Sample records for marine-fish-derived chaetomium globosum

  1. Bioassays guided isolation of compounds from Chaetomium globosum.

    Awad, N E; Kassem, H A; Hamed, M A; El-Naggar, M A A; El-Feky, A M M


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different biological activities of the fungus Chaetomium globosum (family Chaetomiaceae). The evaluation was done through testing its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. C. globosum was isolated from the Cucumber soil (rhizosphere) and caused inhibition of the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii in the biculture test. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid culture of C. globosum showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. C. globosum proved potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. It also recorded significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, F. solani, Fusarium oxysporum, R. solani and Pythium ultimum. It exerted cytotoxic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Unsaponifiable and saponifiable matters of the petroleum ether extract showed the presence of hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty acids. The ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of prenisatin, chrysophanol, chrysazin, chaetoviridin A and B. The isolated secondary metabolites proved significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on B. subtilis, E. coli and R. solani. In conclusion, this fungus showed different biological activities. Further studies must be done to apply its use in the agricultural and medicinal field.

  2. Chaetoglobosins produced by Chaetomium globosum, endophytic fungus found in association with Viguiera robusta Gardn (Asteraceae); Chaetoglobosinas produzidas por Chaetomium globosum, fungo endofitico associado a Viguiera robusta Gardn. (Aasteraceae)

    Momesso, Luciano da S.; Kawano, Cristina Y.; Ribeiro, Patricia H.; Nomizo, Auro; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Pupo, Monica T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail:


    Endophytes live in association with host plants during all or part of their life cycle without causing any apparent disease. They are considered outstanding and underexploited sources of novel bioactive compounds. Chaetomium globosum was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the healthy leaves of Viguiera robusta. C. globosum is a remarkable producer of chaetoglobosins, which are typically cytotoxic. In this work, chaetoglobosins B (1), D (2) and E (3) have been produced by the endophytic C. globosum strain. Chaetoglobosin B was evaluated against Jurkat (leukemia) and B16F10 (melanoma) tumoral cells and showed 89.55% and 57.10% of inhibition at 0.1 mg mL{sup -1}, respectively. Chaetoglobosin B also showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 120 {mu}g/mL) and Escherichia coli (MIC 189 {mu}g/mL). (author)

  3. Biological evaluation of endophytic fungus, Chaetomium globosum JN711454, as potential candidate for improving drug discovery.

    Selim, Khaled A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; El-Diwany, Ahmed I


    The main objective of this research work focused on investigating the biological and chemical aspects of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum, for pharmaceutical purposes to improve the drug discovery process. The endophytic C. globosum was isolated from healthy leaves of Egyptian medicinal plant Adiantum capillus-veneris collected from Saint Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Egypt. The identification of C. globosum was on the basis of classical and molecular taxonomy. Gene encoding for 18S rRNA was partially sequenced, submitted to the GenBank and got the accession number JN711454, to resolve the phylogenetic relations with fungal ancestor using phylogenetic tree. To explore the biosynthetic power of endophytic C. globosum JN711454, the fungus was cultivated over five different media, oatmeal, rice, yeast malt glucose, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czapek's dox media, for 3 weeks at 30 °C, followed by extraction with different solvents, ethyl acetate (EA), and methanol. The ethyl acetate extract of C. globosum cultivated on PDA medium was the most potent extract. It showed strong antioxidant activity with EC50 11.5 μg/ml, potent anticancer activity with 55 % toxicity toward HepG-2 cells at 100 μg/ml and 66 % cytotoxicity to FGC4 cells at 250 μg/ml, promising butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities (>85 %), and moderate antimicrobial and stopped the attachment of HSV-2 virus to VERO cells. The metabolomic profiling of PDA-EA extract using LC-MS revealed the presence of several metabolites to which the observed bioactivities could be attributed. Here we report for the first time inhibitory activity of endophytic C. globosum JN711454 secondary metabolites to butyrylcholinesterase, one of neuro hydrolase enzymes that play a major role in development of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Invasive pulmonary mycosis due to Chaetomium globosum with false-positive galactomannan test: a case report and literature review.

    Capoor, Malini R; Agarwal, Poojan; Goel, Manoj; Jain, Sarika; Shivaprakash, Mandya Rudramurthy; Honnavar, Prasanna; Gupta, Sunita; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke


    In this case, the authors report Chaetomium globosum as a cause of invasive pulmonary infection in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. Fungal hyphae (KOH and Calcofluor) were seen on direct microscopy of lung biopsy sample and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sample. C. globosum isolated on culture clinched the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary infection by Chaetomium spp. A positive galactomannan of serum and BAL was repeatedly seen and was utilised for follow-up and as prognostic marker in patient management. The patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B followed by voriconazole. All the Chaetomium infections reported till date since 1980 are reviewed. Chaetomium spp. with its unique ecology has a hidden clinical potential to cause invasive mould infections.

  5. Cytoglobosins H and I, New Antiproliferative Cytochalasans from Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Chaetomium globosum

    Zhihan Zhang


    Full Text Available Cytoglobosins H (1 and I (2, together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (3–9, were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. All the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compound 6 showed significant antiproliferative activity against LNCaP and B16F10 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.62 and 2.78 μM, respectively. Further testing confirmed that compound 6 inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells by inducing apoptosis.

  6. Cytoglobosins H and I, New Antiproliferative Cytochalasans from Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Chaetomium globosum

    Zhang, Zhihan; Min, Xitian; Huang, Junjun; Zhong, Yue; Wu, Yuehua; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Yinyue; Jiang, Zide; Shao, Zongze; Zhang, Lianhui; He, Fei


    Cytoglobosins H (1) and I (2), together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (3–9), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. All the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compound 6 showed significant antiproliferative activity against LNCaP and B16F10 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.62 and 2.78 μM, respectively. Further testing confirmed that compound 6 inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:27999388

  7. Chaetoglobosinas produzidas por Chaetomium globosum, fungo endofítico associado a Viguiera robusta Gardn. (Asteraceae Chaetoglobosins produced by Chaetomium globosum, endophytic fungus found in association with Viguiera robusta Gardn (Asteraceae

    Luciano da S. Momesso


    Full Text Available Endophytes live in association with host plants during all or part of their life cycle without causing any apparent disease. They are considered outstanding and underexploited sources of novel bioactive compounds. Chaetomium globosum was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the healthy leaves of Viguiera robusta. C.globosum is a remarkable producer of chaetoglobosins, which are typically cytotoxic. In this work, chaetoglobosins B (1, D (2 and E (3 have been produced by the endophytic C. globosum strain. Chaetoglobosin B was evaluated against Jurkat (leukemia and B16F10 (melanoma tumoral cells and showed 89.55% and 57.10% of inhibition at 0.1 mg mL-1, respectively. Chaetoglobosin B also showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 120 µg/mL and Escherichia coli (MIC 189 µg/mL.

  8. Anti-rheumatoid Activity of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Chaetomium globosum

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Azeem


    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic mycobiota in Egypt. A total of 27 endophytic fungi were isolated from 10 dominant medicinal plant host species in Wadi Tala, Saint Katherine Protectorate, arid Sinai, Egypt. Of those taxa, seven isolates of Chaetomium globosum (CG1 – CG7, being the most frequent taxon, were recovered from seven different host plants and screened for production of active anti-inflammatory metabolites. Isolates were cultivated on half – strength potato dextrose broth for 21 days at 28ºC on a rotatory shaker at 180 rpm, and extracted in ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. The probable inhibitory effects of both extracts against an adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA rat model were examined and compared with the effects of methotrexate as a standard disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drug. Disease activity and mobility scoring of AIA, histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to evaluate probable inhibitory roles. A significant reduction (P < 0.05 in the severity of arthritis was observed in both the methanolic extract of CG6 (MCG6 and methotrexate (MTX treatment groups six days after treatment commenced. The average arthritis score of the MCG6 treatment group was (10.7 ± 0.82 compared to (13.8 ± 0.98 in the positive control group. The mobility score of the MCG6 treatment group (1.50 ± 0.55 was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (3.33 ± 0.82. In contrast, the ethyl acetate extract of CG6 (EACG6 treatment group showed no improvements in arthritis and mobility scores in AIA model rats. Histopathology and TEM findings confirmed the observation. Isolate CG6 was subjected to sequencing for confirmation of phenotypic identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 – 5.8s – ITS2 rDNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and

  9. Adaptation of marine derived fungus Chaetomium globosum (NIOCC 36) to alkaline stress using antioxidant properties

    Ravindran, C.; Naveenan, T.

    was examined for its adaptation mechanism under alkaline stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of C. globosum exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as alpha, alpha...

  10. Optimization of synergism of a recombinant auxiliary activity 9 from Chaetomium globosum with cellulase in cellulose hydrolysis.

    Kim, In Jung; Nam, Ki Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Sooah; Youn, Hak Jin; Lee, Hee Jin; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon


    Auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9, formerly known as glycoside hydrolase family 61 or polysaccharide monooxygenase) is a group of fungal proteins that were recently found to have a significant synergism with cellulase in cellulose hydrolysis via the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds of cellulose chains. In this study, we report the active expression of a recombinant fungal AA9 from Chaetomium globosum (CgAA9) in a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, and the optimization of its synergistic activity in cellulose hydrolysis by using cellulase. The recombinant CgAA9 (0.9 mg/g cellulose) exhibited 1.7-fold synergism in the hydrolysis of Avicel when incubated with 0.9 filter paper units of Celluclast 1.5 L/g cellulose. The first study of the active expression of AA9 using a bacterial host and its synergistic optimization could be useful for the industrial application of AA9 for the saccharification of lignocellulose.

  11. Isolation and Identification of the Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22 from Ginkgo biloba%银杏内生菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22次生代谢产物分离鉴定

    秦建春; 白莉; 李晓明; 张雅梅; 高锦明; Hartmut laatsch


    Six metabolites cerebroside B (1),cerebroside C (2),allantoin (3),9(11)-dehyoergosterol peroxide (4) and ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5),chaetoglobosin A (6) were isolated by column chromatography from the extract of cultural mycelium of fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22,an endophyte in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.Structures of them were established by spectroscopic methods.Among of them,cerebroside B,cerebroside C,allantoin were firstly obtained from endophytic fungus;The result of brine shrimp bioassay showed the mortality rates of them to Artemia salina are 1.6%,4.2%,7.4%,16.9%,12.8% and 83.6% respectively at the concentration of 10 μg/mL,chaetoglobosin A showed significant toxic effect on brine shrimp.%采用柱层析方法从银杏叶内生真菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22的培养菌丝体提取物中分离得到脑苷脂B(1)、脑苷脂C(2)、尿囊素(3)、9(11)-去氢麦角甾醇过氧化物(4)以及4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷(5)和球毛壳甲素(6)共6个次生代谢物;经波谱分析确定了6个化合物的结构,其中脑苷脂B、脑苷脂C和尿囊素是首次从内生真菌中得到;海虾致死试验结果显示,化合物1~6在10 μg/mL浓度下对丰年虾的致死率分别为1.6%、4.2%、7.4%、16.9%、12.8%、83.6%、表明球毛壳甲素对海虾表现出很强的毒性作用.

  12. Visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum.

    Lewinska, Anna M; Hoof, Jakob B; Peuhkuri, Ruut H; Rode, Carsten; Lilje, Osu; Foley, Matthew; Trimby, Patrick; Andersen, Birgitte


    Fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. Many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp., on the structure of building materials such as plywood and gypsum wallboard. This study focuses on using micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate changes of the structure of plywood and gypsum wallboard during fungal degradation by S. chartarum and C. globosum. Changes in the materials as a result of dampness and fungal growth were determined by measuring porosity and pore shape via microCT. The results show that the composition of the building material influenced the level of penetration by fungi as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Plywood appeared to be the most affected, with the penetration of moisture and fungi throughout the whole thickness of the sample. Conversely, fungi grew only on the top cardboard in the gypsum wallboard and they did not have significant influence on the gypsum wallboard structure. The majority of the observed changes in gypsum wallboard occurred due to moisture. This paper suggests that the mycelium distribution within building materials and the structural changes, caused by dampness and fungal growth, depend on the type of the material.

  13. Industrial textile effluent decolourization in stirred and static batch cultures of a new fungal strain Chaetomium globosum IMA1 KJ472923.

    Manai, Imène; Miladi, Baligh; El Mselmi, Abdellatif; Smaali, Issam; Ben Hassen, Aida; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib


    The treatment of an industrial textile effluent (ITE) was investigated by using a mono-culture of a novel fungal strain Chaetomium globosum IMA1. This filamentous fungus was selected based on its capacity for dye removal via the biodegradation mechanism. The respirometric analysis showed that C. globosum IMA1 was resistant to an indigo concentration up to 700 mg equivalent COD/L. The decolourization of the ITE by C. globosum was performed in static and stirred batch systems. The better lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase and the manganese peroxidase (MnP) productions were 829.9 U/L, 83 U/L and 247.8 U/L, respectively since 3-5 days under a stirred condition. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colors (OD620) removal yields reached 88.4% and 99.8%, respectively. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the treated effluent showed that the decolourization was due to the degradation and the transformation of dye molecules. However, spectrophotometric examination showed that the complete dye removal was through fungal adsorption (8%), followed by degradation (92%).

  14. Visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum

    Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Peuhkuri, Ruut H.


    Fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. Many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp., on the structure of build......Fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. Many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp., on the structure...

  15. Antioxidant activity of endophytic Chaetomium globosum from Eucommia ulmoides%杜仲内生球毛壳菌的抗氧化活性研究

    谢辉; 陈双林


    本文研究了分离自杜仲叶片的内生真菌球毛壳菌菌株No.173发酵液提取物的抗氧化活性,采用铁氰化钾还原力测定法、β-胡萝卜素/亚油酸模型和光照核黄素体系评价了发酵液提取物的抗氧化作用,并采用Folin-Ciocalteu法测定杜仲内生球毛壳菌发酵液提取物总多酚含量.结果表明,其抗氧化能力与Vc基本相当;清除超氧阴离子的能力优于芦丁;多酚含量为255.53±1.38mg/g,是其主要的抗氧化活性成分.%Antioxidant activity of fermentation broth extracts of Chaetomium globosum strain No. 173 isolated from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides was studied. The reducing power determination, the bleaching of β-carotene suboleic acid model and the riboflavine photosensitization system were applied to evaluate the antioxidant effects of the extracts. Total phenolic content in the extracts was estimated by using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was equivalent to Vc, and the capacity scavenging O2-. was better than rutin. The phenolic content of the extracts was 255.53±1.38mg/g (gallic acid equivalent).

  16. 球毛壳ND35菌株在宿主植物上的侵染定殖%Infection and colonization of Chaetomium globosum ND35 on host plant

    米士伟; 戴杨; 刘晓光; 孟庆果; 高克祥; Kurt Mendgen


    为了解球毛壳Chaetomium globosum ND35菌株在宿主植物上的侵染定殖方式和途径,以毛白杨组培苗为宿主植物,借助光学显微镜、扫描电镜、透射电镜,结合免疫荧光标记技术,研究了球毛壳ND35菌株子囊孢子萌发后在毛白杨上的侵染行为及其菌丝在组培苗根部的定殖。结果显示,子囊孢子萌发后形成的菌丝,能从杨树苗根、茎部表面细胞间的缝隙侵入或在根表面形成附着胞,进而形成侵染钉直接从表皮细胞侵入,在叶部主要从气孔侵入叶片内部。侵入根部的菌丝主要定殖于表皮细胞、外皮层细胞和细胞间隙,未进入内皮层和维管束组织。%Chinese white poplar plantlets from tissue culture were served as host plant in order to understand the mode and approach of infection and colonization of Chaetomium globosum ND35 on host plant.Infection of C.globosum ND35 ascospores on Chinese white poplar plantlets after germinating and colonization of C.globosum ND35 hyphae in poplar root were investigated by means of light microscopy,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and with immunofluorescent labeling.The results showed that hyphae of C.globosum ND35 invaded poplar root and stem from gap of epidermal surface cells,or directly penetrated epidermis by penetration peg formed from appressorium after ascospores germinating;and invaded poplar leaves mainly from stomata.Hyphae invaded root of poplar mainly colonized in the epidemic cells,the outermost cortical layer cells or intercellular spaces of cortical layer which was not found in endodermis and vascular tissues.

  17. Effect of fungal biofertilizer from Chaetomium globosum on growth and quality of strawberry%球毛壳菌生物菌肥对草莓生长和品质的影响



    [Objective]The present study was conducted to investigate effect of different dosages of fungal biofertilizer from Chaetomium globosum on growth,yield and quality of strawberry to provide references for utilizing the fungal biofertilizer in the field in future.[Method]Zhangji strawberry and fungal biofertilizer from C.globosum were served as test materials.Percentage of colonization of endophytic fungus C.globosum ND35 was detected in strawberry.Effects of fungal biofertilizer with different dosages of C.globosum spores on biomassy,physiological quota of strawberry and production and quality of fruits were investigated and analyzed in the field and in laboratory.[Result]Endophytic fungus C.globosum ND35 was able to colonize within plant of strawberry.Colonization rate was positively related to spores dosages of fungal biofertilizer.Different treatment of fungal biofertilizer from C.globosum significantly influenced growth,yield and quality of strawberry.Applying fungal biofertilizer at 0.5 g/plant and 1.0 g/plant was able to promote growth and development of strawberry.[Conclusion]The 0.5-1.0 g/plant utilizing dosages of fungal biofertilizer from C.globosum was able to increase yield and improve quality of strawberry.%[目的]研究球毛壳菌生物菌肥不同用量对草莓植株生长、果实产量和品质的影响,为球毛壳菌生物菌肥在生产上的应用提供参考.[方法]在温室大棚中开展试验,按不同球毛壳菌生物菌肥施肥量(0.5、1.0、2.0 g/株)设3个处理,不施肥为对照处理,检测内生真菌球毛壳菌ND35在草莓上的定殖率;分析不同菌肥用量对草莓生物量和生理指标及果实产量和品质的影响.[结果]球毛壳菌ND35可以在草莓植株内定殖,其定殖率与菌肥用量正相关.不同处理的球毛壳菌生物菌肥对草莓植株生长、果实产量和品质具有显著影响,施用0.5 g/株和1.0 g/株的菌肥用量有利于草莓的生长和发育.[结论]0.5~1.0/株用量

  18. 球毛壳菌60S核糖体蛋白L10a基因克隆与特性分析%Cloning and Characterization Analysis of 60S Ribosomal Protein L10a Gene from Chaetomium globosum

    刘志华; 杨谦


    用粗糙脉孢菌(Neurospora crassa)XP_322380和赤霉菌(Gibberella zeae)PH-1(EAA76971)的60S核糖体蛋白L10a基因(60S ribosomal protein L10a,RPL10a)蛋白序列对球毛壳菌(Chaetomium globosum)ESTs序列数据库进行tBlastn检索,获得了球毛壳菌RPL10a cDNA序列.cDNA序列长765 bp,开放阅读框654 bp,编码217个氨基酸组成的多肽,蛋白分子量为23.9 kD.BlastP分析表明该基因氨基酸序列与粗糙脉胞菌相似最高为89%;与玉蜀黍黑粉菌(Ustilago maydis)相似性最低为78%.cDNA序列及推测的氨基酸序列在GenBank登录(登录号分别为AY669070,AAT74578).

  19. Difference in Ligocellulose Degradation of Endophytic Chaetomium globosum Isolates and Related Genes Analysis%球毛壳菌降解天然木质纤维素能力差异及酶系基因分析

    郝晓冉; 牛学良; 李强; 潘皎; 朱旭东


    利用奠定了基础。%Objective: The decomposition abilities of lignocellulosic materials by Chaetomium globosum NK102, NK103, NK104 and NK105, endophytes from different plants were evaluated. Methods: The cellulose utilizing ca-pability of the C.globosum isolates were tested on carboxymethylcellulose agar and cellulose-congo red agar. The lignin utilizing experiments were performed on Bavendamm plates, and the degradative activity was compared by measuring the respective zone of color change. The lignocellulases production potential of these isolates using mi-crocrystalline cellulose, the leaves of Populus sp. and wood powder as the sole carbon source in liquid fermenta-tion was assessed. In addition, secondary metabolites produced by the C.globosum isolates were detected after 12 days cultivation. In the sequenced genome of C.globosum CBS148.51, genes encoding enzymes involved in lignocel-luloses degrading were identified by sequence homology alignment. Results: C.globosum NK102, NK103, NK104 and NK105 formed clear zones when cultured on carboxymethylcellulose or cellulose-congo red agar. In addition, all four isolates exhibited biodegradation capabilities against lignin and the strong-to-weak sequence was NK 103, NK102, NK105 and NK104 by Bavendamm reaction. In liquid culture, all isolates secreted cellulases and laccase on agar containing microcrystalline cellulose, the leaves of Populus sp., and wood powder. The highest activity of cellulase(0.76 U/mL) was obtained by NK102 when cultured on wood powder medium supplemented with peptone. The highest activity of laccase was obtained by NK103 when cultured on the leaves of Populus sp. medium. Chae-toglobosin A(ChA) was detected in the cultue broth of all four isolates. The yield of ChA was affected by carbon biomass and the highest yield was obtained by NK104 when cultured on the leaves of Populus with a yield of 14.88 mg/L. In the sequenced genome of C.globosum CBS148.51, we defined 119 genes encoding enzymes in-volved in cellulose and

  20. Breeding of xylanase producing strain with chaetomium globosum by ultraviolet mutation%紫外诱变球毛壳霉选育木聚糖酶高产菌株

    杨健; 姚色笛; 王颖; 王月; 张丽媛


    Xylanase has important potential applications value. In order to gain the strain which has stable genetic traits to produce xylanase, we took the xylanase activity as evaluation index, used ultraviolet mutation method, determined the time of ultraviolet irradiation by single factor experiment. By preliminary screening of Ultraviolet mutation strains in the medium containing xylan, the xylanase activity was measured by DNS methods. Screen was then repeated in the mutation strains. The highest xylanase activity mutant strains were selected to determine their activity and the genetic stability. The results of this experiment showed that the power of ultraviolet lamp was 20W, exposure distance was 30cm and exposure time was 120s. The fatality rate of chaetomium globosum was 92. 35%. Under these conditions, 15 mutant strains with higher yield of xylanase was selected. The strain Z30 - 56 had the highest xylanase activity and highest yield was 9850IU/mL, increasing 53.7% compared with the original strain. The genetics of the strain was also very stable.%木聚糖酶具有重要的潜在应用价值,为获得一株遗传性状稳定的木聚糖酶高产菌株,以木聚糖酶的酶活为评价指标,采用紫外线诱变的方法,利用单因素试验确定紫外线照射时间,通过含木聚糖的初筛培养基对紫外诱变后的菌株进行初筛,然后采用DNS法测定木聚糖酶活性对诱变菌株进行复筛.将筛选出的木聚糖酶活力最高的诱变菌株进行传代培养,测定其酶活,探讨其遗传稳定性.试验结果表明:紫外灯功率20W,照射距离30cm,照射时间120s,球毛壳霉致死率为92.35%.在此条件下进行菌株的紫外诱变获得高产木聚糖酶的正突变株15株,其中1株高产菌株Z30 - 56的酶活为9850IU/mL,比出发菌株提高53.7%,并且遗传性能稳定.

  1. 2株内生真菌对菊花抗旱特性的影响%Effect of PEG stress on plantlets of Chrysanthemum morifolium induced by endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1)and Chaetomium globosum(C4)

    宋文玲; 刘晓珍; 蔡信之; 孙迪; 戴传超


    The effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp. ( C1 ) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on the drought resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium was studied. Ch. morifolium plantlets were inoculated with C1, C4 and cultured in the pots for 60 days, then the plantlets were stressed by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% PEG6000 respectively in order to simulate different drought conditions. Biomass, the activities of SOD, POD, PAL, the contents of MDA and soluble protein of each group were determined. The results showed that endophytic fungi groups grew better than the control ( without inoculation endophytic fungi). With the increasing of the concentration of PEG6000, the biomass of Ch. morifolium of each groups decreased, while the biomass of fungi groups was significantly higher than that of control, moreover C4 group higher than C1 group. With the concentration of PEG increasing, the content of MDA of each group increased too, while POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments increased at first and then decreased. SOD activity and PAL activity of the control were increased with the increase of PEG concentration, but SOD activity of the two ftmgi groups were stable. After been stressed by different concentrations of PEG, MDA content of two fungi groups were always lower than the control, while SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity and soluble protein content were higher. In conclusion, endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of Ch. morifolium.%目的:以PEG6000模拟干旱条件,研究接种内生真菌(葡萄孢属C1菌Botrytis sp.、球毛壳菌G4菌Chaetomium globosum对药用菊花Ch.morifolium抗旱性的影响.方法:分别用0%,10%,20%,30%,40%PEG6000胁迫菊花组培苗4 d,测定各处理组菊花生物量,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性及叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量.结果:模拟干旱胁迫后,接种内生真菌的菊花长势好于对照(未接菌),PEG6000

  2. Diversity and taxonomy of Chaetomium and chaetomium-like fungi from indoor environments

    Wang, X.W.; Houbraken, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.


    with members of the Chaetomium globosum species complex, representing Chaetomium sensu stricto. The other indoor species fall into nine lineages that are separated from each other with several known chaetomiaceous genera occurring among them. No generic names are available for five of those lineages......, and the following new genera are introduced here: Amesia with three indoor species, Arcopilus with one indoor species, Collariella with four indoor species, Dichotomopilus with seven indoor species and Ovatospora with two indoor species. The generic concept of Botryotrichum is expanded to include Emilmuelleria...... and the chaetomium-like species B. muromum (= Ch. murorum) in which two indoor species are included. The generic concept of Subramaniula is expanded to include several chaetomium-like taxa as well as one indoor species. Humicola is recognised as a distinct genus including two indoor taxa. According to this study, Ch...

  3. Method for rapid detection and identification of chaetomium and evaluation of resistance to peracetic acid.

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Tsugukuni, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Imanishi, Yumi; Yaguchi, Takashi


    In the beverage industry, peracetic acid has been increasingly used as a disinfectant for the filling machinery and environment due to merits of leaving no residue, it is safe for humans, and its antiseptic effect against fungi and endospores of bacteria. Recently, Chaetomium globosum and Chaetomium funicola were reported resistant to peracetic acid; however, little is known concerning the detail of peracetic acid resistance. Therefore, we assessed the peracetic acid resistance of the species of Chaetomium and related genera under identical conditions and made a thorough observation of the microstructure of their ascospores by transmission electron microscopy. The results of analyses revealed that C. globosum and C. funicola showed the high resistance to peracetic acid (a 1-D antiseptic effect after 900 s and 3-D antiseptic effect after 900 s) and had thick cell walls of ascospores that can impede the action mechanism of peracetic acid. We also developed specific primers to detect the C. globosum clade and identify C. funicola by using PCR to amplify the β-tubulin gene. PCR with the primer sets designed for C. globosum (Chae 4F/4R) and C. funicola (Cfu 2F/2R) amplified PCR products specific for the C. globosum clade and C. funicola, respectively. PCR with these two primer sets did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage and environmental contamination. This detection and identification method is rapid and simple, with extremely high specificity.

  4. 水分胁迫下内生真菌球毛壳ND35对冬小麦苗期生长和抗旱性的影响%Effect of the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum ND35 on the growth and resistance to drought of winter wheat at the seedling stage under water stress

    丛国强; 尹成林; 何邦令; 李玲; 高克祥


    为明确不同水分条件下内生真菌对冬小麦苗期生长和抗旱性的影响,以抗旱型小麦品种山农16和水分敏感型小麦品种山农22为材料,利用荧光定量PCR技术检测小麦干旱诱导基因脱水素wzy2的表达量来了解冬小麦在干旱胁迫下相关基因的表达差异,通过测定相关生理指标与酶活性来判断小麦发育及其在干旱胁迫下的生理响应状况.结果表明,与正常水分ND35组相比,接种球毛壳菌(Chaetomium globosum)ND35的干旱处理组小麦的根冠比、总蛋白含量、脯氨酸含量及丙二醛含量等指标显著提高,小麦叶片含水量和可溶性糖含量有所降低.在干旱处理组中,球毛壳菌ND35可以显著提高小麦山农16的根长和山农22的株高,接种球毛壳ND35的山农16脯氨酸含量、可溶性糖含量、过氧化氢酶活性比对照组均显著提高,丙二醛含量比对照组降低9.0%,但差异不显著;山农22脯氨酸含量和过氧化氢酶活性比对照组显著提高,丙二醛含量和可溶性糖含量比对照组有所降低,但可溶性糖含量差异不显著;相对定量检测数据显示,接种球毛壳ND35后,两种小麦脱水素wzy2基因的表达量较对照组均能够显著提高.综合分析说明内生真菌球毛壳ND35可以促进冬小麦苗期根系和植株发育,小麦提前进入三叶期,增强小麦避旱性,同时提高小麦根系活力,增强小麦耐旱性;提高个体细胞内水分、糖分、脯氨酸含量,降低丙二醛的氧化性损伤,增强过氧化氢酶活性,从而提高两种冬小麦对干旱胁迫的耐受能力;球毛壳ND35促进小麦干旱诱导相关基因wzy2的表达量,进而提高抗旱相关蛋白的表达,从而提高两种冬小麦耐脱水性和对干旱胁迫的适应性.


    Alexandru Manoliu


    Different results were noticed for different ferrofluids concentrations: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μl/L. Inhibitory or stimulatory ferrofluids effect was obtained depending on the nature of the investigated enzyme.

  6. Efficacy of Chaetomium Species as Biological Control Agents against Phytophthora nicotianae Root Rot in Citrus.

    Hung, Phung Manh; Wattanachai, Pongnak; Kasem, Soytong; Poeaim, Supattra


    Thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in Southeast Asia. Pathogenic infection by Phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. This study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (Citrus maxima) in Thailand as Phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium lucknowense, Chaetomium cupreum and their crude extracts as biological control agents in controlling this P. nicotianae strain. Represent as antagonists in biculture test, the tested Chaetomium species inhibited mycelial growth by 50~56% and parasitized the hyphae, resulting in degradation of P. nicotianae mycelia after 30 days. The crude extracts of these Chaetomium species exhibited antifungal activities against mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, with effective doses of 2.6~101.4 µg/mL. Under greenhouse conditions, application of spores and methanol extracts of these Chaetomium species to pomelo seedlings inoculated with P. nicotianae reduced root rot by 66~71% and increased plant weight by 72~85% compared to that in the control. The method of application of antagonistic spores to control the disease was simple and economical, and it may thus be applicable for large-scale, highly effective biological control of this pathogen.

  7. Quantification of [i]C. globosum [/i]spores in house dust samples

    Chunhua Shi


    Full Text Available [i]Chaetomium globosum [/i]is one of the most common fungi that grows in damp buildings and occurs in agricultural and forestry workplaces. Using sera from atopic patients, we characterized and purified an extracellular chitosanase (Chg47 from [i]C. globosum[/i] that is antigenic to humans. The study reports the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein. Three capture ELISAs were developed for Chg47 for detection of spores and spore and mycelial fragments in dust samples using different mono- and polyclonal antibody combinations. One method is based on an enhanced biotinylated polyclonal antibody as the secondary antibody and coating anti-IgM to capture one of two clones of IgM monoclonal antibodies as the capture antibody. The other method makes use of an enhanced rabbit polyclonal antibody as both the primary and capture antibody. The detection limit of the double PAb method for the Chg47 antigen was 7.6 pg/ml. When the anti-IgM+10B3 clone was used, the detection limit was 61 pg/ml and for anti-IgM+5F12, 122 pg/ml. The detection limit of double PAb method is comparable to methods for the allergen and spores of [i]Aspergillus versicolor[/i] in house dust and is more sensitive than other immunoassays for allergens in house including for [i]Stachybotrys chartarum[/i], [i]Aspergillus fumigatus[/i] and [i]Alternaria alternata[/i]. All three methods had limited cross-reactivity to fungi common in house dust representing a diverse array of taxa.

  8. Biosorption of copper(II) by Marrubium globosum subsp. globosum leaves powder: effect of chemical pretreatment.

    Yazici, Hüseyin; Kiliç, Mehmet; Solak, Murat


    The study was aimed at determining the effect of chemical pretreatment on copper(II) biosorption by Marrubium globosum subsp. globosum leaves. The uptake capacity of the biomass was increased by chemical pretreatment when compared with the raw biomass. The results of biosorption experiments, carried out at the conditions of 50 mg l(-1) initial metal concentration and pH 5.5, showed that pretreating the biomass with alkali solutions (laundry detergent, sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate, 0.5 M) improved the biosorption capacity of biomass (45.90, 45.78 and 43.91%, respectively) compared with raw biomass. Pretreatment with sulfuric and nitric acid solutions, 0.5 M, increased the biosorption capacity of biomass by 11.82 and 10.18%, respectively, while there was no considerable change in the biosorption capacity of biomass (0.35%) after pretreatment with formic acid solution, 0.5 M. Furthermore, sodium chloride and calcium chloride, 0.5 M, pretreatments resulted in the improvement in biosorption capacity of biomass (31.38 and 26.69%, respectively). FT-IR analysis revealed that hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for copper(II) biosorption.

  9. Chromones from an ascomycete,Chaetomium aureus

    Li Mei Li; Qiang Zou; Guo You Li


    A novel chromone,named chaetoaurin (1),along with six known chromone derivatives (2-7),was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a solid-state fermented culture of Chaetomium aureus.Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis.All of these compounds were reported from C.aureus for the first time.

  10. Expression and Characterization of a Novel Antifungal Exo-β-1,3-glucanase from Chaetomium cupreum.

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, Jinzhu; Cong, Hua; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian


    A novel β-1,3-glucanase gene, designated Ccglu17A, was cloned from the biological control fungus Chaetomium cupreum Ame. Its 1626-bp open reading frame encoded 541 amino acids. The corresponding amino acid sequence showed highest identity (67 %) with a glycoside hydrolase family 17 β-1,3-glucanase from Chaetomium globosum. The recombinant protein Ccglu17A was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with 10.1-fold purification and 47.8 % recovery yield. The protein's molecular mass was approximately 65 kDa, and its maximum activity appeared at pH 5.0 and temperature 45 °C. Heavy metal ions Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ag(+), and Hg(2+) had inhibitory effects on Ccglu17A, but Ba(2+) promoted the enzyme's activity. Ccglu17A exhibited high substrate specificity, almost exclusively catalyzing β-1,3-glycosidic bond cleavage in various polysaccharoses to liberate glucose. The enzyme had a Km of 2.84 mg/mL and Vmax of 10.7 μmol glucose/min/mg protein for laminarin degradation under optimal conditions. Ccglu17A was an exoglucanase with transglycosylation activity based on its hydrolytic properties. It showed potential antifungal activity with a degradative effect on cell walls and inhibitory action against the germination of pathogenic fungus. In conclusion, Ccglu17A is the first functional exo-1,3-β-glucanase to be identified from C. cupreum and has potential applicability in industry and agriculture.

  11. Fungi of Delhi XXXIII. Chaetomium putrefactus sp.n.

    Rani Grupta


    Full Text Available Chaetomium putrefactus has been described as a new species. It has smaller and sparser hairs and ellipto-fusoid ascospores. We have isolated and described several species of Chaetomium from living and dead leaves of various plants. One species isolated from decaying leaves of Corchorus olitorius appeared to be interesting and new. It is characterized by smaller and fewer hairs and ellipso-fusoid ascospores.

  12. Chaetomium and Stachybotrys in water-damaged buildings

    Andersen, Birgitte; Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    Fungal growth occurs when parts of the building envelope get very wet due to unfortunate combinations of factors, e.g. thermal bridges/lack of ventilation, shoddy foundations/flooding or leaks in build-in pipes. Chaetomium and Stachybotrys are not as abundant as Penicillium and Aspergillus (Table......), however, they may produce volatiles and microparticles that can cause health problems. They are common in wet walls constructed of wood fibre board (OSB/plywood) and gypsum board....

  13. Biocidal synthetic coatings based on high-molecular metaloorganic compounds. [Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus terreus; Penicillium funiculosum; penicillium cyclopium; Penicillium chrysogenum; Paecilomyces varioti; Chaetomium globosum; trichoderma viride

    Mishchenko, V.F.; Zubov, V.A.; Eremenko, Yu.G.

    Long-term stays of man and animals in closed life-support systems lead to contamination of the space-craft by various microorganisms. Organotin compounds are considered promising biocidal agents for paints and varnishes with a broad spectrum of action against a variety of microorganisms. Several organotin polymers of the acrylate type were prepared and were found to be effective fungicides.

  14. Rapid detection and identification of Stachybotrys and Chaetomium species using tissue PCR analysis

    Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten


    level is essential for health risk assessment and building remediation. This study focuses on molecular identification of two common indoor fungal genera: Stachybotrys and Chaetomium. This study proposes two new DNA barcode candidates for Stachybotrys and Chaetomium: the gene encoding mitogen activated...... protein kinase (hogA) and the intergenic region between histone 3 and histone 4 (h3-h4) as well as it introduces a rapid - 3.5 h - protocol for direct Stachybotrys and Chaetomium species identification, which bypasses culture cultivation, DNA extraction and DNA sequencing....

  15. LC-MS based analysis of secondary metabolites from Chaetomium and Stachybotrys growth in indoor environments

    Dosen, Ina

    on fungal species characterized as so-called tertiary colonizers, namely Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp. Both Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp. require high water activity for optimal growth (aw ~ 0.98), which, for the indoor environment, often translates into serious water ingress rather than...... a high level of condensation. Thus, presence of these species and/or their metabolites in indoor environment is a good indicator of water damage, whether old or new. Furthermore, secondary metabolites produced by Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp. are known mycotoxins, thereby increasing likelyhood...... of causing negative health impact. With this in mind, a prime goal of this PhD study was to develop and optimize methods for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds produced by Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp. The main analytical technique used...

  16. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo;


    The presence of the fungal genus Chaetomium and its secondary metabolites in indoor environments is suspected to have a negative impact on human health and wellbeing. About 200 metabolites have been currently described from Chaetomium spp., but only the bioactive compound group, chaetoglobosins, ...

  17. [Protein expression patterns identify morphological variability of ascomatal hairs in two species of genus Chaetomium].

    Sun, Qin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Wang, Qian; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Xuewei


    Morphology of ascomatal hairs was traditionally used as a primary character in the classification of the fungal genus Chaetomium. However, the taxonomic value of ascomatal hair morphology is questioned in modern taxonomy of Chaetomium. Chaetomium indicum and C. funicola are two species proposed only by their differences in ascomatal hairs. The aim of this study is to understand the difference between these two species and their variability in the morphology of ascomatal hairs at the level of protein expression patterns, as well as to ressess the taxonomic value of the ascomatal hairs. We performed microscopic examination to obtain the morphological characters of the typical and variable strains in both C. indicum and C. funicola. Then we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the protein expression patterns of the two species, including their typical and variable strains. The comparison of the obtained 2DE maps indicated that C. indicum and C. funicola exhibited species-specific protein expression patterns. The phylogenetic tree derived from the distance matrix of expression patterns with Neighbor-joining algorithm also revealed that the tested strains of C. indicum and C. funicola fell into two distinct clades, among which the variant strains were grouped together with the typical strains of the same species. The consistency of species delimitation between C. indicum and C. funicola based on morphological characters of ascomatal hairs and species-specific protein expression patterns demonstrates that ascomatal hairs can be still used as potential morphological parameters in taxonomy of Chaetomium.

  18. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo


    , have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...

  19. Characterization of cellulase enzyme produced by Chaetomium sp. isolated from books and archives

    Moza Mohammed AL-Kharousi


    Full Text Available Background: Cellulase is an important industrial enzyme used to degrade cellulosic biomass. The demand for cellulase enzyme is continuously increasing because of its applications in various industries. Hence, screening of cellulase producing microorganisms from different sources has gained significant importance. Material and Methods: In this study, fungi isolated from books and archives were screened for their cellulase producing abilities. Four different fungi were isolated from books and archives using potato dextrose agar. Screening of these isolates for cellulase production was carried out using carboxymethyl cellulose broth. The most efficient fungus was subjected to cellulase fermentation and enzymes produced were purified and partially characterized. Results: Four different fungi, Chaetomium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium sp., were isolated from books and archives. All the isolates were tested for their ability to producecellulase enzyme. During the primary screening Chaetomium sp. showed good growth and highercellulase activity (155.3±25.6 U/mL in carboxymethyl cellulose medium than the other fungi. The cellulase fermentation study was conducted with Chaetomium sp. using carboxymethyl cellulose asa substrate. During the stationary phase (144 h of the growth, the cellulase activity of Chaetomium sp. was significantly high. The maximum mycelial weight of this fungi was obtained at 168 h. Viscosity of the Chaetomium sp. inoculated fermentation medium continuously decreased until 144 h because of the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose. During cellulase fermentation, pHincreased from the initial neutral pH to 8.5. Purified cellulase showed a specific activity of 7.3 U/mg. It exhibited maximum activity at 20°C and was stable between pH 5 and 9. Conclusions: Books and archives could be a good source for the isolation of cellulase producing fungi.

  20. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Ebel R.


    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  1. Indole diketopiperazines from endophytic Chaetomium sp 88194 induce breast cancer cell apoptotic death.

    Wang, Fu-qian; Tong, Qing-yi; Ma, Hao-ran; Xu, Hong-feng; Hu, Song; Ma, Wei; Xue, Yong-bo; Liu, Jun-jun; Wang, Jian-ping; Song, Hong-ping; Zhang, Jin-wen; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Yong-hui


    Diketopiperazines are important secondary metabolites of the fungi with variety bioactivities. Several species belonging to genus Chaetomium produce compounds of this class, such as chetomin. To identify new antitumor agents, secondary metabolites of fungus Chaetomium sp 88194 were investigated and three new indole diketopiperazines, Chaetocochins G (1), Oidioperazines E (2) and Chetoseminudin E (3), along with two known compounds Chetoseminudins C (4) and N-acetyl-β-oxotryptamine (5), were obtained. Chaetocochins G and Chetoseminudin E were recrystallized in CHCl3 containing a small amount of MeOH, and their structures with absolute configuration were established by spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of Oidioperazines E was defined by comparing of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. These isolates were also evaluated the anticancer activity, and Chaetocochins G displayed more potent cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells than the common chemotherapeutic agent (5-fluorouracil) associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, Chaetocochins G induced cell apoptotic death via caspase-3 induction and proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, concomitantly with increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression. Our findings suggested that indole diketopiperazines from endophytic Chaetomium sp 88194 may be potential resource for developing anti-cancer reagents.

  2. Isolamento de Chaetomium spp. em lesões subcutâneas de um cão: relato de caso Isolation of Chaetomium spp. on subcutaneous lesions of a dog: case report

    C.A.S.B. Braga


    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se clinicamente a infecção pelo Chaetomium spp. em um cão, e descreveu-se seu isolamento e identificação. Ao exame dermatológico foram observadas pápulas nas orelhas, no tronco lateral e nos membros pélvicos. Ao rompimento de uma dessas pápulas, fluiu um líquido serosanguinolento com consequente úlcera no local. Foi colhido material para isolamento micológico, por meio de raspado das pápulas da orelha e da cauda. O diagnóstico foi micose subcutânea por Chaetomium spp.This work aimed to clinically characterize the infection by Chaetomium spp. in a dog, as well as describe its isolation and identification. Upon dermatological exam, papules on ears, lateral trunk and pelvic members were noticed. After the disruption of these papules there was serosanguineous secretion flowed by consequent ulcer in the region. Material for mycological isolation was picked, and a scraping of papules from ear and tail was done. The diagnosis was subcutaneous mycosis caused by Chaetomium spp.

  3. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species.

    Vinod Mootha, V; Shahinpoor, P; Sutton, Deanna A; Xin, Lian; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G Sybren


    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the patient was started on natamycin 5% eye drops, fluconazole 0.3% eye drops, and oral fluconazole. A non-sporulating fungus was isolated from the samples. Based upon macroscopic and microscopic morphologic features, it was provisionally identified as a Papulaspora species due to the fact that members of this genus generally do not form diagnostically useful conidia. However, it was found through the use of ITS sequencing that the isolate clustered within the ascomycete genus Chaetomium. The sequence did not fully match with any sequences of available ex-type strains of Chaetomium, Thielavia and Papulaspora and hence might belong to an undescribed specie. However, without diagnostic morphological features the taxon cannot be introduced as a novel member of the genus Chaetomium. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to published standards. The corneal ulcer was successfully treated with six weeks of antifungal therapy.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0399 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0399 ref|XP_001226821.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_08894 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ84880.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_08894 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001226821.1 1.8 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0171 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0171 ref|XP_001229813.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03297 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ91362.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03297 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001229813.1 0.012 30% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1236 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1236 ref|XP_001221542.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05447 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ88828.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05447 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001221542.1 0.21 28% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0259 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0259 ref|XP_001222713.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06618 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89999.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06618 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222713.1 5.1 30% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0104 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0104 ref|XP_001223090.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03876 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ87257.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03876 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001223090.1 0.11 31% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-3178 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-3178 ref|XP_001225237.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_07581 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ86328.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_07581 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001225237.1 2.9 39% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0668 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0668 ref|XP_001222332.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06237 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89618.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06237 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222332.1 0.63 41% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0729 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0729 ref|XP_001229746.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03230 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ91295.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03230 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001229746.1 5e-06 45% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1052 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1052 ref|XP_001221358.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05263 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ88644.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05263 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001221358.1 1e-09 36% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0170 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0170 ref|XP_001224549.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06893 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ85640.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06893 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001224549.1 1.8 31% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1481 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1481 ref|XP_001226732.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_08805 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ84791.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_08805 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001226732.1 6.3 30% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1158 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1158 ref|XP_001222249.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06154 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89535.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06154 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222249.1 8e-04 34% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-03-0018 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-03-0018 ref|XP_001222123.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ89409.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222123.1 8e-04 39% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1012 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1012 ref|XP_001229383.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_02867 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ90932.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_02867 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001229383.1 4.1 30% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2095 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2095 ref|XP_001222892.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06797 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ90178.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06797 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222892.1 2.9 28% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0526 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0526 ref|XP_001225021.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ86112.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001225021.1 6.2 31% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1884 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1884 ref|XP_001222104.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06009 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89390.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06009 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222104.1 2.3 26% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-04-0040 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-04-0040 ref|XP_001222599.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06504 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89885.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06504 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222599.1 3e-07 29% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1922 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1922 ref|XP_001222647.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06552 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89933.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06552 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222647.1 3.6 25% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0103 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0103 ref|XP_001223318.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_04104 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ87485.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_04104 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001223318.1 6.8 27% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 ref|XP_001223106.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03892 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ87273.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_03892 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001223106.1 2.5 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1878 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1878 ref|XP_001222836.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ90122.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222836.1 2.7 33% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0825 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0825 ref|XP_001222411.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06316 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89697.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_06316 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222411.1 0.043 30% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0179 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0179 ref|XP_001226930.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ84989.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001226930.1 1e-04 40% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-22-0006 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-22-0006 ref|XP_001228589.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ84258.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001228589.1 5e-14 54% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0810 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0810 ref|XP_001221307.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_02086 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ93851.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_02086 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001221307.1 2e-05 26% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-27-0003 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-27-0003 ref|XP_001221908.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05813 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89194.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05813 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001221908.1 0.22 45% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0109 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0109 ref|XP_001227080.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_09153 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ85139.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_09153 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001227080.1 0.012 50% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2454 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2454 ref|XP_001221971.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05876 [Chaetomium globo...sum CBS 148.51] gb|EAQ89257.1| hypothetical protein CHGG_05876 [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001221971.1 1e-05 28% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0075 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0075 ref|XP_001227216.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ85275.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001227216.1 0.26 28% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1544 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1544 ref|XP_001222123.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 14...8.51] gb|EAQ89409.1| predicted protein [Chaetomium globosum CBS 148.51] XP_001222123.1 4e-05 32% ...

  15. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by fungal cultures. [Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys, and Hypocrea

    Pyc, R.; Fiechter, A. Galas, E.


    Twelve fungal cultures belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys, and Hypocrea were screened for the production of cellulolytic activity. All twelve were found to degrade xylan, avicel, and carboxymethylcellulose. More cellulolytic activity was obtained with shaken cultures than with still cultures and the addition of citrate-phosphate buffer to the media greatly depressed the levels of cellulolytic activity. Varying the composition of the mineral salts in the medium had no effect on the cellulolytic activity. The growth of Aspergillus wentii under controlled conditions in a bioreactor showed that the cellulolytic activity was not affected by the aeration rate or the type of stirrer. The rate of stirring, however, did effect the cellulolytic activity, as at lower stirring speeds considerable wall growth occurred which resulted in low levels of cellulolytic activity. Culture supernatant from Aspergillus wentii was found to hydrolyze from 30-32% of Solka-Floc and from 2-10% of corn cobs, wheat straw, and newsprint. The extensive hydrolysis of Solka-Floc indicates that with suitable treated cellulosic wastes and appropriate enzymes, appreciable amounts of sugars could be obtained.

  16. Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68

    Xuewei Wang


    Full Text Available Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2, two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68 together with three known analogues PI-3(3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2 are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr., Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L. Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60% against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected.

  17. Bio-control trials of Chaetomium spirale ND35 against apple canker

    XINYa-fen; SHANGJin-jie


    A new endophytic antagonistic fungus, Chaetomium spirale ND35 from Populus tomentosa, was reported. The bio-control trials of C. spirale ND35 against the Valsa Canker of apple were preliminarily investigated. The results of dual culture on PDA plate showed that C. spirale ND35 was capable of strong antagonism against Valsa ceratosperma, and for inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. ceratosperma,.the crude extract of liquid culture of corn steep powder broth was more effective than that one of malt extract broth (MEB). The results of bio-control in greenhouse and field indicated that the disease incidence of apple tree treated with C. spirale ND35 was lower significantly than that treated by other methods. The re-isolation experiment suggested that C. spirale ND35 could colonize in stems and branches of apple trees successfully, and the ND35 colonization rate of the treatment with solid wheat bran culture was higher than that of corn steep powder broth, but the field experiment result the control effect of liquid culture of C. spirale ND35 was better than that of solid culture.


    Maywan Hariono


    Full Text Available A study on molecular docking-based virtual screening has been conducted to select virtual hit of compounds, reported its existence in fungal endophytes of Chaetomium sp. as cytotoxic agent of breast cancer. The ligands were docked into Human Estrogen Receptor alpha (HERa as the protein which regulates the breast cancer growth via estradiol-estrogen receptor binding intervention. The results showed that two compounds bearing xanthone and two compounds bearing benzonaphtyridinedione scaffolds were selected as virtual hit ligands for HERa leading to the conclusion that these compounds were good to be developed as anti breast cancer.

  19. Purification and properties of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Wojtaś-Wasilewska, M; Trojanowski, J


    1. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (protocatechuate : oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase, EC was isolated from mycelium of Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The enzyme was purified about 80-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and was homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity; its pH optimum was 7.5-8.0, and molecula weight about 76 000 as determined by filtration on Sephadex G-200. The Michaelis constant for protocatechuic acid was 11.1 microM.

  20. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery.

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia


    The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential. Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.

  1. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji


    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  2. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed [Biochemie-Zentrum der Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 328, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Stewart, Murray, E-mail: [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)


    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  3. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  4. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of endhopitic fungi Chaetomium sp. isolated from Phyllanthus niruri Linn: in vitro and in silico studies

    Rollando Rollando


    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi Chaetomium sp isolated from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Mycelium powder was extracted by using ethyl acetate. Extract was fractionated using n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol 96%. The antimicrobial test was carried out using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The antioxidant activity of the fraction was determined using hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging and reducing power capacity activities. The cytotoxicity assay of the fraction against T47D breast cancer cell was carried out using dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT. The in silico prediction of chemical substances which are reported exist in Chaetomium sp. performed using AutoDockVina embedded in PyRx version 8.0. Dichloromethane fraction was found as the most active sample against Escherichia coli (IC50 20.76 mg/mL, Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 70.15 mg/mL, Salmonella typhi (49.13 mg/mL and was found as the most high phenolic content with value 47.44 mg GAE/g fraction, whereas the best antioxidant activity was performed by ethanol 96% fraction (85%. Cytotoxicity assay against T47D cell line showed dichloromethane fraction have highest activity with IC50 10.76 mg/mL. The docking studies showed that compounds bearing xanthone structure were potential for maltose binding periplasmic and human aromatase associating with their potencies as antibacteria and anticancer. Endophytic fungi Chaetomium sp. was isolated from Phyllanthus niruri using n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions was studied its various biological activities as antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cell.


    张海燕; 杨谦


    对角毛壳菌(Chaetomium cupreum)产纤维素酶的发酵条件进行了研究.结果表明:Mendels培养基适于角毛壳菌产纤维素酶,CMC酶活可达到15.7 U,β-葡萄糖苷酶活达到了15.8 U,滤纸酶活达到12.1 U.最佳产酶碳源是微结晶纤维素.发酵156 h是角毛壳菌产滤纸酶活的最佳时间,达到了14.4 U,发酵180 h是角毛壳菌产CMC酶活和β-葡萄糖苷酶活的最佳时间,酶活可分别达到37.6 U和38.4 U.

  6. Mutation breeding of antibiotics-production strain Chaetomium cupreum CH21%产抗生素角毛壳菌CH21的诱变育种

    王俊; 谭红; 钟娟; 周金燕; 舒丹; 杨杰


    In order to obtain mutants with higher antibiotics yield, the germinating spores of the wild strain Chaetomium cupreum CH21 were mutated by two mutagens, microwave and UV, and screened by PDA double-plate and bioassay both using Colletotrichum capsici as indicator. The optimal mutagen dosages were determined: 500W 2450MHz under microwave irradiation for 15s, and 15W, 30cm under ultraviolet ray irradiation for 300s. CH21, the diameter of inhibiting ring of which was 12.50mm, was mutated by microwave and UV each for once. Five mutants with high yield of antibiotics were isolated. The diameter of inhibiting ring of CH21-2-20 was 20.20 mm, which was the largest and increased by 62% in comparison to CH21. Cultivated for five continuous generations, the diameter of inhibiting ring of CH21-2-20 stabilized between 19.40 mm and 20.38 mm.%以角毛壳菌(Chaetomium cupreum)CH21的萌发孢子作为诱变材料,采用微波辐照和紫外线照射进行诱变处理,用辣椒炭疽菌(Colletotrichum capsici)作为测试菌株,结合PDA双层平板法初筛和管碟法复筛,选育高产抗生素的突变株.结果表明:最佳微波诱变条件为500W、2450MHz、15s,紫外诱变条件为15W、30cm、300s.对出发菌株CH21进行一轮微波诱变和一轮紫外诱变,筛选得到5株高产菌株,其中CH21-2-20抑菌圈直径最大,为20.20mm,较抑菌圈直径为12.50mm的出发菌株增大了62%.连续传代5次,CH21-2-20抑菌圈直径稳定在19.40~20.38mm.

  7. 嗜热毛壳菌(Chaetomium thermophile)液体发酵产生纤维素酶及酶学性质的研究%Studies on liquid-state fermentation for and properties of cellulase from Chaetomium thermophlie

    路梅; 李多川


    探讨了嗜热真菌Chaetomium thermophile产生纤维素酶的液体发酵条件及滤纸酶(FPA)的特性.采用液体发酵培养法,通过对碳源、氮源、培养时间、培养基的起始pH值及产酶过程中pH值和蛋白质含量变化的研究发现:在2%纤维素、1%可溶性淀粉为碳源;2.0% KNO3+0.2%酵母粉为氮源;起始 pH值为6.5,50℃下培养9d后,各种酶活最高.发酵过程中,pH值和蛋白质的含量均在前3d下降,后升高.FPA的反应最适温度和pH值分别为60℃和5.5~6.0;且具有较高的热稳定性和pH稳定性.

  8. Microwave Influence in Fungi a Preliminary Study

    Manoliu, A. I.; Tufescu, F. M.; Oprica, L.; Olteanu, Z.; Creanga, D. E.


    The behavior of two cellulolytic fungus species under the influence of low intensity microwaves was studied: Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternata. Enzyme activity of dehydrogenase complex was investigated by spectrophotometric method in order to real the effect of relatively short daily exposure times. Inhibitory effect was noticed for malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in both fungi while differentiated influence was revealed in alpha ceto glutarate dehydrogenase (inhibitory in Chaetomium globosum but stimulatory in Alternaria alternata). Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was significantly stimulated in both fungi for 3 hours exposure time. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Involved in Mycoparasitism of the Biocontrol Agent Chaetomium spirale ND35%生防因子螺旋毛壳ND35的细胞壁降解酶与重寄生作用

    高克祥; 刘晓光; Dana Friesem; Leonid Chernin; 时呈奎


    Some Chaetomium spp. Are capable of antagonizing several plant pathogenic fungi through production of antibiotics and mycoparasitism. Secretion of lytic enzymes, mainly including glucanases and chitinases, is considered the most important step in the mycoparasitic process. In this study, an about 110kDa exo - β - 1,3 - glucanase from C. Spirale ND35 was detected both in culture filtrate and directly on PAGE and IEF gels, as well as chitinases, although protease was not detectable on Litmus milk agar plates. Coiling and penetrating the hyphae of host fungus Valsa mali were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which may be related to the synergistic interaction between β - 1,3 - glucanase and chitinases. Β - 1,3 - glucanase activity of C. Spirale ND35 varied considerably when C. Spirale ND35 was grown in different carbon sources during various incubation time, and might be subjected to both induction by substrate and catabolite repression.

  10. 嗜热毛壳菌内切β-葡聚糖酶的分离纯化及特性%Purification and Properties of An Endocellulase from The Thermophilic Fungus Chaetomium thermophile

    路梅; 李多川; 张成省


    探讨了液体发酵嗜热毛壳菌(Chaetomium thermophile)产生的内切β-葡聚糖酶的分离纯化及特性.粗酶液经硫酸铵分级沉淀、DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow阴离子层析、Pheny1-Sepharose疏水层析、Sephacry1 S-100分子筛层析等步骤便可获得凝胶电泳均一的内切β-葡聚糖酶.经12.5%SDS-PAGE和凝胶过滤层析法分别测得所分离纯化酶蛋白的分子量约为67.8kD和69.8kD.该酶反应的最适温度和pH分别为60℃和4.0~4.5在pH5.0条件下,该酶在60℃下稳定;70℃保温1h后,仍保留30%的活性;在80℃的半衰期为25min.金属离子对内切β-葡聚糖酶的活性影响较大,其中Na+对酶有激活作用;Fe2+、Ag+、Cu2+、Ba2+、Zn2+等对酶有抑制作用.该酶对结晶纤维素没有水解能力.

  11. Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Gas on Fungi and Mycotoxins Associated with Sick Building Syndrome

    Wilson, S. C.; Wu, C.; Andriychuk, L. A.; Martin, J. M.; Brasel, T. L.; Jumper, C. A.; Straus, D. C.


    The growth of indoor molds and their resulting products (e.g., spores and mycotoxins) can present health hazards for human beings. The efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a fumigation treatment for inactivating sick building syndrome-related fungi and their mycotoxins was evaluated. Filter papers (15 per organism) featuring growth of Stachybotrys chartarum, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium cladosporioides were placed in gas chambers containing chlorine dioxide gas at either 500 or 1,000 ppm for 24 h. C. globosum was exposed to the gas both as colonies and as ascospores without asci and perithecia. After treatment, all organisms were tested for colony growth using an agar plating technique. Colonies of S. chartarum were also tested for toxicity using a yeast toxicity assay with a high specificity for trichothecene mycotoxins. Results showed that chlorine dioxide gas at both concentrations completely inactivated all organisms except for C. globosum colonies which were inactivated an average of 89%. More than 99% of ascospores of C. globosum were nonculturable. For all ascospore counts, mean test readings were lower than the controls (P < 0.001), indicating that some ascospores may also have been destroyed. Colonies of S. chartarum were still toxic after treatment. These data show that chlorine dioxide gas can be effective to a degree as a fumigant for the inactivation of certain fungal colonies, that the perithecia of C. globosum can play a slightly protective role for the ascospores and that S. chartarum, while affected by the fumigation treatment, still remains toxic. PMID:16151130

  12. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from seven herbaceous medicinal plants of Malnad region, Western Ghats, southern India

    B. Shankar Naik; M. Krishnappa; Y. L. Krishnamurthy


    A total of 3611 fungal isolates were recovered from 4200 leaf segments incubated from 7 medicinal herbs during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. These fungal isolates belonged to teleomorphic Asco-mycota (23.5%), anamorphic Ascomycota producing conidiomata (17.4%), anamorphic Ascomycota without conidiomata (46.9%), Zygo-mycota (1.42%) and sterile forms (10.6%). Chaetomium globosum, As-pergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Trichoderma viridae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, were frequently isolated from more than one host plant. The number of endophytic isolates was higher in winter than in monsoon and summer seasons.

  13. 黄瓜内生Ch1001菌株种子处理防治根结线虫的施用剂量研究%Optimization of Seed Treatment Dose of the Cucumber Endophytic Chaetomium Ch1001 Strain for Biological Control of Root Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    鄢小宁; 杨艳; 贺春萍; 郑经武


    The cucumber endophytic Chaetomium strain Ch1001 has shown its ability to suppress root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, when applied as seed treatment. However, its optimum application dose, which is an important parameter for practical use in order to obtain robust seedlings as well satisfied nematode control efficacy has not been determined. In this paper, the root viability, defense related enzymes activity as well root knot nematode control efficacy were tested after cucumber seeds were inoculated with Ch1001 at 1×103, 1×104, 1×105,1×106, 1×107, 1×108ascospores/seed respectively at sowing. Results indicated that root viability was not influenced by Ch1001 when the inoculum dose was at or lower than 1×105 ascospores/seed,but increased significantly at the inoculum dose of 1×106 and 1×107 ascospores/seed, and decreased dramatically at 1×108 ascospores/seed. PAL and chitinase activity did not enhance after Ch1001 treatment, POD and CAT activity significantly increased at 1×105, 1×10' and 1×107 ascospores/seed, indicating that Ch1001 induced resistance related to active oxygen metabolism. The root knot nematode M. incognita control efficacy was positively correlated to seed treatment dose, the galls formation was significantly inhibited at 1×104,1×105,1×106 and 1×107 ascospores/seed treatment, the satisfied inhibition reached at 1×106 and 1×107 ascopores/seed treatment, which were 45.3% and 57.0% respectively. Based on the above results, the dose at 1 ×107 ascospores/seed was optimum for practical use because of the enhanced root viability, defense related enzymes activity as well as the lowest nematode invasion.%内生毛壳菌Ch1001菌株种子处理对黄瓜幼苗上发生的根结线虫有防效.为培育壮苗并达到理想的防效,合适的施用剂量是实际应用所需的一个重要参数.笔者在黄瓜播种时分别用1×103、1×104、1 ×105、1× 106、1×107、1×108个孢子/种子的剂量处理种子,测定幼苗的

  14. Prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.

    Kooliyottil, Rinu; Dandurand, Louise-Marie; Knudsen, Guy R


    Seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of Globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in Shelley Idaho, USA and identified as Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium tricinctum, Microdochium bolleyi, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Their ability to reduce infection by G. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-ROCs). All fungi reduced G. pallida infection in potato, but greatest reduction was observed with C. globosum at an average reduction of 76%. Further non-destructive methods were developed to rapidly assess biological control potential of putative fungal strains by staining the infectious second stage juveniles of G. pallida with the live fluorescent stain PKH26. In comparisons between the standard, invasive acid fuchsin method and use of the live stain PKH26, no significant difference in infection level of G. pallida was observed whether roots were stained with PKH26 or acid fuchsin. For both methods, a similar reduction (77% for acid fuchsin, and 78% for PKH26 stain) in invasion of infectious stage of G. pallida was observed when potato plants were inoculated with C. globosum compared to non-inoculated potato. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of Three Strains of Trichoderma on the Pathogen of Poplar Leaf Blight%三种拮抗菌对苗木立枯病病原菌的影响

    周秀华; 崔磊; 武术杰; 刘菊秋


    采用PDA综合培养基对3种拮抗菌和2种苗木立枯病病原菌进行对峙培养,研究3种拮抗菌对苗木立枯病病原菌的抑制效果.结果表明:绿色木霉(Trichoderma viride)、桔绿木霉(Trichoderm citrinoviridevs)、球毛壳(Chaetomium globosum)3种拮抗菌对2种苗木立枯病病原菌尖镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum)、腐皮镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)均有抑制作用,对Fusarium oxysporum的抑制效果最好的为Trichoderma citrinoviridevs,对Fusarium solani抑制效果最好的为Trichoderma viride.

  16. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials.

    Wady, Loay; Bunte, Annicka; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart


    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) was applied to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in water-damaged, mold-infested building materials (gypsum board papers (n=2), mineral wool, and masonite) and in cultivated molds (Aspergillus penicillioides, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Chaetomium globosum). Three SPME fibers (65-microm PDMS-DVB, 75-microm Carboxen-PDMS, and 70-microm Carbowax-stableflex) designed for automated injection were used of which the latter showed best performance. A number of previously reported MVOCs were detected both in the building materials and the cultivated molds. In addition, methyl benzoate was identified both in the S. chartarum and A. penicillioides cultures and in the building materials. SPME combined with GC-MS may be a useful method for the determination of MVOCs emitted from mold-infested building materials.

  17. Mycotoxins from mould infested building materials.

    Nielsen, K F


    Only limited documentation of non-allergenic, especially toxic reactions after inhalation of microfungal spores in water damaged buildings exists. Recently attention has been drawn to the mycotoxins as causal compounds, as some the dominating genera found in buildings are well known mycotoxin producers.Penicillium chrysogenum and A. ustus do not seem to produce any known mycotoxins when growing on building materials, whereasP. brevicompactum produces mycophenolic acid, someP. polonicum produces verrucosidin and verrucofortine,A. versicolor produces sterigmatocystins,A. niger produces nigragillin, orlandin, naphtho-γ-pyrones and tetracyclic compounds, someA. ochraceus produces ochratoxin A,Alternaria spp. produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether,Chaetomium globosum produce chaetoglobosins, and finally 30-40% ofStachybotrys chartarum isolates from buildings produce macrocyclic trichothecenes and a number of other biologically active compounds.

  18. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M


    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  19. Implantation phaeohyphomycosis caused by a non-sporulating Chaetomium species. Phaeohyphomycose d’inoculation causée par une espèce non sporulante de Chaetomium

    Najafzadeh, M.J.; Fata, A.; Naseri, A.; Saradeghi Keisarid, M.; Farahyarf, S.; Gangbakhsh, M.; Ziaee, M.; Dolatabadi, S.; de Hoog, G.S.


    We report the case of a 66-year-old Iranian woman with a phaeohyphomycotic cyst (approximately 3 × 2.5 cm in size) on the right lateral side of the neck. She had dysphagia and hoarseness, without any pain. She complained about discharge of black liquid on the skin and irritation. Histological examin

  20. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity

    Feng Pan


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28 that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass. Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4–8 d (initial pH: 7.5, followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80 °C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata.

  1. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Tayyaba Zia


    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  2. New production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A using cornstalks.

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, Jinzhu; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian


    Chaetoglobosin A is an antibacterial compound produced by Chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin A by C. globosum W7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. The output of chaetoglobosin A from the cornstalks was 0.34mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. Purification conditions were optimized to increase the content of chaetoglobosin A in the crude extract, including the extract solvent, temperature, and pH value. The optimum process conditions were found to be acetone as the extractant, under room temperature, and at a pH value of 13. Under these conditions, a production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A was established, and the content reached 19.17%. Through further verification, cornstalks could replace crops for the production of chaetoglobosin A using this new production process. Moreover, the purified products showed great inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani, with chaetoglobosin A confirmed as the main effective constituent (IC50=3.88μg/mL). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using cornstalks to synthesize chaetoglobosin A and that the production process established in this study was effective.

  3. Impact of Domestication on the Endophytic Fungal Diversity Associated With Wild Zingiberaceae at Mount Halimun Salak National Park

    Ivan Permana Putra


    Full Text Available Mount Halimun Salak National Park is one of the tropical forest remnants in Java island. The national park has been recognized with high diversity of wild Zingiberaceae. Of that Zingiberaceae, two species namely Alpinia malaccensis (AM and Horstendia conica (HC, were domesticated as garden plants in the surrounding area of the forest for medicinal use. The impact of domestication on the fungal endophytes associated with these two species of Zingiberaceae is reported here. Fungal endophyte diversity in the wild and domesticated AM and HC was analyzed based on the culturable fungi. Identification of species level used morphological and molecular approaches of ITS rDNA sequence. This study determined 19 species of fungal endophytes, namely Arthrinium malaysianum, Aspergillus flavipes, As. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum boninense-complex, Co. cliviae-complex, Co. gloeosporioides-complex, Diaporthe sp., D. anacardii, D. gardenia, Exophiala sp., E. lecanii-corni, Guignardia mangiferae, Ochroconis gallopava, Penicillium citrinum, Pyricularia costina, and unsporulated Sydowiellaceae. Among them, A. malaysianum, C. globosum, Co. cliviae-complex, D. gardenia, and unsporulated Sydowiellaceae were only found in domesticated plants, while some others were absent. Colletotrichum boninense-complex was commonly found in both wild and domesticated plants. Domestication activity affected the diversity of endophytic fungi of AM and HC.


    金静; 李桂舫; 李保华; 张天宇; 梁晨; 李宝笃


    为调查中国黄海海域的丝状海洋真菌,从山东威海潮间带海滩收集了沉没木、附着木和沙埋木,并从其上分离到7种高等海洋真菌.Arenariomyces trifurcata,Corollospora maritima,Alternaria maritima,Trichocladium achrasporum为中国大陆新记录种,Chaetomium gl0b0sum,Tetraploa aristita,Torula sp.为中国大陆新生境报道.对每个种作了描述并对分类和形态进行了讨论.%To survey the filamentous marine fungi from Yellow Sea of China, submerged wood, trap wood amongst rocks, and sand-buried wood were taken from the intertidal beach sites in Weihai,Shandong Province. Seven species of higher marine fungi were found. Arenariomyces trifurcata,Corollospora maritima, Alternaria maritima and Trichocladium achrasporum were new records to mainland of China; Chaetomium globosum, Tetraploa aristita and Torula sp. were found for the first time in the sea report in mailand of China. Taxonomy and morphology of these species were discussed.

  5. Effect of selected natural dyes in reduction on colour changes of Egyptian linen textiles by fungi.

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar


    Linen is the most historical Egyptian textile fibre liable to fungal deterioration. Fungal deterioration of dyed linen textiles may appear as undesirable different stains. In order to success in removing of fungal stains from biodeteriorated historical Egyptian dyed linen textiles, it is necessary to understand the nature and causes of these stains, hence their subsequent removal. So this paper aims to investigate the effect of fungi on dyed linen textiles. In this study linen textile samples were experimentally dyed by two different dyes, blue one as an example to vat dye and yellow one as an example to direct dye. This work is done on two of the most important dyes (Turmeric and indigo), which were popular in most of historical periods in Egypt. Dyed linen samples were experimentally biodegraded by thirty different fungal strains isolated previously from historical Egyptian linen samples. The produced change in colours of the biodeteriorated samples was detected visually. Also, the change in reflection spectra and colour differences produced to dyed linen textiles after fungal deterioration, were assessed and evaluated by using spectrophotometer. This study reported that most of tested fungi contribute to discoloration of all tested dyed linen samples. These results indicate that most of stains on historical Egyptian dyed linen textiles, may be fungal stains. The results confirm that undyed linen textiles more liable to fungal biodeterioration than dyed ones. Also the results show that yellow dyed linen textiles are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than blue dyed linen textiles. The obtained results show that Alternaria tenuissima, Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium sp., Penicillium raistrickii, P. soppi, P. asperum, P. citrinum, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. fischeri, A. nidulans, A. terreus and A. niger, had showed the maximum colour changes of the deteriorated yellow dyed linen samples. The results also show that Alternaria tenuissima, Chaetomium sp

  6. Novel DNA barcodes for detection, idenfication and tracking of stachybotrys and chaetomium species

    Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele


    and Stachybotrys. The existing DNA barcodes: ITS, SSU, LSU, B-TUB, CMD, RP and TEF-1α do not give satisfying species resolution to be considered as DNA barcodes for the two genera. Therefore, novel barcodes for them are needed. Barcode potentials, such as HOG1 a NAHA, were identified using bioinformatics...

  7. Formation of cellulase and protein in the growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on cellulose-containing substrates

    Faehnrich, P.; Irrgang, K.


    C. cellulolyticum was grown on glucose and different types of cellulose. The organism studied was mutant 7S/7, derived from C. cellulolyticum ATCC 32319. Cellulase formation on glucose was very slight, whereas it was much greater on cellulose, indicating that most of the activity is induced. Both cellulose and protein production were greater on newsprint than on Avicel, and greater on alkali-treated than on untreated newsprint. Crystaline structure in cellulose inhibited fermentation.

  8. Hydrolysis of Wheat Arabinoxylan by Two Acetyl Xylan Esterases from Chaetomium thermophilum

    Tong, Xiaoxue; Lange, Lene; Grell, Morten Nedergaard


    been sequenced, its carbohydrate esterases are not annotated yet. We applied peptide pattern recognition (PPR) tool for sequence analysis of the C. thermophilum genome, and 11 carbohydrate esterase genes were discovered. Furthermore, we cloned and heterologously expressed two putative acetyl xylan...

  9. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; Khan, Ziauddin; Wang, Xue-wei; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Diepeningen, Anne; Menken, S. B. J.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cornely, Oliver; Hamprecht, Axel; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Kindo, A. J.; de Hoog, G. Sybren


    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important r

  10. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; Khan, Ziauddin; Wang, Xue-wei; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Diepeningen, Anne; Menken, S. B. J.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cornely, Oliver; Hamprecht, Axel; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Kindo, A. J.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important

  11. Chaetomium-like fungi causing opportunistic infections in humans: a possible role for extremotolerance

    Ahmed, S.A.; Khan, Z.; Wang, X.; Moussa, T.A.A.; Al-Zahrani, H.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.; Sutton, D.A.; Ahmad, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; van Diepeningen, A.; Menken, S.B.J.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Cornely, O.; Hamprecht, A.; Vehreschild, M.J.G.T.; Kindo, A.J.; de Hoog, G.S.


    Members of the family Chaetomiaceae are ubiquitous ascosporulating fungi commonly, which reside in soil enriched with manure or cellulosic materials. Their role as human pathogens is largely ignored. However, the ability of some species to grow at high temperature enables them to play an important

  12. Influence of soil saprophyte fungus Chaetomium cochliodes on associative system "Triticum aestivum – Azospirillum brasilense"

    E. P. Kopylov


    Full Text Available In laboratory and vegetative experiments the ability of soil ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 to promote the penetration of Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria into roots’ inner tissues was shown. At the same time the endophytic association: spring wheat – Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria – soil saprophyte ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 is forming. It allows activating the nitrogen fixation in the spring wheat roots zone and biosynthetic processes in plants, in particular: to raise glutamine synthetase activity, chlorophylls content in leaves and plants’ productivity.

  13. Survival of filamentous fungi in hypersaline Dead Sea water.

    Kis-Papo, T; Oren, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E


    A variety of filamentous fungi have recently been isolated from the Dead Sea (340 g/L total dissolved salts). To assess the extent to which such fungi can survive for prolonged periods in Dead Sea water, we examined the survival of both spores and mycelia in undiluted Dead Sea water and in Dead Sea water diluted to different degrees with distilled water. Mycelia of Aspergillus versicolor and Chaetomium globosum strains isolated from the Dead Sea remained viable for up to 8 weeks in undiluted Dead Sea water. Four Dead Sea isolates (A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Gymnascella marismortui, and C. globosum) retained their viability in Dead Sea water diluted to 80% during the 12 weeks of the experiment. Mycelia of all species survived for the full term of the experiment in Dead Sea water diluted to 50% and 10% of its original salinity. Comparison of the survival of Dead Sea species and closely related isolates obtained from other locations showed prolonged viability of the strains obtained from the Dead Sea. Spores of isolates obtained from the terrestrial shore of the Dead Sea generally proved less tolerant to suspension in undiluted Dead Sea water than spores of species isolated from the water column. Spores of the species isolated from the control sites had lost their viability in undiluted Dead Sea water within 12 weeks. However, with the exception of Emericella spores, which showed poor survival, a substantial fraction of the spores of Dead Sea fungal isolates remained viable for that period. The difference in survival rate between spores and mycelia of isolates of the same species points to the existence of adapted halotolerant and/or halophilic fungi in the Dead Sea.

  14. Marine Fish Proteins and Peptides for Cosmeceuticals: A Review

    Jayachandran Venkatesan


    Full Text Available Marine fish provide a rich source of bioactive compounds such as proteins and peptides. The bioactive proteins and peptides derived from marine fish have gained enormous interest in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries due to their broad spectrum of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-aging activities. Recently, the development of cosmeceuticals using marine fish-derived proteins and peptides obtained from chemical or enzymatical hydrolysis of fish processing by-products has increased rapidly owing to their activities in antioxidation and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived collagen has been utilized for the development of cosmeceutical products due to its abilities in skin repair and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived peptides have also been utilized for various cosmeceutical applications due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activities. In addition, marine fish-derived proteins and hydrolysates demonstrated efficient anti-photoaging activity. The present review highlights and presents an overview of the current status of the isolation and applications of marine fish-derived proteins and peptides. This review also demonstrates that marine fish-derived proteins and peptides have high potential for biocompatible and effective cosmeceuticals.

  15. Optimization of alkaline cellulase production by the marine-derived fungus Chaetomium sp. using agricultural and industrial wastes as substrates

    Ravindran, C; Naveenan, T.; Varatharajan, G.R.

    seed SSF conditions at 50 degrees C had higher stability and activity than under non-alkaline conditions (range tested: pH 5, 7, 12). The agricultural and industrial wastes used as carbon sources were economical for commercial production of cellulose...

  16. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species

    Vinod Mootha, V.; Shahinpoor, P.; Sutton, D.A.; Xin, L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.


    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the

  17. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species

    Vinod Mootha, V.; Shahinpoor, P.; Sutton, D.A.; Xin, L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.


    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the pati

  18. Organic neem compounds inhibit soft-rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas.

    Kelsey, D J; Nieto-Delgado, C; Cannon, F S; Brennan, R A


    To examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source. Azadirachtin, crude neem oil (NO), and clarified neem oil extract (CNO) were combined with copper to inhibit the growth of the soft-rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. A synergistic interaction was observed between CNO and a low dose of copper on nutrient media (two-factor anova with triplicate replication: P < 0·05). Interaction was confirmed on lab-scale collagen-lignin-anthracite briquettes by measuring their unconfined compressive (UC) strength. The effective collagen strength of the briquettes was enhanced by applying CNO to their surface prior to inoculation: the room temperature UC strength of the briquettes was 28 ± 4·6% greater when CNO (0·4 mg cm(-2) ) was surface-applied, and was 43 ± 3·0% greater when CNO plus copper (0·14 μg cm(-2) ) were surface-applied. Surface application of CNO and copper synergistically prevents fungal growth on bindered anthracite briquettes and increases their room temperature strength. This novel organic fungicidal treatment may increase the storage and performance of anthracite bricks in iron foundries, thereby saving 15-20% of the energy used in conventional coke production. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Detection of viable fungal spores contaminant on documents and rapid control of the effectiveness of an ethylene oxide disinfection using ATP assay.

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina S; Héraud, Cécile; Lavédrine, Bertrand


    Filamentous fungi are able to damage and even destroy archival and library materials. Nowadays the conventional method for detecting such micro-organisms is to put them in cultures but such methods are laborious and time-consuming. ATP methodology has been widely applied in other domains and its success on bacteria and yeast has been demonstrated. Several commercial reagent kits are available but they did not give satisfactory results on spores mould. We have elaborated new extraction strategies specific to fungi. A comparison of 42 extraction protocols of ATP from fungal spores was carried out. Extraction at 100 degrees C with DMSO 90% in a Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer proved to be the best method. The viability of cells is estimated by the determination of adenylate energy charge (EC). We applied our method successfully on well-known species such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Neosartorya fischeri, Eurotium chevalieri, Penicillium chrysogenum, Chaetomium globosum and Ulocladium spp. The results suggest that the ATP bioluminescence assay provides a sensitive and time-saving method for detecting viable fungal spores. The validity of the procedure was also tested on spores killed by steam and on spores treated with ethylene oxide. We showed that EC determination could be used for a rapid control of the effectiveness of a disinfection process performed with ethylene oxide.

  20. Potensi Cendawan Asal Tanah Perakaran Bambu Sebagai Endofit dan Agen Biokontrol Penyakit Akar Gada Pada Tanaman Brokoli

    . Asniah


    Full Text Available The potential of fungi from bamboo rhizosphic soils as endophytic and biocontrol agents of  clubroot disease (Plasmodiophora brassicae on Brocoli. Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is a serious soilborne disease of plants worldwide, capable of severe infection on broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower. Clubroot is the most destructive diseases on cruciferae in Indonesia.  The existing control measures, including biological control do not provide satisfactory result.  The objective of the study was to explore fungi from bamboo rhizospheric soils as endophytic that can suppress clubroot disease in broccoli.  There were two steps in this study: (1 exploration and identification of fungi from bamboo rhizospheric soils. (2 Effectiveness test of the fungi in suppressing clubroot disease.  There were four species of fungi as endophytes in brocoli in this study, e.g Aspergillus sp., Mortierella sp., Paecilomyces sp., and Chaetomium globosum. They had colonized broccoli root endophytically and suppressing clubroot disease.  Paecilomyces sp. of endophytic fungi can suppress clubroot diseases incidence for 18.75%.

  1. Cleavage of resveratrol in fungi: characterization of the enzyme Rco1 from Ustilago maydis.

    Brefort, Thomas; Scherzinger, Daniel; Limón, M Carmen; Estrada, Alejandro F; Trautmann, Danika; Mengel, Carina; Avalos, Javier; Al-Babili, Salim


    Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, contains two genes encoding members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family, a group of enzymes that cleave double bonds in different substrates. One of them, Cco1, was formerly identified as a β-carotene cleaving enzyme. Here we elucidate the function of the protein encoded by the second gene, termed here as Ustilago maydis Resveratrol cleavage oxygenase 1 (Um Rco1). In vitro incubations of heterologously expressed and purified UM Rco1 with different carotenoid and stilbene substrates demonstrate that it cleaves the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of the phytoalexin resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. Um Rco1 exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity, as suggested by the lack of activity on carotenoids and the other resveratrol-related compounds tested. The activity of Um Rco1 was confirmed by incubation of U. maydis rco1 deletion and over-expression strains with resveratrol. Furthermore, treatment with resveratrol resulted in striking alterations of cell morphology. However, pathogenicity assays indicated that Um rco1 is largely dispensable for biotrophic development. Our work reveals Um Rco1 as the first eukaryotic resveratrol cleavage enzyme identified so far. Moreover, Um Rco1 represents a subfamily of fungal enzymes likely involved in the degradation of stilbene compounds, as suggested by the cleavage of resveratrol by homologs from Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium globosum and Botryotinia fuckeliana.

  2. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Reiss, J. (Grahamhaus Stadt kg, Bad Kreuznach (Germany))


    The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from Germany was tested in surface cultures. The intensity of bioliquefaction was determined by estimating the rate of droplet formation and by measuring the loss of weight of the coal granules gravimetrically. The bituminous coals with a relative high degree of coalification were only moderately converted by Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju. The three species of Pleurotus caused the greatest rate of biosolubilization of lignite, yielding a loss of weight of the coal granules of more than 5.8% with a maximum of 7.6% with P. florida. The non-basidiomycetes proved to be less active with a liquefaction rate of up to 3.5% with Trichoderma viride. In general, the geologically younger lignite coals were more effectively solubilized than the older hard coals. The volatile matter and the oxygen content proved to be the principal factors influencing the intensity of bioconversion.

  3. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina


    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  4. Photodynamic activity of nanostructured fabrics grafted with xanthene and thiazine dyes against opportunistic fungi.

    Kim, Joo Ran; Michielsen, Stephen


    Fungi are an important class of human pathogens for which considerable research has gone into defeating them. The photodynamic effects of rose bengal (RB), phloxine B (PB), azure A (AA), and toluidine blue O (TBO) dyes to inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, and Chaetomium globosum were investigated grafted to nano- and micro-structured fabrics. Three antifungal tests conducted: broth microdilution test of free dyes, zone of inhibition and quantitative antifungal assays on fabrics grafted with dyes. In the broth microdilution test, free RB displayed the lowest MIC at 32 μM to inhibit visible hyphal growth and germination but the antifungal ability of MIC for other photosensitizers below 63 μM was insignificant. RB and PB showed lower MIC than AA and TBO. In the inhibition zone tests, nanostructured fabrics grafted with RB and PB did not display fungal growth on the surface. Most microstructured fabrics grafted with AA and TBO showed little inhibition. In quantitative antifungal assay, nanostructured fabrics grafted with RB has the largest inhibition rate on T. viride and the lowest inhibition rate on P. funiculosum and the results showed the increasing inhibition rate in the order of AA < TBO < PB < RB.

  5. Effect on microorganisms of volatile compounds released from germinating seeds.

    Schenck, S; Stotzky, G


    Volatile compounds evolved from germinating seeds of slash pine, bean, cabbage, corn, cucumber, and pea were evaluated for their ability to support growth of microorganisms in liquid mineral salts media lacking a carbon source. Growth of eight bacteria was measured turbidimetrically and of six fungi as dry weight of mycelium. Volatiles caused increased growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. radiobacter, Rhizobium japonicum, Mucor mucedo, Fusarium oxysporum f. conglutinans, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium vermiculatum but not of Sarcina lutea, Serratia marcescens, Chaetomium globosum, or Schizophyllum commune. Spores of Trichoderma viride showed higher germination in the presence of volatiles. Effects on growth were apparent only during the first 3 or 4 days after planting the seeds. Killed or dried seeds had no effect. The volatiles did not support microbial growth in the absence of nitrogen nor did they supply growth factors. Passing volatiles through KMnO4 or hydrazone reduced growth of the bacteria, indicating that oxidizable organic compounds, primarily aldehydes, were the active components. The volatiles were not absorbed by sterile soil, clay minerals, or water, but they were absorbed by non-steril soil and activated charcoal.

  6. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia


    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  7. The Chloroplast SRP Systems of Chaetosphaeridium globosum and Physcomitrella patens as Intermediates in the Evolution of SRP-Dependent Protein Transport in Higher Plants

    Ziehe, Dominik; Dünschede, Beatrix; Zenker, Mira; Funke, Silke; Nowaczyk, Marc M; Schünemann, Danja


      The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates the cotranslational targeting of membrane proteins and is a high affinity complex consisting of a SRP54 protein subunit (Ffh) and an SRP RNA...

  8. Production and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Raised Against Surface Antigens from Mycelium of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici: Evidence for an Extracellular Polyphenol Oxidase.

    Thornton, C R; Dewey, F M; Gilligan, C A


    ABSTRACT A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) of immunoglobulin class M (IgM) was raised against surface antigens from Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, recognized isolates of G. graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. avenae and G. graminis var. graminis. Characterization of the antigen by heat and protease treatments showed that the epitope recognized by the MAb was a protein. Antigen production was detected only in live mycelia. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the antigen was associated with both the broad melanized macrohyphae and hyaline mycelia of G. graminis var. tritici. Secretion of antigen into an aqueous minimal medium was promoted only by exposure of live mycelia to certain phenolic substrates, including monophenols ortho-, para-, and meta-cresol; 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid); and phenolic amino acid L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine (L-DOPA). Antigen secretion was not promoted by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) alanine (L-tyrosine). The MAb reacted strongly with purified enzyme laccase (polyphenol oxidase, EC but did not recognize purified tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase, EC Moreover, chemicals that bind to copper and inhibit copper-containing enzymes such as laccase completely inhibited antigen secretion in response to L-DOPA. The MAb was tested for specificity against a wide range of fungi, common yeast species, and gram positive and negative bacteria. It did not recognize antigens from a broad range of unrelated fungi, including Gliocladium roseum, Fusarium sp., Phoma exigua, Phialophora fastigiata, Penicillium crustosum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia carotae, R. oryzae, R. tuliparum, and Trichoderma viride, nor did it recognize surface antigens from yeasts or bacteria. The MAb cross-reacted with antigens from Botrytis spp., Chaetomium globosum, R. cerealis, and R. solani. However, secretion of antigen by R. solani and R. cerealis was not promoted by L

  9. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.


    against high concentrations of sodium chloride nor directly linked to thermophily. In C. thermophilum var. coprophilum three different trehalose hydrolyzing activities were eluted from a mono Q anion exchange column by sodium chloride concentrations of 0.10, 0.15 and 0.24 M, respectively....

  10. LC-MS based analysis of secondary metabolites from Chaetomium and Stachybotrys growth in indoor environments

    Dosen, Ina; Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog


    At leve og arbejde i svampeinficerede bygninger kan være skadelig - både med hensyn til helbredet og økonomien. Dette gælder især for hypersensitive, astmatikere og allergiske personer, der ofte oplever forværring af deres tilstand, når de befinder sig i et vådt, svampeinficeret indeklima. Mennesker som ellers er sunde kan også opleve negative helbredspåvirkninger såsom udslæt, hovedpine, svimmelhed og kronisk træthed. Under deres vækst på byggematerialer producere og frigiver svampene mange ...

  11. Monitoring the effects of different conservation treatments on paper-infecting fungi

    Michaelsen, Astrid; Pinzari, Flavia; Barbabietola, Nicoletta; Piñar, Guadalupe


    Fungi are among the most degradative organisms inducing biodeterioration of paper-based items of cultural heritage. Appropriate conservation measures and restoration treatments to deal with fungal infections include mechanical, chemical, and biological methods, which entail effects on the paper itself and health hazards for humans. Three different conservation treatments, namely freeze-drying, gamma rays, and ethylene oxide fumigation, were compared and monitored to assess their short- (one month, T1) and long-term (one year, T2) effectiveness to inhibit fungal growth. After the inoculation with fungi possessing cellulose hydrolysis ability — Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma viride, and Cladosporium cladosporioides — as single strains or as a mixture, different quality paper samples were treated and screened for fungal viability by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Results derived from both strategies were contradictory. Both gamma irradiation and EtO fumigation showed full efficacy as disinfecting agents when evaluated with cultivation techniques. However, when using molecular analyses, the application of gamma rays showed a short-term reduction in DNA recovery and DNA fragmentation; the latter phenomenon was also observed in a minor degree in samples treated with freeze-drying. When RNA was used as an indicator of long-term fungal viability, differences in the RNA recovery from samples treated with freeze-drying or gamma rays could be observed in samples inoculated with the mixed culture. Only the treatment with ethylene oxide proved negative for both DNA and RNA recovery. Therefore, DNA fragmentation after an ethylene oxide treatment can hamper future paleogenetic and archaeological molecular studies on the objects. PMID:24092956

  12. Microbial diversity and dynamics during the production of May bryndza cheese.

    Pangallo, Domenico; Saková, Nikoleta; Koreňová, Janka; Puškárová, Andrea; Kraková, Lucia; Valík, Lubomír; Kuchta, Tomáš


    paradoxus. The diversity of yeasts and fungi encompassed Alternaria alternata, "Ascomycete sp.", Aspergillus fumigatus, Beauveria brongniartii, Candida xylopsoci, C. inconspicua, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Debaromyces hansenii, Fomes fomentarius, Galactomyces candidus, Gymnoascus reesii, Chaetomium globosum, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Metarhizium anisopliae, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. camemberti, P. freii, P. polonicum, P. viridicatum, Pichia kudriavzevii, Sordaria alcina, Trichosporon lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica.

  13. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata


    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface.

  14. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies.

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T; Koponen, Ismo K; Kling, Kirsten I; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder


    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 10(7)CFU of fungi/m(3)air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor,Chaetomium globosum,Cladosporium herbarum,Penicillium brevicompactum,Penicillium camemberti,Penicillium chrysogenum,Penicillium commune,Penicillium glabrum,Penicillium olsonii,Penicillium rugulosum,Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition.

  15. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary; Friedman, Warren


    As part of the HUD American Healthy Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m2 in the bedroom plus 2 m2 in the living room of a nationally representative 1096 homes in the USA using the Mitest™ sampler. Five mg of sieved (300 µ pore, nylon mesh) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR for the 36 EPA Mold Panel Species. On this basis, an “environmental relative moldiness index” (ERMI) was created with values ranging from about -10 to 20 (lowest to highest). In order to try to reduce the cost of this analysis, the number of test species was reduced by selecting only those species with a national average concentration of 30 cell equivalents (CE) per mg dust or greater. Only 19 of 36 species met this criterion. (In 40% of the homes, an additional 46 species were quantified from the same dust sample. All of these species had average concentrations less than 30 CE per mg dust.) These 19 species were then categorized into two groups based on their coefficient of variation (CV). If the CV was > 9, the mold was placed in Category 1 (10/19) and the other molds were placed in Category 2 (9/19). Using these Categories, the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of three Category 2 molds (C. herbarum, A. alternata and C. cladosporioides Type 1) was subtracted from the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of the ten Category 1 molds (Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amsteldoami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum and Wallemia sebi). Assembling these values for the 1096 AHHS homes from lowest to highest produced the “American relative moldiness index” (ARMI). The correlation between the ERMI and ARMI values was 0.88. The ERMI or ARMI scales may be useful as a standard for mold exposure estimates in epidemiological studies.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A


    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  18. New on-line separation workflow of microbial metabolites via hyphenation of analytical and preparative comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Yan, Xia; Wang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Chang, Fang-Rong; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun


    Microbial metabolites represent an important source of bioactive natural products, but always exhibit diverse of chemical structures or complicated chemical composition with low active ingredients content. Traditional separation methods rely mainly on off-line combination of open-column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the multi-step and prolonged separation procedure might lead to exposure to oxygen and structural transformation of metabolites. In the present work, a new two-dimensional separation workflow for fast isolation and analysis of microbial metabolites from Chaetomium globosum SNSHI-5, a cytotoxic fungus derived from extreme environment. The advantage of this analytical comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) lies on its ability to analyze the composition of the metabolites, and to optimize the separation conditions for the preparative 2D-LC. Furthermore, gram scale preparative 2D-LC separation of the crude fungus extract could be performed on a medium-pressure liquid chromatograph×preparative high-performance liquid chromatography system, under the optimized condition. Interestingly, 12 cytochalasan derivatives, including two new compounds named cytoglobosin Ab (3) and isochaetoglobosin Db (8), were successfully obtained with high purity in a short period of time. The structures of the isolated metabolites were comprehensively characterized by HR ESI-MS and NMR. To be highlighted, this is the first report on the combination of analytical and preparative 2D-LC for the separation of microbial metabolites. The new workflow exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04414-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ... 44 8.6 1 ( DV547508 ) rbcmb0_000208 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA li... 44 8.6 1 ( DV547506 ) rbcmb0_...000206 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA li... 44 8.6 1 ( DV547503 ) rbcmb0_000203 Chaetomium cupreum mycel...ium cDNA li... 44 8.6 1 ( DV547502 ) rbcmb0_000202 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA... li... 44 8.6 1 ( DV547441 ) rbcmb0_000101 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA li... 44 8.6 1 ( DB915235 ) Idio

  20. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

    Siul D. Romero Velazquez


    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0863 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0863 ref|NP_689353.1| SecY-independent transporter protein [Chaetosphaeridium globo...sum] gb|AAM96630.1|AF494279_35 SecY-independent transporter protein [Chaetosphaeridium globosum] NP_689353.1 0.023 25% ...

  2. Acidic-alkaline ferulic acid esterase from Chaetomium thermophilum var. dissitum: Molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pilgaard, Bo


    to homogeneity and subsequently characterized. CtFae was active towards synthetic esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids, as well as towards wide range of p-nitrophenyl substrates. Its temperature and pH optima were 55 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. Enzyme rare features were broad pH optimum, high...

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04139-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available N PROGRESS *** f... 38 8.8 2 ( DV547337 ) rbcma0_005360 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA li... 34 9.1 2 ( DV...547434 ) rbcma0_005590 Chaetomium cupreum mycelium cDNA li... 34 9.1 2 ( BI067048 ) pgf1n.pk010.h1 normalize

  4. 内生真菌对菊花幼苗干旱胁迫生理的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Endophytic Fungi Infection on Water Stress of Seedlings of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 张凯; 叶宇成; 戴传超


    The water stress was simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi Botrytis sp.(C1) or Chaetomium globosum (C4) on Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.C.morifolium plantlets which were inoculated with C 1, C4 and cultured 60 days in the pots were stressed by 30% PEG6000 solution.SOD activity, POD activity, PAL activity, root activity, MDA content and soluble protein content were determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days after treatments, and the biomass of C.morifolium were also determined at 15 days after treatment.The results showed that the biomass of C 1, C4 group and the control reached 4.1, 4.4 and 3.3 g respectively, and all treatments got significant deviation (P < 0.05 ).With PEG treatment, the root activity and PAL activity of the control were more sensitive at the first period of PEG stress, while fungi treatment groups were stabled, and stress reactions were delayed by fungi treatment.MDA content of the two fungi treatments reached the peak values with PEG stress for 3 days, while the control continues increased and got the peak at 6 days with PEG treatment.When at the later period of the stress, root activity, PAL activity, and MDA content of all treatments had no significant deviation.POD activity and soluble protein content of all treatments were increased firstly and decreased then, but all treatments had no siginificant deviation.Endophytic fungi can increase the drought resistance of C.morifolium in a short period of water stress.%比较了内生葡萄孢菌(C1)和球毛壳菌(C4)菌株诱导下的菊花苗和对照菊花苗,经30%PEG6000胁迫不同天数后,叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性,叶片丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白含量,根系活力,以及胁迫15 d后菊花的总生物量.结果表明:PEG胁迫15 d后,Cl、C4处理和对照的生物量分别为4.1、4.4和3.3 g,差异达到显著水平.对照根系活力、PAL活性在胁迫前期迅速变化,接

  5. Effect of two kinds of endophytic fungi on salt resistance of Chrysanthemum morifolium%两株内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响

    刘晓珍; 宋文玲; 蔡信之; 戴传超


    目的 用NaCl模拟盐胁迫,研究接种内生真菌对菊花抗盐特性的影响.方法 采用盆栽试验,以与内生真菌葡萄孢(C1菌株)、球毛壳菌(C4菌株)共生培养的菊花为材料,研究不同浓度盐胁迫对不同处理组菊花生理指标的影响.结果 各处理组菊花根叶的含水量随着盐分胁迫的加重而降低,接菌处理组的根叶含水量减失程度比对照组小.各处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量均随NaCl浓度提高而增加,20 g/L NaCl时均达到最大值,接菌处理组SOD酶活力、可溶性蛋白量高于对照组,C4组高于C1组.POD酶活力均先升高后降低,15 g/LNaCl时各处理组POD酶活力达到最大值,C4、C1组POD酶活力分别比对照组高25.50%、1.35%.15 g/L NaCl处理时,C4组PAL活力约是对照组的7倍.结论 内生真菌增加了菊花的抗盐能力,C4组效果好于C1组.%Objective The NaCl stress conditions were simulated to study the effect of the endophytic fungi C1, C4 on antisalty characteristic of Chrysanthemum morifolium in the adverse circumstance.Methods Endophytic Botrytis sp.(C1) and Chaetomium globosum (C4) were inoculated to the C.morifolium plantlets which were planted in the pots in order to research the effects of salt stress on physiological indicators of C.morifolium.Results With the increase of NsCl concentration, the water content of root and leaf decreased in every group.The loss of root and leaf's water in fungi-treated group was smaller than that in the control group.SOD activities in every group increased with the increase of NaCl concentration, and achieved the peak value at 20 g/L NaCl.The SOD activity in fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group.Soluble protein of fungi-treated group was higher than that in the control group, and C4 group surpassed C 1 group.POD activity increased firstly and then decreased, and compared to the control group, the POD activities in C4 and C1 groups increased by 25.50% and 1.35

  6. Download this PDF file



    Jul 5, 2010 ... grain alcohol fermentation, malting and brewing, extraction of fruit and ..... cellulose hydrolyzing microorganism from the rumen of ruminants. Afri. ... gene from genomic DNA library of a thermophilic fungus Chaetomium.

  7. Fungal bis-Naphthopyrones as Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A


    Chaetochromin A (1) was isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of Chaetomium arcuatum (syn. Chaetomium virescens) (NRRL 25243 = IMI...86456) isolated from a soil sample collected in Lucknow, India.21 Talaroderxines A and B (2 and 3) were obtained from liquid cultures of a coprophilous... feeding chaetochromin-containing diet. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycotoxicol. 1982, 22−23. (35) Ito, Y.; Ohtsubo, K. Teratogenicity of oral chaetochromin, a

  8. A new species of Corybas (Orchidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    Kores, Paul


    Herba parva erecta, 1—3(—7) cm alta. Tuber globosum, 4—6 mm diam., albidum aut dilute brunneum, subtiliter villosum. Rhizomata atque pars subterranea albida. sparse villosa. Pars supraterranea caulis dilute viridis, glabra, ad basim per unicam vaginam tubularem inclusa. Vagina 8—12 mm longa, uninerv

  9. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities of common indoor fungi

    Andersen, Birgitte; Poulsen, Rehab; Hansen, Gustav Hammerich


    Moldy building materials, such as chip wood and gypsum, should be a good source for fungal strains with high production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Screening of 21 common indoor fungal strains showed, contrary to the expected, that the Chaetomium and Stachybotrys strains had little or no cellul......Moldy building materials, such as chip wood and gypsum, should be a good source for fungal strains with high production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Screening of 21 common indoor fungal strains showed, contrary to the expected, that the Chaetomium and Stachybotrys strains had little...

  10. Fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato%连作马铃薯根际土壤真菌种群结构及其生物效应

    孟品品; 刘星; 邱慧珍; 张文明; 张春红; 王蒂; 张俊莲; 沈其荣


    numbers of dominant fungal populations in rhizosphere soil. Also with the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the similarity of the fungal population structure among the treatments had a gradual decrease. The sequencing of the fungal DGGE bands showed that with the increasing year of continuous cropping, the numbers of the potato' s rhizosphere soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxys-porum and F. solani increased obviously, while the number of Chaetomium globosum, as a biocon-trol species, had a marked decrease in the fifth year of continuous cropping. It was suggested that potato' s continuous cropping caused the pathogen fungal populations become the dominant microbi-al populations in rhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment deteriorated, which in turn affected the root system, making the root vigor and its absorption area reduced, and ultimately, the tuber yield decreased markedly.

  11. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib;


    melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins...

  12. Five new records of thermotolerant fungi from China%耐热真菌五个中国新记录种

    张勇; 李多川


    Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence of ribosomal DNA-ITS, five new records of thermotolerant fungi are reported, they are: Trichoderma ghanense, Neosartorya fennelliae, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chaetomium jodhpurense, Chaetomium luteum. Illustrated descriptions of the species were given according to the Chinese strains, and the taxonomy of these species was discussed. Specimens and living cultures examined are deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University, Plant Pathology (HSAUP).%通过形态特征观察、rDNA-ITS序列测定及分析,报道5个耐热真菌中国新记录种,即加纳木霉Trichoderma ghanense,芬尼新萨托菌Neosartorya fennelliae,草莓状炭团菌Hypoxylon fragiforme,焦特普尔毛壳Chaetomium jodhpurense,黄色毛壳Chaetomium luteum.根据所采集的标本和菌种对这些种进行了描述和讨论.研究标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).

  13. Farrowia, a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae

    Hawksworth, D.L.


    The new genus Farrowia D. Hawksw. is described to accommodate Chaetomium longicolleum Krzem. & Badura and C. longirostre (Farrow) L. Ames, species formerly incorrectly referred to Chaetoceratostoma Turc. & Maffei. These two species are united under the name F. longicollea (Krzem. & Badura) D. Hawksw

  14. Isolation and characterization of two mitoviruses and a putative alphapartitivirus from Fusarium spp.

    Osaki, Hideki; Sasaki, Atsuko; Nomiyama, Koji; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tomioka, Keisuke; Takehara, Toshiaki


    The filamentous fungus Fusarium spp. includes several important plant pathogens. We attempted to reveal presence of double-stranded (ds) RNAs in the genus. Thirty-seven Fusarium spp. at the MAFF collection were analyzed. In the strains of Fusarium coeruleum, Fusarium globosum and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, single dsRNA bands were detected. The strains of F. coeruleum and F. solani f. sp. pisi cause potato dry rot and mulberry twig blight, respectively. Sequence analyses revealed that dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum consisted of 2423 and 2414 bp, respectively. Using the fungal mitochondrial translation table, the positive strands of these cDNAs were found to contain single open reading frames with the potential to encode a protein of putative 757 and 717 amino acids (molecular mass 88.5 and 84.0 kDa, respectively), similar to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the genus Mitovirus. These dsRNAs in F. coeruleum and F. globosum were assigned to the genus Mitovirus (family Narnaviridae), and these two mitoviruses were designated as Fusarium coeruleum mitovirus 1 and Fusarium globosum mitovirus 1. On the other hand, a positive strand of cDNA (1950 bp) from dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi contained an ORF potentially encoding a putative RdRp of 608 amino acids (72.0 kDa). The putative RdRp was shown to be related to those of members of the genus of Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae). We coined the name Fusarium solani partitivirus 2 for dsRNA in F. solani f. sp. pisi.

  15. Cellulolytic activity of some cellulose-decomposing fungi in salinized soils

    R. A. Badran


    Full Text Available Maximum evolution of CO2 was marked in control soil inoculated by tested fungi but its rate decreased with the increasing salinity. The period of 10 days was most suitable for cellulose degradation by A. niger and P. chrysoecnum and 15 days by A. flavus and C. globosum in control soil. High salinity levels affected greatly the cellulolylic activities of tesled fungi. Carbon content of saline soils increased white the nitrogen content decreased.

  16. 中国耐热真菌三个新记录种%Three new records of thermotolerant fungi from China

    张勇; 李多川


    报道3个耐热真菌中国新记录种,瘤突毛壳Chaetomium strumarium,耐热梭孢壳Thielavia subthermophila,榛色钩囊菌Hamigera avellanea.根据所采集的标本和菌种对这些种进行了描述和讨论.研究标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).%Three new Chinese records of thermotolerant fungi are reported,they are Chaetomium strumarium,Thielavia subthermophila and Hamigera avellanea.Illustrated descriptions of the species were given according to our strains,and their taxonomy was discussed.Specimens and living cultures examined arc deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University,Plant Pathology(HSAUP).

  17. Construction and Identification of Plasmid pTA-TUB2


    An about 1.40 Kb target gene fragment was yielded by PCR amplification with the plasmid pRB 129,which was identified by restriction enzyme digestion that the PCR product was TU B2 gene.The gene was digested by the restriction enzyme and was linked with pTA plasmid to construct pTA-TU B2 plasmid.The plasmid was transformed into Chaetomium PEG method and the transformation rate was 27/(2×105) and it is nine times higher than that of pRB 129.The transformants can grow on the PDA containing 1 000 μg*mL-1 carbendazim,which is 1 000 times higher than the original Chaetomium spp.The resistance was stable after 10 times transfer on non-selective medium.

  18. Insight into structure and assembly of the nuclear pore complex by utilizing the genome of a eukaryotic thermophile

    Amlacher, Stefan; Sarges, Phillip; Flemming, Dirk;


    Despite decades of research, the structure and assembly of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which is composed of ~30 nucleoporins (Nups), remain elusive. Here, we report the genome of the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (ct) and identify the complete repertoire of Nups therein. The the......Despite decades of research, the structure and assembly of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which is composed of ~30 nucleoporins (Nups), remain elusive. Here, we report the genome of the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (ct) and identify the complete repertoire of Nups therein....... The thermophilic proteins show improved properties for structural and biochemical studies compared to their mesophilic counterparts, and purified ctNups enabled the reconstitution of the inner pore ring module that spans the width of the NPC from the anchoring membrane to the central transport channel. This module...... of a thermophilic eukaryote for studying complex molecular machines....

  19. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.


    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all......., alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species...

  20. Gene Cloning and Protein Structural Studies of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme Gene from Inonotus hispidus%粗毛纤孔菌糖苷水解酶5基因克隆及蛋白质结构分析

    刘晓晗; 王峰; 董爱荣; 陈俏丽; 刘立宏; 零雅茗; 王博文; 丁晓霞; 王世新


    . The whole length of the gene from the 3‘end to the 5 ’end was 1 727 bp. GenBank accession number of the gene was KM368321. The amino acid sequence encoded by this gene contains 300 amino acids,the molecular weight is 31. 226 55 kD,and the isoelectric point ( pI) is 9. 24. Domain structure analysis showed that IhGH5 -1 has a conservative catalytic domain structure. The maximum likelihood tree showed that a closer relationship with the other glycoside hydrolase family 5 homologous was from fungus of Ascomycota,such as Thielavia terrestris and Chaetomium globosum. The three-dimensional comparison showed that three-dimensional structure of IhGH5 -1 had seven alpha helixs,four beta foldings. It was found that the structure was similar with other fungal glycoside hydrolase family 5 protein spatial structures,and evolutionary relationships were consistent with the maximum likelihood tree analysis. The gene expression and enzymatic assays showed that the product of this gene had the highest relative activity at 65℃.[Conclution]The gene cloning and protein structural study of IhGH5 -1 would be a theoretical basis for industrial application of this enzyme.%【目的】克隆得到粗毛纤孔菌糖苷水解酶5基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学分析、蛋白质原核表达和酶活研究,为糖苷水解酶的利用提供依据。【方法】分离纯化粗毛纤孔菌,并于 PDA斜面长期保存。应用 TRIzol提取粗毛纤孔菌总 RNA,通过 AMV反转录系统将 RNA 反转录成 cDNA,构建 cDNA 文库;应用 NCBI BLAST 分析并检测糖苷水解酶基因家族5阳性序列,RACE法克隆基因全长命名为 IhGH5-1并提交 NCBI注册; ORF-Finder分析IhGH5-1基因开放阅读框,推导出氨基酸序列;筛选 NCBI登录的糖苷水解酶家族5同源序列,Clustal W 进行保守结构域区段多序列比对;应用 Mega 5.05选用 WAG+G模型构建最大似然树;应用 PSIPRED server对 IhGH5-1进行α螺旋和β折叠的蛋

  1. The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M


    The keratinophilic fungi of 40 sewage sludge samples from Upper Egypt were studied using a goat hair-baiting technique. 43 species representing 22 genera were isolated, 17 species of which were dermatophytes and closely related fungi: Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. asperatum, C. georgii, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pseudomerdarium, C. queenslandicum, Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium, C. tropicum, Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum, Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus novoguineensis, M. vellerea and Trichophyton terrestre. 26 species of cycloheximide resistant fungi were collected and these included members of Acremonium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Penicillium and others.

  2. Distribution frequency and incidence of seed-borne pathogens of some cereals and industrial crops in Serbia

    Jelena Lević; Slavica Stankоvić; Vesna Krnjaja; Aleksandra Bočarov-Stančić; Dragica Ivanović


    A total of 41 species of fungi were isolated from seed samples of barley, maize, soybean, and sunflower collected at different locations in Serbia. The majority of detected species occurred on barley (35 of 41 species or 87.8%) comparing to soybean (17 of 41 species or 41.5%), sunflower (16 of 41 species or 39.0%) and maize (15 of 41 species or 36.9%). Species belonging to genera Alternaria, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were present on seeds of all four plant spec...

  3. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

    Maria Kowalik


    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  4. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M


    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  5. Osmoregulatory and tegumental ultrastructural damages to protoscoleces of hydatid cysts Echinococcus granulosus induced by fungal endophytes.

    Verma, Vijay C; Gangwar, Mayank; Nath, Gopal


    Characteristic ultrastructural changes were observed when protoscoleces of hydatid cysts Echinococcus granulosus was treated with extract of endophytic fungi Eupenicillium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from Azadirachta indica and Piper longum plants respectively. A sharp decrease in viability of protoscoleces was observed after 6 h of incubation with fungal extracts. The ultrastructural changes included rosteller disorganization, loss of hooks and shedding of the microtriches of scolex region. The formation of digitiform projections on tegument layer which, increased in size as prolong incubation with extract and get burst, leading to a osmoregulatory damage into tegumental layers of parasite. This osmoregulatory damages caused the loss of turgidity due to leakage of cell contents, which might be the major cause of the mortality in treated parasites. It is remarkable, since very similar type of ultrastructural changes were observed with some pyrazinoisoquinoline derivatives, as praziquantel. Our initial results indicate that extract of endophytic Eupenicillium and Chaetomium spp. are having significant anti-cestodal activity and have selective activity on tegument layer. Further chemical prospection is required through rigorous bioassay guided fractionation coupled with robust high resolution mass spectrometric analysis to get final stereo-structures responsible for the parasiticidal activity. This initial strain selection outcome will serve a platform for isolation and characterization of new drug lead that can be useful in tailoring novel, safe and effective anthelmintics.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Madurella mycetomatis confirms its taxonomic position within the order Sordariales.

    Wendy W J van de Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Madurella mycetomatis is the most common cause of human eumycetoma. The genus Madurella has been characterized by overall sterility on mycological media. Due to this sterility and the absence of other reliable morphological and ultrastructural characters, the taxonomic classification of Madurella has long been a challenge. Mitochondria are of monophyletic origin and mitochondrial genomes have been proven to be useful in phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a mycetoma-causative agent was sequenced using 454 sequencing. The mitochondrial genome of M. mycetomatis is a circular DNA molecule with a size of 45,590 bp, encoding for the small and the large subunit rRNAs, 27 tRNAs, 11 genes encoding subunits of respiratory chain complexes, 2 ATP synthase subunits, 5 hypothetical proteins, 6 intronic proteins including the ribosomal protein rps3. In phylogenetic analyses using amino acid sequences of the proteins involved in respiratory chain complexes and the 2 ATP synthases it appeared that M. mycetomatis clustered together with members of the order Sordariales and that it was most closely related to Chaetomium thermophilum. Analyses of the gene order showed that within the order Sordariales a similar gene order is found. Furthermore also the tRNA order seemed mostly conserved. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic analyses of fungal mitochondrial genomes confirmed that M. mycetomatis belongs to the order of Sordariales and that it was most closely related to Chaetomium thermophilum, with which it also shared a comparable gene and tRNA order.

  7. 海南菠萝几种叶部真菌病害研究%Study on Several Fungal Leaf Diseases of Pineapple of Hainan

    罗志文; 范鸿雁; 李向宏; 刘银叶; 华敏; 王祥和; 余乃通; 周文静; 何凡


    对海南5个菠萝产区菠萝叶部真菌病害进行了调查研究.结果表明,共有6种真菌病害发生较普遍,危害较重,分别由胶孢炭疽菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides、画眉草弯孢菌Curvularia eragrostidis、刺环裂壳孢菌Annellolacinia dinemasporioides、掌状拟盘多毛孢菌Pestalotiopsis palmarum、喙状凸脐蠕孢菌Exserohilum rostratum和金色毛壳菌Chaetomium aureum引起,其中喙状凸脐蠕孢菌 E.rostratum和金色毛壳菌C.aureum为我国首次报道.本文同时对6种病害的发病症状和病原形态进行了初步描述.%The fungal diseases on pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. ) Merr. ) leaf were primarily investigated in 5 producing regions of Hainan. The result showed that 6 kinds of fungal leaf diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cwvularia eragrostidis, Annellolacinia dinemasporioidcs, Pestalotiopsis palmarum, Exxrohilum rostratum and Chaetomium aureum, respectively, were found to widely occur and had severe harm here, and the E. rostratum and C. aureum were firstly reported on pineapple in China. Besides, the symptoms and pathogen morphology of 6 kinds of fungal leaf diseases were primarily described.

  8. 一幅霉变书画的扫描电镜分析%Scanning electron microscopic analysis of a mold-contaminated painting



    利用扫描电镜分析一幅霉变清代书画样品上菌落的表面结构和形貌,明确了污染书画上的霉菌为毛壳菌。通过对纸张纤维超微结构分析显示:毛壳菌对纸张纤维结构的破坏作用不容忽视。此研究为后期文物的修复和保存提供了超微形态学依据。%The ultra⁃morphology of fungi on the contaminated sample from a Qing dynasty painting was examined by using digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fungi belongs to Chaetomium species. The analysis of paper fiber structure suggests that Chaetomium species have devastating effect on paper which cannot be overlooked in any cases. The results provide ultramicroscopic morphology evidence for future conservation and restoration of paintings.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae essential oil and beta-pinene on the growth of dematiaceous moulds Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae e beta-pineno sobre o crescimento de fungos dematiáceos

    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira


    Full Text Available Dematiaceous moulds are pathogen microorganisms able to act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oil and beta-pinene in inhibiting the growth of various strains of dematiaceous moulds (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia sp., Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Antimicrobial assays were led by determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC using the solid medium diffusion procedure and observing the interference of the MIC values on the mould radial mycelial growth along 14 days. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil oscillated between 63 and 125 µL/mL. beta-pinene showed MIC value of 125 µL/mL for the most mould strains, however C. resinae and C. globosum were resistant to it in all assayed concentrations. MIC values found to C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene presented intense fungicidal effect noted by a total inhibition of the mycelial growth of C. cladosporioides and F. compacta along 14 days of exposure. These results showed the intense antimould potential of C. zeylanicum essential oil and beta-pinene which could be regarded in a rational use in pharmaceutical formulations used to treat some mycoses, particularly, those caused by dematiaceous moulds.Os fungos dematiáceos são microrganismos patogênicos capazes de agir como agentes etiológicos de micoses com diferentes graus de severidade. Este estudo avaliou a efetividade do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e beta-pineno em inibir o crescimento de várias cepas de fungos dematiáceos (Alternaria brassicola, Cladosporium herbarium, C. resinae, C. cladosporioides, Chaetomum globosum, Curvularia, Fonsecaea compacta, Piedraia hortae. Os ensaios antimicrobianos foram conduzidos através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima-CIM utilizando-se da t


    Manuela Elena Concioiu


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of several Acer varieties: Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum' and Acer platanoides 'Crimson King', 'Drummondii' and 'Globosum', during the first subculture of the in vitro multiplication phase. There were used explants from the initiation phase and passed on the multiplication nutrient media. The nutrient media tested were MS, DKW and WPM and each had a different content of growth hormones. In order to determine the multiplication rate, was tested the influence of zeatin and thidiazuron, in concentration of 1.5 mg/l, on a constant level of indole-butyric acid (0.5 mg/l. In the growing chamber were a constant temperature and a photoperiod of 14 hours light/24 hours, at a luminosity of 2500 lux. From the observations and registered data was determined the multiplication rate (microshoots/explant for the four genotypes.

  11. The morphological identification ofProtoperidinium (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) species on the coasts of China

    LI Ruixiang; PAN Yulong; SUN Huiying; LI Yan; MA Xin; WANG Yan


    The classification and identification forProtoperidinium species are the most difficult work during its taxonomic study. In this research, taxonomic status ofProtoperidinium was clarified by tracing its taxonomic history, 23 species belong to genusProtoperidinium on the coasts of China were preliminarily identified, and morphological description and plate patterns were given for each species. The key differences of similar species were also discussed in this study, we believe thatP. oceanicum andP. murry,P. tumidum andP. fatulipes,P. globules andP. majus are separate species;P. diabolum should be treated as the valid name instead of the reported names Peridinium globosum orPeridinium longipes; the taxonomic relationship betweenP. punctulatum andP. subinerme requires further study.

  12. Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M


    In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Fungi in Wild Orchid Mycorrhiza%野生兰科植物菌根内生真菌分离及鉴定

    吴剑丙; 朱江敏; 白坚; 李玉婷; 张克铭; 王慧中


    利用石蜡切片技术对实验室收集保存的25种野生兰科植物的菌根结构进行显微观察,并采用常规分离方法,对内生真菌进行分离及菌落形态和分子生物学鉴定.结果表明:实验室保存的兰科植物具有典型的菌根形态;从菌根中共分离获得82株真菌菌株,分属于镰孢属(Fusarium Link)、毛壳属(Chaetomium Kunze exFr.)和木霉属(Trichoderma Persoon)等11属,其中镰孢属真菌占70.7%.

  14. Microbiology and foodborne pathogens in honey.

    Grabowski, N T; Klein, G


    Honey has been considered a relatively safe foodstuff due to its compositional properties, with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum being the most prominent health risk associated with it. Our review is focused on the honey microflora along the food chain and evaluates the pathogenic potential of those microorganisms found in honey. This product may contain a great variety of bacteria and, particularly, fungi that eventually entered the food chain at an early stage (e.g., via pollen). For many of these microorganisms, opportunistic infections in humans have been recorded (e.g., infections by Staphylococcus spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Chaetomium spp.), although direct infections via honey were not registered.

  15. Hydrodynamics in bubble column bioreactors with fermentation broths having a yield stress

    Kawase, Y.; Moo-Young, M.


    The hydrodynamics in a bubble column bioreactor with fermentation broths having a yield stress are studied. Specifically, the liquid velocity at the reactor axis, the axial dispersion coefficient, and the gas hold-up are examined. The liquid velocity at the reactor axis and the gas hold-up are measured in a 40-l bench-scale bubble column fermentor using carboxypolymethylene (Carbopol) aqueous solutions as simulated broths. Theoretical correlations for the liquid velocity at the reactor axis, the axial dispersion coefficient, and the gas hold-up are derived on the basis of an energy balance and the mixing length theory. The correlations are compared with the present data and a reasonable agreement is found. The theoretical predictions are also in satisfactory agreement with the re-examined data for actual fermentation broths which are Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Neurospora sitophila cultured in a 1000-l pilot-plant scale airlift fermentor.

  16. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings.

    Yli-Pirilä, Terhi; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Hänninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino


    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n = 124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings.



    The fungal communities in mushroom compost phase Ⅱ was assessed using a combination of PCR amplification and sequencing of 18S rDNA from fungal isolates and "nested" PCR-TGGE analysis on the basis of DNA directly extracted from compost samples. The diversity of cultivated fungi isolated from compost samples was low. A total of 11 isolates were related to only 2 different species. One species, Chaetomium elatum, was identified within 10 isolates, and the other, with high similarity belonged to Penicillium expansum. The fungal flora associated with mushroom compost was then monitored with "nested" PCR-TGGE. The patterns obtained revealed the more complex existence of fungal communities from the original compost samples than from thoses enriched with food waste and cow slurry.

  18. Búsqueda y selección de una proteasa fúngica con potencial aplicación en la restauración de documentos históricos en el Archivo de Bogotá

    Carlos Alberto Cruz Ramírez


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Screening for a fungal protease with potential in the biorestoration of historical valuable documents in Bogota Archive Resumen: Se ha buscado y seleccionado sistemáticamente una proteasa que pudiese ser usada en la eliminación “limpia” de encolantes sobre soportes documentales con valor de patrimonio histórico de forma eficiente y económica, a partir de la colección de hongos filamentosos del Archivo de Bogotá. De 74 morfotipos viables evaluados sobre placas selectivas, 32 morfotipos presentaron formación de halos de hidrólisis evidentes sobre placas diferenciales. De ellos, se evaluó el perfil isoenzimático de 8 morfotipos provenientes de muestreos documentales directos y de 2 morfotipos proteolíticos promisorios provenientes de un trabajo previo. Los 10 morfotipos seleccionados fueron representativos de los géneros Penicillium, Stachybotrys, Chaetomium, y Eladia. Luego de inducir la producción de proteasas extracelulares en medios líquidos diferenciales bajo tres fases de fermentación, se realizaron isoelectroénfoques analíticos tendientes a la observación de isoformas en el gradiente de pH establecido (3.0-10.0. Solo los morfotipos 8D (Chaetomium sp. y 21D (Eladia saccula presentaron una isoforma alcalina extrema, de puntos isoeléctricos 8.5 y 8.8, respectivamente, susceptible de selección con miras a su purificación y caracterización parcial de forma económica y eficiente. Los demás morfotipos, representativos de los géneros Penicillium sp., y Stachybotrys sp., presentaron unicamente isoformas proteolíticas en el rango acido de pH con puntos isoeléctricos que oscilan entre 4.0 y 5.0. Palabras clave: biodeterioro; hongo filamentoso; proteasa; halo de hidrólisis; punto isoeléctrico. Abstract: Studies on a protease as an efficient, environmental friendly and relatively economical remover of residual proteins for

  19. Fungos endofíticos em Annona spp.: isolamento, caracterização enzimática e promoção do crescimento em mudas de pinha (Annona squamosa L. Endophytic fungi of Annona spp.: isolation, enzymatic characterization of isolates and plant growth promotion in Annona squamosa L. seedlings

    Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva


    Full Text Available A partir de folhas, caules e raízes de plantas de pinha e graviola coletadas em Pernambuco foram obtidos 110 e 90 isolados fúngicos endofíticos, respectivamente. Vinte e nove isolados foram selecionados e avaliados quanto à produção de enzimas extracelulares, através do método qualitativo em placas com meios sólidos específicos, e à capacidade de estimular o crescimento de mudas de pinha. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes aos gêneros Acremonium (10,34%, Aspergillus (3,45%, Chaetomium (3,45%, Colletotrichum (10,34%, Cylindrocladium (13,8%, Fusarium (31,03%, Glomerella (3,45%, Nigrospora (6,9%, Penicillium (6,9% e Phomopsis (10,34%. Dezenove isolados apresentaram atividade lipolítica, cinco atividade proteolítica e nenhum deles atividades celulolítica ou amilolítica. Onze isolados dos gêneros Acremonium (GFR6 e GRR1, Colletotrichum (GFR4 e PFR4, Phomopsis (PFR3 e GCR4, Cylindrocladium (GRR4, Chaetomium (GRR7 e Fusarium (GRR5, PRR1 e PRR6 promoveram eficientemente o crescimento vegetal. Os índices de aumento da biomassa seca da parte aérea de mudas de pinha variou de 23,2 a 32,7%, sendo que nenhum isolado promoveu a biomassa seca da raiz. Destaca-se também que 20 isolados apresentaram efeito deletério significativo (P = 0,05 na biomassa seca da raiz das mudas de pinha. Em tecidos aparentemente sadios de plantas de pinha e graviola são encontrados alguns fungos que podem promover o crescimento da parte aérea, como também reduzir o crescimento da raiz e outros sem efeito no crescimento de mudas de pinha.Endophytic isolates of fungi were obtained from leaves, stems and roots of 110 sweetsop and 90 soursop plants from Pernambuco. Twenty-nine isolates were analyzed for production of extracellular enzymes by qualitative assay in Petri dishes containing specific solid media, and for the capacity to promote growth of sweetsop seedlings. These isolates were identified as Acremonium (10.34%, Aspergillus (3


    Ľubomír Rybárik


    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  1. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of a ciliate assemblage in a warm-monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico Dinámica temporal y espacial de la comunidad de ciliados en un lago monomíctico-cálido Alchichica (Puebla, México

    Miroslav Macek


    Full Text Available The distribution of the ciliate assemblage was surveyed along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico from June 2003 to October 2006 (monthly. DAPI staining was employed to count ciliates while the Quantitative Protargol Staining was used for their identification. Peritrichs often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage; a maximum of 54 cells ml-1 (Rhabdostyla sp. was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana, cyanobacterial (Nodularia sp. bloom and its decay. Minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella and a haptorid, Belonophrya pelagica occasionally dominated the epilimnion while mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos and Pelagothrix sp. were important round the oxycline along with haptorids, particularly Phialina sp. Scuticociliates Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans, and anaerobic ciliates Isocyclidium globosum and Caenomorpha sp. dominated within the hypolimnetic assemblages.De junio de 2003 a diciembre de 2006 se estudió mensualmente la distribución de la comunidad de ciliados en el gradiente de profundidades del Lago Alchichica (Puebla, México, un lago cráter, tipo maar, atalasohalino de comportamiento monomíctico-cálido. La tinción de DAPI fue empleada para el recuento de los ciliados y la tinción de protargol cuantitativa para su identificación. Frecuentemente los ciliados perítricos dominaron numéricamente la comunidad. Al final del periodo de estratificación y durante el desarrollo de las diatomeas (Cyclotella alchichicana y el florecimiento y posterior decaimiento de las cianobacterias filamentosas (Nodularia sp., se observó un máximo de 54 cél. ml-¹ de Rhabdostyla sp. en la superficie del lago. Los espirotricos pequeños (particularmente Halteria grandinella y los haptóridos como Belonophrya pelagica, dominaron ocasionalmente en el epilimnion, mientras que los

  2. RAPD and ISSR Methods Used for Fingerprinting of Selected Accessions of Viburnum



    Full Text Available Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate genetic variability within thirteen Viburnum species (Viburnum × hillieri; V. dilatatum; Viburnum × carlcephalum; V. opulus; V. hupehense; Viburnum× bodnantense; Viburnum × burkwoodii; V. sieboldii; Viburnum × globosum ‘Jermyns Globe’; V. alnifolium (lantanoides; V. plicatum ‘Sterile’; V. plicatum f. tomentosum and V. plicatum ‘Watanabe’ of wide geographical distribution, collected in the Dendrological Garden in Przelewice (the north-west part of Poland. Twenty-three RAPD and fourteen ISSR primers generated a total of 690 and 418 reproducible bands, respectively, and 39% (RAPD and 55.5% (ISSR of them were polymorphic for the two marker systems, which suggest high genetic variability within Viburnum genus. However, high numbers of genotype-specific bands, i.e. 60.9% (RAPD and 44.5% (ISSR, were seen in Viburnum. Genetic similarity assessed within Viburnum species with the RAPD and ISSR analyses ranged from 6 to 42% and from 6 to 31%, respectively. Both RAPD and ISSR-based dendrograms clustered in five main groups. The Mantel test between two Nei’s similarity matrices gave correlation coefficient r=0.305*, showing low correlation between RAPD- and ISSR- based matrices. Thus, both marker systems were equally important for the genetic diversity analysis in Viburnum genus.

  3. Characterization of fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases purified from Bifidobacterium species.

    Grill, J P; Crociani, J; Ballongue, J


    Fructose 6 phosphate phosphoketolases (F6PPKs) were purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536, B. dentium ATCC 27534, B. globosum ATCC 25864, and Bifidobacterium animalis ATCC 25527. Concerning ions (Cu++, Zn++, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Co++, Mn++) and common enzyme inhibitors (fructose, ammonium sulfate, iodoacetate, and parachloromercuribenzoic acid), no difference appeared between the enzymes. Cu++, parachloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB), and mercuric acetate induced high enzymatic inhibition. The study of pCMB demonstrated a noncompetitive inhibition. Additional results showed that the sulfhydryl group was not involved in catalytic reaction. Photooxidation experiments and determination of ionizable group pKas (5.16-7.17) suggested the presence of one or more histidines necessary for the catalytic reaction and explained the inhibition observed with pCMB. In light of the noncompetitive inhibition, this group was not directly involved in substrate binding. Determination of Km demonstrated that the affinities for fructose 6 phosphate in the case of animal and human origin strains were close. In addition, the same enzymatic efficiency (Kcat/Km) was obtained for each strain. The F6PPK activity was regulated by sodium pyrophosphate, ATP, and especially by ADP.

  4. Phantom spiders 2: More notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Breitling, Rainer


    = Pardosa luctinosa Simon, 1876 syn. nov.; Pardosa wagleri atra (Giebel, 1869 nomen oblitum = Pardosa saturatior Simon, 1937 syn. nov.; Poecilochroa hungarica Kolosváry, 1934 = Aphantaulax trifasciata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872 syn. nov.; Philaeus albovariegatus (Simon, 1868 = Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761 syn. nov.; Philaeus superciliosus Bertkau, 1883 = Sandalodes superbus (Karsch, 1878 syn. nov.; Philaeus varicus (Simon, 1868 = Carrhotus xanthogramma (Latreille, 1819 syn. conf.; Salticus unispinus (Franganillo, 1910 = Pellenes nigrociliatus (Simon, 1875 syn. nov.; Sitticus manni (Doleschall, 1852 nomen oblitum = Heliophanus melinus L. Koch, 1867 syn. nov.; Sitticus sexsignatus (Franganillo, 1910 = Sitticus floricola (C. L. Koch, 1837 syn. nov.; Steatoda latrodectoides (Franganillo, 1913 = Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1805 syn. nov.; Synema globosum clarum Franganillo, 1913, Synema globosum flavum Franganillo, 1913 and Synema globosum pulchellum Franganillo, 1926 = Synema globosum (Fabricius, 1775 syn. nov.; Uloborus pseudacanthus Franganillo, 1910 = Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806 syn. nov.; Zelotes similis hungaricus Kolosváry, 1944 = Zelotes similis (Kulczyński, 1887 syn. nov.; Zilla diodia embrikstrandi Kolosváry, 1938 = Zilla diodia (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. nov.; Zygiella x-notata chelata (Franganillo, 1909 and Zygiella x-notata parcechelata (Franganillo, 1909 = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Teutana grossa obliterata Franganillo, 1913 = Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838 syn. nov.

  5. Synthesis of Antifungal Agents from Xanthene and Thiazine Dyes and Analysis of Their Effects

    Joo Ran Kim


    Full Text Available Indoor fungi growth is an increasing home health problem as our homes are more tightly sealed. One thing that limits durability of the antifungal agents is the scarcity of reactive sites on many surfaces to attach these agents. In order to increase graft yield of photosensitizers to the fabrics, poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene sulfonic acid-co-vinyl benzyl rose bengal or phloxine B were polymerized and then grafted to electrospun fabrics. In an alternative process, azure A or toluidine blue O were grafted to poly(acrylic acid, which was subsequently grafted to nanofiber-based and microfiber-based fabrics. The fabrics grafted with photosensitizers induced antifungal effects on all seven types of fungi in the order of rose bengal > phloxine B > toluidine blue O > azure A, which follows the quantum yield production of singlet oxygen for these photoactive dyes. Their inhibition rates for inactivating fungal spores decreased in the order of P. cinnamomi, T. viride, A. niger, A. fumigatus, C. globosum, P. funiculosum, and M. grisea, which is associated with lipid composition in membrane and the morphology of fungal spores. The antifungal activity was also correlated with the surface area of fabric types which grafted the photosensitizer covalently on the surface as determined by the bound color strength.

  6. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P


    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  7. 以玉米秸秆为底物的纤维素降解菌与产电菌联合产电的可行性%Electricity generation from corn stover by cellulose degradation bacteria and exoelectrogenic bacteria

    冯玉杰; 王鑫; 王赫名; 于艳玲; 李冬梅


    The possibility of direct electricity production from steam exploded com stover residue was studied in single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells ( MFCs) using two cellulose degrading bacteria ( Chaetomium sp. , Bacillus sp. ) and two cellulose degrading communities (PCS-S and H-C; stored in our laboratory) as biocatalysts. Both pure strains and mixed communities can decompose corn stover in MFCs, but little electricity ( < 90 mV , 1000Ω) was generated during this process. Increasing the temperature from 30 to 38. 5℃ did not increase voltage outputs. Using domestic wastewater solely as inoculum, electricity cannot be generated from degradation of com stover. Maximum voltage was observed in the MFC using H-C co-operated with the exoelectrogenic bacteria. The maximum power density from steam exploded com stover residue was 406 mW · m~(-2) , which was only 20% lower than the 510 mW·m~(-2) obtained using glucose as a substrate.%利用单室空气阴极微生物燃料电池(MFC)反应器,以玉米秸秆为底物.以本实验室筛选和保存的纤维素降解菌Chaetomium sp.和Bacillus sp.,以及纤维素降解混合菌PCS-S和H-C为秸秆降解的生物催化剂,探讨了以汽爆秸秆固体为底物进行微生物产电的可行性.结果表明,在MFC系统内,纤维索降解纯菌和混合菌均能使纤维素降解,但产生的电压很低(<90mV,1000Ω),升高温度(30-38.5℃)对电压输出无明显影响.单独以生活污水作为菌源不能直接降解秸秆产电.只有将H-C和生活污水(产电菌源)混合作为接种体,MFC才能获得较高的电压输出.此时得到的以汽爆秸秆固体作为底物时的最大功率密度为406mW·m-2,仅比葡萄糖作为底物时所得到的最大功率密度510 mW·m-2低20%.

  8. Survival of pathogens on soybean debris under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems Sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de cultura de soja mantidos em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional

    Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida


    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the subtropical area of Southern Brazil to determine the survival of pathogens in soybean residues under conventional and no-tillage cultivation systems from March to September of 1998 and 1999. The pathogens most frequently isolated were Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, and Rhizoctonia solani. Other fungi isolated were Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola and Trichoderma sp. The percent of survival of each pathogen varied according to the month and the year. Survival of C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. and C. kikuchii were significantly reduced (pAvaliou-se a sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de soja, em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional, entre março e setembro de 1998 e 1999, em Londrina, PR. Os patógenos mais freqüentemente isolados foram Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani. Outros fungos isolados foram Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola e Trichoderma sp. A porcentagem de sobrevivência variou com o mês e o ano. A sobrevivência de C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. e C. kikuchii foi significativamente reduzida (P<0,05 entre a primeira e última avaliação nos resíduos mantidos sobre ou sob o solo. M. phaseolina e Fusarium spp. não foram afetados, ou foram favorecidos pelo enterro dos resíduos. A freqüência de isolamento de Fusarium spp. aumentou em resíduos enterrados no solo. A perda de biomassa mostrou redução de 44,4% no sistema convencional e 34,9% no sistema de semeadura direta, em 1998, quando a distribuição de chuvas foi mais regular. Em 1999, a redução foi de 48,2% e 39,0% para os sistemas convencional e de semeadura direta, respectivamente.

  9. Endophytic Fungi Species and Distribution Differences in Macleaya spp%博落回属植物内生真菌种类与分布差异

    刘金凤; 黄鹏; 柳亦松; 刘秀斌; 曾建国


    Objective:The study was explored the species and diversity of fungal endophytes in Macleaya provide an initial research base for fungal endophytes which have an impact on Macleaya spp.secondary metabolites.Methods:Fungal endophytes were isolated and purified by tissue cultivation from the root of Macleaya spp.and were classified and identified by molecular biology and morphology.Results:67 fungal endophytes of Macleaya spp.were obtained,40 strains isolated from Macleaya cordata and 27 strains isolated from M.microcarpa.Coniothyrium was the specific fungi from the root of M.cordata.Botryosphaeria、Chaetomium and Phyllosticta were specific strains in M.microcarpa.Conclusion:The diversity and distribution differences of fungal endophytes from Macleaya spp.associated with the geographical distribution difference and the differences between species of Macleaya spp..%目的:探索博落回属植物内生真菌的种类与多样性,为发现影响博落回次生代谢产物的内生真菌提供前期研究基础。方法:采用组织培养法从博落回属植物根部组织中分离纯化内生真菌,利用分子生物学和常规的形态学方法对分离出的内生真菌进行分类鉴定。结果:共分离纯化67株内生真菌,其中博落回中分离到40株,而小果博落回中得到27株内生真菌。发现 Coniothyrium 为博落回根部特有的内生真菌,Botryosphaeria、Chaetomium 和Phyllosticta 属菌株为小果博落回特有菌株。结论:博落回属植物内生菌多样性与博落回属植物的地理分布差异、博落回属植物之间的差异有关。

  10. Fungi associated to Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Platypodidae in cork oak Fungos associados ao insecto Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Platypodidae em sobreiro

    Joana Henriques


    Full Text Available Platypus cylindrus is a pest that since the 80’s of the last century has been considered a cork oak mortality agent in Portugal. It is an ambrosia beetle that establishes complex symbioses with fungi whose role in the insect-fungus-host interaction has not been completely clarified. In order to characterize P. cylindrus associated micoflora in Portugal, fungi were isolated from different beetle organs and from its galleries in cork oak trees. Fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Nodulisporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Raffaelea, Scytalidium, Trichoderma and of the order Mucorales were identified. An actinomycete of the genus Streptomyces was also identified. Some of these genera were related for the first time to this interaction. In the present work the isolated fungi are characterized and their contribution for beetle population establishment and tree weakness is discussed.Platypus cylindrus é uma praga que desde os anos 80 do século passado tem sido referida como agente de mortalidade do sobreiro em Portugal. É um insecto ambrósia que estabelece simbioses complexas com fungos cujo papel não está completamente esclarecido na interacção insecto-fungo-sobreiro. Com o objectivo de caracterizar a micoflora associada a P. cylindrus em Portugal foram efectuados isolamentos a partir de diferentes órgãos do insecto e suas galerias em sobreiro. Identificaram-se fungos dos géneros Acremonium, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Nodulisporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Raffaelea, Scytalidium, Trichoderma e da ordem Mucorales. Foi igualmente identificado um actinomiceta do género Streptomyces. Alguns destes géneros são referidos pela primeira vez nesta interacção. No presente trabalho caracterizam-se os fungos isolados e discute-se a sua contribuição para o estabelecimento das populações do insecto e

  11. Affect on Pathogen of Popular Canker by Antagonistic Fungi%几种拮抗菌对杨树烂皮病菌的影响

    宋瑞清; 冀瑞卿


    Trichoderma 3个菌株及Choetomium sp.与杨树烂皮病菌(Cytospora chrysosperma)的对峙培养试验的结果表明:试验中采用的Trichoderma viride 1,Trichoderma viride 2,Trichoderma harzianum及Chaetomium sp.对杨树烂皮病菌都有一定的抑制效果,其中Trichoderma viride 1对病原菌的相对抑制效果最好,且其相对抑制效果随着时间的增加而增长,在74h时达到最高,抑制率可达到64.55%;其相对抑制效果也达到最大,为11.49;其它3个菌株的相对抑制效果在对峙培养74 h时也达到最大,介于1.77~4.15之间.

  12. Evaluation of two composts for the improvement of crop yield using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum as test crop

    Fawole Oluyemisi B.


    Full Text Available In search of a more environmentally friendly alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, a study was conducted to evaluate the use of compost for improved crop productivity. We compared the succession of microorganisms in the compost heaps using hot bed method of composting. They contained grass clippings, sawdust, NPK fertilizer, ashes, corn cobs, bean chaff, vegetable stalks, newspaper shreds and soil arranged in layers in a round structure. Poultry dropping was the organic nitrogen source of one heap while pig waste was used for the other heap. Samples were taken weekly and analyzed using soil dilution method for isolation of moulds on potato dextrose agar medium. The qualities of composts after eight weeks were evaluated by performance and yield of tomato crops. Eleven fungal isolates were obtained in compost containing poultry dropping and nine fungal isolates were obtained from compost containing pig manure. The predominant mycoflora of poultry dropping compost at 3 weeks of composting was Fusarium pallidoroseum (23.08% while Aspergillus fumigatus (38.96% dominated compost containing pig waste. Fungi isolated from the composts included cellulolytic fungi like Chaetomium sp. and Phoma sp. Soil amended with both composts improved the growth and yield of tomato crop significantly. It was concluded that compost containing poultry droppings was richer and therefore encouraged higher microbial activity than compost containing pig waste. Knowledge of the microbial succession during composting and conditions required could further be employed to enhance composting.

  13. Green Route for Efficient Synthesis of Novel Amino Acid Schiff Bases as Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects

    Harshita Sachdeva


    Full Text Available Green chemical one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction of substituted 1H-indole-2,3-diones (1, various amino acids (2, and thiosemicarbazide (3 is found to be catalyzed by lemon juice as natural acid using water as a green solvent to give the corresponding Schiff bases (4 in good to excellent yields. This method is experimentally simple, clean, high yielding, and green, with reduced reaction times. The product is purified by simple filtration followed by washing with water and drying process. The synthesized compounds are characterized by FT-IR, 13CNMR, and 1HNMR spectroscopy and are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria brassicicola, Chaetomium orium, and Lycopodium sp. and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Compounds have also been evaluated for cytotoxic effects against human colon cancer cell line Colo205.

  14. Structural basis for 5'-ETS recognition by Utp4 at the early stages of ribosome biogenesis.

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kornprobst, Markus; Schermann, Géza; Birkle, Fabienne; Wild, Klemens; Fischer, Tamas; Hurt, Ed; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Sinning, Irmgard


    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis begins with the co-transcriptional assembly of the 90S pre-ribosome. The 'U three protein' (UTP) complexes and snoRNP particles arrange around the nascent pre-ribosomal RNA chaperoning its folding and further maturation. The earliest event in this hierarchical process is the binding of the UTP-A complex to the 5'-end of the pre-ribosomal RNA (5'-ETS). This oligomeric complex predominantly consists of β-propeller and α-solenoidal proteins. Here we present the structure of the Utp4 subunit from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.15 Å resolution and analyze its function by UV RNA-crosslinking (CRAC) and in context of a recent cryo-EM structure of the 90S pre-ribosome. Utp4 consists of two orthogonal and highly basic β-propellers that perfectly fit the EM-data. The Utp4 structure highlights an unusual Velcro-closure of its C-terminal β-propeller as relevant for protein integrity and potentially Utp8 recognition in the context of the pre-ribosome. We provide a first model of the 5'-ETS RNA from the internally hidden 5'-end up to the region that hybridizes to the 3'-hinge sequence of U3 snoRNA and validate a specific Utp4/5'-ETS interaction by CRAC analysis.

  15. Anticestodal Activity of Endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst Echinococcus granulosus

    Vijay C. Verma


    Full Text Available Surgery is still the main treatment in hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus, which is a global health problem in human and animals. So, there is need for some natural protoscolicidal agents for instillation to prevent their reoccurrence at therapeutic doses. In this present investigation, anticestodal activity of one of the endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. from Neem plant was observed on protoscoleces of hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% aqueous eosin red stain method, where mortality was observed at different concentrations with respect to time. An average anticestodal activity was observed with different endophytic fungal strains, that is, Nigrospora (479 ± 2.9, Colletotrichum (469 ± 25.8, Fusarium (355 ± 14.5, and Chaetomium (332 ± 28.3 showing 64 to 70% protoscolicidal activity, except Pestalotiopsis sp. (581 ± 15.0, which showed promising scolicidal activity up to 97% mortality just within 30 min of incubation. These species showed significant reduction in viability of protoscoleces. This is the first report on the scolicidal activity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis sp. We conclude that ultrastructural changes in protoscoleces were due to endophytic extract suggesting that there may be some bioactive compounds that have selective action on the tegument layer of protoscoleces. As compared with that of standard drug used, endophytic species of Neem plant shows significant anticestodal activity.

  16. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S


    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  17. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini


    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  18. Using Group II Introns for Attenuating the In Vitro and In Vivo Expression of a Homing Endonuclease.

    Tuhin Kumar Guha

    Full Text Available In Chaetomium thermophilum (DSM 1495 within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA small ribosomal subunit (rns gene a group IIA1 intron interrupts an open reading frame (ORF encoded within a group I intron (mS1247. This arrangement offers the opportunity to examine if the nested group II intron could be utilized as a regulatory element for the expression of the homing endonuclease (HEase. Constructs were generated where the codon-optimized ORF was interrupted with either the native group IIA1 intron or a group IIB type intron. This study showed that the expression of the HEase (in vivo in Escherichia coli can be regulated by manipulating the splicing efficiency of the HEase ORF-embedded group II introns. Exogenous magnesium chloride (MgCl2 stimulated the expression of a functional HEase but the addition of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 to growth media antagonized the expression of HEase activity. Ultimately the ability to attenuate HEase activity might be useful in precision genome engineering, minimizing off target activities, or where pathways have to be altered during a specific growth phase.

  19. Dermatophytes and saprobe fungi isolated from dogs and cats in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Paixão G.C.


    Full Text Available The possible involvement of saprobe fungi in dermatomycoses, as well as the determination of the incidence of dermatophytes in dogs and cats were studied. During a period of one year, 74 dogs and 18 cats, with cutaneous lesions suggesting mycoses were included in this study. The mycological analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud agar, chloramphenicol Sabouraud agar and mycosel agar. Of the 92 samples, 21 resulted in positive cultures for dermatophytes. Dermatophyte fungi pure cultures were obtained from 13 samples. A simultaneous growth of dermatophytes plus saprobe fungi was observed in 8 of the samples. Of the remaining 71 samples, no fungal growth was observed in 10 samples, and at minimum the growth of one saprobe fungi in 61. One, two and three genera of saprobe fungi were isolated in 29, 30 and 2 samples, respectively. Microsporum canis was isolated in 6 (28.6 % and 10 samples (47.6 % from cats and dogs, respectively, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2 (9.5 % and 3 samples (14.3 % from cats and dogs, respectively. The following genera of saprobe fungi were also isolated: Alternaria sp (1.9%, Chaetomium sp (1.9%, Rhizopus sp (2.9%, Curvularia sp (3.9%, Candida sp (6.8%, Trichoderma sp (6.8%, Fusarium sp (7.8%, Cladosporium sp (8.7%, Penicillium sp (21.4% and Aspergillus sp (37.9%.

  20. Lactones 42. Stereoselective enzymatic/microbial synthesis of optically active isomers of whisky lactone.

    Boratyński, Filip; Smuga, Małgorzata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław


    Two different methods, enzyme-mediated reactions and biotrasformations with microorganisms, were applied to obtain optically pure cis- and trans-isomers of whisky lactone 4a and 4b. In the first method, eight alcohol dehydrogenases were investigated as biocatalysts to enantioselective oxidation of racemic erythro- and threo-3-methyloctane-1,4-diols (1a and 1b). Oxidation processes with three of them, alcohol dehydrogenases isolated from horse liver (HLADH) as well as recombinant from Escherichia coli and primary alcohol dehydrogenase (PADH I), were characterized by the highest degree of conversion with moderate enantioselectivity (ee=27-82%) of the reaction. In all enzymatic reactions enantiomerically enriched not naturally occurring isomers of trans-(-)-(4R,5S)-4b or cis-(+)-(4R,5R)-4a were formed preferentially. In the second strategy, based on microbial lactonization of γ-oxoacids, naturally occurring opposite isomers of whisky lactones were obtained. Trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-isomer (ee=99%) of whisky lactone 4b was stereoselectively formed as the only product of biotransformations of 3-methyl-4-oxooctanoic acid (5) catalyzed by Didimospheria igniaria KCH6651, Laetiporus sulphurens AM525, Chaetomium sp.1 KCH6670 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM464. Biotransformation of γ-oxoacid 5, in the culture of Beauveria bassiana AM278 and Pycnidiella resinae KCH50 afforded a mixtures of trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-4b with enantiomeric excess ee=99% and cis-(-)-(4S,5S)-4a with enantiomeric excesses ee=77% and ee=45% respectively.

  1. Infection by a foliar endophyte elicits novel arabidopside-based plant defence reactions in its host, Cirsium arvense.

    Hartley, Susan E; Eschen, Rene; Horwood, Julia M; Gange, Alan C; Hill, Elizabeth M


    Endophytic fungi live asymptomatically within plants. They are usually regarded as nonpathogenic or even mutualistic, but whether plants respond antagonistically to their presence remains unclear, particularly in the little-studied associations between endophytes and nongraminoid herbaceous plants. We investigated the effects of the endophyte Chaetomium cochlioides on leaf chemistry in Cirsium arvense. Plants were sprayed with spores; leaf material from both subsequent new growth and the sprayed leaves was analysed 2 wk later. Infection frequency was 91% and 63% for sprayed and new growth, respectively, indicating that C. cochlioides rapidly infects new foliage. Metabolomic analyses revealed marked changes in leaf chemistry with infection, especially in new growth. Changes in several novel oxylipin metabolites were detected, including arabidopsides reported here for the first time in a plant species other than Arabidopsis thaliana, and a jasmonate-containing galactolipid. The production of these metabolites in response to endophyte presence, particularly in newly infected foliage, suggests that endophytes elicit similar chemical responses in plants to those usually produced following wounding, herbivory and pathogen invasion. Whether endophytes benefit their hosts may depend on a complex series of chemically mediated interactions between the plant, the endophyte, other microbial colonists and natural enemies.

  2. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    van Noort Vera


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  3. Microbial community analysis of apple rhizosphere around Bohai Gulf.

    Jiang, Jihang; Song, Zhen; Yang, Xiaotong; Mao, Zhiquan; Nie, Xiaohong; Guo, Hui; Peng, Xiawei


    Bohai Gulf is the main area for apple tree cultivation in China. Consecutive replanting significantly affects the yield and quality of apple trees in this area. Microecological imbalance in apple trees' rhizospheres caused by variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of apple replant disease (ARD). This study analysed the microbial communities of the rhizospheres of perennial apple trees (PAT) and apple tree saplings under replanting (ATS) around Bohai Gulf using high-throughput sequencing. The results revealed increased populations of typical pathogenic fungi Verticillium and bacteria Xanthomonadaceae, and decreased populations of beneficial bacterial populations Pseudomonas and Bacillus with replanting, suggesting that competition between pathogens and beneficial microbes varies according to the ratio of pathogens to beneficial microbes in rhizosphere soil under the replanting system. Meanwhile, replanting was accompanied by an increase in the antagonistic bacteria Arthrobacter and fungus Chaetomium, suggesting that increased numbers of pathogens can lead to more instances of antagonism. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed site position and the main soil properties (pH, organic matter, available N, available K, available P, and moisture) affected the microbial community composition. It found clear differences in soil microbial communities and demonstrated a better understanding of the causes for ARD.

  4. Filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian semiarid tolerant to metallurgical industry wastes: an ex situ evaluation

    Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of metallurgical industry wastes on the semiarid soil microbiota using physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, highlighting the filamentous fungi assembly. Soil samples were collected in an area of industrial waste deposit contaminated with lead and mixed with natural soil (control soil in seven different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 100%. The results showed alterations on the physico-chemical properties of the soil treated with industrial wastes, with a gradate increase of the soil's pH (5.6-10.4 and electrical conductivity (0.3-14.7 dS m-1 and also reduction of organic matter (7.0-1.8%. The use of microbiological parameters (fungal richness and diversity, CO2emission, and the carbon on the microbial biomass enabled the identification of alterations on the microbial community due to stress caused by the exposure to industrial wastes, despite the presence of Thielavia, Chaetomium and Aspergillus tolerant to high concentrations of the scoria. Therefore, these filamentous fungi could be used in biomonitoring and bioremediation studies in the soils contaminated by industrial wastes.

  5. The structure of the TFIIH p34 subunit reveals a von Willebrand factor A like fold.

    Dominik R Schmitt

    Full Text Available RNA polymerase II dependent transcription and nucleotide excision repair are mediated by a multifaceted interplay of subunits within the general transcription factor II H (TFIIH. A better understanding of the molecular structure of TFIIH is the key to unravel the mechanism of action of this versatile protein complex within these vital cellular processes. The importance of this complex becomes further evident in the context of severe diseases like xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy, that arise from single point mutations in TFIIH subunits. Here we describe the structure of the p34 subunit of the TFIIH complex from the eukaryotic thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum. The structure revealed that p34 contains a von Willebrand Factor A (vWA like domain, a fold which is generally known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Within TFIIH p34 strongly interacts with p44, a positive regulator of the helicase XPD. Putative protein-protein interfaces are analyzed and possible binding sites for the p34-p44 interaction suggested.

  6. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan


    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  7. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai


    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  8. Structural basis for the disaggregase activity and regulation of Hsp104.

    Heuck, Alexander; Schitter-Sollner, Sonja; Suskiewicz, Marcin Józef; Kurzbauer, Robert; Kley, Juliane; Schleiffer, Alexander; Rombaut, Pascaline; Herzog, Franz; Clausen, Tim


    The Hsp104 disaggregase is a two-ring ATPase machine that rescues various forms of non-native proteins including the highly resistant amyloid fibers. The structural-mechanistic underpinnings of how the recovery of toxic protein aggregates is promoted and how this potent unfolding activity is prevented from doing collateral damage to cellular proteins are not well understood. Here, we present structural and biochemical data revealing the organization of Hsp104 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 3.7 Å resolution. We show that the coiled-coil domains encircling the disaggregase constitute a 'restraint mask' that sterically controls the mobility and thus the unfolding activity of the ATPase modules. In addition, we identify a mechanical linkage that coordinates the activity of the two ATPase rings and accounts for the high unfolding potential of Hsp104. Based on these findings, we propose a general model for how Hsp104 and related chaperones operate and are kept under control until recruited to appropriate substrates.

  9. Structure of the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2) N Terminus Provides Insight into Complex Assembly and Tuberous Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

    Zech, Reinhard; Kiontke, Stephan; Mueller, Uwe; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Kümmel, Daniel


    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes. The gene products hamartin and tuberin form the TSC complex that acts as GTPase-activating protein for Rheb and negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Tuberin contains a RapGAP homology domain responsible for inactivation of Rheb, but functions of other protein domains remain elusive. Here we show that the TSC2 N terminus interacts with the TSC1 C terminus to mediate complex formation. The structure of the TSC2 N-terminal domain from Chaetomium thermophilum and a homology model of the human tuberin N terminus are presented. We characterize the molecular requirements for TSC1-TSC2 interactions and analyze pathological point mutations in tuberin. Many mutations are structural and produce improperly folded protein, explaining their effect in pathology, but we identify one point mutant that abrogates complex formation without affecting protein structure. We provide the first structural information on TSC2/tuberin with novel insight into the molecular function.

  10. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F


    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

  11. Increasing manganese peroxidase production and biodecolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by novel fungal consortium.

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jingren; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Wang, Qi; Xue, Rui


    A fungal consortium-SR consisting of Trametes sp. SQ01 and Chaetomium sp. R01 was developed for decolorizing three kinds of triphenylmethane dyes, which were decolorized by individual fungi with low efficiencies. The fungal consortium-SR produced 1.3 U ml(-1) of manganese peroxidase, 5.5 times higher than that produced by the monoculture of Trametes sp. SQ01, and decolorized Crystal Violet, Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 (CBB G250) and Cresol Red. The fungal consortium-SR had a decolorization rate of 63-96%, much higher than that of the monoculture of strain SQ01 (38-72%). In consortium-SR, the higher efficiencies of decolorization of Crystal Violet and CBB G250 were obtained when they added to the culture after 4d of mixed cultivation rather than at the beginning of cultivation. Cresol Red was the exception. It is suggested that the consortium-SR has great potential for decolorizing triphenylmethane dyes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Insight into the Core of CAD, the Multifunctional Protein Leading De Novo Pyrimidine Biosynthesis.

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Grande-García, Araceli; Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Del Caño-Ochoa, Francisco; Boskovic, Jasminka; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago


    CAD, the multifunctional protein initiating and controlling de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines in animals, self-assembles into ∼1.5 MDa hexamers. The structures of the dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC) domains of human CAD have been previously determined, but we lack information on how these domains associate and interact with the rest of CAD forming a multienzymatic unit. Here, we prove that a construct covering human DHO and ATC oligomerizes as a dimer of trimers and that this arrangement is conserved in CAD-like from fungi, which holds an inactive DHO-like domain. The crystal structures of the ATC trimer and DHO-like dimer from the fungus Chaetomium thermophilum confirm the similarity with the human CAD homologs. These results demonstrate that, despite being inactive, the fungal DHO-like domain has a conserved structural function. We propose a model that sets the DHO and ATC complex as the central element in the architecture of CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycopopulations of alfalfa silage with particular review on toxigenic Fusarium spp.

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.


    Full Text Available Mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of alfalfa samples (initial not fermented plant material, as well as silage obtained from unfaded and faded state of the same were performed during the year 2003. Total of 14 fungal species, included in 11 genera, were identified during the present study. The most frequent moulds were Chaetomium piluliferum and their anamorph Botryotrichum piluliferum (83.3% and 66.7% respectively. Potentially toxigenic Fusarium spp. (F. culmorum, F. semitectum and F. sporotrichioides were observed less frequently (from 16.7% to 33.0% and only on initial not fermented alfalfa. From the sample of alfalfa faded state contaminated with 0.25 mg/kg of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS and 1.28 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEA F. semitectum SL-B was isolated. The production of fusariotoxins by this strain was later on tested in vitro conditions. Different aeration treatments in semisynthetic medium with glucose (GPK or sucrose (SPK, as well as cultivation on sterilized corn kernels (moisture content 47% were used. The highest yield of DAS (64.0 mg/l was obtained during submerged cultivation of F. semitectum SL-B in GPK (210 rpms, 3 days room temperature. Production of T-2 toxin, but rather poor (0.08 mg/1, was detected only in SPK (150 rpms, 3 days, room temperature. ZEA was found exclusively after 25 days of cultivation on corn kernels at room temperature (21-25°C.

  14. Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumyctoma.

    G Sybren de Hoog

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128 using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored.

  15. New species of Madurella, causative agents of black-grain mycetoma.

    de Hoog, G Sybren; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Mahgoub, El-Sheikh; van de Sande, Wendy W J


    A new species of nonsporulating fungus, isolated in a case of black-grain mycetoma in Sudan, is described as Madurella fahalii. The species is characterized by phenotypic and molecular criteria. Multigene phylogenies based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the partial β-tubulin gene (BT2), and the RNA polymerase II subunit 2 gene (RPB2) indicate that M. fahalii is closely related to Madurella mycetomatis and M. pseudomycetomatis; the latter name is validated according to the rules of botanical nomenclature. Madurella ikedae was found to be synonymous with M. mycetomatis. An isolate from Indonesia was found to be different from all known species based on multilocus analysis and is described as Madurella tropicana. Madurella is nested within the order Sordariales, with Chaetomium as its nearest neighbor. Madurella fahalii has a relatively low optimum growth temperature (30°C) and is less susceptible to the azoles than other Madurella species, with voriconazole and posaconazole MICs of 1 μg/ml, a ketoconazole MIC of 2 μg/ml, and an itraconazole MIC of >16 μg/ml. Since eumycetoma is still treated only with azoles, correct species identification is important for the optimal choice of antifungal therapy.

  16. Phylogenetic Findings Suggest Possible New Habitat and Routes of Infection of Human Eumyctoma

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, Maryam Saradeghi; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Eberhardt, Ursala; Verkleij, Gerard J.; Xin, Lian; Stielow, Benjamin; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.


    Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored. PMID:23696914

  17. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw.

    Abdullah, A L; Tengerdy, R P; Murphy, V G


    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bioactive fungi from shark Carcharodon carcharias' gill with biopharmaceutical prospects

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Jinyuan; Feng, Yan; Mu, Jun; Bao, Haiyan; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie


    Until recently, little was known about the fungi found in shark gills and their biomedicinal potential. In this article, we described the isolation, bioactivity, diversity, and secondary metabolites of bioactive fungi from the gill of a shark ( Carcharodon carcharias). A total of 115 isolates were obtained and grown in 12 culture media. Fifty-eight of these isolates demonstrated significant activity in four antimicrobial, pesticidal, and cytotoxic bioassay models. Four randomly selected bioactive isolates inhibited human cancer cell proliferation during re-screening. These active isolates were segregated into 6 genera using the internal transcribed spacer-large subunit (ITS-LSU) rDNA-sequence BLAST comparison. Four genera, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Chaetomium were the dominant taxa. A phylogenic tree illustrated their intergenera and intragenera genetic diversity. HPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis and subsequent database searching revealed that nine representative strains produced diverse bioactive compound profiles. These results detail the broad range of bioactive fungi found in a shark's gills, revealing their biopharmaceutical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing shark gill fungi and their bioactivity.

  19. Search for Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity: isolation and SAR studies of radicicol and monocillin I from two plant-associated fungi of the Sonoran desert.

    Turbyville, Thomas J; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Liu, Manping X; Burns, Anna M; Seliga, Christopher J; Luevano, Libia A; David, Cynthia L; Faeth, Stanley H; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie


    In an effort to discover small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, we have screened over 500 EtOAc extracts of Sonoran desert plant-associated fungi using a two-stage strategy consisting of a primary cell-based heat shock induction assay (HSIA) followed by a secondary biochemical luciferase refolding assay (LRA). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts active in these assays derived from Chaetomium chiversii and Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata furnished the Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (1) and monocillin I (2), respectively. In SAR studies, 1, 2, and their analogues, 3-16, were evaluated in these assays, and the antiproliferative activity of compounds active in both assays was determined using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Radicicol and monocillin I were also evaluated in a solid-phase competition assay for their ability to bind Hsp90 and to deplete cellular levels of two known Hsp90 client proteins with relevance to breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), and the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Some inferences on SAR were made considering the crystal structure of the N-terminus of yeast Hsp90 bound to 1 and the observed biological activities of 1-16. Isolation of radicicol and monocillin I in this study provides evidence that we have developed an effective strategy for discovering natural product-based Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

  20. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Shaily Javeria


    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  1. Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.

    de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira


    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies.

  2. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan


    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  3. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena


    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  4. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan


    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  5. Evaluating the combined efficacy of polymers with fungicides for protection of museum textiles against fungal deterioration in Egypt.

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar


    Fungal deterioration is one of the highest risk factors for damage of historical textile objects in Egypt. This paper represents both a study case about the fungal microflora deteriorating historical textiles in the Egyptian Museum and the Coptic museum in Cairo, and evaluation of the efficacy of several combinations of polymers with fungicides for the reinforcement of textiles and their prevention against fungal deterioration. Both cotton swab technique and biodeteriorated textile part technique were used for isolation of fungi from historical textile objects. The plate method with the manual key was used for identification of fungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolated from the tested textile samples belong to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Microbiological testing was used for evaluating the usefulness of the suggested conservation materials (polymers combined with fungicides) in prevention of the fungal deterioration of ancient Egyptian textiles. Textile samples were treated with 4 selected polymers combined with two selected fungicides. Untreated and treated textile samples were deteriorated by 3 selected active fungal strains isolated from ancient Egyptian textiles. This study reports that most of the tested polymers combined with the tested fungicides prevented the fungal deterioration of textiles. Treatment of ancient textiles by suggested polymers combined with the suggested fungicides not only reinforces these textiles, but also prevents fungal deterioration and increases the durability of these textiles. The tested polymers without fungicides reduce the fungal deterioration of textiles but do not prevent it completely.

  6. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China.

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei


    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans.

  7. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.


    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  8. Air quality in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor


    There has been studied the quality of the surface atmosphere in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk (MCBRK) to treat by means of climate and landscape (TCL) of the patients suffering from bronchial asthma (PBA) [1]. 60 children (31 boys and 29 girls at the age of 9-11 years) were examined in the course of 34 days of the resort treatment in MCBRK, PBA (ICD-10 G45,0) in a remission stage. There have been used the data of the long-term bioclimatic monitoring (BCM) that is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol monitoring of IFA RAS, landscape monitoring of SNP in Kislovodsk Resort Park (KRP) as well as the data of medical monitoring, daily testing of meteopathic reactions (MPR), indicators dynamics of bronchial patency, cardiac rhythm, neurovascular reactivity, psychoemotional status of patients. TCL was carried out in the form of walks under the canopy of Betula pendula Roth., Salix f. pendula, acer platanoides globosum, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Phellodendron amurense, Tilia caucasica in KRP daily lasting from 1 till 2 hours. The results of a complex research showed that at TCL in KRP the favourable heat balance had 92% warm relations (TB300C), aerosol growth till 6-12 particles/cm3 in the blocking anti-cyclone. Conclusion: the surface atmosphere in KRP is mainly at the level of background rural territories, it is perspective for usage in the medical and improving purposes. Episodes of slightly polluted surface atmosphere are connected with forest fires, autopollution during the periods of the blocking anti-cyclones. References 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineral Vody region/Under the general edition of MD, prof. V.V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335p; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368p.

  9. Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril under different environmental conditions

    Ida Chapaval Pimentel


    Full Text Available A total of 297 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1728 leaf and stem fragments collected about twenty and forty days after germination from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril plants grown in the field and a greenhouse. The fungi belonged to eight groups, six dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Drechslera and Scopulariopsis and the non-dematiaceous genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium along with some Mycelia sterilia.. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and number of isolates obtained from greenhouse and field-grown plants, with more isolates being obtained from the latter. No difference was found in the number of fungi isolated from leaves and stems irrespective of where the plants was grown. For was field-grown plants, the number of isolates decreased as the plants aged and more fungi were found in tissues near the soil, while for greenhouse-grown plants the number of isolates increased as the plants aged but in this case no more fungi were isolated from those tissues nearer the soil. These results could have biotechnological relevance for the biological control of pests or plant growth promotion.A partir de 1728 fragmentos de hastes e folhas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. provenientes de plantas do campo e de casa de vegetação, coletadas cerca de 20 e 40 dias após a germinação das sementes, 297 fungos endofíticos foram isolados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Scopulariopsis, Drechslera (todos dematiáceos além de Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces e Mycelia sterilia. Foram detectadas diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre os isolados, em relação a micobiota de hospedeiros provenientes do campo e de casa de vegetação com maior frequência de fungos isolados de plantas no campo em comparação com as de casa de vegeta

  10. 辽宁玉米生产区土壤真菌的分离与鉴定%Separation and Identification of Cornfield Soil Fungi in Harvesting Season in Liaoning Province

    魏美娜; 杨红; 刘志恒; 张江林; 李昕月; 白海涛


    2010年9月至2010年10月,从辽宁省7个玉米主要产区采集土壤样品70份.通过不同分离方法,获得132个菌株,菌种保存于沈阳农业大学真菌实验室( HMSYAU).经纯化培养鉴定出17个属,包括已定种19个,未定种3个.鉴定结果表明:扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)分离频率最高,为28.0%,其次分别为金孢属(Chrysosporium sp.)12.1%、微黄青霉(Penicillium minioluteum)10.6%;短毛毛壳(Chaetomium brevipilium)、尖孢镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum)、绿僵菌(Metarrhizium anisopliae)和苏拉耳分枝绿霉(Ramichloridium schulzeri)分离频率最低,为0.8%.从地区分布看,辽中、东陵、大洼、开原地区的玉米根际土壤中菌落数量分布较多,以辽中县分布最多,为8.3×104cuf·g-1土;而庄河地区菌落数量分布最少,为1.6×104cuf·g-1土;开原市和大洼县分离获得的真菌种类最多,均为12种,并且均以扩展青霉为优势种群;大石桥地区分离获得的真菌种类最少,为4种,并且仍以扩展青霉为最多.%Sep. 2010 to Nov. 2010, 70 soil samples had been taken from different corn fields in Liaoning Province. More than 100 strains were gotten through different cultivation and separation methods, which have been preserved in the fungal laboratory of Shenyang Agriculture University (HMSYAU). 19 Species belonging to 17 genera of soil fungi were identified, of which genus, 3 species undeterminated. The results showed that the highest separation rate was that of Penicillium expansion, (28.0%). The next was Chrysosporium sp., (12.1%), Penicillium minioluteum, (10.6%); and the lowest separation rate was that of Chaetomium brevipilium, Fusarium oxysporum, Metarrhizium anisopliae and Ramiehloridium schuheri (0.8%). Geographically, Liaozhong, Dongling, Dawa, Kaiyuan had the most quantitative distribution of fungous colony in Maize rhizosphere, in which Liaozhong had the most of 8.3xl04cuf-g"'. The area of Pulandian has the least quantitative

  11. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from the sunflower (Helianthus annus L. rhizosphere according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin Identificação e caracterização de fungos filamentosos isolados de rizosfera de girassol (Helianthus annus L. de acordo com a capacidade de hidrolisar inulina

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta


    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin have been isolated from the rhizosphere of plants whose roots contain this polysaccharide. This study reports results concerning the isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from the soil used for sunflower cultivation and from the sunflower rhizosphere cultivated in field and in greenhouse. Fungi were evaluated according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin and the variation in the diversity of these fungi during the plant's life cycle was also accessed. Forty-nine species of filamentous fungi were isolated. Penicillium and Aspergillus were the genera that presented higher number of species, nine and seven, respectively. At the end of the sunflower life cycle, cultivated both in field and in the greenhouse, a lower numbers of species were isolated. One hundred and fifty nine strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from soil and from the sunflower rhizosphere; from these, 79 (49.7% were able to hydrolyse inulin. There was not significant difference in the proportion of species able to hydrolyse this polysaccharide during the sunflower's life cycle, in plants cultivated in field or in greenhouse. Although the sunflower's rhizosphere is a source of filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin, that might be used in biotechnological processes. This system does not present a higher density of such microorganisms. Species of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cunninghamella, Emericela, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Neosartorya, Neocosmospora, Penicillium and Thielavia are being related by first time as inulinase producers.Fungos filamentosos capazes de hidrolisar inulina tem sido isolados de rizosfera de plantas que acumulam esse polissacarídeo nas raízes. Este estudo compreendeu o isolamento e identificação de fungos filamentosos do solo utilizado para o cultivo do girassol e da rizosfera de girassol cultivado em campo e em casa de vegetação, a fim de verificar se há variação na

  12. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G


    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  13. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)


    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  14. Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of Roundup Ready soybean harvested in the Pampean Region, Argentina.

    Garrido, Carolina E; González, Héctor H L; Salas, María Paula; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana M


    A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from América, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100%), A.tenuissima (95%) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57%) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination.

  15. Development and functioning of microorganisms in concentration cycles of sulfide copper-nickel and non-sulfide apatite-nepheline ores

    Fokina N. V.


    Full Text Available The number and trophic diversity of bacteria in flotation samples of apatite-nepheline and sulfide copper-nickel ores at the concentration plants of JSC "Apatite" and Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The study of the size and diversity of the microbiota has been conducted by culture on selective nutrient media. The total number and biomass of bacteria have been considered by fluorescence microscopy using Cyclopore polycarbonate membrane filters. Bacteria have been identified by molecular genetic methods. The least amount of both saprotrophic and other trophic groups of bacteria has been observed in the samples of ore and recycled water as at the concentrating factory of Apatit JSC, and also at the plant "Pechenganikel". It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the nutrients with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Strains which occurrence is more than 60 % have been extracted from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. Two strains with occurrence of more than 60 % have been discovered at Apatit JSC and classified as Stenotrophomonas and Acinetobacter. The number of fungi in the cycle of apatite-nepheline ore enrichment at the factories is very low (1 to 24 CFU / 1 ml or 1 g of ore. Fungi of the genus Penicillium have been dominated, fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Chaetomium have also been detected. At the plant "Pechenganikel" species Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. glabrum have been extracted. It has been shown that the bacteria deteriorate the apatite flotation as a result of their interaction with active centers of calcium-containing minerals and intensive flocculation decreasing the floatation selectivity. Also some trend of copper and nickel recovery change has been

  16. Study on Fungi Isolated from Corn Seeds in Liaoning Province%对辽宁省玉米种子携带的真菌研究

    高晓梅; 吕国忠; 孙晓东; 杨瑞秀; 陈嵘; 刘绍芹



  17. Levels of rhizome endophytic fungi fluctuate in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis as plants age

    Tao Liu


    Full Text Available Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant with abundant saponins that are widely used in the pharmaceuticals industry. It is unclear why the levels of active ingredients increase as these plants age. We speculated that the concentrations of those components in the rhizomes are mediated by fungal endophytes. To test this hypothesis, we took both culture-dependent and -independent (metagenomics approaches to analyze the communities of endophytic fungi that inhabit those rhizomes in plants of different age classes (four, six, and eight years old. In all, 147 isolates representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from 270 segments (90 per age class. Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, Fusarium oxysporum (46.55% frequency of occurrence was the predominant endophyte, followed by Leptodontidium sp. (8.66% and Trichoderma viride (6.81%. Colonization of endophytic fungi was maximized in the eight-year-old rhizomes (33.33% when compared with four-year-old (21.21% and six-year-old (15.15% rhizomes. Certain fungal species were present only at particular ages. For example, Alternaria sp., Cylindrocarpon sp., Chaetomium sp., Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, Pyrenochaeta sp., Penicillium swiecickii, T. viride, and Truncatella angustata were found only in the oldest plants. Analysis of (metagenomics community DNA extracted from different-aged samples revealed that, at the class level, the majority of fungi had the highest sequence similarity to members of Sordariomycetes, followed by Eurotiomycetes and Saccharomycetes. These results were mostly in accord with those we obtained using culture methods. Fungal diversity and richness also changed over time. Our investigation is the first to show that the diversity of fungi in rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is altered as plants age, and our findings provide a foundation for future examinations of useful compounds.

  18. Banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens

    A J Kindo


    Full Text Available Aim: Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. Materials and Methods: Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes. The growth from the primary isolation medium was taken and inoculated onto the pieces of double-autoclaved ripe banana peel pieces in a sterile glass Petri dish with some moisture (sprinkles of sterile distilled water. A few sterile coverslips were placed randomly inside the Petri dish for the growing fungus to stick on to it. The plates were kept at room temperature and left undisturbed for 15–20 days. At a time, one coverslip was taken out and placed on a slide with lactophenol cotton blue and focused under the microscope to look for fruit bodies. Results: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica, Chaetomium murorum, Nattrassia mangiferae and Schizophyllum commune were identified by characteristic features from growth on banana peel culture. Conclusions: Banana peel culture is a cheap and effective medium resembling the natural substrate of fungi and is useful for promoting characteristic reproductive structures that aid identification.

  19. Structural basis of histone H2A-H2B recognition by the essential chaperone FACT.

    Hondele, Maria; Stuwe, Tobias; Hassler, Markus; Halbach, Felix; Bowman, Andrew; Zhang, Elisa T; Nijmeijer, Bianca; Kotthoff, Christiane; Rybin, Vladimir; Amlacher, Stefan; Hurt, Ed; Ladurner, Andreas G


    Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) is a conserved histone chaperone that reorganizes nucleosomes and ensures chromatin integrity during DNA transcription, replication and repair. Key to the broad functions of FACT is its recognition of histones H2A-H2B (ref. 2). However, the structural basis for how histones H2A-H2B are recognized and how this integrates with the other functions of FACT, including the recognition of histones H3-H4 and other nuclear factors, is unknown. Here we reveal the crystal structure of the evolutionarily conserved FACT chaperone domain Spt16M from Chaetomium thermophilum, in complex with the H2A-H2B heterodimer. A novel 'U-turn' motif scaffolded onto a Rtt106-like module embraces the α1 helix of H2B. Biochemical and in vivo assays validate the structure and dissect the contribution of histone tails and H3-H4 towards Spt16M binding. Furthermore, we report the structure of the FACT heterodimerization domain that connects FACT to replicative polymerases. Our results show that Spt16M makes several interactions with histones, which we suggest allow the module to invade the nucleosome gradually and block the strongest interaction of H2B with DNA. FACT would thus enhance 'nucleosome breathing' by re-organizing the first 30 base pairs of nucleosomal histone-DNA contacts. Our snapshot of the engagement of the chaperone with H2A-H2B and the structures of all globular FACT domains enable the high-resolution analysis of the vital chaperoning functions of FACT, shedding light on how the complex promotes the activity of enzymes that require nucleosome reorganization.

  20. A noncanonical PWI domain in the N-terminal helicase-associated region of the spliceosomal Brr2 protein.

    Absmeier, Eva; Rosenberger, Leonie; Apelt, Luise; Becke, Christian; Santos, Karine F; Stelzl, Ulrich; Wahl, Markus C


    The spliceosomal RNA helicase Brr2 is required for the assembly of a catalytically active spliceosome on a messenger RNA precursor. Brr2 exhibits an unusual organization with tandem helicase units, each comprising dual RecA-like domains and a Sec63 homology unit, preceded by a more than 400-residue N-terminal helicase-associated region. Whereas recent crystal structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture and regulation of the Brr2 helicase region, little is known about the structural organization and function of its N-terminal part. Here, a near-atomic resolution crystal structure of a PWI-like domain that resides in the N-terminal region of Chaetomium thermophilum Brr2 is presented. CD spectroscopic studies suggested that this domain is conserved in the yeast and human Brr2 orthologues. Although canonical PWI domains act as low-specificity nucleic acid-binding domains, no significant affinity of the unusual PWI domain of Brr2 for a broad spectrum of DNAs and RNAs was detected in band-shift assays. Consistently, the C. thermophilum Brr2 PWI-like domain, in the conformation seen in the present crystal structure, lacks an expanded positively charged surface patch as observed in at least one canonical, nucleic acid-binding PWI domain. Instead, in a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid screen against human spliceosomal proteins, fragments of the N-terminal region of human Brr2 were found to interact with several other spliceosomal proteins. At least one of these interactions, with the Prp19 complex protein SPF27, depended on the presence of the PWI-like domain. The results suggest that the N-terminal region of Brr2 serves as a versatile protein-protein interaction platform in the spliceosome and that some interactions require or are reinforced by the PWI-like domain.

  1. A novel β-glucosidase from Humicola insolens with high potential for untreated waste paper conversion to sugars.

    Meleiro, Luana Parras; Zimbardi, Ana Lucia Ribeiro Latorre; Souza, Flavio Henrique Moreira; Masui, Douglas Chodi; Silva, Tony Marcio; Jorge, João Atilio; Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo


    Humicola insolens produced a new β-glucosidase (BglHi2) under solid-state fermentation. The purified enzyme showed apparent molecular masses of 116 kDa (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and 404 kDa (gel-filtration), suggesting that it is a homotetramer. Mass spectrometry analysis showed amino acid sequence similarity with a β-glucosidase from Chaetomium thermophilum. Optima of pH and temperature were 5.0 and 65 °C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable for 60 min at 50 °C, maintaining 71 % residual activity after 60 min at 55 °C. BglHi2 hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and cellobiose. Cellobiose hydrolysis occurred with high apparent affinity (K M = 0.24 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1)) and catalytic efficiency (k cat/K M = 1,304.92 ± 53.32 L mmol(-1) s(-1)). The activity was insensitive to Fe(+3), Cr(+2), Mn(+2), Co(+2), and Ni(2+), and 50-60 % residual activities were retained in the presence of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). Mixtures of pure BglHi2 or H. insolens crude extract (CE) with crude extracts from Trichoderma reesei fully hydrolyzed Whatman no. 1 paper. Mixtures of H. insolens CE with T. reesei CE or Celluclast 1.5 L fully hydrolyzed untreated printed office paper, napkin, and magazine papers after 24-48 h, and untreated cardboard was hydrolyzed by a H. insolens CE/T. reesei CE mixture with 100 % glucose yield. Data revealed the good potential of BglHi2 for the hydrolysis of waste papers, promising feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production.

  2. Detection of N2O-producing fungi in environment using nitrite reductase gene (nirK)-targeting primers.

    Chen, Huaihai; Yu, Fangbo; Shi, Wei


    Fungal denitrification has been increasingly investigated, but its community ecology is poorly understood due to the lack of culture-independent tools. In this work, four pairs of nirK-targeting primers were designed and evaluated for primer specificity and efficiency using thirty N2O-producing fungal cultures and an agricultural soil. All primers amplified nirK from fungi and soil, but their efficiency and specificity were different. A primer set, FnirK_F3/R2 amplified ∼80 % of tested fungi, including Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma, as compared to ∼40-70 % for other three primers. The nirK fragments of fungal and soil DNA amplified by FnirK_F3/R2 were phylogenetically related to denitrifying fungi in the orders Eurotiales, Hypocreales, and Sordariales; and clone sequences were also distributed in the clusters of Chaetomium, Metarhizium, and Myceliophthora that were uncultured from soil in our previous work. This proved the wide-range capability of primers for amplifying diverse denitrifying fungi from environment. However, our primers and recently-developed other primers amplified bacterial nirK from soil and this co-amplification of fungal and bacterial nirK was theoretically discussed. The FnirK_F3/R2 was further compared with published primers; results from clone libraries demonstrated that FnirK_F3/R2 was more specifically targeted on fungi and had broader taxonomical coverage than some others. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 蘑菇基肥中真菌多样性的研究%Study on the Fungal Diversity in Mushroom Compost

    周秋香; 杨莉丽


    应用18S rDNA同源性分析和常规微生物培养方法,对蘑菇基肥中的真菌种群进行了研究.采用纯培养技术分离基肥中的真菌,机械破壁法提取分离真菌总DNA,真菌特异引物对EF4/EF3 扩增18S rDNA,并进行测序及序列相似性比较,结果表明:纯培养技术分离自基肥中的真菌种属较少,从11株分离菌中只鉴定获得2株不同真菌Chaetomium elatum和Penicillium expansum.18S rDNA部分片段2次聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增及温度梯度凝胶电泳(TGGE)分析结果表明:不同时间取自同一地点的原始蘑菇基肥样本中的真菌种群结构要比纯培养技术的分析结果复杂得多.研究结果表明,TGGE分析与高效自动测序技术结合将为生物技术和应用微生物生态过程提供一分子研究方法.

  4. Deep transcriptome-sequencing and proteome analysis of the hydrothermal vent annelid Alvinella pompejana identifies the CvP-bias as a robust measure of eukaryotic thermostability

    Holder Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Results In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (CvP-bias, which was highest in A. pompejana. CvP-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher CvP-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean CvP-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. Conclusions Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the CvP-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Reviewer This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, L. Aravind and Anthony M. Poole.

  5. Testing of Seedborne Fungi in Wheat Germplasm Conserved in the National Crop Genebank of China

    DUAN Can-xing; WANG Xiao-ming; ZHU Zhen-dong; WU Xiao-fei


    There is a primary understanding of the dominant fungi in wheat seeds conserved in the National Crop Genebank of China (NCGB) and an evaluation of the healthy status of wheat germplasm propagated in different regions. A total of 1465 wheat accessions were detected for seedbone fungi by blotter, agar plate, and wash tests. By blotter test, 17 genera of fungi, including more than 30 species, were detected in 712 wheat accessions from Shaanxi, Hebei, and Qinghai provinces, China. Alternaria was the most frequently detected in wheat seeds from Shaanxi Province, followed by Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Gonatobotrys, Chaetomium, and others. Seedborne fungi in wheat seeds from Hebei Province, with relatively high incidence were Alternaria, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. In the seeds from Qinghai Province, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, and Trichothecium are important seed-borne fungi. The seed germination was reduced substantially when seeds were infected by Fusarium verticillioides (syn. F. moniliforme), Bipolaris nodulosa, and Cladosporium herbarum. Eighteen genera and 25 species of fungi were identified in 353 accessions from Shaanxi Province using the agar plate test. The dominant fungi were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Gonatobotrys, Penicillium, and Fusarium. The smut fungi, Ustilago tritici, was detected by the wash test in 400 accessions, but it was low in incidence in 300 seed samples from Shaanxi Province (1.3%), and in 100 samples from Hebei Province (2.0%). Totally 19 genera of fungi were detected in wheat seed samples, and some seedborne fungi were saprophytic and others were biotrophic which could cause seedborne diseases in the field.

  6. Changes in the soil microbial community after reductive soil disinfestation and cucumber seedling cultivation.

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhang, Jinbo; Wang, Fenghe; Cai, Zucong


    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) has been proven to be an effective and environmentally friendly way to control many soilborne pathogens and diseases. In this study, the RSDs using ethanol (Et-RSD) and alfalfa (Al-RSD) as organic carbons were performed in a Rhizoctonia solani-infected soil, and the dissimilarities of microbial communities during the RSDs and after planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings in the RSDs-treated soil were respectively investigated by MiSeq pyrosequencing. The results showed that, as for bacteria, Coprococcus, Flavisolibacter, Rhodanobacter, Symbiobacterium, and UC-Ruminococcaceae became the dominant bacterial genera at the end of Al-RSD. In contrast, Et-RSD soil involved more bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, such as Sedimentibacter, UC-Gracilibacteraceae, and Desulfosporosinus. For fungi, Chaetomium significantly increased at the end of RSDs, while Rhizoctonia and Aspergillus significantly decreased. After planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings, those bacteria belonging to Firmicutes significantly decreased, but Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria as well as UC-Sordariales and Humicola belonging to Ascomycota alternatively increased in Al- and Et-RSD-treated soils. Besides, some nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes were apparently increased in the RSD-treated soils, but the effect was more profound in Al-RSD than Et-RSD. Overall, Et-RSD could induced more antagonists belonging to Firmicutes under anaerobic condition, whereas Al-RSD could continuously stimulate some functional microorganisms (Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter) and further improve nitrogen transformation activities in the soil at the coming cropping season.

  7. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.


    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  8. Ganoderma lucidum Field Cultivation of Soil Fungi Identification%灵芝大田栽培土壤真菌的初步鉴定

    陈友; 徐宏家; 陈永敢


    This article through to the Ganoderma lucidum field cultivation soil with coated plate method, extraction and separation of soil fungi were cultured in detection and identification. The results showed that soil of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Neurospora, Rhizopus, Chaetomium and Gymnoascus subumbrinus in eight species of fungi. According to the fungal growth speed, Ganoderma lucidum in different growth period appeared the species and the colony number, put forward suggestions of prevention of soil fungi cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. This experiment was to obtain beneficial fungi resources, high yield, high quality and efficient cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, provide effective help.%通过对灵芝大田栽培土壤采用涂布平板法,提取分离土壤中的真菌进行培养检测及鉴定.结果表明,土壤中共有木霉、青霉、曲霉、毛霉、链孢霉、根霉、毛壳霉、狄氏裸囊菌8种真菌.根据真菌的生长速度,灵芝生长不同时期出现的真菌种类和菌落数量,提出针对灵芝栽培土壤真菌的防治建议.试验既获得有益的真菌资源,又为高产、高质、高效的灵芝栽培提供有效帮助.

  9. Screening culture filtrates of fungi for activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Viera, A.; Stchigel, A. M.; Sorribas, F. J.


    Culture filtrates of 20 fungi isolated from citrus soils were screened for their activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans in both in vitro and greenhouse tests. The filtrates of Talaromyces cyanescens (isolates 2-4 and 2-5), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Chaetomium robustum, Acremonium strictum, Engyodontium album, Myrothecium verrucaria, Emericella rugulosa, and Tarracomyces gigaspora consistently inhibited the motility of second-stage juveniles at various concentrations of the filtrate. Dose-response models were used to determine the filtrate concentration required to inhibit the motility of 50% of the juveniles (CI50). The culture filtrate of P. lilacinus showed the highest activity with a CI50 value of 58% that differed from that of C. robustum (CI50 = 68%), and A. strictum CI50 = 82%. The culture filtrates of P. lilacinus, E. album, and T. cyanescens 2-5 maintained their activity when autoclaved at 120 degree centigrade for 20 min. The autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 was more effective at inhibiting juvenile motility (CI50 = 28%) than that of T. cyanescens 2-5 (CI50 = 80%), C. robustum (CI50 = 72 %) and P. lilacinus (CI50 = 72%). The culture filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 also inhibited egg hatching. Nematode reproduction on Cleopatra mandarin and Carrizo citrange were respectively reduced by the culture filtrate of P. lilacinus and the autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4. These results support the hypothesis that soil fungi may contribute to regulate nematode densities by the production of secondary metabolites with nematicidal activity. (Author) 30 refs.

  10. The mycobiota associated with paper archives and their potential control



    Full Text Available El-Nagerabi SAF, Elshafie AE, Al-Hinai UA. 2014. The mycobiota associated with paper archives and their potential control. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 19-25. Historical collections kept in archives and libraries represent a cultural and artistic heritage of innumerable value. Recently in Oman, more than seventy thousand documents were collected from different countries and displayed as archives showed evident sign of mold contamination. The objectives of the present study were to screen these archives for mold invasion and a test for the effective control measure. For this, 102 samples were collected from documents of different sources and incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA at ambient temperature (25○C±2. The isolated fungi were identified microscopically and confirmed with DNA extraction, PCR and DNA sequencing. Twenty-two fungal species belonging to 11 genera were recovered. The genus Penicillium (46.8% was the most prevalent, followed by Aspergillus (30.7%, Cladosporium (7%, Rhizopus (4%, and Chaetomium (3.5% whereas the remaining 6 genera represent only 8%. Eleven species were previously reported from similar substrates, whereas 11 species and one genus are new records for the mycoflora of archives. Sodium hypochlorite at 0.3-5.2% completely inhibited the fungal growth of the 10 tested fungal isolates with minimum inhibition concentration at 0.7%. Fumigation of books with 0.7-5.2% sodium hypochlorite completely inhibited all fungi without evident damage of the documents or ink discoloration. Therefore, sodium hypochlorite can be recommended as effective and eco-friendly disinfectant for archives comparable to other hazardous chemicals.

  11. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi from different Boletus in Yunnan and ITS region sequence analysis%云南牛肝菌的内生真菌分离、鉴定和ITS序列特征研究

    岳万松; 熊勇; 陈毅坚


    以云南产4种牛肝菌:小美牛肝菌[Boletus speciosus Frost]、铜色牛肝菌[Boletus aereus]、黄皮疣柄牛肝菌[Leccinum crocipodium]、美味牛肝菌(白牛肝)[Boletus edulis]新鲜子实体为材料,经无菌技术分离子实体内部组织培养,从中获得5株内生真菌,其中YX1-6分离于黄皮疣柄牛肝菌、YX1-7分离于美味牛肝菌、QJ3-6分离于铜色牛肝菌、Q J3-7分离于美味牛肝菌、QJ3-8分离于华丽牛肝菌.根据菌株的形态特征和ITS序列分析对5株菌进行鉴定,结果表明:YX1-6为毛栓菌(Trametes hirsuta),YX1-7为金色毛壳菌(Chaetomium aureum),QJ3-6为假丝酵母属(Candida sp.),QJ3-7为被孢霉属(Mortierella sp.),QJ3-8为散囊菌属真菌(Eurotium sp.).经ITS rRNA二级结构辅助分析可看出,所获的牛肝菌内生真菌差异较大,揭示了云南野生牛肝菌内生真菌的多样性特征.

  12. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra



    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with leaves and stem tissues of Boswellia sacra growing in Dhofar Mountains of Oman were investigated from May 2008 through October 2011. The biological diversity, tissue-preference and seasonal variations of fungi were evaluated. Forty-three species and 3 varieties of fungi were recovered as new records from this plant. Of these isolates, 35 species are new reports to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 12 species were added to the list of fungal flora of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria (12 species is the most prevalent genus recovered from 12.5-83.3% of the screened leaves and stem samples, followed by Aspergillus (5 species, 3 varieties, 6.9-86.1%, Mycelia sterilia (76.4%, Rhizopus stolonifer (62.5%, Drechslera (3 species, 40.3-54.2%, Cladosporium (3 species, 20.8-52.8%, Curvularia lunata (38.8%, Chaetomium (2 species, 15.3-26.3%, Penicillim spp. (9.8-27.8%, Fusarium (9 species, 6.9-27.8%, Ulocladium consortiale (27.8%, Mucor hiemalis (19.5%, and the remaining species (Scytalidium thermophilum, Phoma solani, Taeniolella exilis, and Botryodiplodia theobromae exhibited very low levels of incidence (4.2-11.1%. Endophytic colonization of the leaf tissues was greater (43 species, 3 varieties comparable to stem tissues (25 species. This indicates heterogeneity and tissue-preference, with no evidence of seasonal variation. Therefore, the isolation of many fungal species and sterile mycelia supports the biodiversity of the endophytic fungi invading B. sacra and the high possibility of isolating more fungal species using advanced molecular techniques.

  13. The RACE amplifying and sequence analyzing of secreted aspartic proteinase gene SA76 of Trichoderma harzianum%哈茨木霉天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因SA76的3'RACE扩增和序列分析

    刘燕; 杨谦


    由EST获得全长cDNA对于结构基因组学和功能基因组学都是至关重要的,cDNA末端快速扩增技术RACE是该领域中的重要研究方法.利用BD SMART RACE技术扩增编码分泌天冬氨酸蛋白酶SA76基因的3'末端,将其与哈茨木霉cDNA文库中的SA76基因的EST序列进行序列拼接,获得2019bp的全长cDNA序列,其开放读码框长1593bp,5'非编码区266bp,3'非编码区201bp,编码530个氨基酸,有信号肽.哈茨木霉天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因与玉蜀黍赤霉、粗糙脉孢菌、球毛壳菌天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因的同源性分别为53%, 37%, 36%.利用BD SMART RACE技术首次从哈茨木霉中克隆天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因,为验证SA76基因的功能奠定基础,为进一步研究蛋白酶的作用机制及生物防治功能提供依据.%Total RNA was isolated from mycelium of T. harzianum by Total RNA extraction kit, and two clear bands of rRNA (28S and 18S) were observed in agarose electrophoresis. By joining the 3'end sequence with the known SA76 EST from cDNA library of T. harzianum, a full-length cDNA sequence of 2019bp was obtained, whose open reading frame contained 1593bp, a stop codon TAA, a 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) of 266bp, a 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of 201bp, and poly (A) 29 encoded a protein of 530 amino acids, had a signal peptide. T. harzianum shared 53% identity of secreted aspartic proteinase gene with G. zeae, 37% with N. crassa and 36% with C. globosum. The full-length cDNA sequence of secreted aspartic proteinase gene from T. harzianum was cloned for the first time by using BD SMART RACE technique, which provides a foundation to obtain and validate functional genes of T. harzianum.

  14. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae.

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique


    far; it lacks eight genes relative to its Chaetosphaeridium globosum homolog, four of which represent unique events in the evolutionary scenario of gene losses we reconstructed for streptophyte algae. The 10 compared zygnematophycean cpDNAs display tremendous variations at all levels, except gene content. During zygnematophycean evolution, the IR disappeared a minimum of five times, the rDNA operon was broken at four distinct sites, group II introns were lost on at least 43 occasions, and putative foreign genes, mainly of phage/viral origin, were gained.

  15. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    Birmele, Michele N.


    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  16. An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds.

    Blanchette, Robert A; Held, Benjamin W; Arenz, Brett E; Jurgens, Joel A; Baltes, Nicolas J; Duncan, Shona M; Farrell, Roberta L


    The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration. The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the 1907-1908 British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over 100 years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations. In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. From the 69 cultures of filamentous fungi obtained, the most predominant genera were Cadophora (44%) followed by Thielavia (17%) and Geomyces (15%). Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp. 4E71-1, a C. malorum-like species, and Cadophora sp. 7R16-1, a C. fastigiata-like species. Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the

  17. 三大洋深海沉积物样品可培养真菌多样性研究%Fungal diversity study in the deep sea sediments of three oceans by culture-dependent approach

    徐炜; 李广伟; 黄翔玲; 骆祝华


    深海真菌是深海微生物的重要组成之一,在深海环境生态系统中起着非常重要的作用,但目前人们对于深海沉积物中的真菌群落多样性关注较少.本研究对来自东太平洋、南大西洋和西南印度洋(三大洋)的15个沉积物样品进行真菌的分离培养,共获得175株真菌,包括93株酵母菌和82株丝状真菌.基于形态学观察和ITS序列的系统发育分析显示,93株酵母分别属于红冬孢酵母属(Rhodosporidium)和胶红酵母属(Rhodotorula)的两个种[海洋红酵母(Rhodosporidium paludigehum)和胶红酵母(Rhodotorula mucilaginosa)].82株丝状真菌分别属于曲霉属(Aspergillus)、枝孢属(Cladosporium)、青霉属(Penicillium)、链格孢属(Alternaria)、镰刀菌(Fusarium)、支顶孢属(Acremonium)、茎点霉属(Phoma)、麦轴梗霉属(Tritirachium)、毛壳菌属(Chaetomium)、外瓶霉属(Exophiala)、侧齿霉属(Engyodontium)、肉片齿菌属(Sistotrema)、裂褶菌属(Schizophyllum)、腥掷抱菌属(Tilletiopsis)和Hormonema.其中曲霉属为丝状真菌中的优势属,占总菌株的47.6%.上述研究结果表明大洋深海沉积物中存在着较为丰富的真菌资源,有助于加深我们对于不同大洋区域深海环境中真菌群落结构的认识.

  18. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne


    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  19. Soil microbial community composition changes according to the tillage practice and plant development stage

    Degrune, Florine; Dufrêne, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Taminiau, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline


    Soil microorganisms are abundant and diverse and can have both beneficial and adverse effects on crop growth. Some, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae, are well known to favor crop productivity and plant health. They are notably involved in key processes such as improving plant nutrient acquisition, and they also play major roles in stimulating plant growth and protecting plants against pathogens by producing bioactive substances. Conversely, both agricultural practices and the plant development stage are known to influence the physical and chemical properties of the soil and hence the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. Here we investigated the impact of both tillage practice (conventional versus reduced tillage) and plant development stage (germination versus flowering) on the microbial community composition of an agricultural soil supporting a faba bean crop. Samples were taken at a depth of 15-20 cm from a silty soil in Belgium. For bacteria, we observed significant shifts in community composition according to both factors. Some changes were strongly related to the plant development stage and others to the tillage practice. Some taxa, including Gemmatimonas, Xanthomonadaceae, and Sinobacteraceae, showed a higher relative abundance at the flowering stage than at the germination stage, but no effect of tillage practice. Other taxa, including Flovobacterium, Chitinophaga, and Luteolibacter, showed a higher relative abundance under conventional tillage than under reduced tillage, but no change according to the stage of plant development. For fungi, significant shifts in community composition were observed according to the plant development stage. No effect of tillage practice was observed. The relative abundances of certain taxa, including Chaetomium and Clavicipitaceae, were higher during germination than during flowering, whereas other taxa, including Minimedusa and Teberdinia, showed a higher relative abundance during

  20. Monitoring of bioaerosol inhalation risks in different environments using a six-stage Andersen sampler and the PCR-DGGE method.

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Yao, Maosheng


    Increasing evidences show that inhalation of indoor bioaerosols has caused numerous adverse health effects and diseases. However, the bioaerosol size distribution, composition, and concentration level, representing different inhalation risks, could vary with different living environments. The six-stage Andersen sampler is designed to simulate the sampling of different human lung regions. Here, the sampler was used in investigating the bioaerosol exposure in six different environments (student dorm, hospital, laboratory, hotel room, dining hall, and outdoor environment) in Beijing. During the sampling, the Andersen sampler was operated for 30 min for each sample, and three independent experiments were performed for each of the environments. The air samples collected onto each of the six stages of the sampler were incubated on agar plates directly at 26 °C, and the colony forming units (CFU) were manually counted and statistically corrected. In addition, the developed CFUs were washed off the agar plates and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for diversity analysis. Results revealed that for most environments investigated, the culturable bacterial aerosol concentrations were higher than those of culturable fungal aerosols. The culturable bacterial and fungal aerosol fractions, concentration, size distribution, and diversity were shown to vary significantly with the sampling environments. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that different environments had different culturable bacterial aerosol compositions as revealed by distinct gel band patterns. For most environments tested, larger (>3 μm) culturable bacterial aerosols with a skewed size distribution were shown to prevail, accounting for more than 60 %, while for culturable fungal aerosols with a normal size distribution, those 2.1-4.7 μm dominated, accounting for 20-40 %. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Aspergillus were found abundant in most


    Dana Tančinová


    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  2. Inter-annual ciliate distribution variation within the late stratification oxycline in a monomictic lake, Lake Alchichica (Mexico

    Ximena Sánchez Medina


    , vorticellids (2006-2008 or scuticociliates (2010 dominated. Typically, the scuticociliate maximum was located in the oxycline and/or above the bottom. Some microaerophilic species were isolated; thus, their identification could be carried out. However, the apparent polymorphic ciliate life cycles were not described completely, and the species composition was only estimated: two dominant species (SC 1 – Cristigera-like and SC 2 – Cyclidim-like covered nearly the total scuticociliate biomass. Strictly anaerobic scuticociliates were not isolated but observed in the deepest layers of the lake (bacteria symbiotic Isocyclidium globosum and Cristigera sp.. Significant statistical relation within the ciliate distribution and environmental variables was not confirmed due to unique species composition in the respective years. However, general trends in the distribution of ciliates on a species level were observed. Scuticociliates, including two important tentatively identified species, did not present unambiguous ecological position, and the study of their live cycle should be the next step in investigations.

  3. Molecular Structure Analysis and Function Prediction on Sporothrix schenckii Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein%申克孢子丝菌翻译控制肿瘤蛋白的结构分析与功能预测

    黄怀球; 钟毅; 赵静; 张静; 孙九峰; 张晓辉; 袁立燕



  4. Identification and Preliminary Application of Biocontrol Fungi from Cereal Cyst Nematode%禾谷孢囊线虫生防真菌的分离鉴定及初步应用

    张辉民; 黄文坤; 孔令安; 彭德良; 孙建华


    The cereal cyst nematode ( CCN ) Heterodera avenae is recognized as one of the important pests of wheat in China .In order to seek for biocontrol agents for CCN management ,31 fungal strains were isolated from CCN cysts.It included Fusarium spp., Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Chaetomium spp.,Ramichloridium spp.,Rhizopus spp.,Leptosphaeria spp.,Penicillium spp..The fungal number of Fusarium spp.was the most,it had 8 strains.The nematode mortality was determined by bioassay and pot experi-ment.The death rate of two Aspergillus spp.strains HN214 and HN132 at 4-fold dilution were 99.66% and 96.56%,respectively.The inhibition of HN132 fermentation liquid on cyst production assayed by pot experiment was significantly effective at 8-fold dilution .The cysts of treatment decreased by 64 .1%compared to the untreated control.Therefore,both HN132 and HN214 strains were considered as potential biocontrol agents of CCN .%禾谷孢囊线虫病是我国小麦产区主要的病害之一,对农业生产造成了极大的损失。通过从孢囊上分离寄生真菌,扩增其ITS序列,并通过室内生测和盆栽试验对其发酵液进行了杀线虫活性测定。结果表明,共鉴定获得31株真菌,分别属于镰刀菌属、支顶孢属、枝孢属、曲霉属、链格孢属、毛壳菌属、枝氯霉属、根霉、小球腔菌属、青霉菌属10个属,其中镰刀菌属真菌最多有8株。黑曲霉属真菌HN214与曲霉属真菌HN132的发酵液稀释4倍后,对禾谷孢囊线虫的校正死亡率分别为99.66%和96.56%;室内盆栽活性测定表明,真菌HN132的8倍发酵液处理后,禾谷孢囊线虫的孢囊减少率达64.1%,在生产上具有较好的开发前景。