet what still remains uncertain is which factors account for the differing degrees of marital satisfaction and the fluctuations in the marital quality (e.g. marital conflict) that spouses experience over time. This study therefore sets out to investigate personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital satisfaction ...
Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences.
Lisa M. Dillon
Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.
Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...
Spitze, G D; Waite, L J
A causal model of changes in women's longrun tastes for paid employment was developed. It is based on the premise that women have a certain preference for market versus home work at the beginning of a year and that during the year some women experience a marital event, which may be a 1st marriage, a 1st birth, or the breakup of an existing marriage. This marital event may then cause some of the women experiencing it to revise their relative tastes for employment and work in the home. It is argued that changes in the level of such resources as time and money and changes in feelings of personal fulfillment that occur as a result of marriage, 1st birth, or divorce are responsible for alterations in market work preferences. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women were used to examine how women's relative preference for market work and home work are affected by the transitions of 1st marriage, marital dissolution, and 1st birth. This survey includes yearly data on over 5000 young women over a recent 5 year period. Personal interviews were conducted with a national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized female population age 14-24 in 1968, with yearly reinterviews through 1973. The impact of a 1st marriage during a year on preference for market work at the end of that year was consistently negative from ages 14 through 23. The likelihood that a young woman prefers market to home work at age 35 decreases from 10-20 percentage points upon 1st marriage. Women who first marry beyond age 24 experience no change in preferences for labor force participation. The positive impact of marital dissolution on a young woman's preference for labor force participation was substantial--between 18 and 29 percentage points--and tended to be higher the later it occurred. The experience of marital dissolution causes women to need to prepare for work. The results suggest that it also increases their desire to work. A 1st birth had no immediate impact but was followed
Aquilino, William S.
This research explored the influence of family structure on midlife parents' attitudes toward the economic support of adult children and measured change in those attitudes as their oldest child moved from adolescence to young adulthood. Results suggest that family structure has long-term effects on parents' attitudes toward financial obligations…
Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu
Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…
Bullis, Michael; And Others
Young adults (n=391) with and without deafness and their parents were interviewed 3-4 years after high school. Results indicated that parents and both groups of young people were relatively consistent in how they responded to the same questions, with more agreement in the agency assistance and community adjustment domains than in the high school…
Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.
Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…
Clegg, F J
Log linear analysis was used to investigate the relationships between spouse isonymy and parental isonymy, time, endogamy/exogamy and groom's occupation in a total of 6266 first marriages of parish-born spouses in the civil parishes of Harris, Barra and Stornoway, between 1855 and 1990. Stornoway was divided into rural and urban (Burgh) components. Spouse isonymy comprised between 6% and 12% of all marriages, parental isonymy was generally slightly more frequent, due probably to the occurrence of occasional families in which both sets of parents were isonymous. Between 38% and 51% of marriages were endogamous. In the multi-way contingency tables, good fits between observed and expected cell numbers were obtained by a simple model, comprising the main effect of spouse isonymy and the first-order interactions between spouse isonymy and the independent variables. Inspection of the coefficients showed that in all four populations spouse isonymy was positively related to parental isonymy (doubtfully so in the case of Barra). The other independent variables showed less clear-cut relationships--endogamy/exogamy in Barra, and groom's occupation in Stornoway Rural; time period showed no significant relationships. It is concluded that the occurrence of this 'two-generational marital isonymy' might have an effect on the breeding structure of the population.
Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J
Adolescence is a time of significant developmental change. During this period, levels of problem behavior that had been relatively innocuous may escalate in the company of peers, with simultaneous reductions in parental monitoring and involvement. In this article, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-centered, school-based intervention designed to forestall the escalation of adolescent problem behavior by promoting and motivating skillful parenting through the transition to high school. In this study, 593 ethnically diverse families were randomized to be offered the FCU when their youth were in seventh and eighth grades of middle school. We used complier average causal effect analysis to examine change in family conflict, antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use from sixth through ninth grades. Analyses revealed that when compared with a matched control group, youths whose parents had engaged in the FCU demonstrated significantly lower rates of growth in family conflict (p = .052), antisocial behavior, involvement with deviant peers, and alcohol use. Our results extend current research on the FCU and provide support for theory that links family conflict with a variety of youth problem behavior. These results and the extant research on the FCU suggest that traditional school-based service delivery models that focus on the individual child may benefit from a shift in perspective to engage parents and families. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances
Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.
Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…
Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.
Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…
Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N
Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spiritual health is the basis of family and community health. In marital relationships, several factors led to the satisfaction of wives from each other. In the meantime, the role of spirituality is crucial from surrounded on all aspects of human life. This study was performed with aim of analyzing the relationship between spiritual health with marital satisfaction and Comparison of them between men and women. METHODS: The sectional study was conducted on 341 married students of Medical Sciences in Azad University, Sari branch. Criterion variable (spiritual health and predictor variable (marital satisfaction were measured by standard questionnaires including Paloutzian & Ellison (1982 and Enrich(2000 with 5-item Likert scale with a minimum score of 1 (very low to maximum score of 5 (very high and also two groups of men and women were compared. FINDINGS: Spiritual health had direct and meaningful relationship with marital satisfaction (CI-95% R= 0.009.There was no difference of marital satisfaction in men with average of 3.36±0.35 and women with average of 3.44±0.43 (p=0.342 but, the spiritual health in men with average of 2.7±0.25 was more than women with average of 2.6±0.14 (p=0.000. CONCLUSION: According the results, there was no difference of marital satisfaction in man and woman but, the spiritual health in men was more than women. Marital satisfaction had increased by increasing spiritual health in men and women students.
Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work
van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.
This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher
Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.
Drawing on a uniquely large number of items on marital quality, this study explores the determinants of marital quality in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Marital quality is measured with five dimensions identified through exploratory factor analysis, including satisfaction, communication, togetherness, problems, and disagreements. Gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as the most important determinants of these dimensions of marital quality. Specifically, men, those with more schooling, and those who participated in the choice of their spouse have higher levels of marital quality. By contrast, caste, occupation, age at marriage, marital duration, and number of children have little to no association with marital quality. While gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as key determinants of marital quality in this context, the majority of variation in marital quality remains unexplained. PMID:23146598
Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.
Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H
This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.
... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...
... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or... students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not...
Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.
Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom
When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.
Daniel J. Kruger
Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.
Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T
The effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment are well documented. For the past decade research has increasingly focused on advancing a process-level understanding of these effects, that is, accounting for the particular responses and patterns embedded within specific contexts, histories, and developmental periods that account for children's outcomes over time. As a vehicle for presenting an update, this review follows the framework for process-oriented research initially proposed by Cummings and Cummings (1988), concentrating on recent research developments, and also considering new and emerging themes in this area of research. In this regard, areas of advancement include (a) greater articulation of the effects of specific context/stimulus characteristics of marital conflict, (b) progress in identifying the psychological response processes in children (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, physiological) that are affected and their possible role in accounting for relations between marital conflict and child outcomes, (c) greater understanding of the role of child characteristics, family history, and other contextual factors, including effects on children due to interrelations between marital conflict and parenting, and (d) advances in the conceptualization of children's outcomes, including that effects may be more productively viewed as dynamic processes of functioning rather than simply clinical diagnoses. Understanding of the impact of marital conflict on children as a function of time-related processes remains a gap in a process-oriented conceptualization of effects. Based on this review, a revised model for a process-oriented approach on the effects of marital discord on children is proposed and suggestions are made for future research directions.
Aquilino, William S.
Examined longitudinal data from a national survey to explore continuity and change in parent-child relations as children become adults. Results support a social learning view where past relationship patterns persist when families enter a new life stage. The effects of earlier patterns of interaction on later relations proved modest. (RJM)
Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 they reported on lower order child personality facets and on their parenting. By means of growth mixture modeling, three developmental trajectories were identified for anxious symptoms: steady low (82%), moderate increasing-decreasing (5.9%), and high declining groups (12.1%). For depressive symptoms, two developmental trajectories were found: steady low (94.1%) and moderate increasing groups (5.9%). Higher shyness, irritability, and altruism predicted membership in more problematic anxious and depressive groups. The personality facets energy, optimism, compliance, and anxiety were unique predictors for class membership for anxious symptoms, and the effects of shyness, irritability, and compliance were moderated by overreactive parenting. Shyness and irritability increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing anxiety trajectory, but only in the context of high or average levels of overreactive parenting. Compliance increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing and high decreasing trajectories in the context of high overreactive parenting. Our results indicate that childhood personality facets differentiate trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms in theoretically compelling ways.
Hines, Alice M.
Reports on a literature review of adolescent development, family relationships, and the impact of divorce on adolescents. Results reveal that adolescents experience divorce differently than younger children and that a positive parent-adolescent relationship can ameliorate a divorce's negative effects. Identifies major gaps in the literature,…
Emotional Intelligence Scale, Subjective-happiness Scale, Adult Trait-hope Scale and the Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect data from the participants. Statistical analysis involved the use of Simple Linear and Standard Multiple regression. Findings indicated that, emotional intelligence did not have a significant ...
Byrne, Christina A.; And Others
Recent qualitative investigations of abusive men have indicated that power and control of the wife are central themes in incidents of marital violence. Furthermore, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that abusive husbands hold more traditional sex-role stereotypes, are more possessive and jealous, and are more controlling than nonabusive…
McDonald, Gerald W.
Although the experience of jealously is among the most common of experiences in intimate relationships, little theoretical or empirical work has been done from a sociologial perspective to increase our understanding of this aspect of male-female relationships. An investigation of marital jealousy as a sociological rather than a psychological…
Toro, Paul A.; Zax, Melvin
Although few people bring their psychological problems to mental health professionals, research in the area of 'natural' help is rudimentary. To investigate the process and effectiveness of natural professional groups in helping individuals experiencing marital disruption, 42 helpers (14 mental health professionals, 14 divorce lawyers, and 14…
This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.
One of the foremost tasks of young people contemplating marriage is the discovery of their basic selfhood and their continued growth as people; this is the first goal in pre-marital counseliling. (Author)
Wachowiak, Dale G.; Barret, Robert L.
One- and two-career married couples, though existing on comparable total family incomes, may be experiencing very different marital situations. The marital agreements of one- and two-career couples were compared to examine the relationship between marital adjustment and the one- versus two-career situation. Married college students and their…
Wills, Robert M.; Snyder, Douglas K.
Describes the clinical use of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI), a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Two case studies of couples in marital therapy are presented. The MSI is presented as a cost-efficient procedure, permitting objective assessment across multiple areas of a couple's relationship. (Author/JAC)
Berg, Phyllis; Snyder, Douglas K.
The Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) is a potential instrument for differentiating couples with specific sexual distress from those with more general marital complaints. Couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of dissatisfaction with their sexual relationship and couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of generalized marital distress…
Kulauzov Maša M.
Full Text Available Proposed amendments to the article 130 of Serbian Civil Code (henceforth: SCC of 1844 regarding establishment of non-marital paternity were scrutinized in this paper. Originally, establishment of non-marital paternity was granted, but with significant restriction that presumed parent could have been declared the father of an illegitimate child only if he had recognized paternity. That is the reason why in 1855 the Supreme Court suggested amendment to the provision concerning determination of paternity. According to proposed modification, evidence that presumed father was on intimate terms with child's mother in the time of conception should have been sufficient for establishment of paternity. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, the Ministry of Justice, the State Council and Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević were not interested in bettering their position by widening possibilities of determination of fatherhood. Subsequently, in 1868 the amendment was passed by which non-marital paternity could not have been established by a court order, subject to certain exceptions (if one raped or abducted a woman, and the time of conception coincided with the time of abduction or rape. Since 1868 paternity could have been determined solely subject to the consent, i.e. recognition of the illegitimate father.
Full Text Available One of the health issues related to patients suffering from cancer is paying attention to mental health of the patients and their families. This research was carried out to determine the effect of teaching marital life skills for mastectomy women in the increase of marital satisfaction of this group of patients as well as its direct effect on their spouses’ satisfaction. This was a quasi-experimental research designed as pretest/posttest with random assignment and control group. 22 women suffering from breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy, treated by radiotherapy and having marital satisfaction lower than the moderate level based on the short form (40-question of the ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication and happiness questionnaire were selected via purposive sampling and divided into experimental and control groups using random assignment. The pretest was carried out on experimental and control groups and the husbands. The intervention was performed during 12 didactic sessions, two a week, for women of the experimental group in the absence of their husbands. Results indicated that the mean score of marital satisfaction in mastectomy women and their husbands in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion, the combined intervention method used in this research was effective in increasing marital satisfaction of mastectomy women, and had also a positive effect on their husbands’ marital satisfaction.
Petrovic, Marija; Vasic, Vladimir; Petrovic, Oliver; Santric-Milicevic, Milena
To identify potential predictors of using only non-violent forms of discipline for children aged 2-14 years and of being against physical punishment among Roma and non-Roma parents/caregivers in Eastern European countries with similar cultural-historical backgrounds. UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2010-2011 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia (total of 9973 respondents) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression modelling with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Approximately 27 % of the respondents practiced only non-violent child discipline. Roma children experienced only non-violent discipline less than half as often as their non-Roma counterparts. Household wealth index and child sex were significant predictors of positive parenting attitudes and practice. For Roma respondents, rural residence also contributed to being against physical punishment. Parents\\caregivers from more affluent households are more likely than those who are less affluent to be against physical punishment of children and are more likely to practice only non-violent discipline. Evidence-based interventions are required to support existing positive forms of child rearing. These should target less affluent households from Roma settlements in the studied countries.
Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…
Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal
Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…
Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang
We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063
Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A
Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.
Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew
The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved
Power, C; Rodgers, B; Hope, S
To investigate why alcohol consumption varies by marital status, assessing (i) differences in heavy consumption prior to changes in marital status (indicating selection) and increases or decreases in heavy consumption associated with changes in marital status (indicating causation), (ii) whether such increases or decreases are transient, and (iii) the possible mediating effect of parental status. Longitudinal cohort. Great Britain. Data from the 23- and 33-year surveys of the 1958 British birth cohort (all born in England, Wales and Scotland, 3-9 March 1958). Heavy drinking, defined as more than 35 (men) and 20 (women) units/week; changes between ages 23 and 33 in consumption and marital status. The divorced had the highest consumption levels at both ages, the married had the lowest. Selection effects were minimal in both sexes. Overall, heavy drinking declined between ages 23 and 33 (21.4-13.0% in men, 6.4-3.4% in women), but increased among individuals who divorced, compared to the continuously married (adjusted OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.49, 2.83 for men; OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.67, 4.09 for women), most strikingly for recent divorces (adjusted OR = 4.97, 95% CI = 2.86, 8.57 and OR = 5.25, 95% CI = 2.60, 10.65). High rates of heavy drinking persisted for never married men (19.1%) and women (5.2%). The heavy drinking level of divorced young adults was not due to selection. Marital separation was accompanied by increases in heavy drinking, with pronounced short-term effects. Adverse alcohol-related health consequences may occur in the immediate period around divorce. Individuals who never marry appear to have a chronic heavy consumption pattern that may contribute to their increased mortality.
Williams, S E; Freer, C A
The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between marital satisfaction and knowledge of aphasia of the spouse of a stroke patient. Other factors such as the severity of the aphasia, length of time poststroke, and length of marriage were also examined. The subjects, 16 spouses of aphasic patients, were grouped according to severity of the aphasia (mild, moderate, severe). Spouses completed a Knowledge of Aphasia questionnaire and pre/poststroke forms of a Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). The questionnaire measured spouse understanding of aphasia, while the MSS examined changes in spouse attitudes toward their marriages after the patients became aphasic. Neither spouses' knowledge of aphasia nor its severity was related to their marital satisfaction. However, there was a significant negative change between the pre/poststroke MSS scores. Spouses of mildly impaired patients were less knowledgeable about aphasia than were those of severely impaired patients. Results are discussed in terms of the counseling needs of families of aphasic patients.
There was significant interaction of adolescent impulsivity, authoritative parenting and marital satisfaction on parent-adolescent conflict. The results as well revealed that authoritarian parenting is significantly related to parent-adolescent conflict. It is therefore suggested that a good conflict management mechanism be put in ...
Full Text Available Background & aim: The issue of marital infidelity is considered as an increasing concern in our society, which is associated with instability in relationships and high rate of divorce.The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of marital adjustment and the quality of love in the applicants with a history of divorce and marital infidelity. Methods: In this qualification-analytical, cross-sectional study performed in 2012 in the Fars welfare organization, 90 people were selected by available sampling and classified into three groups with a history of marital infidelity and divorce, divorce without a history of marital infidelity and controls. Three individual groups completed the Inventory Adjustment Scale and Sternberg's love triangle. Subjects with a history of marital infidelity completed questionnaires of regarding love triangle scale again regarding upon their marital relationship. Data were analyzed by dependent t-test and ANOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed among divorce group and various aspects of marital love triangle (P<0/001.Results also revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with and without marital infidelity, from the view point of intimacy, passion and anxiousness, commitment, and decision in relationship (P<0/001. Investigating the quality of love in individuals with marital infidelity showed differences in all aspects of Sternberg`s love triangle in relationship with wife and ultra-marital relationships (P<0/001. Conclusion: Marital incompatibility alone is not a strong reason for marital infidelity in hard conditions of life and according to the research’s results. The most significant factor in attracting for ultra- marital relationship and the quality of the relationship and love between couples were the quality of the relationship and love between couples.
Starling, B P; Martin, A C
Marital conflict and divorce are prevalent in our society, and patients frequently ask family physicians to assist them with marital difficulties. These difficulties are often associated with a decline in health, resulting in additional stress to the marital unit. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "family medicine," "marital therapy," "marital counseling," "brief psychotherapy," and "short-term psychotherapy." The bibliographies of generated articles were searched for additional references. The authors used the resources of their individual behavioral science libraries, as well as their clinical experiences. With adequate training, many family physicians can include marital counseling skills in their clinical repertoires. Family life cycle theory provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and also guides the family physician in recommending strategies to improve marital satisfaction. The physician's role is twofold: (1) to identify couples in crisis, and (2) to provide preventive strategies geared to assist couples in achieving pre-crisis equilibrium or higher levels of functioning. For physicians whose practices do not include marital counseling, an understanding of the basic techniques can be beneficial in effectively referring appropriate couples for marital therapy.
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R
Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.
Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...
Chen, Eva Yi-Ju; Enright, Robert D; Tung, Eli Yi-Liang
The present study discusses the impact of union and parenthood transitions on individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery development from midadolescence to young adulthood by using multilevel analyses with longitudinal data of 7,339 individuals between ages 15 and 38. The results show that, first, individuals in marital unions show significantly greater rates of growth in self-esteem and sense of mastery, compared with singles. Therefore, entering into marriage provides greater protections to individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery. Second, the transition to parenthood brings significant decreases in levels and increases in rates of change in self-esteem and sense of mastery among new parents. The degree of the aforementioned changes differs by new parents' gender, union status, and living arrangement with the child at childbirth. Women are influenced more negatively than men. Living with the child at childbirth reduces the degree of decreases in self-esteem and sense of mastery, especially for mothers. In sum, from midadolescence to young adulthood, the development of individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery is shaped by their union and parenthood transitions. Moreover, the context where these transitions take place, including the type of union and the living arrangement, moderates the degree of the impact. Our findings have important implications for research and practice in promoting the family transition experience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults
Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E
Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.
Waring, Edward M.; And Others
Evaluated effectiveness of marital therapy designed to enhance intimacy through self-disclosure of personal constructs. Couples in therapy (n=22) and controls (n=19) showed significant reduction in symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Couples in therapy subjectively reported improvement. Found significant pattern of improvement for wives in…
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Research has shown that coparenting is a vital family mechanism in predicting mental health in children and adolescents. Considering the increasing prevalence of marital dissolution in Western societies, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the key results of empirical studies that tested the association between mental health of children and coparenting after marital dissolution. Data source: The studies were obtained from three databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge, published between January 2000 and October 2014. The titles, abstracts, and key words of the generated citations were independently reviewed by two investigators to consensually select the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Articles that used psychometrically valid tools to measure at least one mental health indicator and at least one dimension of coparenting in samples with divorced parents were included in the review. Data synthesis: Of the 933 screened articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Significant positive associations were found between coparental conflict and behavioral problems and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. Significant positive associations were also found between other specific dimensions of coparenting (coparental support, cooperation, and agreement, overall mental health, self-esteem, and academic performance. Conclusions: The integrated analysis of these studies suggests that coparenting is a key mechanism within the family system for the prediction of child mental health after marital dissolution, and thus, it is recommended that pediatricians, psychologists, and other health professionals consider coparenting as a psychosocial variable for children's mental health assessment and diagnosis.
Maranges, Heather M; McNulty, James K
Remaining satisfied with a relationship often requires thinking in ways that use self-regulatory resources-satisfied couples discount undesirable experiences when forming global evaluations of the relationship. Nevertheless, recent work indicates that the self-regulatory resources required to engage in these processes are limited. Although consuming new energy may be one way to replenish these limited resources, sleep is another. The current study used a daily diary study of 68 newlywed couples to examine the implications of sleep for daily marital evaluations. Every day for up to 7 days, both members of the couples reported their evaluations of their interpersonal specific experiences, global relationship satisfaction, and amount of sleep. Multilevel analysis revealed that spouses were more satisfied on days after which they had slept for a longer period of time. Furthermore, sleep also buffered husbands', but not wives', marital satisfaction against the implications of negative specific evaluations-husbands were better able to remain more globally satisfied despite negative evaluations of specific aspects of the relationship on days following more sleep. These findings suggest that sleep may offer self-regulatory benefits and should thus be incorporated into existing interpersonal models that highlight the importance of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Liu, Xiaodong
Research has documented that parenting practices, such as parental warmth and parental punishment, play a mediating role in linking individual (e.g., age, gender) and familial characteristics (e.g., economic status, marital quality) to the psychological well-being of children. However, few studies have validated these connections with respect to…
Shufeit, Lawrence J.; Wurster, Stanley R.
Seventy-six parents of handicapped children were surveyed to compare the frequency of divorce in the sample population to that of the U.S. population. A research review revealed that the first-born child causes extensive to severe crises in the parents' marital relationship; that the presence of a child with a handicapping condition causes a…
Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla
This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…
Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R
Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…
Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss
Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…
Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.
Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.
Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…
Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.
Larson, Jeffry H.; And Others
Examined relationship between perceived stress resulting from job insecurity and marital and family functioning. Data from 111 married couples in which at least 1 spouse was working in insecure job environment showed that job insecurity stress was related in systematic way to marital and family dysfunction and number of family problems reported.…
Qumran, Jubilees) texts, this article outlines the marital concepts existing in the NT environment. In this context, the reciprocal community and the duration of the marital relationship are emphasized while sexuality remains wholly limited to reproduction. The core of the article offers a concrete analysis of texts from the Corpus ...
Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan
Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…
Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.
This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a
Greenstein, Theodore N.
A study of 3,284 married women hypothesizes that nontraditional working women are more likely to experience marital disruption than traditional working women. Number of hours of paid employment per week was negatively related to marital stability for women holding nontraditional gender ideologies but not for women with traditional views. (JPS)
The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...
Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.
We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569
Papp, Lauren M; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark
The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw.
Oggins, J; Veroff, J; Leber, D
Perceptions of marital interactions were gathered from a representative sample of urban newlywed couples (199 Black and 174 White). A factor analysis of the reports found 6 factors common to husbands and wives: Disclosing Communication, Affective Affirmation, Negative Sexual Interaction, Traditional Role Regulation, Destructive Conflict, and Constructive Conflict. Avoiding Conflict was specific to men and Positive Coorientation was specific to women. Wives reported fewer constructive and more destructive conflict behaviors. Compared with Whites, Blacks reported more disclosure, more positive sexual interactions, and fewer topics of disagreement. They also more often reported leaving the scene of conflict and talking with others more easily than with the spouse. As hypothesized, perceptions that marital interactions affirm one's sense of identity strongly predicted marital well-being. Although regression analyses predicting marital happiness yielded few interactions with race or gender, those that are significant, coupled with race and gender differences in perceiving interaction, suggest taking a contextual orientation to the meaning of marital interaction.
Coyne, James C; Thompson, Richard; Palmer, Steven C
This study compared three groups of women--outpatient depressed, inpatient depressed, and community control--and their husbands on a range of variables including marital functioning and styles of coping with conflict. Outpatient depressed couples reported greater marital distress and more destructive and less constructive tactics for resolving conflict than did community control couples. They also were more likely to have been previously married and to express regrets about having married their current husbands. There were smaller and less consistent differences for couples with inpatient depressed spouses, although inpatient couples with younger wives were similar to outpatient depressed couples. Both groups of depressed women and their husbands reported fewer expressions of affection and more complaints about the marriage than did control couples. Results are discussed in terms of interpersonal perspectives on depression.
Pratt, Michael W.; And Others
Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)
Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah
Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Although socioemotional competencies have been identified as key components of youths’ positive development, most studies on empathy are cross-sectional, and research on the role of the family has focused almost exclusively on parental socialization. This study examined the developmental course of empathy from age 7 to 14 and the within-person associations between sibling warmth and conflict and youths’ empathy. On three occasions across 2 years, mothers, fathers, and the two eldest siblings from 201 White, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire data. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for youths’ pubertal status and parental education, girls’ empathy increased during the transition to adolescence and then leveled off, but boys’ lower levels of empathy remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, controlling for parental responsiveness and marital love, at times when firstborns and second-borns reported more sibling warmth and less sibling conflict than usual, they also reported more empathy than usual. The within-person association between sibling warmth and empathy also became stronger over time. Findings highlight gender differences in empathy development and the unique role of siblings in shaping each other’s socioemotional characteristics during adolescence. PMID:22714744
Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M
To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.
Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.
George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T
Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simonelli, Alessandra; Parolin, Micol; Sacchi, Chiara; De Palo, Francesca; Vieno, Alessio
The study aims to investigate the development of family interactions from pregnancy to preschool age in a longitudinal perspective, using multilevel analysis. Also, it explored the impact of couple relationship and father involvement in childcare on the developmental trend of the quality of mother-father-child interactions. One hundred and three primiparous families were assessed at 7th month of pregnancy, 4th, 9th, and 18th months of child's life and during preschool age (36-48th), using the observational procedure named, Lausanne Trilogue Play. Parents' perception of marital satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale at each point of measure; moreover, in the postnatal assessment, parents completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Results showed that family interactions increase over time. Secondly, a decrease of marital adjustment is associated with an improvement of the quality of family interactions. Moreover, father involvement predicts the quality of family interactions from the earliest stages of child's life. In a longitudinal perspective, family interactions and marital quality show opposite developmental trends and father's involvement represents a particularly important feature of the family.
Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.
Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…
Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António
We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...
Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 216 subjects from 108 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Ways of Coping Checklist. The results confirm the presence of a relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment in men and women. High self-esteem and marital adjustment are associated with the use of problem solving strategies and less avoidance as a way of coping. Moreover, cross analyses reveal that one’s feelings of self-worth are associated with his/her spouse's marital adjustment. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y
The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.
Ekaterina Sergeevna Novitskaya
Full Text Available The article examines the importance of emotional understanding of parents child’s readiness for school. The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of parental influence perceptions about the emotional readiness of children to the actual level of emotional readiness of the child. An experimental study was conducted comparing the methods, testing, questionnaires, observations, interviews, expert assessments, Longitude. We compared the performance of emotional readiness of children in the preparatory group of the kindergarten and the beginning of the school year in first grade. The study revealed that parents consider the emotional readiness primarily in the structure of the psychological readiness; representations of parents about the emotional readiness to occupy the last place among the other groups of ideas. Weak concrete definition of representations of parents about the emotional school readiness issues contributes to the emotional sphere of the child at an early stage of learning in first grade.
Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier
The rise in the divorce rate over the past 40 years is one of the fundamental changes in American society. A seemingly ever-increasing number of women and children spend some fraction of their life in single female-headed households, leading many to be concerned about the economic circumstances of these women their and children. Estimating the cause-to-effect relationship between marital dissolution and female economic status is complicated because the same factors that increase marital insta...
Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark
The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that con...
Caesar, P L
This study examined violence in the families-of-origin among wife assaulters and maritally nonviolent men. Participants were 26 wife abusers and 18 nonviolent men in therapy. Early exposure to marital violence and child abuse was assessed through interviews that were coded both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that batterers were more likely than comparison subjects to have been abused as children, to have witnessed their father beating their mother, and to have been disciplined as children with corporal punishment. Fathers were no more likely than mothers to have abused the men. There were no differences between groups in reports of parental child abuse toward siblings of the men. Differences between groups in exposure to violence were studied to explain why men who grew up in violent homes were not abusive toward their spouses. Socioeconomic status and family dynamics were examined to explain the results.
Seyed Esmael Mosavi
Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction using a classical questionnaire. The study chooses all people aged 25-35 who live in region 10 of the city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study splits the main hypothesis into five detailed questions, which considers the relationship between marital satisfaction with five other components including emotional instability, return emotional, social maladjustment, close character and lack of independence. The results indicate a negative correlation between marital satisfaction and these items and t-student confirmed that there are meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional instability, return emotional, close character and lack of independence but there is no meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and social maladjustment. In summary, the survey concluded that there is meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional maturity.
Waring, E M; Patton, D; Neron, C A; Linker, W
Epidemiological research has demonstrated that married individuals generally experience better emotional health than the single, divorced and widowed. The married populations in these studies were not evaluated on the basis of the quality of their marital relationships. Research on the interpersonal quality of marital relationships in the general married population has rarely been reported in the psychiatric literature. A sample of the general married population (n = 250 couples) completed a self-report questionnaire which measures the quality and the quantity of intimacy in marriage. Four types of marital patterns were operationally defined by total intimacy score, pattern of scale profile, and social desirability scores. The relative frequencies of these types of marriages are reported. The prevalence of symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness in one or both spouses in the four categories of marriage is reported. Thirty-one percent (31%) of the couples report marriages with absent and/or deficient intimacy. Couples with "absent and/or deficient" marital intimacy had a significantly higher proportion of spouses with symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness. This study suggests that previous research may have confounded the variables of marital status and marital quality in the study of psychiatric disorder. These studies may have under-estimated the positive effect of an "optimally" intimate relationship.
Full Text Available Marriage is defined as a social, religious and legal community of a husband and wife, and the quality of this relationship is very important for spouses, children and the society in the widest sense. According to the definition of marriage itself it is clear that a suitable gender ideology and the attitudes towards native roles have the significant role in many aspects of the marital and family dynamics. What is more, it is considered that native roles have the leading role in the determination of the quality of marital relations by determining what people expect from their partners and marriage. The role of women and the attitudes towards their role have undergone many changes in the last few decades under the influence of particular social changes, primarily thanks to the higher employment rate of women, and consequently different gender division of labor between men and women, both at work and in families. This paper analyses how the employment of women and the change in the traditional division of labor influence the quality of marital relationships. First of all, we have indicated the significant positive, as well as negative implications which the change in the marital division of labor has to the quality of marital relations. In the end, we have tried to point out that the adopted gender ideology, traditional or egalitarian/feminist acts as an important and essential mediator in the relation between the division of labor and perceived quality of marital relationship.
Tang, Catherine So-kum
This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children, marital satisfaction, perceived social support, evaluation of child problem behaviors, and reactions to conflicts with children. Descriptive statistics, analyses of variances, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of parent-to-child physical aggression were 57.5% for corporal punishment and 4.5% for physical maltreatment. Mothers as compared to fathers reported higher rates and more frequent use of corporal punishment on their children, but this parental gender effect was insignificant among older parents and those with adolescent children. Boys as compared to girls were more likely to experience higher rates and more frequent parental corporal punishment, especially in middle childhood at aged 5-12. Furthermore, parents perpetrated more frequent physical maltreatment on younger as compared to older children. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that significant correlates of parental corporal punishment were: children's young age, male gender, and externalizing behaviors as well as parents' young age, non-employment, and marital dissatisfaction. For parent-to-child physical maltreatment, significant correlates were externalizing behaviors of children and parental marital dissatisfaction. Hong Kong Chinese parents commonly used corporal punishment on their children, which was associated with characteristics of children, parents, and family.
Bornovalova, Marina A; Blazei, Ryan; Malone, Stephen H; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
A number of familial risk factors for childhood disruptive disorders have been identified. However, many of these risk factors often co-occur with parental antisociality, which by itself may account for both the familial risk factors and the increased likelihood of offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). The current study aimed to examine the association of parenting behaviors, marital conflict, and divorce with child DBDs while accounting for (a) coparent parenting behaviors, and (b) parental adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A series of regressions tested the association between family-level variables (namely, parent-child relationship quality, parental willingness to use physical punishment, marital adjustment, and history of divorce) and DBDs (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) alone and after statistically adjusting for coparent variables and parental AAB. Results indicated that parents with AAB were more likely to engage in various forms of maladaptive parenting, to divorce, and to have conflictual marriages. Maladaptive parenting, marital conflict, and divorce were associated with heightened rates of child DBDs, and these associations persisted after adjusting for coparent parenting and parental AAB. Finally, the mother's parenting behaviors had a higher impact on child DBDs than the father's parenting behaviors. Thus, familial variables continue to have an effect on childhood DBDs even after accounting for confounding influences. These variables should be a focus of research on etiology and intervention.
Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.
Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…
Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L
Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD
Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.
Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.
Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as
Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as
Radl, Jonas; Himmelreicher, Ralf K
This article analyzes the impact of marital status and spousal employment on the timing of retirement in Germany and Spain. Retirement behavior is examined by means of event-history models, with a competing risks framework being used to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary work-exit transitions. To take account of the role of social policies, we adopt a comparative approach. Data are drawn from a 2006 special retirement module implemented analogously in national labor force surveys. The results show that spousal labor market participation plays a large role in work-exit transitions, even when retirement is involuntary. This finding questions the widespread belief that coretirement is exclusively due to preference for joint retirement shared among spouses. Moreover, widows and widowers tend to retire prematurely in Germany, whereas no such effect could be found in Spain. This finding is explained by reference to specific economic incentives arising from national pension legislation. © The Author(s) 2014.
DuBose, Cheryl; Barymon, Deanna; Vanderford, Virginia; Hensley, Chad; Shaver, Gary
A new generation of students is in the classroom, and they are not always alone. Helicopter parents, those who hover around the student and attempt to ease life's challenges, are accompanying the students to radiologic science programs across the nation. To determine radiologic science students' perception regarding their parents' level of involvement in their lives. A survey focused on student perceptions of parental involvement inside and outside of the academic setting was completed by 121 radiologic science students at 4 institutional settings. The analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationships between student sex, age, marital status, and perceived level of parental involvement. In addition, as financial support increases, students' perception of the level of parental involvement also increases. Radiologic science students want their parents to be involved in their higher education decisions. Research indicates that students with involved parents are more successful, and faculty should be prepared for increased parental involvement in the future. Radiologic science students perceive their parents to be involved in their academic careers. Ninety-five percent of respondents believe that the financial support of their parent or parents contributes to their academic success. Sixty-five percent of participants are content with their parents' current level of involvement, while 11% wish their parents were more involved in their academic careers.
Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…
Mitchell, Darcy B; Szczerepa, Alexandra; Hauser-Cram, Penny
Family cohesion relates to positive outcomes for both parents and children. Maintaining cohesion may be especially challenging for families of adolescents with developmental disabilities, yet this has been studied infrequently in this group. We investigated cohesion in these families, particularly with respect to partner stress, using the notion of the 'spillover effect' as a model. Adolescents with disabilities and their parents participated. Parents reported on teen adaptive and problem behaviours and on marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and family cohesion. The stress of one partner was tested as a predictor of the quality of family cohesion reported by the other. Adolescent behaviour problems were negative predictors of family cohesion in mothers, and marital satisfaction positively predicted cohesion for both parents. Above other factors, greater partner stress predicted poorer family cohesion for both fathers and mothers. Marital satisfaction acted as a suppressor of this relation. To improve the overall climate of families, care providers should take into consideration individual relationships, including the marital relationship. In addition, the possibility of spillover from one individual to another should be recognized as a factor in family functioning. Family-centred practices are likely to lead to greater feelings of cohesion and overall better individual and family well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young children's perceptions of their parents have been shown to affect responses to parents, and to be relevant in personality development and self-esteem. Typically, research examining children's perceptions of their parents focused on children from intact families. Yet, with the frequent occurrence of divorce in our society, and the trauma and lifestyle changes often associated with marital dissolution, it is possible that children's perceptions of their parents may also change. This ...
Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul
Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.
Seyed Abdolmajid Bahrainian
Full Text Available Objectives: This research studied and compared marital satisfaction level of the women who have infertility problem with those who does not have this problem. Methods: Totally 180 persons participated (90 infertile women and 90 fertile women were participated in this study. Participants were comprised of those referring to 3 Tehran city infertility centers. For data gathering in this research, the constructed questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfactions questionnaire have been used. Data analysis has been done with use of two independent t-tests and one way variance analysis has been done. Results: Results showed significant difference in satisfaction level of the fertile and infertile women, while, our research hypotheses were not confirmed in this regard by studying factors effective on marital satisfaction of the infertile women. The number of unsuccessful pregnancies whether in fertile women or infertile women didn’t have considerable effect on the marital satisfaction, while, effect of this factor on marital satisfaction level of the infertile women was higher than that on the fertile women. Discussion: Generally, by inclusion of limitations in this plan, it is impossible to generalize the present research results with difficulty, though it is inevitable to emphasize on negative consequences of the spouses' life and it is important to pay attention to its different dimensions.
اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد
Full Text Available Due to the economic, social and cultural changes in recent decades and consequently alterations in the form and duties of families and expectations of individuals from marriage, the institution of the family and marriage are enormously involved with different challenges and conflicts in comparison to past years. Fragile marital relationships, conflicts and divorce are results of such situations in Iran. Accordingly, the present study, which is designed through meta-analysis and deduction based on the concept analysis and reconceptualization of recent studies, has committed to manifest a proper different paradigm to explain marital conflicts. This paradigm is relying on various theoretical approaches, particularly the theory of symbolic interactionism as the main explanatory mean, and also applying the concept of “Marital Paradigm” as the missing information in previous studies of this field. It explains the marital conflicts between couples as paradigmatic conflicts; and its main idea is that marital conflict is not the result of one or more fixed and specified factors, but it is the production of encountering the opposing (or different paradigms.
Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W
Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.
Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061
Croft, Lindsay; Sorkin, John; Gallicchio, Lisa
There are an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, but their psychosocial and supportive care needs are not well-understood. Recent work has found marital status, social support, and optimism to be associated with quality of life, but little research has been conducted to understand how these factors relate to one another. Survey data from 722 breast cancer survivors were analyzed to estimate the association between marital status and optimism score, as measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship of marital status and optimism, controlling for potential confounding variables and assessing effect modification. The results showed that the association between marital status and optimism was modified by time since breast cancer diagnosis. Specifically, in those most recently diagnosed (within 5 years), married breast cancer survivors had a 1.50 higher mean optimism score than unmarried survivors (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 2.62; p = 0.009). The difference in optimism score by marital status was not present more than 5 years from breast cancer diagnosis. Findings suggest that among breast cancer survivors within 5 years since diagnosis, those who are married have higher optimism scores than their unmarried counterparts; this association was not observed among longer-term breast cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether the difference in optimism score among this subgroup of breast cancer survivors is clinically relevant.
Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Pang, See-Tong; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Liu, Hsueh-Erh
To determine the individual and mutual predictors of the marital satisfaction of couples in which the husband experienced prostate cancer. Marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer has been insufficiently studied in Asian countries as compared with Western countries. This study used a prospective and repeated-measures design. Seventy Taiwanese couples in which the husband had prostate cancer completed measures at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Assessments of physical symptoms, marital satisfaction, coping behaviour and psychological distress were made. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. The marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer and that of their spouses were significantly correlated. At 6 months, spouses' marital satisfaction, patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat and patients' serum prostate-specific antigen levels were found to be the predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Furthermore, patients' marital satisfaction and their spouses' psychological distress were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 12 months, spouses' marital satisfaction and patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as harm were predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Finally, spouses' marital satisfaction (at 6 months) and appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 6 months post-treatment, patients' and spouses' marital satisfaction will influence each other. However, at 12 months, patients' marital satisfaction exerts an insignificant effect on spouses' marital satisfaction. Moreover, patients' serum prostate-specific antigen level or the negative appraisal of prostate cancer affects their marital satisfaction. Spouses' marital satisfaction is affected by psychological distress and their negative appraisal of prostate cancer. The results can be used to develop interventions for prostate cancer couples. Such an intervention can be used to modify couples
Israr Syed M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression among women is common in developing countries. Gender inequality can contribute to women's risk for depression. Lack of reproductive and sexual rights is an important marker of gender inequality and women do not have the freedom to express their reproductive and sexual needs in many parts of the world. Therefore we designed this study to determine the association of depression with lack of various reproductive rights and domestic violence among married women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A case-control study with 152 cases and 152 controls, which included women 15-48 years, recruited from two teaching hospitals from 1st June 2007 through 31st August 2007. The SRQ was administered to all subjects. A cut off score of 8 was used to confirm cases of depression diagnosed by physicians, and to exclude cases of depression from the controls. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the risk factors. Results 61% of the cases and 43% of the controls were ever abused by spouse and the frequency of marital rape was 33% in cases and 13% in controls. After adjusting for the effects of other variables in the model, less than 18 years of age at marriage (OR 2.00; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.7, decision for marriage by parents (OR 3.51; 95% CI = 1.67, 7.37, abuse by in laws (OR 4.91; 95% CI = 2.66, 9.06, ≤ 3 hours per day spent with husband (OR 2.33; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.08, frequency of intercourse ≤ 2 times per week (OR 1.85; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.22 and marital rape (OR 3.03; 95% CI = 1.50, 6.11 were associated with depression among women. Conclusion In our study depression in married women was associated with younger age at marriage, lack of autonomy in marriage decisions, marital rape and domestic abuse by in-laws. Efforts should be directed towards creating awareness about the reproductive and sexual rights of women in Pakistan. Physicians should be trained to screen and identify women who may be at risk for psychological distress
Full Text Available Background & aim: The Increasing phenomenon of post-marital relationship in the society has had adverse consequences. One of the consequences, is the instability of family foundations and the disintegration of social cells (families. The aim of this study was to determine the formation process of meta-marital relationship from mens viewpoint. Methods: The methodology of this study was grounded theory method. 16 men with purposive sampling method were selected as participants in Gachsaran city, Iran. The data was obtained through semi-structured interviews and was analyzed due to the three stages of "open, axial and selective" coding. Results: Findings of the study were categorized in three major categories: the emotional disproportionate relationship-sexual between men and women's, and, socio-cultural structure predisposing of men and women's sexual dissatisfaction and incorrect criteria for choosing a spouse and one core category named extramarital relationship, hiding object was created. Conclusion: Men Narrative participants indicated that due to spouse selection of "being unemployed, elder girl age, girl escape from his parental house, the divorced couple, and of man being widowed”, were are indications thay they were forced to be married. Also, due to “employed women and pressing sexual desire “was the tool selection. In most of these marriages, men and women had a great age difference, and initially there was no love among them. The prevailing of cold atmospherel and indifference in the marital relations caused led to the fact that they could not meet the emotional needs of each other. Moreover, the culture of modesty dominant over most of the Iranian families has banned the talk of sex and its quality not only in public environments such as schools, universities, radio and television, but also in the family and even between men and women as a "taboo", and these couples can not talk about the quality of their sex life with eachother
Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.
Archuleta, Kristy L; Britt, Sonya L; Tonn, Teresa J; Grable, John E
Using a sample of 310 married respondents from one U.S. Midwestern state, a test was conducted to examine the association of financial satisfaction and financial stressors in a spouse's decision to stay married to the same person or leave the relationship. The role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, religiosity, psychological constructs, financial satisfaction, and financial stressors as factors influencing marital satisfaction was tested. Financial stressors were measured using a list of financial stressors adapted from the literature. Financial satisfaction was measured with a one-item scale. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was used as a validation tool to assess whether individuals would marry or not marry again. Religiosity and financial satisfaction were positively associated with marital satisfaction. A negative interaction between financial satisfaction and financial stressors was also noted. Findings suggest that respondents who are financially satisfied tend to be more stable in their marriages.
Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. Method: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. Conclusion: gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Ogolsky, Brian G; Raffaelli, Marcela; Whittaker, Angela; Crossman, Kimberly A; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Khaw, Lyndal
Associations between marital intimate partner violence (IPV) and postseparation coparenting relationship trajectories were examined among 135 mothers who participated in 5 interviews at 3-month intervals in the year following their divorce filing. Growth curve analysis was conducted to assess change and variability in coparenting dimensions (i.e., conflict, support, communication about child rearing, and harassment) in the overall sample and by type of IPV. In the overall sample, coparenting conflict, communication about child rearing, and harassment decreased across the year following separation. However, coparenting relationships differed considerably based on marital IPV experiences. At Time 1, mothers in relationships with coercive controlling violence (CCV) reported higher levels of harassment and conflict, and lower levels of support and communication about coparenting, than mothers with situational couple violence (SCV) or no violence (NV). Furthermore, coparenting relationship trajectories differed significantly by IPV group, with mothers who experienced CCV showing more variability in conflict and harassment, and more marked changes in conflict, support, and harassment. Despite many similarities, mothers with SCV showed higher initial levels of harassment compared to mothers with NV. Findings can support family court and social service professionals' efforts to individualize interventions with divorcing parents based on IPV experiences. In cases of CCV, for example, attention to heightened control dynamics in the immediate separation period remain critical but the persistent volatility across the first year suggests the potential for chronic stress. With SCV, practitioners may be able to capitalize on parents' reasonable levels of communication and steady coparenting support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Teti, Douglas M.; Shimizu, Mina; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram
The present longitudinal study addressed the ongoing debate regarding the benefits and risks of infant-parent cosleeping by examining associations between sleep arrangement patterns across the first year of life and infant and parent sleep, marital and family functioning, and quality of mothers' behavior with infants at bedtime. Patterns of infant…
Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap
Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…
D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.
Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…
Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena
Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities
Ellison, Jenna K; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark
Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Clarke-Stewart, K A; Vandell, D L; McCartney, K; Owen, M T; Booth, C
Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to explore effects of marital separation on children in the first 3 years of life. The sample included 73 never-married mothers and 97 separated mothers; a comparison group of 170 was conditionally randomly selected from the 2-parent families. Children in 2-parent families performed better than children in 1-parent families on assessments of cognitive and social abilities, problem behavior, attachment security, and behavior with mother. However, controlling for mothers' education and family income reduced these differences, and associations with separated-intact marital status were nonsignificant (the effect size was .01). Thus, children's psychological development was not affected by parental separation per se; it was related to mothers' income, education, ethnicity, child-rearing beliefs, depressive symptoms, and behavior.
Barnett, Amanda E.
Guided by life course and stress process theory, this study investigated pathways of adult child caregivers' family (caregiving, marital, parenting) and nonfamily (employment) roles. Eight waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for 1,300 adult child caregivers. Latent class analysis provided strong evidence for a 4-class…
Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva
This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…
Bradley, Robert H.; And Others
This study examined relationships between parenting, severity of disability, and 5 aspects of family ecology for 83 preschool and 69 elementary school children with disabilities. Family ecology variables included socioeconomic status, coping styles, social support, stressful life events, and marital quality. Results showed positive correlations…
Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters
Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…
Mohammad Taghi Iman
Full Text Available What do parents feel the value of children might be? Using rational choice theory, the effect of having children was measured by their aggregate social, economic and emotional value. The results show that age, gender, occupation and the experience of having raised a child did not correlate with the value of children. However, marital status, family size, family income and especially religiosity all play a meaningful part in determining the value of children.
Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.
Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)
Amiri, Mohammad; Sadeqi, Zakieh; Hoseinpoor, Mohammad Hassan; Khosravi, Ahmad
Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud. Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women) were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7%) had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse's job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud.Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test.Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7% had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse’s job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference.Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test. Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.
Kloosterman, Rianne; Ruiter, Stijn; de Graaf, Paul M; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
According to Boudon, social background affects educational transitions as a result of differences in children's academic performance (primary effects) and differences in transition probabilities given children's level of academic performance (secondary effects). This study addresses historical changes in both primary and secondary effects on the educational transition from primary school to higher secondary education in The Netherlands. In addition, it considers changes over time in the relative importance of these effects. The study compares five cohorts of Dutch pupils, specifically those enrolling in secondary education in 1965, 1977, 1989, 1993 and 1999, and it employs counterfactual analyses. The main findings are that secondary effects have been stable and primary effects have fluctuated to some extent. As a result, the proportion of the total effect of social background accounted for by primary effects has increased somewhat, from 53 per cent to 58 per cent.
Bouet, Kary M; Claudio, Norma; Ramirez, Verónica; García-Fragoso, Lourdes
Having a baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a major source of stress for parents. The barriers to parenting and reactions to the environment may negatively influence the parent-infant relationship. To identify NICU-related parental stress and associated factors. Parents (N = 156) of newborns admitted to NICU completed the Parental Stressor Scale. Most of the parents (46%) rated the experience to be extremely stressful. The principal cause of stress was the alteration in parental role and being separated from their baby. Stress was not associated to education, marital status, infants' birth weight, gestational age, congenital anomalies or if the parents expected the baby to be in the NICU. Identification of areas associated to higher levels of stress in parents may help the NICU staff to establish strategies to help parents cope with the stress caused by being unable to start their parenting role immediately after their babies' birth.
Bryant, Chalandra M.; Futris, Ted G.; Hicks, Megan R.; Lee, Tae-Kyoung; Oshri, Assaf
This study examined associations between stepfather-stepchild relationship quality, stepfathers? depressive symptoms, and two aspects of marriage: marital quality and positive marital interactions. Marital quality was assessed in terms of commitment, trust, passionate and friendship-based love, and happiness. Marital interactions were assessed in terms of intimacy, shared activities, and verbal communication. Using data collected from 149 recently married African American stepfathers, structu...
Li, Xiaomin; Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Ju, Xiaoyan; Lan, Jing; Zhu, Qinyi; Fang, Xiaoyi
Based on three annual waves of data obtained from 268 Chinese couples in the early years of marriage and using a three-wave, cross-lagged approach, the present study examined the associations among daily marital communication, marital conflict resolution, and marital quality. Results indicated unidirectional associations linking daily marital communication or marital conflict resolution to marital quality (instead of reciprocal associations); and when considered simultaneously in a single model, daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution explained variance in marital quality above and beyond each other. Furthermore, the authors also found a significant longitudinal, indirect association linking husbands' daily marital communication at Wave 1 to husbands' marital quality at Wave 3 via husbands' marital conflict resolution at Wave 2. Taken altogether, the current study adds to an emerging body of research aimed at clarifying: (a) the directionality of the associations between couple interactive processes and marital well-being; (b) the unique roles of daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution in predicting marital outcomes; and (c) how daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution may operate in conjunction with each other to shape the development of couple relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.
This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…
It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...
Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.
The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent
Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva
This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…
Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng
Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…
Greene, Bernard L.; And Others
Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)
Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.
Data from six U.S. national surveys compared the estimated contributions to global happiness and marital happiness and satisfaction with each of seven aspects of life, ranging from work to friendships. Findings indicated that Americans depend very heavily on their marriages for their psychological well-being. (Author)
Couples should be helped to develop emotion management skills. Couples should be taught emotional sensitivity skills. Our educational systems should not only develop learners' Intelligence (IQ) but their Emotional intelligence (EQI) competencies too. Emotional intelligence should form part of the criteria for marital choice ...
This study investigated the influence of communication in marital homes on secondary school teachers work performance in Akwa Ibom State. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, ...
Dean, Dwight G.; Lucas, Wayne L.
A model for the prediction of marital adjustment is proposed which presents selected social background factors (e.g., education) and interactive factors (e.g., Bienvenu's Communication scale, Hurvitz' Role Inventory, Dean's Emotional Maturity and Commitment scales, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale) in order to account for as much of the variance in…
Toutkoushian, Robert K.
Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…
The purpose of the present study was to compare different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among engineers of urban and nonurban areas. The design of this study was casual-comparative. The sample population of this study consisted of the engineers who were members of engineers' society of Sari city among ...
... an equal and holistic relationship of the marital partners. Simultaneously – and here the Pauline texts extend beyond the borders of their environment – sexual intercourse is valued as an important component of the relationship between husband and wife. Here, the relationship of marriage, including the physical union of ...
This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe ...
Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...
Schafer, Robert B.; And Others
Uses self-verification and self-discrepancy theories to test a model of subjective and objective self-disconfirmation, self-efficacy, depression, and marital happiness. Expands issues of self-validation by evaluating self-efficacy in the relationship between self-disconfirmation and depression, and the effect of self-concept disconfirmation of…
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
This brief report presents and discusses statistics on the marital and family characteristics of workers in 1973 [e.g., nearly 40 million married men and 20 million married women were among the 88 million person labor force, and of the 1.7 million increase in the labor force, three-quarters consisted of married women (34 percent), single men (24…
Peyrot, Mark; And Others
Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…
Rizvi, Afroz Haider
In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
This study was carried out to establish the relationship between marital instability as a determinant of depression among public servant in cross river state, Nigeria. The study adopted the ex-post fact design. The sample consisted of 500 (429 males 71 female) public servants who were randomly selected from state ...
The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at ...
Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss
The expansion theory, which maintains that an individual has unlimited energy to expend in work or marital involvement, and the drain theory, which maintains that an individual's energy for work can be depleted by overcommitment to family, compete with each other in explaining the effect of worklife on the adult male's family relationships. To…
Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny
Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…
Spataro, R; Volanti, P; Lo Coco, D; La Bella, V
Several variables have been linked to a shorter survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for example, female sex, older age, site of disease onset, rapid disease progression, and a relatively short diagnostic delay. With regard to marital status, previous studies suggested that living with a partner might be associated to a longer survival and a higher likelihood to proceed to tracheostomy. Therefore, to further strengthen this hypothesis, we investigated the role of marital status as a prognostic variable in a cohort of ALS patients. We performed a retrospective analysis on 501 consecutive ALS patients for which a complete disease's natural history and clinical/demographic data were available. At diagnosis, 409 patients (81.6%) were married or lived with a stable partner, whereas 92 patients (18.4%) were single/widowed/divorced. In our ALS cohort, being married was associated with a median longer survival (married, 35 months [24-50] vs unmarried, 27 months [18-42]; Pmarried and unmarried patients were significantly different in many clinical and demographic variables, including age at disease onset, gender, body mass index, and number of children. Cox regression analysis showed that age at onset, diagnostic delay, and marital status were independent predictors of survival. In unmarried patients, female sex was also significantly associated with shorter survival. Marital status is a prognostic factor in ALS, and it significantly affects survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others
The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…
Mar 22, 2018 ... 1Department of Psychology, ... The first weeks and months postpartum may be associated with emotional upheaval.2 The nursing ... partum depressive symptoms,14,15,16,17 and marital problems ... reported a significant positive association ... satisfaction, and the importance of mental health promotion.