WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine strandings network

  1. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  2. Sea Turtle Stranding Network Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network (STSSN) was formally established in 1980 to collect information on and document the stranding of marine turtles along...

  3. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  4. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  5. PROTOCOL FOR GAS SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN STRANDED MARINE MAMMALS

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Óscar González-Díaz, Manuel Arbelo, Marisa Andrada & Antonio Fernández ### Abstract Gas sampling in stranded marine mammals can now be performed in situ using the appropriate vacuum tubes, insulin syringes and an aspirometer. Glass vacuum tubes are used for extraction of gas from cavities such as the intestine, pterigoyd air sacs, pneumothorax or subcapsular emphysema as well as for storage of the gas sample at room temperature and pressure. Insulin s...

  6. Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Savirina, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches is not unusual. However, there appears to be no single cause for this, with several causes being probable, such as starvation, contact with humans (for example boat strike or entanglement with fishing gear), disease, and parasitism. We evaluated marine mammal stranding off the Washington and Oregon coasts and looked at offshore earthquakes as a possible contributing factor. Our analysis showed that offshore earthquakes did not make marine mammals more likely to strand. We also analysed a subset of data from the north of Washington State and found that non-adult animals made up a large proportion of stranded animals, and for dead animals the commonest cause of death was disease, traumatic injury, or starvation. Abstract The causes of marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches are not well understood, but may relate to topography, currents, wind, water temperature, disease, toxic algal blooms, and anthropogenic activity. Offshore earthquakes are a source of intense sound and disturbance and could be a contributing factor to stranding probability. We tested the hypothesis that the probability of marine mammal stranding events on the coasts of Washington and Oregon, USA is increased by the occurrence of offshore earthquakes in the nearby Cascadia subduction zone. The analysis carried out here indicated that earthquakes are at most, a very minor predictor of either single, or large (six or more animals) stranding events, at least for the study period and location. We also tested whether earthquakes inhibit stranding and again, there was no link. Although we did not find a substantial association of earthquakes with strandings in this study, it is likely that there are many factors influencing stranding of marine mammals and a single cause is unlikely to be responsible. Analysis of a subset of data for which detailed descriptions were available showed that most live stranded animals were pups, calves, or

  7. Strandings of Marine Mammals in Alabama from 16 Dec 1978 - 31 Dec 2015 (NCEI Accession 0117461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information about marine mammal strandings documented in Alabama waters between 1978 and 2015. Data include identity, size, condition, sex, and...

  8. 78 FR 54867 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Level A Stranding and... governments; not-for-profit institutions; business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of... collection; they also will become a matter of public record. Dated: August 30, 2013. Gwellnar Banks...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and

  10. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  11. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  12. Measures of Auditory Function in Stranded Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketten, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    .... Behavioral measures, which consist of simple yes-no replies to a sound stimulus, are possible in trained marine mammals but are not applicable to the large number and diverse species of wild animals...

  13. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  14. Contaminants, lipids, fatty acids, and stable isotopes in tissues of various marine mammals - Biomonitoring of marine mammals as part of the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP) was established in 1992 under Title IV of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The MMHSRP...

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem.

  16. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  17. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  18. AMBON - the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, K.; Danielson, S. L.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Kuletz, K.; Stafford, K.; Mueter, F. J.; Collins, E.; Bluhm, B.; Moore, S. E.; Bochenek, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON) is to build an operational and sustainable marine biodiversity observing network for the US Arctic Chukchi Sea continental shelf. The AMBON has four main goals: 1. To close current gaps in taxonomic biodiversity observations from microbes to whales, 2. To integrate results of past and ongoing research programs on the US Arctic shelf into a biodiversity observation network, 3. To demonstrate at a regional level how an observing network could be developed, and 4. To link with programs on the pan-Arctic to global scale. The AMBON fills taxonomic (from microbes to mammals), functional (food web structure), spatial and temporal (continuing time series) gaps, and includes new technologies such as state-of-the-art genomic tools, with biodiversity and environmental observations linked through central data management through the Alaska Ocean Observing System. AMBON is a 5-year partnership between university and federal researchers, funded through the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP), with partners in the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management (BOEM), and Shell industry. AMBON will allow us to better coordinate, sustain, and synthesize biodiversity research efforts, and make data available to a broad audience of users, stakeholders, and resource managers.

  19. Plasmid-derived DNA Strand Displacement Gates for Implementing Chemical Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Rao, Sundipta D; Seelig, Georg

    2015-11-25

    DNA nanotechnology requires large amounts of highly pure DNA as an engineering material. Plasmid DNA could meet this need since it is replicated with high fidelity, is readily amplified through bacterial culture and can be stored indefinitely in the form of bacterial glycerol stocks. However, the double-stranded nature of plasmid DNA has so far hindered its efficient use for construction of DNA nanostructures or devices that typically contain single-stranded or branched domains. In recent work, it was found that nicked double stranded DNA (ndsDNA) strand displacement gates could be sourced from plasmid DNA. The following is a protocol that details how these ndsDNA gates can be efficiently encoded in plasmids and can be derived from the plasmids through a small number of enzymatic processing steps. Also given is a protocol for testing ndsDNA gates using fluorescence kinetics measurements. NdsDNA gates can be used to implement arbitrary chemical reaction networks (CRNs) and thus provide a pathway towards the use of the CRN formalism as a prescriptive molecular programming language. To demonstrate this technology, a multi-step reaction cascade with catalytic kinetics is constructed. Further it is shown that plasmid-derived components perform better than identical components assembled from synthetic DNA.

  20. Alaska Beluga Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NMFS is mandated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to collect reports of marine mammal stranding events. This particular catalogue item is specific to the...

  1. The stranding anomaly as population indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, Helene; Baagøe, Hans J.; Camphuysen, Kees C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistica...... surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005). This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna....... credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform...

  2. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  3. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  4. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  5. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  6. 78 FR 42042 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... of marine mammals (e.g., milling, travel, social, foraging); (4) location and relative distance from... principal marine mammal stranding networks and other media to correlate analysis of any dolphin strandings... strike if the animal has disappeared), and whether the animal is alive or dead (or unknown); Report to us...

  7. Stranded Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal and Turtle Division collects data about individual cetaceans and sea turtles that come ashore, or strand on the beach. The date and location of...

  8. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication, raise the profile and expand the use of the ... community - led approaches to conservation in Madagascar and ... Fishing communities have been managing marine resources in ... munities are finding that once abundant resources are dwin- .... per closure and lead to an enhancement in catch per unit effort.

  9. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 2004, the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in Madagascar has exponentially increased, highlighting the need for improved information sharing between communities and between support organizations. Until recently, however, these LMMAs operated in relative isolation, with little communication or ...

  10. Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eickstedt, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    ... oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three major components, an intelligent, logical sensor that provides high-level environmental state information to a behavior-based autonomous vehicle control system, a new...

  11. A Multi-Objective Partition Method for Marine Sensor Networks Based on Degree of Event Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmei Huang; Chenyixuan Xu; Danfeng Zhao; Wei Song; Qi He

    2017-01-01

    Existing marine sensor networks acquire data from sea areas that are geographically divided, and store the data independently in their affiliated sea area data centers. In the case of marine events across multiple sea areas, the current network structure needs to retrieve data from multiple data centers, and thus severely affects real-time decision making. In this study, in order to provide a fast data retrieval service for a marine sensor network, we use all the marine sensors as the vertice...

  12. European Marine Biodiversity Monitoring Networks: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Patrício

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, European Union Member States should achieve Good Environmental Status (GES for eleven environmental quality descriptors for their marine waters to fulfill the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. By the end of 2015, in coordination with the Regional Seas Conventions, each EU Member States was required to develop a marine strategy for their waters, together with other countries within the same marine region or sub-region. Coherent monitoring programs, submitted in 2014, form a key component of this strategy, which then aimed to lead to a Program of Measures (submitted in 2015. The European DEVOTES FP7 project has produced and interrogated a catalogue of EU marine monitoring related to MSFD descriptors 1 (biological diversity, 2 (non-indigenous species, 4 (food webs and 6 (seafloor integrity. Here we detail the monitoring activity at the regional and sub-regional level for these descriptors, as well as for 11 biodiversity components, 22 habitats and the 37 anthropogenic pressures addressed. The metadata collated for existing European monitoring networks were subject to a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis. This interrogation has indicated case studies to address the following questions: a what are the types of monitoring currently in place?; b who does what and how?; c is the monitoring fit-for-purpose for addressing the MSFD requirements?, and d what are the impediments to better monitoring (e.g. costs, shared responsibilities between countries, overlaps, co-ordination? We recommend the future means, to overcome the identified impediments and develop more robust monitoring strategies and as such the results are especially relevant to implementing coordinated monitoring networks throughout Europe, for marine policy makers, government agencies and regulatory bodies. It is emphasized that while many of the recommendations given here require better, more extensive and perhaps more costly monitoring, this is

  13. European Marine Observation and Data Network EMODnet Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novellino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the European Commission undertook steps towards a European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet in order to standardize method for observing and assessing the grade of the Member States seas and improve access to high quality data. Since 2008-2009, European Commission, represented by the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE, is running several service contracts for creating pilot thematic components of the ur-EMODNET: Biology, Bathymetry, Chemistry, Geology, Habitats, and Physics.The existing EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs, and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs, and it is a marine observation information system. It includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height andperiod, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets, viewing and downloading of the data from about 2100 platforms (www.emodnetphysics.eu/map and thus contributing towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet.

  14. Durability of precast prestressed concrete piles in marine environment, part 2. Volume 2 : stainless steel prestressing strand and wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to determine methods which may be applied : economically to mitigate corrosion of reinforcement in precast prestressed concrete piles in : Georgias marine environments. The research was divided into two par...

  15. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global

  16. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, whi...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  17. European Marine Observation and Data Network EMODnet Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novellino

    2014-10-01

    period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets, viewing and downloading of the data from about 2100 platforms (www.emodnetphysics.eu/map and thus contributing towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet.

  18. Sensitivity of marine protected area network connectivity to atmospheric variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alan D; Henry, Lea-Anne; Corne, David W; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-11-01

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  19. Contribution of Charges in Polyvinyl Alcohol Networks to Marine Antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wufang; Lin, Peng; Cheng, Daocang; Zhang, Longzhou; Wu, Yang; Liu, Yupeng; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng

    2017-05-31

    Semi-interpenetrated polyvinyl alcohol polymer networks (SIPNs) were prepared by integrating various charged components into polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and tensile tests were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared SIPNs. To investigate the contribution of charges to marine antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatoms Navicula sp. in the laboratory and of the actual marine animals in field test were studied for biofouling assays. The results suggest that less algae accumulation densities are observed for neutral-, anionic-, and zwitterionic-component-integrated SIPNs. However, for the cationic SIPNs, despite the hydration shell induced by the ion-dipole interaction, the resistance to biofouling largely depends on the amount of cationic component because of the possible favorable electrostatic attraction between the cationic groups in SIPNs and the negatively charged algae. Considering that the preparation of novel nontoxic antifouling coating is a long-standing and cosmopolitan industrial challenge, the SIPNs may provide a useful reference for marine antifouling and some other relevant fields.

  20. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhec, Aurélie V.; Jeanne, Richard F.; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments

  2. Fatal Canine Intoxications Linked to the Presence of Saxitoxins in Stranded Marine Organisms Following Winter Storm Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Turner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin. Toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP were detected and quantified using two independent chemical testing methods in samples of all three marine types, with concentrations over 14,000 µg saxitoxin (STX eq/kg found in one starfish sample. Further evidence for PSP intoxication of the dogs was obtained with the positive identification of PSP toxins in a vomited crab sample from one deceased dog and in gastrointestinal samples collected post mortem from a second affected dog. Together, this is the first report providing evidence of starfish being implicated in a PSP intoxication case and the first report of PSP in canines.

  3. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The stranding anomaly as population indicator: the case of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in North-Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Peltier

    Full Text Available Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform in space and constant in time. We used a drift model to map stranding probabilities and predict stranding patterns of cetacean carcasses under H0 across the North Sea, the Channel and the Bay of Biscay, for the period 1990-2009. As the most common cetacean occurring in this area, we chose the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena for our modelling. The difference between these strandings expected under H0 and observed strandings is defined as the stranding anomaly. It constituted the stranding data series corrected for drift conditions. Seasonal decomposition of stranding anomaly suggested that drift conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005. This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna.

  5. A Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON): Understanding Marine Life and its Role in Maintaining Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Iken, K.; Miller, R. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Chavez, F.; Montes, E.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Federal government (NOAA, NASA, BOEM, and the Smithsonian Institution), academic researchers, and private partners are laying the foundation for a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). The goals of the network are to: 1) Observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats; 2) Define an efficient set of observations required for implementing a useful MBON; 3) Develop technology for biodiversity assessments including emerging environmental DNA (eDNA), remote sensing, and image analysis methods to coordinate with classical sampling; 4) Integrate and synthesize information in coordination with the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), the international Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network(GEO BON), and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) sponsored by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); and 5) Understand the linkages between marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and the social-economic context of a region. Pilot projects have been implemented within three NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries (Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, and Channel Islands), the wider Santa Barbara Channel, in the Chukchi Sea, and through the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON) at several sites in the U.S. and collaborating countries. Together, these MBON sites encompass a wide range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The present MBON partners are open to growth of the MBON through additional collaborations. Given these initiatives, GEO BON is proposing an MBON effort that spans from pole to pole, with a pathfinder effort among countries in the Americas. By specializing in coastal ecosystems—where marine biodiversity and people are concentrated and interact most—the MBON and TMON initiatives aim to provide policymakers with the science to

  6. Review of thirty-two years of toothed whale strandings in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (Cetacea: Odontoceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos S. Vianna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marine mammal strandings provide valuable insights into local biodiversity. Strandings can be caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. In the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, organized marine mammal collections started in the 1980s through opportunistic and non-systematic collection efforts, representing a record of over 30 years of marine biodiversity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary review of 32 years of stranding records within this region. The secondary aim was to elucidate the stranding dynamics of the three most commonly recorded species. A total of 460 records were obtained, representing 17 species of odontocetes. The species registered most frequently were the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d' Orbigny, 1844 (n = 173, bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 (n = 100, and Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864 (n = 97. Most of the stranding records were observed in the second half of the year during the austral winter and spring. The apparent causes of death could not be determined for most of the specimens due to carcass decomposition. For the specimens in which the apparent cause of death could be determined, 27% of the strandings were compatible with anthropogenic interactions. While the focus of this study was a preliminary assessment of stranding data obtained through opportunistic collection, it is evident that future systematic monitoring efforts and stable networks of collaborators will generate more reliable coastal biodiversity inventories and will allow the knowledge of population dynamics of marine mammal species. In particular, for threatened and vulnerable species, or species with poor natural history data, strandings are a fundamental tool for the understanding of marine biodiversity. Ideally, future more refined analyses of stranding data should be used to inform conservation and management policies and to elucidate the biology and ecology of

  7. Marine Vehicle Sensor Network Architecture and Protocol Designs for Ocean Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqiang Shu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro-scale and meso-scale ocean dynamic processes which are nonlinear and have large variability, have a significant impact on the fisheries, natural resources, and marine climatology. A rapid, refined and sophisticated observation system is therefore needed in marine scientific research. The maneuverability and controllability of mobile sensor platforms make them a preferred choice to establish ocean observing networks, compared to the static sensor observing platform. In this study, marine vehicles are utilized as the nodes of mobile sensor networks for coverage sampling of a regional ocean area and ocean feature tracking. A synoptic analysis about marine vehicle dynamic control, multi vehicles mission assignment and path planning methods, and ocean feature tracking and observing techniques is given. Combined with the observation plan in the South China Sea, we provide an overview of the mobile sensor networks established with marine vehicles, and the corresponding simulation results.

  8. A Multi-Objective Partition Method for Marine Sensor Networks Based on Degree of Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing marine sensor networks acquire data from sea areas that are geographically divided, and store the data independently in their affiliated sea area data centers. In the case of marine events across multiple sea areas, the current network structure needs to retrieve data from multiple data centers, and thus severely affects real-time decision making. In this study, in order to provide a fast data retrieval service for a marine sensor network, we use all the marine sensors as the vertices, establish the edge based on marine events, and abstract the marine sensor network as a graph. Then, we construct a multi-objective balanced partition method to partition the abstract graph into multiple regions and store them in the cloud computing platform. This method effectively increases the correlation of the sensors and decreases the retrieval cost. On this basis, an incremental optimization strategy is designed to dynamically optimize existing partitions when new sensors are added into the network. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the optimal layout for distributed storage in the process of disaster data retrieval in the China Sea area, and effectively optimize the result of partitions when new buoys are deployed, which eventually will provide efficient data access service for marine events.

  9. A Multi-Objective Partition Method for Marine Sensor Networks Based on Degree of Event Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Chenyixuan; Zhao, Danfeng; Song, Wei; He, Qi

    2017-09-21

    Existing marine sensor networks acquire data from sea areas that are geographically divided, and store the data independently in their affiliated sea area data centers. In the case of marine events across multiple sea areas, the current network structure needs to retrieve data from multiple data centers, and thus severely affects real-time decision making. In this study, in order to provide a fast data retrieval service for a marine sensor network, we use all the marine sensors as the vertices, establish the edge based on marine events, and abstract the marine sensor network as a graph. Then, we construct a multi-objective balanced partition method to partition the abstract graph into multiple regions and store them in the cloud computing platform. This method effectively increases the correlation of the sensors and decreases the retrieval cost. On this basis, an incremental optimization strategy is designed to dynamically optimize existing partitions when new sensors are added into the network. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the optimal layout for distributed storage in the process of disaster data retrieval in the China Sea area, and effectively optimize the result of partitions when new buoys are deployed, which eventually will provide efficient data access service for marine events.

  10. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  11. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.

  12. The Smithsonian-led Marine Global Earth Observatory (MarineGEO): Proposed Model for a Collaborative Network Linking Marine Biodiversity to Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity - the variety of functional types of organisms - is the engine of marine ecosystem processes, including productivity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Biodiversity remains a black box in much of ocean science, despite wide recognition that effectively managing human interactions with marine ecosystems requires understanding both structure and functional consequences of biodiversity. Moreover, the inherent complexity of biological systems puts a premium on data-rich, comparative approaches, which are best met via collaborative networks. The Smithsonian Institution's MarineGEO program links a growing network of partners conducting parallel, comparative research to understand change in marine biodiversity and ecosystems, natural and anthropogenic drivers of that change, and the ecological processes mediating it. The focus is on nearshore, seabed-associated systems where biodiversity and human population are concentrated and interact most, yet which fall through the cracks of existing ocean observing programs. MarineGEO offers a standardized toolbox of research modules that efficiently capture key elements of biological diversity and its importance in ecological processes across a range of habitats. The toolbox integrates high-tech (DNA-based, imaging) and low-tech protocols (diver surveys, rapid assays of consumer activity) adaptable to differing institutional capacity and resources. The model for long-term sustainability involves leveraging in-kind support among partners, adoption of best practices wherever possible, engagement of students and citizen scientists, and benefits of training, networking, and global relevance as incentives for participation. Here I highlight several MarineGEO comparative research projects demonstrating the value of standardized, scalable assays and parallel experiments for measuring fish and invertebrate diversity, recruitment, benthic herbivory and generalist predation, decomposition, and carbon sequestration. Key

  13. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  14. A robust network of double-strand break repair pathways governs genome integrity during C. elegans development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontier, D.B.; Tijsterman, M.

    2009-01-01

    To preserve genomic integrity, various mechanisms have evolved to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Depending on cell type or cell cycle phase, DSBs can be repaired error-free, by homologous recombination, or with concomitant loss of sequence information, via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)

  15. The assessment of marine reserve networks: guidelines for ecological evaluation: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Claudet, Joachim; Carr, Mark; Caselle, Jennifer; Day, Jon; Friedlander, Alan M.; Lester, Sarah E.; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Tissot, Brian; Malone, Dan; Claudet, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    As marine ecosystems are plagued by an ever-increasing suite of threats including climate change, pollution, habitat degradation, and fisheries impacts (Roessig et al., 2004; Lotze et al., 2006; Jackson, 2008), there are now no ocean areas that are exempt from anthropogenic impacts (Halpern et al., 2008). In order to preserve marine biodiversity, ecosystem function, and the goods and services provided by resistant and/or resilient systems, marine reserves have been increasingly recommended as part of an ecosystem-based approach to management (Browman and Stergiou, 2004; Levin et al., 2009). Marine reserves are defined as “areas of the ocean completely protected from all extractive and destructive activities” (Lubchenco et al., 2003) and can be experimental controls for evaluating the impact of these activities on marine ecosystems. Growing scientific information has shown consistent increases in species density, biomass, size, and diversity in response to full protection inside reserves of varying sizes and ages located in diverse regions (Claudet et al., 2008; Lester et al., 2009; Molloy et al., 2009). However, most of these data are from individual marine reserves and therefore have inherently limited transferability to networks of marine reserves, which when properly designed can outperform single marine reserves for a variety of ecological, economic, and social management goals (Roberts et al., 2003; Almany et al., 2009; Gaines et al., 2010).The concept of marine reserve networks grew out of a desire to achieve both conservation and fishery management goals by minimizing the potential negative economic, social, and cultural impacts of a single large reserve while still producing similar or even greater ecological and economic returns (Murray et al., 1999; Gaines et al., 2010). In addition, reserves networks can provide insurance by protecting areas across a region and spreading the risk that these sites may be impacted by localized catastrophes such as

  16. The Moves of a Bajau Middlewomen: Understanding the Disparity between Trade Networks and Marine Conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    At the interface of Indonesia and Malaysia, border-crossing maritime trade appears to elude attempts to conserve marine resources. In Berau district (East Kalimantan) attempts to protect coastal waters from illegal fishing and trade fail to correspond with mobile trade networks. In this article, I

  17. A mass stranding of the squid martialia hyadesi Rochebrune and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-11

    Feb 11, 1997 ... All animals were immature, with females in lower stages of maturity than males. No predatory marine mammals were seen in the area during or after the stranding event. An interpretation of the stranding is presented with reference to historical reports of squid strandings worldwide. Evidence suggests some ...

  18. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to

  19. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to

  20. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  1. Diversity and Inclusion in Conservation: A Proposal for a Marine Diversity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Smith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low diversity among scientists and practitioners is rampant in conservation. Currently, conservation professionals do not reflect the same diversity of perspectives and experiences of the world as the communities who bear the largest burden for implementing—or adverse consequences for failing to implement—conservation action. Acknowledging and describing the problem is important. But policies and programmes must also be put in place to correct it. Here, we highlight some measurable benefits of workforce diversity, and give an overview of some of the barriers to inclusion in marine conservation that help perpetuate low workforce diversity. Importantly, we underscore actions that both individuals and groups can take to alleviate such barriers. In particular, we describe the establishment of an online Marine Diversity Network, which conference participants proposed during a focus group meeting at the 4th International Marine Conservation Congress. The network will serve to bring together people from across the globe, from a variety of backgrounds, and from all career stages, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas, to provide and receive mentorship in marine conservation, and to forge new collaborations. Removing barriers to diverse participation requires coordinated, mindful actions by individuals and organizations. We hope that the proposed network and other actions presented in this paper find widespread support, and that they might serve both as inspiration and guide to other groups concerned with increasing diversity and inclusivity.

  2. Emerging marine protected area networks in the coral triangle: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.

  3. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway...) and surface- to-surface (from vessels to in-water targets) warfare training, including bombing.../education/southeast/ ). (6) Stranding Network Coordination: The USMC shall coordinate with the local NMFS...

  4. Review of Network Topologies and Protection Principles in Marine and Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    An electric fault that is not cleared is harmful in land applications, but in marine and offshore sector it can have catastrophic consequences. If the protection system fails to operate properly, the following situation may occur: blackouts, fire, loss of propulsion, delays in transportation......, collision with the cliff, reef or other ships and electrical shocks to humans. In order to cope with the unwanted effects of a fault, several protection strategies are applied, but complexity of the marine and offshore applications is continuously increasing, so protection needs to overcome more and more...... challenges. As result, development of new protection techniques that can offer improved functionalities compared to the actual solutions for marine and offshore applications is needed. This paper reviews the network topologies in such applications and presents the requirements of a system able to protect...

  5. ARCTOX: a pan-Arctic sampling network to track mercury contamination across Arctic marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Jerome; Helgason, Halfdan; Amelineau, Francoise

    and is still a source of major environmental concerns. In that context, providing a large-scale and comprehensive understanding of the Arctic marine food-web contamination is essential to better apprehend impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of Arctic species and humans to Hg....... In 2015, an international sampling network (ARCTOX) has been established, allowing the collection seabird samples all around the Arctic. Seabirds are indeed good indicators of Hg contamination of marine food webs at large spatial scale. Gathering researchers from 10 countries, ARCTOX allowed......Arctic marine ecosystems are threatened by new risks of Hg contamination under the combined effects of climate change and human activities. Rapid change of the cryosphere might for instance release large amounts of Hg trapped in sea-ice, permafrost and terrestrial glaciers over the last decades...

  6. Command Filtered Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network Backstepping Control for Marine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrain chaotic oscillation of marine power system which is excited by periodic electromagnetism perturbation, a novel command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control method is designed. First, the mathematical model of marine power system is established based on the two parallel nonlinear model. Then, main results of command-filtered adaptive fuzzy neural network backstepping control law are given. And the Lyapunov stability theory is applied to prove that the system can remain closed-loop asymptotically stable with this controller. Finally, simulation results indicate that the designed controller can suppress chaotic oscillation with fast convergence speed that makes the system return to the equilibrium point quickly; meanwhile, the parameter which induces chaotic oscillation can also be discriminated.

  7. Intelligent Image Recognition System for Marine Fouling Using Softmax Transfer Learning and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Chin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of biofouling on marine vessels is challenging and costly. Early detection before hull performance is significantly affected is desirable, especially if “grooming” is an option. Here, a system is described to detect marine fouling at an early stage of development. In this study, an image of fouling can be transferred wirelessly via a mobile network for analysis. The proposed system utilizes transfer learning and deep convolutional neural network (CNN to perform image recognition on the fouling image by classifying the detected fouling species and the density of fouling on the surface. Transfer learning using Google’s Inception V3 model with Softmax at last layer was carried out on a fouling database of 10 categories and 1825 images. Experimental results gave acceptable accuracies for fouling detection and recognition.

  8. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Rocliffe

    Full Text Available In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO, local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs. We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice.

  9. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Peter J. [Scientific Solutions, Inc, Nashua, NH (United States); Edson, Patrick L. [Scientific Solutions, Inc, Nashua, NH (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This project saw the completion of the design and development of a second generation, high frequency (90-120 kHz) Subsurface-Threat Detection Sonar Network (SDSN). The system was deployed, operated, and tested in Cobscook Bay, Maine near the site the Ocean Renewable Power Company TidGen™ power unit. This effort resulted in a very successful demonstration of the SDSN detection, tracking, localization, and classification capabilities in a high current, MHK environment as measured by results from the detection and tracking trials in Cobscook Bay. The new high frequency node, designed to operate outside the hearing range of a subset of marine mammals, was shown to detect and track objects of marine mammal-like target strength to ranges of approximately 500 meters. This performance range results in the SDSN system tracking objects for a significant duration - on the order of minutes - even in a tidal flow of 5-7 knots, potentially allowing time for MHK system or operator decision-making if marine mammals are present. Having demonstrated detection and tracking of synthetic targets with target strengths similar to some marine mammals, the primary hurdle to eventual automated monitoring is a dataset of actual marine mammal kinematic behavior and modifying the tracking algorithms and parameters which are currently tuned to human diver kinematics and classification.

  10. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major

  11. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-02-01

    The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve\\'s boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time. 2012 The Authors.

  12. La Spezia and the research network for outreach and education in marine sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locritani, Marina; Furia, Stefania; Giacomazzi, Fabio; Merlino, Silvia; Mori, Anna; Nacini, Francesca; Nardi, Elisabetta; Stroobant, Mascha; Talamoni, Roberta; Zocco, Olivia

    2013-04-01

    La Spezia is a small town located in the southeastern corner of the Liguria Region (Italy). The close relationship with the sea conditioned the ancient and recent activities of the town that embraces the namesake gulf. The Gulf of La Spezia overlooks on the Liguria Sea which is characterized by a high biodiversity, due to the heritage of coastal habitats, where numerous interesting species to preserve live, often a priority for the EC Directives. Therefore, along the Liguria arc, five coastal Marine Protected Areas have been instituted, two of them insist in La Spezia Province: the Marine Protected Areas of Cinque Terre National Park and Porto Venere Regional Park, both included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Moreover, the importance of the cetacean communities in the Ligurian Sea led to the establishment of the Cetacean Sanctuary. Resulting from a positive geographic coincidence, six Research Institutions are located in La Spezia: CMRE-NATO (Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, formerly NURC-NATO Undersea Research Centre), CNR (National Research Council), CSSN (Naval Experimentation and Support Centre - Navy), ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), Polo Universitario Marconi (University of Genoa - seat of La Spezia). These Institutions share a long time experience of work at sea and in coastal environments according to their different scientific interests (biology, engineering, geology, physic, and oceanography). Moreover, in 2009 the Liguria Region promoted the institution of the Liguria Cluster of Marine Technologies (Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine), whose core target is the regional development of marine technologies and science. This unique concentration of Research Institutes, Marine Protected Areas and sea activities (civil and military) brought to implement a collaborative network among the scientific and territorial

  13. A host-endoparasite network of Neotropical marine fish: are there organizational patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellay, Sybelle; Lima, Dilermando P; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Luque, José L

    2011-12-01

    Properties of ecological networks facilitate the understanding of interaction patterns in host-parasite systems as well as the importance of each species in the interaction structure of a community. The present study evaluates the network structure, functional role of all species and patterns of parasite co-occurrence in a host-parasite network to determine the organization level of a host-parasite system consisting of 170 taxa of gastrointestinal metazoans of 39 marine fish species on the coast of Brazil. The network proved to be nested and modular, with a low degree of connectance. Host-parasite interactions were influenced by host phylogeny. Randomness in parasite co-occurrence was observed in most modules and component communities, although species segregation patterns were also observed. The low degree of connectance in the network may be the cause of properties such as nestedness and modularity, which indicate the presence of a high number of peripheral species. Segregation patterns among parasite species in modules underscore the role of host specificity. Knowledge of ecological networks allows detection of keystone species for the maintenance of biodiversity and the conduction of further studies on the stability of networks in relation to frequent environmental changes.

  14. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  15. Anticipating changes to future connectivity within a network of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; Feng, Ming; van Sebille, Erik; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2017-09-01

    Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity, but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity are required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change. For two key marine species (kelp and sea urchins), we use oceanographic modelling to predict how continental boundary currents are likely to change connectivity among a network of MPAs spanning over 1000 km of coastline off the coast of eastern Australia. Overall change in predicted connectivity among pairs of MPAs within the network did not change significantly over and above temporal variation within climatic scenarios, highlighting the need for future studies to incorporate temporal variation in dispersal to robustly anticipate likely change. However, the intricacies of connectivity between different pairs of MPAs were noteworthy. For kelp, poleward connectivity among pairs of MPAs tended to increase in the future, whereas equatorward connectivity tended to decrease. In contrast, for sea urchins, connectivity among pairs of MPAs generally decreased in both directions. Self-seeding within higher-latitude MPAs tended to increase, and the role of low-latitude MPAs as a sink for urchins changed significantly in contrasting ways. These projected changes have the potential to alter important genetic parameters with implications for adaptation and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. Considering such changes, in the context of managing and designing MPA networks, may ensure that conservation goals are achieved into the future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Submarine canyons represent an essential habitat network for krill hotspots in a Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Zeno, Ramona; Dorman, Jeffrey G; Sydeman, William J

    2018-05-15

    Submarine canyon systems are ubiquitous features of marine ecosystems, known to support high levels of biodiversity. Canyons may be important to benthic-pelagic ecosystem coupling, but their role in concentrating plankton and structuring pelagic communities is not well known. We hypothesize that at the scale of a large marine ecosystem, canyons provide a critical habitat network, which maintain energy flow and trophic interactions. We evaluate canyon characteristics relative to the distribution and abundance of krill, critically important prey in the California Current Ecosystem. Using a geological database, we conducted a census of canyon locations, evaluated their dimensions, and quantified functional relationships with krill hotspots (i.e., sites of persistently elevated abundance) derived from hydro-acoustic surveys. We found that 76% of krill hotspots occurred within and adjacent to canyons. Most krill hotspots were associated with large shelf-incising canyons. Krill hotspots and canyon dimensions displayed similar coherence as a function of latitude and indicate a potential regional habitat network. The latitudinal migration of many fish, seabirds and mammals may be enhanced by using this canyon-krill network to maintain foraging opportunities. Biogeographic assessments and predictions of krill and krill-predator distributions under climate change may be improved by accounting for canyons in habitat models.

  17. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; McArdle, Deborah; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for

  18. Strandings of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Alboran Sea and Strait of Gibraltar: a long–time glimpse of the north coast (Spain and the south coast (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo–Nieto, E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 species of cetaceans and three species of marine turtles were found in this study. Data were collected by eight independent and self-regulated stranding networks, providing information about 1,198 marine mammal (10 odontocetii, three mysticetii and one phocidae and 574 sea turtle stranding events between 1991 and 2008. Trends in the strandings were analysed in relation to species composition and abundance, and their geographic and seasonal distribution. The most abundant species recorded were the striped dolphin and the loggerhead turtle. Some of the strandings, such as the humpback whale, harbour porpoise, hooded seal and olive ridley turtle, were considered ‘rare’ because their distribution did not match the pattern of the study. When the north and south coasts in the study area were compared, pilot whales stranded more frequently in the north, while delphinid species stranded more in the south coast, and loggerhead turtles stranded more frequently in the north while leatherback turtles stranded more in south coast.

  19. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, JE; Rassweiler, A; Hamilton, SL; Warner, RR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an e...

  20. Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain ecosystems and biodiversity, Australia has long invested in the development of marine and terrestrial protected area networks. Within this land- and sea-scape, northern Australia represents a global population stronghold for four species of the world’s most threatened marine fish family, the sawfishes (family Pristidae. The distribution of sawfishes across northern Australia has previously only been coarsely estimated, and the adequacy of their representation in protected areas has not been evaluated. The calculated range of each species was intersected with Australia’s marine and terrestrial protected area datasets, and targets of 10% marine and 17% inland range protection were used to determine adequacy of sawfish range protection. Marine targets have been achieved for all species, but the inland range protection targets have not been met for any species. Results indicate that further protection of inland habitats is required in order to improve sawfish protection and habitat connectivity.

  1. Enhancing User Access to Australian marine data - the Australian Ocean Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Mancini, S.; Blain, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a national project funded by the Australian government established to deliver ocean observations to the marine and climate science community. Now in its 10th year its mission is to undertake systematic and sustained observations and to turn them into data, products and analyses that can be freely used and reused for broad societal benefits. As IMOS has matured as an observing system the expectation of the system's availability and reliability has also increased and IMOS is now seen as delivering `operational' information; it does this through the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN). The AODN runs its services in the commercial cloud service Amazon Web Services. This has enabled the AODN to improve the system architecture, utilizing more advanced features like object storage (S3 - Simple Storage Service) and autoscaling features, and introducing new checking and logging procedures in a pipeline approach. This has improved data availability and resilience while protecting against human errors in data handling and providing a more efficient ingestion process. Many of these features are available through AODN to the wider Australian marine and science community enabling the `family' of AODN to grow, thereby enabling rapid access to an increasing collection of ocean observations.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  3. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  4. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  5. Conservation, spillover and gene flow within a network of Northern European marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brockstedt Olsen Huserbråten

    Full Text Available To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50% for almost a year (363 days within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2. Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7% of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810 to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%. Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages.

  6. Application of a multilayer perceptron neural network to phytoplankton concentration using marine reflectance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chun; Ho, Chung-Ru; Kuo, Nan-Jung

    2005-01-01

    The multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network have been widely used to fit non-linear transfer function and performed well. In this study, we use MLP to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations from marine reflectance measures. The optical data were assembled from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-optical Algorithm Mini-workshop (SeaBAM). Most bio-optical algorithms use simple ratios of reflectance in blue and green bands or combinations of ratios as parameters for regression analysis. Regression analysis has limitations for nonlinear function. Neural network, however, have been shown better performance for nonlinear problems. The result showed that accuracy of chlorophyll-a concentration using MLP is much higher than that of regression method. Nevertheless, using all of the five bands as input can derive the best performance. The results showed that each band could carry some useful messages for ocean color remote sensing. Only using band ratio (OC2) or band switch (OC4) might lose some available information. By preprocessing reflectance data with the principle component analysis (PCA), MLP could derive much better accuracy than traditional methods. The result showed that the reflectance of all bands should not be ignored for deriving the chlorophyll-a concentration because each band carries different useful ocean color information.

  7. Lagrangian Flow Network: a new tool to evaluate connectivity and understand the structural complexity of marine populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, V.; Dubois, M.; Ser-Giacomi, E.; Monroy, P.; Lopez, C.; Hernandez-Garcia, E.

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the spatial structure and dynamics of marine populations is still a major challenge for ecologists. The necessity to manage marine resources from a large-scale perspective and considering the whole ecosystem is now recognized but the absence of appropriate tools to address these objectives limits the implementation of globally pertinent conservation planning. Inspired from Network Theory, we present a new methodological framework called Lagrangian Flow Network which allows a systematic characterization of multi-scale dispersal and connectivity of early life history stages of marine organisms. The network is constructed by subdividing the basin into an ensemble of equal-area subregions which are interconnected through the transport of propagules by ocean currents. The present version allows the identification of hydrodynamical provinces and the computation of various connectivity proxies measuring retention and exchange of larvae. Due to our spatial discretization and subsequent network representation, as well as our Lagrangian approach, further methodological improvements are handily accessible. These future developments include a parametrization of habitat patchiness, the implementation of realistic larval traits and the consideration of abiotic variables (e.g. temperature, salinity, planktonic resources...) and their effects on larval production and survival. While the model is potentially tunable to any species whose biological traits and ecological preferences are precisely known, it can also be used in a more generic configuration by efficient computing and analysis of a large number of experiments with relevant ecological parameters. It permits a better characterization of population connectivity at multiple scales and it informs its ecological and managerial interpretations.

  8. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  9. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Young

    Full Text Available Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc. done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  10. Semantically supporting data discovery, markup and aggregation in the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The semantic content of the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been developed over thirty years. It has been used to mark up metadata and data in a wide range of international projects, including the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 projects SeaDataNet and The Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR). Within the United States, the National Science Foundation projects Rolling Deck to Repository and Biological & Chemical Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) use concepts from NVS for markup. Further, typed relationships between NVS concepts and terms served by the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository. The vast majority of the concepts publicly served from NVS (35% of ~82,000) form the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). The PUV is instantiated on the NVS as a SKOS concept collection. These terms are used to describe the individual channels in data and metadata served by, for example, BODC, SeaDataNet and BCO-DMO. The PUV terms are designed to be very precise and may contain a high level of detail. Some users have reported that the PUV is difficult to navigate due to its size and complexity (a problem CSIRO have begun to address by deploying a SISSVoc interface to the NVS), and it has been difficult to aggregate data as multiple PUV terms can - with full validity - be used to describe the same data channels. Better approaches to data aggregation are required as a use case for the PUV from the EC European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Chemistry project. One solution, proposed and demonstrated during the course of the NETMAR project, is to build new SKOS concept collections which formalise the desired aggregations for given applications, and uses typed relationships to state which PUV concepts contribute to a specific aggregation. Development of these new collections requires input from a group of experts in the application domain who can decide which PUV

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Strand displacement by DNA polymerase III occurs through a tau-psi-chi link to single-stranded DNA-binding protein coating the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S

    2009-11-13

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of gamma-complex to support the reaction in the absence of tau. However, if gamma-complex is present to load beta(2), a truncated tau protein containing only domains III-V will suffice. This truncated protein is sufficient to bind both the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase (Pol) III and chipsi. This is reminiscent of the minimal requirements for Pol III to replicate short single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)-coated templates where tau is only required to serve as a scaffold to hold Pol III and chi in the same complex (Glover, B., and McHenry, C. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23476-23484). We propose a model in which strand displacement by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme depends upon a Pol III-tau-psi-chi-SSB binding network, where SSB is bound to the displaced strand, stabilizing the Pol III-template interaction. The same interaction network is probably important for stabilizing the leading strand polymerase interactions with authentic replication forks. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for the strand displacement reaction is approximately 300-fold less favorable than reactions on single-stranded templates and proceeds with a slower rate (150 nucleotides/s) and only moderate processivity (approximately 300 nucleotides). PriA, the initiator of replication restart on collapsed or misassembled replication forks, blocks the strand displacement reaction, even if added to an ongoing reaction.

  13. Incorporating Local Wisdom Sasi into Marine Zoning to Increase the Resilience of a Marine Protected Area Network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, P., Jr.; Mangubhai, S.; Muhajir, M.; Hidayat, N. I.; Rumetna, L.; Awaludinnoer, A.; Thebu, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Raja Ampat government and local communities established 6 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in 2007 to protect the unique marine biodiversity and ensure sustainable fisheries in West Papua, Indonesia. Increasing human populations resulting in overfishing and the use of destructive fishing practices are the main threats and challenges the region faces. Biophysical, socioeconomic and climate change criteria and factors were developed for zoning the Raja Ampat MPA network. Resilience principles such as replication, habitat representation, protection of critical habitat and connectivity were applied to the final zoning design. Reef resilience data using global monitoring protocols were collected to provide insights into the resilience of different reefs to further guide zoning. Resilience rankings showed that fishing pressure on reef fish communities especially on piscivores, herbivores and excavators was the main factor lowering resilience in MPAs. In addition data were collected on `sasi' areas throughout the MPAs. Sasi is a type of traditional resource management practice used by local communities to open and close areas to fishing single or multiple fisheries species. Once the fishery recovers local communities then harvest the species for food or sale. Raja Ampat MPAs network managed as multi-objective zoning system. The current zoning system explicitly recognizes community sasi within Traditional Use Zones, which often are adjacent or close to No-Take Zones. The explicit inclusion of sasi areas within zoning plans for the MPAs will likely lead to good compliance by local communities, and the increase fish biomass. Improving the management of fisheries through the incorporation of traditional fisheries management will therefore increase the overall resilience of coral reefs in the Raja Ampat MPA network.

  14. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  15. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P Kelaher

    Full Text Available Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site. Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection.

  17. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  18. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  19. Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the

  20. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become

  1. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  2. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  3. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Jaylene Flint; Mark Flint; Colin James Limpus; Paul Mills

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-...

  4. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-09-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish ( Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds ( n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment ( n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  5. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.

    2017-03-24

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish (Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds (n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment (n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  6. 15N and 13C abundances in marine environments with emphasis on biogeochemical structure of food networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, E.

    1987-01-01

    Distributions of δ 15 N and δ 13 C for biogenic substances in the Antarctic Ocean and in the Otsuchi River estuary in Japan were investigated to construct isotope biogeochemical framework for assessing marine ecosystems. The isotopic compositions of phytoplankton were particularly low in the Antarctic Ocean. High nitrate and CO 2 concentrations in the surface sea waters, and the low light intensity seem to enhance the kinetic isotope fractionations that preferred the depletion of 15 N and 13 C in the algal body. A clear-cut linear relationship between animal δ 15 N and its trophic level was obtained in the Antarctic system. In the estuary, the variation of isotope ratios were principally governed by the mixing of land-derived organic matter, marine phytoplankton, and seagrasses. A food-chain effect of 15 N enrichment was also confirmed. An isotopically ordered structure was presented for a marine estuarine ecosystem. The isotopic abundances in a food network vary mainly because of the variation in 15 N and 13 C contents of primary producers grown under different environmental conditions and because of the enrichment of 15 N along food chains. (author)

  7. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Brown, Christopher J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Segan, Daniel B; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Watson, James E M

    2015-12-03

    The first international goal for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the ocean's biodiversity was set in 2002. Since 2006, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has driven MPA establishment, with 193 parties committed to protecting >10% of marine environments globally by 2020, especially 'areas of particular importance for biodiversity' (Aichi target 11). This has resulted in nearly 10 million km(2) of new MPAs, a growth of ~360% in a decade. Unlike on land, it is not known how well protected areas capture marine biodiversity, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of existing MPAs and future protection requirements. We assess the overlap of global MPAs with the ranges of 17,348 marine species (fishes, mammals, invertebrates), and find that 97.4% of species have biodiversity. Our results offer strategic guidance on where MPAs should be placed to support the CBD's overall goal to avert biodiversity loss. Achieving this goal is imperative for nature and humanity, as people depend on biodiversity for important and valuable services.

  8. Stranded costs and exit fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has been directed to examine the issue of stranded costs since it is a major component of restructuring within the electricity sector. When regulated monopolies are faced with competition, they could find that some of their embedded costs cannot be recovered. These costs are referred to as stranded costs. Common sources include large capital investments in uneconomic plants or expensive power purchase contracts or fuel supply contracts. In general, stranded costs do not include gains or losses associated with normal business risks experienced by regulated utilities. This report presents recommendations for mitigation of stranded costs, valuation methodologies and cost-recovery mechanisms. It also presents a summary of experience with stranded costs in other jurisdictions such as California, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and Ontario. Stranded costs are often recovered through an obligatory charge on all customers, particularly in jurisdictions where retail competition exists. In the New Brunswick market, however, the only customers who can create stranded costs are those eligible to choose their own suppliers. It is argued that since most customers will not have a choice of electricity suppliers, they cannot generate stranded costs and therefore, should not have to pay costs stranded by others. A method to quantify stranded costs is presented, along with a review of transmission-related stranded costs in New Brunswick. Expansion of self-generation in New Brunswick could strand transmission assets. Currently, self-generators only contribute a small amount to fixed charges of the transmission system. However, under new recommended tariffs, the amount could increase. It is likely that the net amount of stranded transmission costs will not be large. 2 refs., 1 fig

  9. Comparison of Neural Network Error Measures for Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels H.; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Winther, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Training of an artificial neural network (ANN) adjusts the internal weights of the network in order to minimize a predefined error measure. This error measure is given by an error function. Several different error functions are suggested in the literature. However, the far most common measure...

  10. Time-dependent fermentation control strategies for enhancing synthesis of marine bacteriocin 1701 using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiansheng; Meng, Fanmei; Ai, Yuncan

    2013-06-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) were combined to optimize the fermentation process for enhancing production of marine bacteriocin 1701 in a 5-L-stirred-tank. Fermentation time, pH value, dissolved oxygen level, temperature and turbidity were used to construct a "5-10-1" ANN topology to identify the nonlinear relationship between fermentation parameters and the antibiotic effects (shown as in inhibition diameters) of bacteriocin 1701. The predicted values by the trained ANN model were coincided with the observed ones (the coefficient of R(2) was greater than 0.95). As the fermentation time was brought in as one of the ANN input nodes, fermentation parameters could be optimized by stages through GA, and an optimal fermentation process control trajectory was created. The production of marine bacteriocin 1701 was significantly improved by 26% under the guidance of fermentation control trajectory that was optimized by using of combined ANN-GA method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Assessment of Cetacean Stranding Events in Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellar, R.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Moore, K.; Reeb, D.; Karakoylu, E.; Uritskaya, O.

    2017-12-01

    Cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) mass strandings are a longstanding mystery in the field of marine biology that continue to be recorded in coastal environments around the world. For each of these events, anywhere from a few to several hundred otherwise healthy animals strand in onshore environments, often for no apparent reason. While the causes of these events remain unclear, anthropogenic and naturogenic mechanisms have been suggested. We present results of an inter-disciplinary study that draws expertise from space weather, marine mammal biology and ecology, and marine mammal stranding response. This study assessed 16 years of cetacean stranding events in the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area concurrently with a large dataset of meteorological, geophysical, biological, oceanographic and space weather data to produce inferences about possible causes for these unexplained events.

  12. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  13. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Schill

    Full Text Available We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  14. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Almany, Glenn R; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Thorrold, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes

  15. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes to the...

  16. DYNAMO: Distributed Leisure Yacht-Carried Sensor-Network for Atmosphere and Marine Data Crowdsourcing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montella, Raffaele; Kosta, S.; Foster, I.

    2018-01-01

    Data crowdsourcing is a increasingly pervasive and lifestyle-changing technology, due to the flywheel effect that results from the interaction between the internet of things and cloud computing. In smart cities, for example, many initiatives harvest valuable data from citizen sensors. However, th...... weather and marine predictions via the use of data assimilation methods. We show our preliminary results about the DYNAMO Daemon, a SignalK server we embedded in the native level of the Android operating system enabling the data gathering and transfer from vessels to the cloud....

  17. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  18. Population Connectivity Measures of Fishery-Targeted Coral Reef Species to Inform Marine Reserve Network Design in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Erin K; López, Elora H; Drew, Joshua A

    2016-01-25

    Coral reef fish serve as food sources to coastal communities worldwide, yet are vulnerable to mounting anthropogenic pressures like overfishing and climate change. Marine reserve networks have become important tools for mitigating these pressures, and one of the most critical factors in determining their spatial design is the degree of connectivity among different populations of species prioritized for protection. To help inform the spatial design of an expanded reserve network in Fiji, we used rapidly evolving mitochondrial genes to investigate connectivity patterns of three coral reef species targeted by fisheries in Fiji: Epinephelus merra (Serranidae), Halichoeres trimaculatus (Labridae), and Holothuria atra (Holothuriidae). The two fish species, E. merra and Ha. trimaculatus, exhibited low genetic structuring and high amounts of gene flow, whereas the sea cucumber Ho. atra displayed high genetic partitioning and predominantly westward gene flow. The idiosyncratic patterns observed among these species indicate that patterns of connectivity in Fiji are likely determined by a combination of oceanographic and ecological characteristics. Our data indicate that in the cases of species with high connectivity, other factors such as representation or political availability may dictate where reserves are placed. In low connectivity species, ensuring upstream and downstream connections is critical.

  19. Youth Science Ambassadors: Connecting Indigenous communities with Ocean Networks Canada tools to inspire future ocean scientists and marine resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Hale, C.; McLean, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation describes Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) Youth Science Ambassador Program. The Youth Science Ambassadors are a growing network of youth in Canadian coastal communities whose role is to connect ocean science, ONC data, and Indigenous knowledge. By directly employing Indigenous youth in communities in which ONC operates monitoring equipment, ONC aims to encourage wider participation and interest in ocean science and exploration. Further, the Youth Science Ambassadors act as role models and mentors to other local youth by highlighting connections between Indigenous and local knowledge and current marine science efforts. Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories as well as community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. Youth Science Ambassadors are part of the Learning and Engagement team whose role includes engaging Indigenous communities and schools in ocean science through ONC's K-12 Ocean Sense education program. All of the data collected by ONC are freely available over the Internet for non-profit use, including disaster planning, community-based decision making, and education. The Youth Science Ambassadors support collaboration with Indigenous communities and schools by facilitating educational programming, encouraging participation in ocean data collection and analysis, and fostering interest in ocean science. In addition, the Youth Science Ambassadors support community collaboration in decision-making for instrument deployment locations and identify ways in which ONC can help to address any areas of concern raised by the community. This

  20. Drivers of redistribution of fishing and non-fishing effort after the implementation of a marine protected area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Reniel B; Gaines, Steven D; Johnson, Brett A; Bell, Tom W; White, Crow

    2017-03-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP. Using long-term (14 yr) aerial surveys of boats at the California Channel Islands, we examined the spatial redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities and their drivers following MPA establishment. Our data represent 6 yr of information before the implementation of an MPA network and 8 yr after implementation. Different types of boats responded in different ways to the closures, ranging from behaviors by commercial dive boats that support the hypothesis of fishing-the-line, to behaviors by urchin, sport fishing, and recreational boats that support the theory of ideal free distribution. Additionally, we found that boats engaged in recreational activities targeted areas that are sheltered from large waves and located near their home ports, while boats engaged in fishing activities also avoided high wave areas but were not constrained by the distance to their home ports. We did not observe the expected pattern of effort concentration near MPA borders for some boat types; this can be explained by the habitat preference of certain activities (for some activities, the desired habitat attributes are not inside the MPAs), species' biology (species such as urchins where the MPA benefit would likely come from larval export rather than adult spillover), or policy-infraction avoidance. The diversity of boat responses reveals variance from the usual simplified assumption that all extractive boats respond similarly to MPA

  1. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  2. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  3. Radiobiology of DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, I.

    1975-01-01

    The yield of single-strand breaks in lambda DNA within lysogenic host bacteria was measured after exposure to 4-MeV electrons (50 msec) and rapid transfer (45 msec) to alkaline detergent. In nitrogen anoxia the yield was 1.2 x 10 -12 DNA single-strand breaks per rad per dalton, and under full oxygenation the yield increased to 5 x 10 -12 breaks per rad per dalton. A search for the presence of fast repair mechanisms failed to demonstrate the presence of any mechanism for repair of strand breaks operating within a fraction of a second. Strand breaks produced in the presence of oxygen were repaired in 30--40 sec, while breaks produced under anoxia were rejoined even slower. A functional product from the polAl gene was needed for the rejoining of the broken molecules. Intermediate levels of DNA strand breakage seen at low concentrations of oxygen are dependent on the concentration of cellular sulfhydryl compounds, suggesting that in strand breakage oxygen and hydrogen donors compete for reactions with radiation-induced transients in the DNA. Intercomparisons of data on radiation-induced lethality of cells and single-strand breaks in episomal DNA allow the distinction between two classes of radiation-induced radicals, R 1 and R 2 , with different chemical properties; R 1 reacts readily with oxygen and N-oxyls under formation of potentially lethal products. The reactivity of oxygen in this reaction is 30--40 times higher than that of TMPN. R 2 reacts 16 times more readily than R 1 with oxygen under formation of single-strand breaks in the DNA. R 2 does not react with N-oxyls

  4. Estimating marine aerosol particle volume and number from Maritime Aerosol Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The "average solution" MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the "best solution" dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data. However, without accurate AOD data and prior knowledge of

  5. Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic pollutants on the marine organisms: Molecular biomarker approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    of the organisms to xenobiotic compounds being transformed into reactive oxygen species. Most importantly, the occurrence of DNA strand breaks in marine organisms leading to the loss of DNA integrity is a significant biomarker of marine pollution. The measurement...

  6. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  7. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  8. The stranding anomaly as population indicator: the case of Harbour Porpoise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltier, H.; Baagøe, H.J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Czeck, R.; Dabin, W.; Daniel, P.; Deaville, R.; Haelters, J.; Jauniaux, T.; Jensen, L.F.; Jepson, P.D.; Keijl, G.O.; Siebert, U.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical

  9. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  10. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  11. Strand Plasticity Governs Fatigue in Colloidal Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Jan Maarten; Verweij, Joanne E.; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2018-05-01

    The repeated loading of a solid leads to microstructural damage that ultimately results in catastrophic material failure. While posing a major threat to the stability of virtually all materials, the microscopic origins of fatigue, especially for soft solids, remain elusive. Here we explore fatigue in colloidal gels as prototypical inhomogeneous soft solids by combining experiments and computer simulations. Our results reveal how mechanical loading leads to irreversible strand stretching, which builds slack into the network that softens the solid at small strains and causes strain hardening at larger deformations. We thus find that microscopic plasticity governs fatigue at much larger scales. This gives rise to a new picture of fatigue in soft thermal solids and calls for new theoretical descriptions of soft gel mechanics in which local plasticity is taken into account.

  12. Long range inland-coastal networks during the Late Magdalenian: evidence for individual acquisition of marine resources at Andernach-Martinsberg, German Central Rhineland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michelle C; Street, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent re-examination of the osseous material assemblage from Andernach-Martinsberg, Central Rhineland, has resulted in the identification of an implement manufactured from cetacean bone (probably whale). Argued to be the proximal half of a foreshaft, this artefact is not only one of few such projectile elements to be identified in Magdalenian deposits in northern Europe, but also demonstrates that the exploitation of marine raw materials for use in manufacturing projectile elements is not restricted to southern France, instead extending to at least inland Germany. Additionally, in conjunction with the appearance of marine molluscs and engravings of seals at Andernach, it can now be forcefully argued that this region formed part of an inland-coastal network during the Late Magdalenian and allows us for the first time to suggest that we can identify the movements of individuals transporting valued marine sourced raw materials and their personal experiences across this vast region. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Marine and Freshwater Fish Environmental Intelligence Networks Under Different Climate Change Scenarios to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Minamata Convention on Mercury was recently ratified and will go into effect on August 16, 2017. As noted in the convention text, fish are an important source of nutrition to consumers worldwide and several marine and freshwater species represent important links in the global source-receptor dynamics of methylmercury. However, despite its importance, a coordinated global program for marine and freshwater fish species using accredited laboratories, reproducible data and reliable models is still lacking. In recent years fish mercury science has evolved significantly with its use of advanced technologies and computational models to address this complex and ubiquitous environmental and public health issue. These advances in the field have made it essential that transparency be enhanced to ensure that fish mercury studies used in support of the convention are truly reproducible and scientifically sound. One primary goal of this presentation is to evaluate fish bioinformatics and methods, results and inferential reproducibility as it relates to aggregated uncertainty in mercury fish research models, science, and biomonitoring. I use models, environmental intelligence networks and simulations of the effects of a changing climate on methylmercury in marine and freshwater fish to examine how climate change and the convention itself may create further uncertainties for policymakers to consider. Lastly, I will also present an environmental intelligence framework for fish mercury bioaccumulation models and biomonitoring in support of the evaluation of the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

  14. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    fatal encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii’" and serological evidence of exposure to cetacean morbilliviruses2 ’. One virus, consistent with a bovine ...Journal for Parasitology 17:407-414. 71. Geraci, J.R., M.D. Dailey and D.J. St. Aubin. 1978. Parasitic mastitis in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin

  15. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  16. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  17. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  18. Degradation Network Reconstruction in Uric Acid and Ammonium Amendments in Oil-Degrading Marine Microcosms Guided by Metagenomic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael; Gertler, Christoph; Magagnini, Mirko; Mapelli, Francesca; Chen, Jianwei; Daffonchio, Daniele; Golyshin, Peter N.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy) amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA), or ammonium (AMM). We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames

  19. Rescue, rehabilitation, and release of marine mammals: An analysis of current views and practices.

    OpenAIRE

    St. Aubin, David J.; Geraci, Joseph R.; Lounsbury, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    Stranded marine mammals have long attracted public attention. Those that wash up dead are, for all their value to science, seldom seen by the public as more than curiosities. Animals that are sick, injured, orphaned or abandoned ignite a different response. Generally, public sentiment supports any effort to rescue, treat and return them to sea. Institutions displaying marine mammals showed an early interest in live-stranded animals as a source of specimens -- in 1948, Marine Studios in...

  20. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  1. Using network to enhance the insights on correlation and pollution assessment of co-occurring metals in marine sediments, the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Yupeng; Lin, Sen; Li, Hong; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhiping; Lin, Kuangfei

    2018-02-14

    In this study, sediment samples were collected from 24 sites in the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate the distribution characteristics, co-occurrence correlations, and ecological risks of metals. In surface sediments, metals presented a homologous banding distribution pattern decreasing seaward with distance. With network analysis, it indicated metals in this area might directly derive from the coastal river inputs. According to geo-accumulation indexes (I geo ), Cd was classified as moderate pollution at 58% sites, far above other metals. In addition, the potential ecological risk index (RI) was clustered with the ecological risk (ER) of Cd, which was regarded as considerable or high-risk level for most coastal stations. Thus Cd pollution in the ESC sediment should be paid more attention. In sum, the visualization of statistical analyses combined with geochemical approaches could reveal the potential sources of contaminants and ecological risks, thus facilitate the pollution evaluation in marine sediments.

  2. Sub-Ensemble Monitoring of DNA Strand Displacement Using Multiparameter Single-Molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra-Jasso, Laura E; Morten, Michael J; Magennis, Steven W

    2018-03-05

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here, we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constant of 10 m -1  s -1 . We also followed the displacement from a DNA three-way junction (3WJ) by ssDNA. The presence of three internal mismatched bases in the middle of the invading strand did not prevent displacement from the 3WJ, but reduced the second-order rate constant by about 50 %. We attribute strand exchange in the dsDNA and 3WJ to a zero-toehold pathway from the blunt-ended duplex arms. The single-molecule approach demonstrated here will be useful for studying complex DNA networks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation network reconstruction in uric acid and ammonium amendments in oil-degrading marine microcosms guided by metagenomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eBargiela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyse the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA, or ammonium (AMM. We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180 to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA and 65 (AMM gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM, were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered

  5. Degradation Network Reconstruction in Uric Acid and Ammonium Amendments in Oil-Degrading Marine Microcosms Guided by Metagenomic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-11-24

    Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyze the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy) amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA), or ammonium (AMM). We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180) to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA) and 65 (AMM) gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA) and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM), were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered for designing

  6. Internet vis-a-vis marine biology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.

    Internet is an amalgum of networks which reaches to more than 100 million people across the globe. The satellite-telecommunication based computer network web hosts information on every aspect of life. Marine biology related information too is being...

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  8. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  9. Pseudo-proxy evaluation of climate field reconstruction methods of North Atlantic climate based on an annually resolved marine proxy network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pyrina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two statistical methods are tested to reconstruct the interannual variations in past sea surface temperatures (SSTs of the North Atlantic (NA Ocean over the past millennium based on annually resolved and absolutely dated marine proxy records of the bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica. The methods are tested in a pseudo-proxy experiment (PPE setup using state-of-the-art climate models (CMIP5 Earth system models and reanalysis data from the COBE2 SST data set. The methods were applied in the virtual reality provided by global climate simulations and reanalysis data to reconstruct the past NA SSTs using pseudo-proxy records that mimic the statistical characteristics and network of Arctica islandica. The multivariate linear regression methods evaluated here are principal component regression and canonical correlation analysis. Differences in the skill of the climate field reconstruction (CFR are assessed according to different calibration periods and different proxy locations within the NA basin. The choice of the climate model used as a surrogate reality in the PPE has a more profound effect on the CFR skill than the calibration period and the statistical reconstruction method. The differences between the two methods are clearer for the MPI-ESM model due to its higher spatial resolution in the NA basin. The pseudo-proxy results of the CCSM4 model are closer to the pseudo-proxy results based on the reanalysis data set COBE2. Conducting PPEs using noise-contaminated pseudo-proxies instead of noise-free pseudo-proxies is important for the evaluation of the methods, as more spatial differences in the reconstruction skill are revealed. Both methods are appropriate for the reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the NA SSTs, even though they lead to a great loss of variance away from the proxy sites. Under reasonable assumptions about the characteristics of the non-climate noise in the proxy records, our results show that the marine network of Arctica

  10. Strand Displacement by DNA Polymerase III Occurs through a τ-ψ-χ Link to Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Coating the Lagging Strand Template*

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of γ-complex to support the reaction in the absence of τ. However, if γ-complex is p...

  11. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  12. Harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena strandings on the Dutch coast: No genetic structure, but evidence of inbreeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne J.; Smit, Femmie J. L.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Conservation management in the North Sea is often motivated by the population size of marine mammals, like harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena. In the Dutch part of the North Sea, sighting and stranding data are used to estimate population sizes, but these data give little insight into genetic structuring of the population. In this study we investigated genetic structure among animals stranded at different locations and times of year. We also tested whether there is a link between stranding and necropsy data, and genetic diversity. We made use of both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA analysis of samples from dead stranded porpoises along the Dutch coast during 2007. mtDNA analysis showed 6 variable positions in the control region, defining 3 different haplotypes. mtDNA haplotypes were not randomly distributed along the Dutch coastline. However, microsatellite analysis showed that these mtDNA haplotypes did not represent separate groups on a nuclear level. Furthermore, microsatellite analysis revealed no genotypic differences between seasons, locations or genders. The results of this study indicate that the Dutch population is panmictic. In contrast, heterozygosity levels were low, indicating some level of inbreeding in this population. However, this was not corroborated by other indices of inbreeding. This research provided insight into genetic structuring of stranded porpoises in 2007, but data from multiple years should be included to be able to help estimate population sizes.

  13. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  14. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Wright

    Full Text Available An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005, and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period. Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April. Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.

  15. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  16. Predictive modelling of grain size distributions from marine electromagnetic profiling data using end-member analysis and a radial basis function network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasch, B.; M"uller, H.; von Dobeneck, T.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a new methodology to predict grain-size distributions from geophysical data. Specifically, electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of seafloor sediments recovered from electromagnetic profiling data are used to predict grain-size distributions along shelf-wide survey lines. Field data from the NW Iberian shelf are investigated and reveal a strong relation between the electromagnetic properties and grain-size distribution. The here presented workflow combines unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques. Nonnegative matrix factorisation is used to determine grain-size end-members from sediment surface samples. Four end-members were found which well represent the variety of sediments in the study area. A radial-basis function network modified for prediction of compositional data is then used to estimate the abundances of these end-members from the electromagnetic properties. The end-members together with their predicted abundances are finally back transformed to grain-size distributions. A minimum spatial variation constraint is implemented in the training of the network to avoid overfitting and to respect the spatial distribution of sediment patterns. The predicted models are tested via leave-one-out cross-validation revealing high prediction accuracy with coefficients of determination (R2) between 0.76 and 0.89. The predicted grain-size distributions represent the well-known sediment facies and patterns on the NW Iberian shelf and provide new insights into their distribution, transition and dynamics. This study suggests that electromagnetic benthic profiling in combination with machine learning techniques is a powerful tool to estimate grain-size distribution of marine sediments.

  17. The (not so) Immortal Strand Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an “immortal” DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Principal...

  18. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  19. 77 FR 43238 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... which case the animal's hearing threshold will recover over time (Southall et al. 2007). Since marine... et al. 2002). However, in order for marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training...

  20. Reorganization of a marine trophic network along an inshore-offshore gradient due to stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Dorothée; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Cachera, Marie; Villanueva, Maria Ching; Ernande, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical considerations have highlighted the importance of the pelagic-benthic coupling in marine food webs. In continental shelf seas, it was hypothesized that the trophic network structure may change along an inshore-offshore gradient due to weakening of the pelagic-benthic coupling from coastal to offshore areas. We tested this assumption empirically using the eastern English Channel (EEC) as a case study. We sampled organisms from particulate organic matter to predatory fishes and used baseline-corrected carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) to determine their trophic position. First, hierarchical clustering on δ13C and δ15N coupled to bootstrapping and estimates of the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic carbon sources to consumers' diet showed that, at mesoscale, the EEC food web forms a continuum of four trophic levels with trophic groups spread across a pelagic and a benthic trophic pathway. Second, based on the same methods, a discrete approach examined changes in the local food web structure across three depth strata in order to investigate the inshore-offshore gradient. It showed stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in shallow coastal areas mostly due to a reorganization of the upper consumers relative to the two trophic pathways, benthic carbon sources being available to pelagic consumers and, reciprocally, pelagic sources becoming accessible to benthic species. Third a continuous approach examined changes in the mean and variance of upper consumers' δ13C and δ15N with depth. It detected a significant decrease in δ13C variance and a significant increase in δ15N variance as depth increases. A theoretical two-source mixing model showed that an inshore-offshore decrease in the pelagic-benthic coupling was a sufficient condition to produce the δ13C variance pattern, thus supporting the conclusions of the discrete approach. These results suggest that environmental gradients such as the inshore-offshore one should

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangzhou; Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W.; Maruya, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (ΣPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 μg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 μg/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean ΣPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 μg/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiangzhou [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W. [Institute for Integrated Research in Materials, Environments and Society (IIRMES), California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Maruya, Keith A., E-mail: keithm@sccwrp.or [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Blvd, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (SIGMAPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 mug/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 mug/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean SIGMAPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 mug/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. - Levels of PBDEs in pinnipeds found stranded along the southern California coast (USA) between 1994 and 2006 are the highest reported to date for marine mammals.

  3. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  4. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  5. Creating collaboration opportunities for marine research across the Arctic: The SEARCH-ACCESS partnership and an emerging sea ice prediction research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Bitz, C. M.; Gascard, J.; Kaminski, T.; Karcher, M. J.; Kauker, F.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid Arctic environmental and socio-economic change presents major challenges and opportunities to Arctic residents, government agencies and the private sector. The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover, in particular, are in the midst of transformative change, ranging from declines in sea-ice thickness and summer ice extent to threats to coastal communities and increases in maritime traffic and offshore resource development. The US interagency Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) project are addressing both scientific research needs and stakeholder information priorities to improve understanding and responses to Arctic change. Capacity building, coordination and integration of activities at the international level and across sectors and stakeholder groups are major challenges that have to be met. ACCESS and SEARCH build on long-standing collaborations with a focus on environmental change in the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system and the most pressing research needs to inform marine policy, resource management and threats to Arctic coastal communities. To illustrate the approach, key results and major conclusions from this international coordination and collaboration effort, we focus on a nascent sea-ice prediction research network. This activity builds on the Arctic Sea Ice Outlook that was initiated by SEARCH and the European DAMOCLES project (a precursor to ACCESS) and has now grown into an international community of practice that synthesizes, evaluates and discusses sea-ice predictions on seasonal to interannual scales. Key goals of the effort which is now entering into a new phase include the comparative evaluation of different prediction approaches, including the combination of different techniques, the compilation of reference datasets and model output, guidance on the design and implementation of observing system efforts to improve predictions and information transfer into private

  6. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  7. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  9. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  10. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  11. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  12. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  13. Fecal bacterial communities of wild-captured and stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Md Shamim; Waltzek, Thomas B; Huerlimann, Roger; Ariel, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) are endangered marine herbivores that break down food particles, primarily sea grasses, through microbial fermentation. However, the microbial community and its role in health and disease is still largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated and compared the fecal bacterial communities of eight wild-captured green turtles to four stranded turtles in the central Great Barrier Reef regions that include Bowen and Townsville. We used high-throughput sequencing analysis targeting the hypervariable V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. At the phylum level, Firmicutes predominated among wild-captured green turtles, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In contrast, Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) was the most significantly dominant phylum among all stranded turtles, followed by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In addition, Fusobacteria was also significantly abundant in stranded turtles. No significant differences were found between the wild-captured turtles in Bowen and Townsville. At the family level, the core bacterial community consisted of 25 families that were identified in both the wild-captured and stranded green turtles, while two unique sets of 14 families each were only found in stranded or wild-captured turtles. The predominance of Bacteroides in all groups indicates the importance of these bacteria in turtle gut health. In terms of bacterial diversity and richness, wild-captured green turtles showed a higher bacterial diversity and richness compared with stranded turtles. The marked differences in the bacterial communities between wild-captured and stranded turtles suggest the possible dysbiosis in stranded turtles in addition to potential causal agents. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Real-time monitoring of enzyme-free strand displacement cascades by colorimetric assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruixue; Wang, Boya; Hong, Fan; Zhang, Tianchi; Jia, Yongmei; Huang, Jiayu; Hakeem, Abdul; Liu, Nannan; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2015-03-01

    The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications.The enzyme-free toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction has shown potential for building programmable DNA circuits, biosensors, molecular machines and chemical reaction networks. Here we report a simple colorimetric method using gold nanoparticles as signal generators for the real-time detection of the product of the strand displacement cascade. During the process the assembled gold nanoparticles can be separated, resulting in a color change of the solution. This assay can also be applied in complex mixtures, fetal bovine serum, and to detect single-base mismatches. These results suggest that this method could be of general utility to monitor more complex enzyme-free strand displacement reaction-based programmable systems or for further low-cost diagnostic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and analytical data are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00697j

  15. The general atomic strand winding machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matt, P.

    1976-01-01

    In conjunction with the integrated development of their high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), General Atomic of San Diego, USA, also developed a strand winding system for the horizontal prestressing of pressure vessels. The machine lay-out, its capabilities and the test program carried out in the laboratory and on a full scale pressure vessel model are described. (author)

  16. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  17. Untangling the Strands of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Ira C.

    1979-01-01

    Explores trends in the Court's interpretation of the libertarian and egalitarian dimensions of the Fourteenth Amendment and offers a theory of the two strands. Available from Michigan Law Review, Hutchins Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; single issues $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  18. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti

    2015-03-01

    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  19. The (not so) immortal strand hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Bozic, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell replication has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize accumulated genetic errors in stem cells of rapidly dividing tissues. According to this hypothesis, an "immortal" DNA strand is passed to the stem cell daughter and not the more differentiated cell, keeping the stem cell lineage replication error-free. After it was introduced, experimental evidence both in favor and against the hypothesis has been presented. Using a novel methodology that utilizes cancer sequencing data we are able to estimate the rate of accumulation of mutations in healthy stem cells of the colon, blood and head and neck tissues. We find that in these tissues mutations in stem cells accumulate at rates strikingly similar to those expected without the protection from the immortal strand mechanism. Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  1. Low-residue euthanasia of stranded mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; McLellan, William A; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Clarke, Elsburgh O; Thayer, Victoria G; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Euthanasia of stranded large whales poses logistic, safety, pharmaceutical, delivery, public relations, and disposal challenges. Reasonable arguments may be made for allowing a stranded whale to expire naturally. However, slow cardiovascular collapse from gravitational effects outside of neutral buoyancy, often combined with severely debilitating conditions, motivate humane efforts to end the animal's suffering. The size of the animal and prevailing environmental conditions often pose safety concerns for stranding personnel, which take priority over other considerations. When considering chemical euthanasia, the size of the animal also necessitates large quantities of euthanasia agents. Drug residues are a concern for relay toxicity to scavengers, particularly for pentobarbital-containing euthanasia solutions. Pentobarbital is also an environmental concern because of its stability and long persistence in aquatic environments. We describe a euthanasia technique for stranded mysticetes using readily available, relatively inexpensive, preanesthetic and anesthetic drugs (midazolam, acepromazine, xylazine) followed by saturated KCl delivered via custom-made needles and a low-cost, basic, pressurized canister. This method provides effective euthanasia while moderating personnel exposure to hazardous situations and minimizing drug residues of concern for relay toxicity.

  2. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK ORIENTED STRAND BOARD DARI KAYU AKASIA DAN AFRIKA BERDASARKAN PENYUSUNAN ARAH STRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives arc to evaluate physical and mechanical properties of OSB based on strands orientation; and to evaluate physical and mechanical properties of OSB made from akasia wood (Acacia mangium Wild and afrika wood (Maesopsis eminii Engl. Akasia and afrika wood are used for OSB strand material with phenol formaldehyde (PF as adhesives and addition of paraffin. OSB made in this research is consist of three plies whereas are differed into eight (8 strand orientations. In the making process, hot press was carried out at 160OC and pressure 25kg.cm-2 for 15 minutes. Determination of OSB physical and mechanical properties is referred to JIS A 5908-2003. Result showed that strand orientations has no affect to OSB physical properties except for linicr swelling 24h, but it significantly influence all mechanical properties of OSB. Wood species have an effect on mechanical properties of OSB in the dry test, wet MOE lengthwise test and OSB physical properties, particularly to OSB density and water absorbing capability at 2h and 24h. All of OSB physical properties arc meet JIS A 5908-2003 standard, but not all of the mechanical properties such as dry MOE lengthwise, dry MOE and MOR widthwise. The best physical and mechanical properties is presented by OSB made from akasia wood in strand orientation F, G, Band C whereas all parameters meet JIS A 5908-2003 standard. In comparation with strand orientation B that is frequent used in industry, strand orientation F and G arc proficient to raise the modulus elasticity value (MOE and strength (MOR as much as 167.81-231.65% and 89.73-109.87%, respectively; especially in widthwise board application. Furthermore, strand orientation F and G arc more flexible as structural components

  4. Corrosion characteristics of unprotected post-tensioning strands under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of stress condition : and environmental exposure on corrosion of post-tensioned strands during ungrouted periods. : Exposures for periods of up to 4 weeks of stressed, as-received strand placed i...

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  8. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  10. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  13. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  15. Brain Meta-Transcriptomics from Harbor Seals to Infer the Role of the Microbiome and Virome in a Stranding Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Stephanie M; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-01-01

    Marine diseases are becoming more frequent, and tools for identifying pathogens and disease reservoirs are needed to help prevent and mitigate epizootics. Meta-transcriptomics provides insights into disease etiology by cataloguing and comparing sequences from suspected pathogens. This method is a powerful approach to simultaneously evaluate both the viral and bacterial communities, but few studies have applied this technique in marine systems. In 2009 seven harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, stranded along the California coast from a similar brain disease of unknown cause of death (UCD). We evaluated the differences between the virome and microbiome of UCDs and harbor seals with known causes of death. Here we determined that UCD stranded animals had no viruses in their brain tissue. However, in the bacterial community, we identified Burkholderia and Coxiella burnetii as important pathogens associated with this stranding event. Burkholderia were 100% prevalent and ~2.8 log2 fold more abundant in the UCD animals. Further, while C. burnetii was found in only 35.7% of all samples, it was highly abundant (~94% of the total microbial community) in a single individual. In this harbor seal, C. burnetii showed high transcription rates of invading and translation genes, implicating it in the pathogenesis of this animal. Based on these data we propose that Burkholderia taxa and C. burnetii are potentially important opportunistic neurotropic pathogens in UCD stranded harbor seals.

  16. Brain Meta-Transcriptomics from Harbor Seals to Infer the Role of the Microbiome and Virome in a Stranding Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Rosales

    Full Text Available Marine diseases are becoming more frequent, and tools for identifying pathogens and disease reservoirs are needed to help prevent and mitigate epizootics. Meta-transcriptomics provides insights into disease etiology by cataloguing and comparing sequences from suspected pathogens. This method is a powerful approach to simultaneously evaluate both the viral and bacterial communities, but few studies have applied this technique in marine systems. In 2009 seven harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, stranded along the California coast from a similar brain disease of unknown cause of death (UCD. We evaluated the differences between the virome and microbiome of UCDs and harbor seals with known causes of death. Here we determined that UCD stranded animals had no viruses in their brain tissue. However, in the bacterial community, we identified Burkholderia and Coxiella burnetii as important pathogens associated with this stranding event. Burkholderia were 100% prevalent and ~2.8 log2 fold more abundant in the UCD animals. Further, while C. burnetii was found in only 35.7% of all samples, it was highly abundant (~94% of the total microbial community in a single individual. In this harbor seal, C. burnetii showed high transcription rates of invading and translation genes, implicating it in the pathogenesis of this animal. Based on these data we propose that Burkholderia taxa and C. burnetii are potentially important opportunistic neurotropic pathogens in UCD stranded harbor seals.

  17. Ruggedized Portable Instrumentation Package for Marine Mammal Evoked Potential Hearing Measurements (DURIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology,Marine Mammal...Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology P.O. Box 1106 Kailua, Hawaii 96734 phone: (808) 247-5297 fax: (808) 247-5831 email: nachtiga...portable equipment was used at the Hilo Stranding Center to obtain the audiograms. Ready and available for RIMPAC excercises. 2 IMPACT

  18. The European Nb3Sn advanced strand development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.; Salpietro, E.

    2005-01-01

    Strands relevant for fusion with high critical current densities and moderate hysteresis losses were developed and already produced on industrial scale. Based on these achievements EFDA-CSU Garching has launched a Nb 3 Sn strand development and procurement action inside Europe in order to assess the current status of the Nb 3 Sn strand production capability. All six addressed companies have replied positively to the strand R and D programme which includes the three major Nb 3 Sn production techniques namely the bronze, internal-tin and powder-in-tube (PIT) route. According to the strand requirements for the ITER TF conductor a critical current density of 800 A/mm 2 (at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 μV/m) and overall strand hysteresis losses below 500 kJ/m 3 have been specified as the minimum guaranteed strand performance. The second major objective of this programme is to motivate the strand manufacturers to develop and design high performance Nb 3 Sn strands optimised for the ITER conductor. For this purpose, a target critical current density of 1100 A/mm 2 has been added to the specification. This paper describes the strategy behind the strand development programme, the actual status of the strand production as well as first preliminary results obtained from the strand suppliers

  19. Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under

  20. An antemortem guide for the assessment of stranded Australian sea snakes (Hydrophiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Marine snakes of the subfamily Hydrophiinae are obligate ocean dwellers, unlike their amphibious counterparts, the sea kraits (Laticaudinae), and as such they are often referred to as 'true' sea snakes. This specialization means that the presence of a true sea snake on a beach is atypical and likely indicates disease or injury. Traumatic injuries such as eye, jaw, and spinal lesions have been observed in stranded sea snakes and may present as acute injury or progress to chronic debilitation. Diseases, such as neoplasia, leukemia, and parasite overburden, have also been seen in wild sea snakes, and these animals may present similarly. Sick, moribund, or deceased sea snakes are intermittently found washed ashore along Australian beaches, and these specimens may prove valuable as bioindicators of marine health. This review is intended as a guide to the diagnostic investigation of sick or injured sea snakes by suitably qualified people.

  1. Development of strand burner for solid propellant burning rate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A; Mamat, R; Ali, W K Wan

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that a strand burner is an apparatus that provides burning rate measurements of a solid propellant at an elevated pressure in order to obtain the burning characteristics of a propellant. This paper describes the facilities developed by author that was used in his studies. The burning rate characteristics of solid propellant have be evaluated over five different chamber pressures ranging from 1 atm to 31 atm using a strand burner. The strand burner has a mounting stand that allows the propellant strand to be mounted vertically. The strand was ignited electrically using hot wire, and the burning time was recorded by electronic timer. Wire technique was used to measure the burning rate. Preliminary results from these techniques are presented. This study shows that the strand burner can be used on propellant strands to obtain accurate low pressure burning rate data

  2. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Reed A; Graur, Dan

    2011-02-08

    In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines the Watson strand as the strand which has its 5'-end at the short-arm telomere and the Crick strand as its complement. The Watson strand is always used as the reference strand in their database. Using this as the basis of our standard, we recommend that Watson and Crick strand terminology only be used in the context of genomics. When possible, the centromere or other genomic feature should be used as a reference point, dividing the chromosome into two arms of unequal lengths. Under our proposal, the Watson strand is standardized as the strand whose 5'-end is on the short arm of the chromosome, and the Crick strand as the one whose 5'-end is on the long arm. Furthermore, the Watson strand should be retained as the reference (plus) strand in a genomic database. This usage not only makes the determination of Watson and Crick unambiguous, but also allows unambiguous selection of reference stands for genomics. This article was reviewed by John M. Logsdon, Igor B. Rogozin (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky), and William Martin.

  3. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graur Dan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. Proposal The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines the Watson strand as the strand which has its 5'-end at the short-arm telomere and the Crick strand as its complement. The Watson strand is always used as the reference strand in their database. Using this as the basis of our standard, we recommend that Watson and Crick strand terminology only be used in the context of genomics. When possible, the centromere or other genomic feature should be used as a reference point, dividing the chromosome into two arms of unequal lengths. Under our proposal, the Watson strand is standardized as the strand whose 5'-end is on the short arm of the chromosome, and the Crick strand as the one whose 5'-end is on the long arm. Furthermore, the Watson strand should be retained as the reference (plus strand in a genomic database. This usage not only makes the determination of Watson and Crick unambiguous, but also allows unambiguous selection of reference stands for genomics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John M. Logsdon, Igor B. Rogozin (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky, and William Martin.

  4. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  5. Morphology and mechanical properties of multi-stranded amyloid fibrils probed by atomistic and coarse-grained simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Gwonchan; Lee, Myeongsang; Kim, Kyungwoo; In Kim, Jae; Joon Chang, Hyun; Baek, Inchul; Na, Sungsoo; Eom, Kilho

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are responsible for pathogenesis of various diseases and exhibit the structural feature of an ordered, hierarchical structure such as multi-stranded helical structure. As the multi-strandedness of amyloid fibrils has recently been found to be highly correlated with their toxicity and infectivity, it is necessary to study how the hierarchical (i.e. multi-stranded) structure of amyloid fibril is formed. Moreover, although it has recently been reported that the nanomechanics of amyloid proteins plays a key role on the amyloid-induced pathogenesis, a critical role that the multi-stranded helical structure of the fibrils plays in their nanomechanical properties has not fully characterized. In this work, we characterize the morphology and mechanical properties of multi-stranded amyloid fibrils by using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation and elastic network model. It is shown that the helical pitch of multi-stranded amyloid fibril is linearly proportional to the number of filaments comprising the amyloid fibril, and that multi-strandedness gives rise to improving the bending rigidity of the fibril. Moreover, we have also studied the morphology and mechanical properties of a single protofilament (filament) in order to understand the effect of cross-β structure and mutation on the structures and mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils. Our study sheds light on the underlying design principles showing how the multi-stranded amyloid fibril is formed and how the structure of amyloid fibrils governs their nanomechanical properties. (paper)

  6. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  7. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A; Khodakova, Anastasia S; Huang, David M; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V

    2015-03-04

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within double-stranded DNA generated from real-life human mitochondrial DNA samples. Aside from the potential diagnostic value, the current study represents an additional way to control the strand displacement reaction rate without altering other reaction parameters and provides new insights into the influence of single nucleotide substitutions on 3- and 4-way branch migration efficiency and kinetics.

  8. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  9. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  11. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  18. Beaked Whale Strandings and Naval Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    varamiento de cetá- ceos–Viceconsejería de Medio Ambiente . Gran Canaria: Government of the Canary Islands. Retrieved 30 November 2009 from www.gobcan.es...Department of the Navy (U.S. DoN). (2002a). Marine resources assessment for the Gulf of Mexico operating area. Prepared by Geo-Marine, Inc., Plano, TX...and Heritageb 1 June 1986 Zc, Me 5 Spain (Canary Islands) 4 Vonk & Martín Martel, 1988d 2 July 1986 Bb 7 Mexico 4 Aurioles-Gamboa, 1992d 29-31 Aug 1986

  19. Improving strand quality of upland oaks for use in oriented strand board

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. DeValliance; Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky

    2013-01-01

    Past research estimates that more than 1 million tons of oak logging residues go unused in West Virginia each year. Much research has been done investigating potential products and markets for this underutilized resource. West Virginia is home to an oriented strand board (OSB) producer that consumes large volumes of small diameter, low quality round wood. However, the...

  20. Five-Strand versus Four-Strand Hamstring Tendon Graft Technique for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Eric R; Parks, Brent G; Camire, Lyn M; Hinton, Richard Y

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article is to compare diameter and stiffness, displacement, and strain in a five-strand versus four-strand hamstring graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Eight matched pairs of lower extremities underwent four-strand or five-strand hamstring graft reconstruction. Diameter was significantly higher in the five-strand versus the four-strand construct ( p  = 0.002). No significant difference was found between the groups in construct displacement or stiffness. Significantly higher strain was observed in the inner limb versus the outer limb in the four-strand construct ( p  = 0.001) and in the inner limb versus the fifth limb in the 5-strand construct ( p  = 0.004). A fifth limb added to a four-strand hamstring graft significantly increased graft diameter but did not significantly change stiffness or displacement, suggesting that attachment of additional graft material via suture did not provide for full incorporation of the added limb into the graft at time zero. The inner limb in both constructs absorbed significantly greater load than did other limbs. The use of suture to attach additional material to a four-strand hamstring graft may not contribute to improved biomechanical qualities of the graft at time zero. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  2. Stranded cost recovery in electricity market reforms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd, D.; Karimov, R.; Tishler, A.

    2003-01-01

    An important element of an electricity market reform is stranded cost recovery. This paper explains the cause of stranded costs, describes four recovery mechanisms, evaluates these mechanisms using the criteria of recovery certainty, economic efficiency and equity, reviews the financial performance of 12 utilities in the US in connection to stranded cost recovery, and shows why the mechanism used in California has contributed to the reform failure in that state. (Author)

  3. Theoretical analysis on ac loss properties of two-strand parallel conductors composed of superconducting multifilamentary strands

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2002-01-01

    The ac loss properties of two-strand parallel conductors composed of superconducting multifilamentary strands were theoretically investigated. The constituent strands generally need to be insulated and transposed for the sake of uniform current distribution and low ac loss. In case the transposition points deviate from the optimum ones, shielding current is induced according to the interlinkage magnetic flux of the twisted loop enclosed by the insulated strands and the contact resistances at the terminals. It produces an additional ac loss. Supposing a simple situation where a two-strand parallel conductor with one-point transposition is exposed to a uniform ac magnetic field, the basic equations for the magnetic field were proposed and the theoretical expressions of the additional ac losses derived. As a result, the following features were shown. The additional ac loss in the non-saturation case, where the induced shielding current is less than the critical current of a strand, is proportional to the square ...

  4. Acoustic Response and Detection of Marine Mammals Using an Advanced Digital Acoustic Recording Tag(Rev 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-13

    the SERDP program. With the reduced size and weight of the new tag as compared to the original design, less flotation was required resulting in a...Plenary Meeting of Marine Mammal Commission Federal Advisory Committee on Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals, Silver Spring Maryland, April 19-21...2002. Mass stranding of beaked whales in the Galapagos Islands, April 2000. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring. Harwood, J. 2000 Risk

  5. Marine informational governance, a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, E.W.J.; Vos, de B.I.; Buisman, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Marine governance involves interaction between networks and actors from different types and levels of organizations. The concept of multi-level or network governance steps away from the assumptions that supra-national and national government at the macro level is the dominant policy making unit. At

  6. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Vulnerability Assessment and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kessel, Adam; Goodwin, Shane

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of wireless computer equipment and Local Area Networks (LANs) create an increasingly common and growing threat to Marine Corps Network infrastructure and communication security (COMSEC...

  7. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed. PMID:29351240

  8. Machine Learning and Infrared Thermography for Fiber Orientation Assessment on Randomly-Oriented Strands Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Zhang, Hai; Figueiredo, Alisson; Malheiros, Fernando; Ignacio, Luis Henrique; Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Guimaraes, Gilmar; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-19

    The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand. In this paper, a non-destructive evaluation method is applied to assess the fiber orientation on laminates reinforced with randomly-oriented strands. More specifically, a method called pulsed thermal ellipsometry combined with an artificial neural network, a machine learning technique, is used in order to estimate the fiber orientation on the surface of inspected parts. Results showed that the method can be potentially used to inspect large areas with good accuracy and speed.

  9. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  10. Excess single-stranded DNA inhibits meiotic double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Johnson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, self-inflicted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are created by the protein Spo11 and repaired by homologous recombination leading to gene conversions and crossovers. Crossover formation is vital for the segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division and requires the RecA orthologue, Dmc1. We analyzed repair during meiosis of site-specific DSBs created by another nuclease, VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE, in cells lacking Dmc1 strand-exchange protein. Turnover and resection of the VDE-DSBs was assessed in two different reporter cassettes that can repair using flanking direct repeat sequences, thereby obviating the need for a Dmc1-dependent DNA strand invasion step. Access of the single-strand binding complex replication protein A, which is normally used in all modes of DSB repair, was checked in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, using antibody against Rfa1. Repair of the VDE-DSBs was severely inhibited in dmc1Delta cells, a defect that was associated with a reduction in the long tract resection required to initiate single-strand annealing between the flanking repeat sequences. Mutants that either reduce Spo11-DSB formation or abolish resection at Spo11-DSBs rescued the repair block. We also found that a replication protein A component, Rfa1, does not accumulate to expected levels at unrepaired single-stranded DNA (ssDNA in dmc1Delta cells. The requirement of Dmc1 for VDE-DSB repair using flanking repeats appears to be caused by the accumulation of large quantities of ssDNA that accumulate at Spo11-DSBs when Dmc1 is absent. We propose that these resected DSBs sequester both resection machinery and ssDNA binding proteins, which in wild-type cells would normally be recycled as Spo11-DSBs repair. The implication is that repair proteins are in limited supply, and this could reflect an underlying mechanism for regulating DSB repair in wild-type cells, providing protection from potentially harmful effects

  11. Marine and coastal environmental education in the context of global climate changes - synthesis and subsidies for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto S. Berchez

    Full Text Available Abstract As changes in coastal and marine environments are expected to negatively affect Brazilian ecosystems, the importance of Marine Environmental Education (MEE comes to the fore. However, so far only 32 contributions related to this issue have been published in Brazil. The MEE workgroup of ReBentos aims at promoting EE and the communication of marine ecological research to the scholastic public as a whole, as well as to groups which exert an influence on general perception, such as the media, politicians, and scientists. This paper presents an overview of the initiatives of MEE in Brazil, with emphasis on the ReBentos projects and guidelines. The conceptual background of action is based on the Rio'92 Treaty on Environmental Education, thereby implying an MEE with Transdisciplinar, emancipatory and reflexive characteristics, directed to changes in values, principles and attitudes. During the period 2011 to 2015, 10 projects were developed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina States, involving the development, implementation and testing through scientific research of 16 MEE activity-models. The didactic material subsequently produced comprised three books and 21 book-chapters. A public of around 6,500 Conservation Unit visitors, 250 public school teachers and 800 high school students have been impacted to date. To act as monitors and multipliers, 250 undergraduate students and professionals were trained. Research project evaluation generated the publication of nine papers. As a further step, the need for protocol elaboration for each model is placed in evidence, in order to direct and facilitate future initiatives.

  12. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  13. Stranding of two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the "North Sea trap" at Henne Strand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Hansen, Jørgen H.

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014 two male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark. One whale (MCE 1644) was found dead, while the other (MCE 1645) was still alive, but drowned during the high tide. To increase our knowledge of sperm whales, conduct forage investigations, post......-mortem and diagnostic examinations were carried out. The decay of the carcasses progressed quickly. The whales had large (MCE 1644) or moderate (MCE 1645) numbers of squid beaks (Gonatus fabricii) in the stomachventricles, but no evidence of recentfresh feeding. Both whales had acute dermatitis probably due to trauma...... severe localized or systemic infections. The finding of large volumes of bloody pleural fluid with large quantities of C. septicum suggests that MCE 1644 died of infection. However, reservations must be taken due to the pronounced decay of the carcass. Sperm whales have strong social bonds where...

  14. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    , artificial neural networks (ANN) based on quantitative analyses of planktic foraminifers. The results suggest arid climatic conditions and increased productivity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The sea surface temperature was 2.1 degrees C cooler...

  15. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Khodakova, Anastasia S.; Huang, David M.; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within doubl...

  16. Second-strand cDNA synthesis: classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, U.

    1987-01-01

    The classical scheme for the synthesis of double-stranded cDNA as it was reported in 1976 is described. Reverse transcription of mRNA with oligo(dT) as the primer generates first strands with a small loop at the 3' end of the cDNA (the end that corresponds to the 5' end of the mRNA). Subsequent removal of the mRNA by alkaline hydrolysis leaves single-stranded cDNA molecules again with a small 3' loop. This loop can be used by either reverse transcriptase or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I as a primer for second-strand synthesis. The resulting products are double-stranded cDNA molecules that are covalently closed at the end corresponding to the 5' end of the original mRNA. Subsequent cleavage of the short piece of single-stranded cDNA within the loop with the single-strand-specific S 1 nuclease generate open double-stranded molecules that can be used for molecular cloning in plasmids or in phage. Useful variations of this scheme have been described

  17. Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotion Contagion in Stranded Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.

    2017-01-01

    Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency

  18. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

  19. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  20. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  1. Compliant lightweight non-invasive standalone “Marine Skin” tagging system

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Velling, Seneca J.; Diaz-Gaxiola, Andrea; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Geraldi, Nathan R.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Current marine research primarily depends on weighty and invasive sensory equipment and telemetric network to understand the marine environment, including the diverse fauna it contains, as a function of animal behavior and size, as well as equipment

  2. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  3. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  4. Acute Pyelonephritis with Perinephric Stranding on CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Goubert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 54-year old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of fevers, dysuria, urinary frequency, and diffuse abdominal pain. Her temperature was 103°F, but the remainder of her vital signs were normal. Upon physical examination, the patient had tenderness to palpation in the left upper and left lower abdomen and left costovertebral angle tenderness. Due to the location of pain (diverticulitis is in the differential for left-sided abdominal pain in this age group and patient’s reported history of nephrolithiasis, a computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast was ordered because the physician felt this could best work up both of these possible conditions. Significant findings: A CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast showed neither nephrolithiasis nor diverticulitis, and instead showed heterogeneous enhancement of the left kidney with mild edematous enlargement and striated left nephrogram. Significant perinephric stranding (red arrows was also noted and was consistent with severe acute pyelonephritis. Discussion: Acute pyelonephritis (APN is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma which can present with a spectrum of symptoms including flank pain, high-grade fever, vomiting, and urinary tract symptoms.1,2 The diagnosis of APN can be made based on these clinical features with associated laboratory findings of bacteriuria, pyuria, positive urine cultures, and leukocytosis.1,2,7 Early diagnosis and treatment of APN is essential to prevent complications such as renal abscess or infarct, which could lead to renal failure, sepsis, and shock.3 CT has a sensitivity and specificity of 86.8% and 87.5%, respectively, for diagnosing APN. Common findings include striated nephrograms or perinephric fat stranding.2 However, imaging is not required for diagnosis and is typically reserved for patients who are immunocompromised, have severe symptoms, or show no clinical

  5. Marine Corps Private Cloud Computing Environment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    leveraging economies of scale through the MCEITS PCCE, the Marine Corps will measure consumed IT resources more effectively, increase or decrease...flexible broad network access, resource pooling, elastic provisioning and measured services. By leveraging economies of scale the Marine Corps will be able...IaaS SaaS / IaaS 1 1 LCE I ACE Dets I I I I ------------------~ GIG / CJ Internet Security Boundary MCEN I DISN r :------------------ MCEN

  6. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infreque...

  7. Sustained UK marine observations. Where have we been? Where are we now? Where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Nicholas J P

    2014-09-28

    This introduction traces the earliest interaction of ancient humans with their marine environment, through marine explorations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, to the development of early marine science in the Enlightenment. This sets the scene for how marine observations developed in the modern era and explains the status of today's marine observation networks. The paper concludes with an assessment of the future needs and constraints of sustained marine observation networks and suggests the lessons from a long history might be the key to the future. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  9. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  10. Dynamics of Leading-strand Lesion Skipping by the Replisome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeeles, Joseph T.P.; Marians, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The E. coli replisome stalls transiently when it encounters a lesion in the leading-strand template, skipping over the damage by reinitiating replication at a new primer synthesized downstream by the primase. We report here that template unwinding and lagging-strand synthesis continue downstream of the lesion at a reduced rate after replisome stalling, that one replisome is capable of skipping multiple lesions, and that the rate limiting steps of replication restart involve the synthesis and activation of the new primer downstream. We also find little support for the concept that polymerase uncoupling, where extensive lagging-strand synthesis proceeds downstream in the absence of leading-strand synthesis, involves physical separation of the leading-strand polymerase from the replisome. Instead, our data indicate that extensive uncoupled replication likely results from a failure of the leading-strand polymerase still associated with the DNA helicase and the lagging-strand polymerase that are proceeding downstream to reinitiate synthesis. PMID:24268579

  11. Current redistribution in cables made of insulated, soldered, or oxidized strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1979-07-01

    Current redistributions are compared in cables made of insulated strands, soldered, or oxidized strands and insulated strands with periodic joints. After discussing the different current redistributions in the cases of a rapidly changing current and a dc current, several particular situations are investigated: what happens if a strand is broken, or if a local normal zone appears that does not affect all the strands equally, the detection of this normal zone, and the influence of short circuits between strands

  12. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  13. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  14. Demonstration of the SeptiStrand benthic microbial fuel cell powering a magnetometer for ship detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Thode, Y. Meriah; Hsu, Lewis; Anderson, Greg; Babauta, Jerome; Fransham, Roy; Obraztsova, Anna; Tukeman, Gabriel; Chadwick, D. Bart

    2017-07-01

    The Navy has a need for monitoring conditions and gathering information in marine environments. Sensors can monitor and report environmental parameters and potential activities such as animal movements, ships, or personnel. However, there has to be a means to power these sensors. One promising enabling technology that has been shown to provide long-term power production in underwater environments is the benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC). BMFCs are devices that generate energy by coupling bioanodes and biocathodes through an external energy harvester. Recent studies have demonstrated success for usage of BMFCs in powering small instruments and other devices on the seafloor over limited periods of time. In this effort, a seven-stranded BMFC linear array of 30 m was designed to power a seafloor magnetometer to detect passing ship movements through Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The BMFC system was connected to a flyback energy harvesting circuit that charged the battery powering the magnetometer. The deployment was demonstrated the BMFC supplied power to the battery for approximately 38 days. This is the first large-scale demonstration system for usage of the SeptiStrand BMFC technology to power a relevant sensor.

  15. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  16. Measurement of DNA integrity in marine gastropods as biomarker of genotoxicity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Vashistha, D.; Gupta, N.; Malik, K.; Gaitonde, D.C.S.

    to identify the hot spot of pollution due to genotoxic compounds, the DNA damage was measured in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in marine gastropods due to the occurrence of DNA strand breaks following the technique of time dependent partially alkaline...

  17. Evidence of marine debris usage by the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Rangel, Danilo Freitas; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2018-03-01

    Sandy beaches are sites of marine debris stranding, but the interaction of beach biota with waste is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata selects marine debris by types using a non-destructive method on sandy beaches of Southeastern Brazil. We found marine debris in 7% of 1696 surveyed burrows, and the ghost crabs selectivity was mainly by soft plastic (30%), straw (11%), rope (6%) and foam (4%). Burrows with marine debris showed higher occupation rate (~68%) compared to burrows without debris (~28%), indicating that these materials may increase the capacity of ghost crabs to memorize their burrows placement (homing). The percentage of marine debris was not always related to their amount in the drift line, but ghost crabs used more debris near urbanized areas. Future studies should test whether ghost crabs are using marine debris for feeding, homing or other mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Equilibrious Strand Exchange Promoted by DNA Conformational Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Xie, Xiao; Li, Puzhen; Zhao, Jiayi; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Most of DNA strand exchange reactions in vitro are based on toehold strategy which is generally nonequilibrium, and intracellular strand exchange mediated by proteins shows little sequence specificity. Herein, a new strand exchange promoted by equilibrious DNA conformational switching is verified. Duplexes containing c-myc sequence which is potentially converted into G-quadruplex are designed in this strategy. The dynamic equilibrium between duplex and G4-DNA is response to the specific exchange of homologous single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The SER is enzyme free and sequence specific. No ATP is needed and the displaced ssDNAs are identical to the homologous ssDNAs. The SER products and exchange kenetics are analyzed by PAGE and the RecA mediated SER is performed as the contrast. This SER is a new feature of G4-DNAs and a novel strategy to utilize the dynamic equilibrium of DNA conformations.

  19. Mass strandings of various ommastrephid squid species have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    escape reaction, to jet backwards at speed, is commonly observed. Appearing to ... on the occasion of a single mass stranding (La Pylaie, as cited in Lane 1957). ..... have also been associated with the displacement of major water masses ...

  20. Corrosion performance of prestressing strands in contact with dissimilar grouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To improve the corrosion protection provided to prestressing strands, anti-bleed grouts are used to fill voids in post-tensioning : ducts that result from bleeding and shrinkage of older Portland Cement grouts. Environmental differences caused by exp...

  1. The risk of stranded assets for utilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of dealing with stranded assets in Canada and the United States were discussed. Compared to the United States, the risk associated with stranded assets for utilities in Canada was considered to be relatively low because of the following factors: (1) low variable cost, (2) isolation, (3) lack of transmission interconnection capacity, (4) lack of tight synchronization in North America, (5) the likelihood of an increase in natural gas prices, (6) the absence of jurisdictional disputes such as FERC versus the states, (7) social considerations, (8) the learning curve, (9) politics, (10) weak balance sheets, (11) relatively low electricity prices, (12) the weak Canadian dollar, and (13) the possibility of refinancing at lower interest rates. Ontario Hydro, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Power are the three Canadian utilities that may have stranded costs. For Ontario Hydro and New Brunswick Power the stranded costs would be related to nuclear generator problems, whereas for Nova Scotia Power, the stranded costs would be related to the thermal generating base, the threat from Sable Island Gas and the changing tax structure of the utility. Some other reasons why stranded assets could be created in Canada would include low variable costs and high fixed costs, over capacity of at least 30 per cent in generation, limited domestic energy growth, competitive threat from gas, reliability and safety of nuclear plants, and technology change. Five factors in terms of which stranded assets can be expressed are: (1) variable cost definition, (2) total cost definition, (3) operating profit definition, (4) wide geographic definition, and (5) free market definition. In calculating stranded assets, the number of years over which the assets are recovered and the discount rate are considered to be key factors. 26 tabs

  2. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  3. Withdrawal Strength of Dowels in Plywood and Oriented Strand Board

    OpenAIRE

    ERDİL, Yusuf Z.; ECKELMAN, Carl A.

    2001-01-01

    Plywood and oriented strand board (OSB) are being used increasingly in the construction of upholstered furniture frames. Yet there is little information available concerning the holding strength of various fasteners, and, in particular, dowels in these materials. A study was conducted accordingly, to obtain basic information about the holding strength of dowels in both plywood and oriented strand board. Results of the tests were incorporated into predictive expressions that allow designers to...

  4. INFOMAR - Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme: A Tool For Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    INFOMAR is Ireland's national seabed mapping programme and is a key action in the national integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. It comprises a multi-platform approach to delivering marine integrated mapping in 2 phases, over a projected 20 year timeline (2006-2026). The programme has three work strands; Data Acquisition, Data Exchange and Integration, and Value Added Exploitation. The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of hydrographic, oceanographic, geological, habitat and heritage datasets that will underpin future sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resource. INFOMAR outputs are delivered through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of these outputs are wide ranging and multipurpose, from management plans for fisheries, aquaculture and coastal protection works, to environmental impact assessments, ocean renewable development and integrated coastal zone management. In order to address the evolution and diversification of maritime user requirements, the programme has realigned and developed outputs and new products, in part, through an innovative research funding initiative. Development is also fostered through the Value Added Exploitation strand. INFOMAR outputs and products serve to underpin delivery of Ireland's statutory obligations and enhance compliance with EU and national legislation. This is achieved through co-operation with the agencies responsible for supporting Ireland's international obligations and for the implementation of marine spatial planning. A strategic national seabed mapping programme such as INFOMAR, provides a critical baseline dataset which underpins development of the marine economy, and improves our understanding of the response of marine systems to pressures, and the effect of cumulative impacts. This paper will focus on the evolution and scope of INFOMAR, and look at examples of outputs being harnessed to serve approaches to the management of activities having an impact on the

  5. A model capturing novel strand symmetries in bacterial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobottka, Marcelo; Hart, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose a simple stochastic model to construct primitive DNA sequences. → The model provide an explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule in primitive DNA sequences. → The model is also used to predict a novel type of strand symmetry in primitive DNA sequences. → We extend the results for bacterial DNA sequences and compare distributional properties intrinsic to the model to statistical estimates from 1049 bacterial genomes. → We find out statistical evidences that the novel type of strand symmetry holds for bacterial DNA sequences. -- Abstract: Chargaff's second parity rule for short oligonucleotides states that the frequency of any short nucleotide sequence on a strand is approximately equal to the frequency of its reverse complement on the same strand. Recent studies have shown that, with the exception of organellar DNA, this parity rule generally holds for double-stranded DNA genomes and fails to hold for single-stranded genomes. While Chargaff's first parity rule is fully explained by the Watson-Crick pairing in the DNA double helix, a definitive explanation for the second parity rule has not yet been determined. In this work, we propose a model based on a hidden Markov process for approximating the distributional structure of primitive DNA sequences. Then, we use the model to provide another possible theoretical explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule, and to predict novel distributional aspects of bacterial DNA sequences.

  6. Tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up organ printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Organ printing, takes tissue spheroids as building blocks together with additive manufacturing technique to engineer tissue or organ replacement parts. Although a wide array of cell aggregation techniques has been investigated, and gained noticeable success, the application of tissue spheroids for scale-up tissue fabrication is still worth investigation. In this paper, we introduce a new micro-fabrication technique to create tissue strands at the scale of 500-700μm as a "bioink" for future robotic tissue printing. Printable alginate micro-conduits are used as semi-permeable capsules for tissue strand fabrication. Mouse insulinoma beta TC3 cell tissue strands were formed upon 4 days post fabrication with reasonable mechanical strength, high cell viability close to 90%, and tissue specific markers expression. Fusion was readily observed between strands when placing them together as early as 24h. Also, tissue strands were deposited with human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) vascular conduits together to fabricated miniature pancreatic tissue analog. Our study provided a novel technique using tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up bioprinting of tissues or organs.

  7. Flap Endonuclease 1 Limits Telomere Fragility on the Leading Strand*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Daniel C.; Parajuli, Shankar; Nguyen, Mai; Moore, Hayley R.; Alspach, Elise; Lock, Ying Jie; Honaker, Yuchi; Saharia, Abhishek; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity, but not DNA repair activities, results in leading strand-specific telomere fragility. Furthermore, we show that FEN1 depletion-induced telomere fragility is increased by RNA polymerase II inhibition and is rescued by ectopic RNase H1 expression. These data suggest that FEN1 limits leading strand-specific telomere fragility by processing RNA:DNA hybrid/flap intermediates that arise from co-directional collisions occurring between the replisome and RNA polymerase. Our data reveal the first molecular mechanism for leading strand-specific telomere fragility and the first known role for FEN1 in leading strand DNA replication. Because FEN1 mutations have been identified in human cancers, our findings raise the possibility that unresolved RNA:DNA hybrid structures contribute to the genomic instability associated with cancer. PMID:25922071

  8. Flap Endonuclease 1 Limits Telomere Fragility on the Leading Strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Daniel C; Parajuli, Shankar; Nguyen, Mai; Moore, Hayley R; Alspach, Elise; Lock, Ying Jie; Honaker, Yuchi; Saharia, Abhishek; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Stewart, Sheila A

    2015-06-12

    The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity, but not DNA repair activities, results in leading strand-specific telomere fragility. Furthermore, we show that FEN1 depletion-induced telomere fragility is increased by RNA polymerase II inhibition and is rescued by ectopic RNase H1 expression. These data suggest that FEN1 limits leading strand-specific telomere fragility by processing RNA:DNA hybrid/flap intermediates that arise from co-directional collisions occurring between the replisome and RNA polymerase. Our data reveal the first molecular mechanism for leading strand-specific telomere fragility and the first known role for FEN1 in leading strand DNA replication. Because FEN1 mutations have been identified in human cancers, our findings raise the possibility that unresolved RNA:DNA hybrid structures contribute to the genomic instability associated with cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  10. Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus: lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venn-Watson Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3 was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04, and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups.

  11. Marine Mammal Necropsy: An Introductory Guide for Stranding Responders and Field Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    increasing friction we have found that the easiest to hardest surfaces are as follows: wet slab rock such as basalt , cobble, slick mud, gravel, sand...Flagging tape, biodegradable Laundry tags- www.golps.com,Daily Delivery Tag, 1-Ply fiber ; Label tape- www.VWR.com Tyveck tags-www.LSS.com; Blank tags

  12. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import

  13. Integrating DNA strand-displacement circuitry with DNA tile self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Choi, Harry M.T.; Winfree, Erik

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology has emerged as a reliable and programmable way of controlling matter at the nanoscale through the specificity of Watson–Crick base pairing, allowing both complex self-assembled structures with nanometer precision and complex reaction networks implementing digital and analog behaviors. Here we show how two well-developed frameworks, DNA tile self-assembly and DNA strand-displacement circuits, can be systematically integrated to provide programmable kinetic control of self-assembly. We demonstrate the triggered and catalytic isothermal self-assembly of DNA nanotubes over 10 μm long from precursor DNA double-crossover tiles activated by an upstream DNA catalyst network. Integrating more sophisticated control circuits and tile systems could enable precise spatial and temporal organization of dynamic molecular structures. PMID:23756381

  14. Tensile and dimensional properties of wood strands made from plantation southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinglin Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jong N. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Working stresses and performance of strand composite lumber largely depend upon the properties of each individual strand. Southern pine strands from plantation lumber grown in southern Louisiana were investigated in this study in order to understand strand behaviors. The effects of hot-pressing and resin application on tensile modulus, strength, and dimensional...

  15. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  17. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  18. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  19. Marine data security based on blockchain technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Xie, Weiwei; Huang, Lei; Wei, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    With the development of marine observation technology and network technology, the volume of marine data growing rapidly. This brings new challenges for data storage and transmission. How to protect data security of marine big data has become an urgent problem. The traditional information security methods’ characteristic is centralization. These technologies cannot provide whole process protection, e.g., data storage, data management and application of data. The blockchain technology is a novel technology, which can keep the data security and reliability by using decentralized methodology. It has aroused wide interest in the financial field. In this paper, we describe the concept, characteristics and key technologies of blockchain technology and introduce it into the field of marine data security.

  20. NODC Standard Product: NOAA Marine environmental buoy database 1993 with Updates (19 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0095199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs holds marine meteorological, oceanographic, and wave spectra data collected by moored buoys and C-MAN (Coastal-Marine Automated Network) stations...

  1. European Research in Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C.Guedes; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Incecik, A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results obtained in Europe by a network with a large number of research groups in the field of Marine Structures during a period of 6 years. The European Union has funded a project aimed at improving the collaboration among European research groups specialized...... in marine structures, which has led, among other results to a number of benchmark studies organized in 6 main topical areas, namely, Methods and Tools for Loads and Load Effects, Methods and Tools for Strength Assessment, Experimental Analysis of Structures, Materials and Fabrication of Structures, Methods...... and Tools for Structural Design and Optimization and Structural Reliability, Safety and Environmental Protection. This paper presents an overview of various studies performed, which helps identifying the level of consistency and robustness of different numeric tools used in this field....

  2. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  3. Manufacture of Strand Board Bonded with Disposal Expanded Polystyrene as Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Andi; Ohuchi, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Noboru; 大内, 毅; 藤本, 登留

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of strand board bonded with disposal expanded polystyrene (EPS) as binder. The strand board was manufactured using strand made from Douglas-fir beams selected from construction scrap wood. The strands were oriented, and two types of three-layer (face-core-face) strand board were manufactured: one in which the board bounded with only disposal EPS (P board), and the other in which the board bonded with disposal...

  4. Ketahanan Papan Unting (Oriented Strand Board) terhadap Serangan Rayap Tanah dan Rayap Kayu Kering

    OpenAIRE

    Gea, Bud diman

    2011-01-01

    Oriented strand board is panel of wood raw material from which strand composed of cross and upright structure. In order to oriented strand board can be used for interior and exterior needs, than necessary to be applied various thenology of quality improvement like durabelities and endurance of oriented strand board. For it does found endurance oriented strand board from attack of ground termite and wood dry termite, necessary doing grave yard trial and wood dry termite trial. This research ta...

  5. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  6. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  8. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  9. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  10. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  11. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  12. Pathways of Lipid Metabolism in Marine Algae, Co-Expression Network, Bottlenecks and Candidate Genes for Enhanced Production of EPA and DHA in Species of Chromista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mühlroth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable capacity, and it is therefore imperative to develop alternative n-3 LC-PUFA sources for both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3. Genera of algae such as Nannochloropsis, Schizochytrium, Isochrysis and Phaedactylum within the kingdom Chromista have received attention due to their ability to produce n-3 LC-PUFAs. Knowledge of LC-PUFA synthesis and its regulation in algae at the molecular level is fragmentary and represents a bottleneck for attempts to enhance the n-3 LC-PUFA levels for industrial production. In the present review, Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used to exemplify the synthesis and compartmentalization of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Based on recent transcriptome data a co-expression network of 106 genes involved in lipid metabolism has been created. Together with recent molecular biological and metabolic studies, a model pathway for n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis in P. tricornutum has been proposed, and is compared to industrialized species of Chromista. Limitations of the n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis by enzymes such as thioesterases, elongases, acyl-CoA synthetases and acyltransferases are discussed and metabolic bottlenecks are hypothesized such as the supply of the acetyl-CoA and NADPH. A future industrialization will depend on optimization of chemical compositions and increased biomass production, which can be achieved by exploitation of the physiological potential, by selective breeding and by genetic engineering.

  13. Italy. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiero, L.

    1967-01-01

    Present research programme: Studies on radioactive, biological and hydrographic characteristics of Tyrrhenian Sea; Organization of suitable control network of marine water and fauna: systematic measurement of present components of natural and artificial radioactivity of water, sediments and of the marine food chain techniques of sampling; analysis and measurement of particular radioisotopes in marine water. α, β, γ analysis of samples; γ spectrometry, research on 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Determination of concentration factors of radioisotopes which are responsible for contamination of principal components of the flora and fauna in the Tyrrhenian Sea; research of hydrographie factors influencing the distribution of marine radioactivity. Nuclide content of other organisms of the Tyrrhenian flora and fauna

  14. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  16. Identification of cis-acting elements on positive-strand subgenomic mRNA required for the synthesis of negative-strand counterpart in bovine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Yuan; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2014-07-30

    It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(-)-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+)-strand] sgmRNA required for (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV) sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (-)-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1) Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (-)-strand sgmRNA complement. (2) Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (-)-strand sgmRNA. (3) Nucleotides positioned from -15 to -34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4) Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1) of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  17. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  18. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  19. Arranging eukaryotic nuclear DNA polymerases for replication: Specific interactions with accessory proteins arrange Pols α, δ, and ϵ in the replisome for leading-strand and lagging-strand DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M J

    2017-08-01

    Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy studies have just been published revealing interactions among proteins of the yeast replisome that are important for highly coordinated synthesis of the two DNA strands of the nuclear genome. These studies reveal key interactions important for arranging DNA polymerases α, δ, and ϵ for leading and lagging strand replication. The CMG (Mcm2-7, Cdc45, GINS) helicase is central to this interaction network. These are but the latest examples of elegant studies performed in the recent past that lead to a much better understanding of how the eukaryotic replication fork achieves efficient DNA replication that is accurate enough to prevent diseases yet allows evolution. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peter Simmonds

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish entanglement in active fishing gear from that in lost or discarded gear. The overall significance of the threat from ingested plastics and other debris remains unclear for any population or species of cetaceans, although there are concerns for some taxa, including at the population level, and marine debris in the oceans continues to grow. Further research including the compilation of unpublished material and the investigation of important habitat areas is strongly recommended.

  1. DNA turnover and strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Grivell, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of DNA turnover has been measured in a dnaB mutant of Escherichia coli, temperature sensitive for semiconservative DNA replication. At the nonpermissive temperature about 0.02 percent of the deoxynucleotides in DNA are exchanged per generation period. This turnover rate is markedly depressed in the presence of rifampicin. During thymine starvation strand breaks accumulate in the DNA of E. coli strains that are susceptible to thymineless death. Rifampicin suppresses the appearance of these breaks, consistent with our hypothesis that transcription may be accompanied by repairable single-strand breaks in DNA. DNA turnover is enhanced severalfold in strands containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine in place of thymidine, possibly because the analog (or the deoxyuridine, following debromination) is sometimes recognized and excised

  2. Stem cell identity and template DNA strand segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2008-12-01

    The quest for stem cell properties to distinguish their identity from that of committed daughters has led to a re-investigation of the notion that DNA strands are not equivalent, and 'immortal' DNA strands are retained in stem cells whereas newly replicated DNA strands segregate to the differentiating daughter cell during mitosis. Whether this process occurs only in stem cells, and also in all tissues, remains unclear. That individual chromosomes can be also partitioned non-randomly raises the question if this phenomenon is related to the immortal DNA hypothesis, and it underscores the need for high-resolution techniques to observe these events empirically. Although initially postulated as a mechanism to avoid DNA replication errors, alternative views including epigenetic regulation and sister chromatid silencing may provide insights into this process.

  3. Transmission pricing and stranded costs in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumol, W.J.; Sidak, J.G.

    1995-09-01

    Stranded costs are those costs that electric utilities are currently permitted to recover through their rates but whose recovery may be impeded or prevented by the advent of competition in the industry. Estimates of these costs run from the tens to the hundreds of billions of dollars. Should regulators permit utilities to recover stranded costs while they take steps to promote competition in the electric power industry. William Baumol and J. Gregory Sidak argue that answer to that question should be yes.The authors show that a transmission price, the price for sending electricity over the transmission grid, can be determined in a manner that is compatible with economic efficiency and clearly neutral in its effects upon all competitors in electricity generation. A correctly constructed regime of transmission pricing may in fact achieve the efficiency and equity goals that justify the recovery of stranded costs

  4. Informal Science learning in PIBID: identifying and interpreting the strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Barbosa Fejolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research on informal Science learning in the context of the Institutional Scholarship Program Initiation to Teaching (PIBID. We take as reference the strands of informal Science learning (FAC, representing six dimensions of learning, they are: 1 Development of interest in Science; 2 Understanding of scientific knowledge; 3 Engaging in scientific reasoning; 4 Reflection on Science; 5 Engagement in scientific practice; 6 Identification with Science. For the lifting data, it was used the filming record of the interactions and dialogues of undergraduate students while performing activities of Optical Spectroscopy in the laboratory. Based on the procedures of content analysis and interpretations through communication, we investigate which of the six strands were present during the action of the students in activities. As a result we have drawn a learning profile for each student by distributing communications in different strands of informal Science learning.

  5. Development of Nb3Sn strands for ITER in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, T.; Nunoya, Y.; Matsui, K.; Nabara, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Okuno, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils and Central Solenoids (CS) are required to have both high current density (Jc) and low hysteresis loss. The required Jc at 12 T, 4.2 K and no external strain is lager than 700 A/mm 2 for bronze processed strand and lager than 800 A/mm 2 for internal tin processed one at 12 T, 4.2 K and no external strain. Upper limit of hysteresis loss is 1,000 mJ/cm 3 at 4.2 K and a cycle of ±3 T. Outer diameter is 0.82 mm and 0.83 mm for TF coils and CS, respectively. Area ratio of copper to non copper is one and outer surface is Cr plated. Japan will procure 25% of Nb 3 Sn for ITER TF coils and 100% for ITER CS. There are four Nb 3 Sn strand suppliers in Japan; three of them use bronze process and the other uses internal tin process. For bronze processed strand, increase Jc was achieved by using bronze with high tin content of 15 to 16%. To keep productivity while using the harder bronze with high tin content, Nb is used for barrier in place of Ta. The material is expected to have better adhesion to other materials such as bronze and copper. For internal tin process, size of modules, each of which has a tin rod and a lot of Nb filaments embedded in a copper cylinder, is reduced, while total amount of tin increase in order to satisfy both required high Jc and low hysteresis loss. Each supplier fabricated a strand of more than 0.1 ton for TF coils and succeeded to develop a strand satisfying the ITER requirements of Jc and hysteresis loss. (authors)

  6. Genetic transformation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae shows a strand preference

    OpenAIRE

    Duffin, Paul M.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is the main means of horizontal genetic exchange in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neisseria spp. have been shown to preferentially take up and transform their own DNA by recognizing a non-palindromic 10 or 12 nucleotide DNA uptake sequence (DUS10 or DUS12). We investigated the ability of the DUS12 to enhance single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) transformation. Given the non-palindromic nature of the DUS12, we tested whether both strands of the DUS equally en...

  7. Industry participation workshop: Chromium electroplating of superconductor strand. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of the workshop was to inform US plating vendors about the opportunity to participate in the effort on Cr plating of large quantities of superconducting wires required for the ITER and the TPX projects and DOE's interest in developing several reliable and high quality suppliers of Chromium plating services for the superconducting strand industry. The objective was also to inform plating vendors about the Cr plating technology developed in LLNL and invite interested plating vendors to get the technology. Finally the workshop was intended to inform the plating vendors about the plan to get verification of capability of two to four vendors for Cr plating of superconducting strands

  8. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex...... to the action of a DNA dependant RNA polymerase in the presence of nucleoside triphosphates. Equal length transcripts may be obtained by placing a block to transcription downstream from the initiation site or by cutting the template at such a selected location. The initiation site is formed by displacement...... of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  9. Conformal geometry and invariants of 3-strand Brownian braids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, Sergei; Voituriez, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical construction of topological invariants of 3-strand Brownian braids viewed as world lines of 3 particles performing independent Brownian motions in the complex plane z. Our construction is based on the properties of conformal maps of doubly-punctured plane z to the universal covering surface. The special attention is paid to the case of indistinguishable particles. Our method of conformal maps allows us to investigate the statistical properties of the topological complexity of a bunch of 3-strand Brownian braids and to compute the expectation value of the irreducible braid length in the non-Abelian case

  10. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  11. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  12. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  13. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  14. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  15. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  16. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  17. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  18. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  19. Double-Strand DNA Break Repair in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Discontinuity of both strands of the chromosome is a lethal event in all living organisms because it compromises chromosome replication. As such, a diversity of DNA repair systems has evolved to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In part, this diversity of DSB repair systems has evolved to repair breaks that arise in diverse physiologic circumstances or sequence contexts, including cellular states of nonreplication or breaks that arise between repeats. Mycobacteria elaborate a set of three genetically distinct DNA repair pathways: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, and single-strand annealing. As such, mycobacterial DSB repair diverges substantially from the standard model of prokaryotic DSB repair and represents an attractive new model system. In addition, the presence in mycobacteria of a DSB repair system that can repair DSBs in nonreplicating cells (nonhomologous end joining) or when DSBs arise between repeats (single-strand annealing) has clear potential relevance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis, although the exact role of these systems in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is still being elucidated. In this article we will review the genetics of mycobacterial DSB repair systems, focusing on recent insights.

  20. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  1. Repair of double-strand breaks in Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, A.D.; Dean, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Micrococcus radiodurans has been shown to sustain double-strand breaks in its DNA after exposure to x-radiation. Following sublethal doses of x-rays (200 krad in oxygen or less), the cells were able to repair these breaks, and an intermediate fast-sedimenting DNA component seemed to be involved in the repair process

  2. RRP Nb3Sn strand studies for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    The Nb 3 Sn strand chosen for the next step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program is the 54/61 sub-element Restacked Rod Process by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. To ensure that the 0.7 mm RRP strands to be used in the upcoming LARP magnets are suitable, extensive studies were performed. Measurements included the critical current, e , using the voltage-current (V-I) method, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (V-H) method, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment temperature and durations on I e and I S were also studied. Using strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from cables, the short sample limits of magnet performance were obtained. The details and the results of this investigation are herein described

  3. RRP Nb3Sn Strand Studies for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    The Nb 3 Sn strand chosen for the next step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program is the 54/61 sub-element Restacked Rod Process by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. To ensure that the 0.7 mm RRP strands to be used in the upcoming LARP magnets are suitable, extensive studies were performed. Measurements included the critical current, I c , using the voltage-current (V-I) method, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (V-H) method, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment temperature and durations on I c and I S were also studied. Using strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from cables, the short sample limits of magnet performance were obtained. The details and the results of this investigation are herein described

  4. Strategies underlying RNA silencing suppression by negative strand RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the strategies of negative strand RNA viruses to counteract antiviral RNA silencing. In plants and insects, RNA silencing has been shown to act as a sequence specific antiviral defence mechanism that is characterised by the processing of double

  5. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Casadellá; P.M. van Ham (Petra); M. Noguera-Julian; A. van Kessel; C. Pou; L.M. Hofstra (Marije); G.A. Metcalf (Ginger A.); F. Garcia; D. Struck (Daniel); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); A.M. Bakken Kran; A.I.M. Hoepelman; L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); S. Somogyi; K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); K. Van Laethem (Kristel); S. Zidovec Lepej (Snjezana); B. Clotet; C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); R. Paredes (Roger); A.M.J. Wensing (Annemarie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European SPREAD

  6. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, M.; van Ham, P. M.; Noguera-Julian, M.; van Kessel, A.; Pou, C.; Hofstra, L. M.; Santos, J. R.; Garcia, F.; Struck, D.; Alexiev, I.; Kran, A. M. Bakken; Hoepelman, A. I.; Kostrikis, L. G.; Somogyi, S.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, D.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stoeckl, E.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Laethem, K.; Lepej, S. Zidovec; Clotet, B.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Paredes, R.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Schuurman, R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. Methods: This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European

  7. DNA double-strand breaks & poptosis in the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Geert

    2003-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, DNA damage is a naturally occurring event. At a certain stage, during the first meiotic prophase, DNA breaks are endogenously induced and even required for meiotic recombination. We studied these DNA breaks but also used ionizing radiation (IR) to induce DNA double-strand

  8. Cetaceans stranded in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Smeenk, C.; Addink, M.; Grouw, van H.; Jansen, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, 2063 cetaceans were found stranded in the Netherlands, representing at least 14 species. Two species, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), are additions to the Dutch list. Apart from the first humpback whales,

  9. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo; Frykholm, Karolin; Nordé n, Bengt; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of prestressed concrete steel... in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The product definition..., producers, or exporters in China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand, and that such products are being...

  12. RNA STRAND: The RNA Secondary Structure and Statistical Analysis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronescu Mirela

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to access, search and analyse secondary structures of a large set of known RNA molecules is very important for deriving improved RNA energy models, for evaluating computational predictions of RNA secondary structures and for a better understanding of RNA folding. Currently there is no database that can easily provide these capabilities for almost all RNA molecules with known secondary structures. Results In this paper we describe RNA STRAND – the RNA secondary STRucture and statistical ANalysis Database, a curated database containing known secondary structures of any type and organism. Our new database provides a wide collection of known RNA secondary structures drawn from public databases, searchable and downloadable in a common format. Comprehensive statistical information on the secondary structures in our database is provided using the RNA Secondary Structure Analyser, a new tool we have developed to analyse RNA secondary structures. The information thus obtained is valuable for understanding to which extent and with which probability certain structural motifs can appear. We outline several ways in which the data provided in RNA STRAND can facilitate research on RNA structure, including the improvement of RNA energy models and evaluation of secondary structure prediction programs. In order to keep up-to-date with new RNA secondary structure experiments, we offer the necessary tools to add solved RNA secondary structures to our database and invite researchers to contribute to RNA STRAND. Conclusion RNA STRAND is a carefully assembled database of trusted RNA secondary structures, with easy on-line tools for searching, analyzing and downloading user selected entries, and is publicly available at http://www.rnasoft.ca/strand.

  13. Characterization of a parallel-stranded DNA hairpin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, M.W.; Vogel, H.J.; Pon, R.T.; van de Sande, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the authors have shown that synthetic DNA containing homooligomeric A-T base pairs can form a parallel-stranded intramolecular hairpin structure. In the present study, they have employed NMR and optical spectroscopy to investigate the structure of the parallel-stranded (PS) DNA hairpin 3'-d(T) 8 C 4 (A) 8 -3' and the related antiparallel (APS) hair 5'-d(T) 8 C 4 (A) 8 -3'. The parallel orientation of the strands in the PS oligonucleotide is achieved by introducing a 5'-5' phosphodiester linkage in the hairpin loop. Ultraviolet spectroscopic and fluorescence data of drug binding are consistent with the formation of PS and APS structures, respectively, in these two hairpins. Vacuum circular dichroism measurements in combination with theoretical CD calculations indicate that the PS structure forms a right-handed helix. 31 P NMR measurements indicate that the conformation of the phosphodiester backbone of the PS structure is not drastically different from that of the APS control. The presence of slowly exchanging imino protons at 14 ppm and the observation of nuclear Overhauser enhancement between imino protons and the AH-2 protons demonstrate that similar base pairing and base stacking between T and A residues occur in both hairpins. On the basis of NOESY measurements, they find that the orientation of the bases is in the anti region and that the sugar puckering is in the 2'-endo range. The results indicate a B-like conformation for each of the strands in the stem part of the PS hairpin and reverse Watson-Crick base pairing between the T and A residues. These data are consistent with a previously calculated structure for parallel-stranded DNA

  14. Mariner and the ITm Superfamily of Transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Michael; Bouuaert, Corentin Claeys; Chalmers, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The IS630-Tc1-mariner (ITm) family of transposons is one of the most widespread in nature. The phylogenetic distribution of its members shows that they do not persist for long in a given lineage, but rely on frequent horizontal transfer to new hosts. Although they are primarily selfish genomic-parasites, ITm transposons contribute to the evolution of their hosts because they generate variation and contribute protein domains and regulatory regions. Here we review the molecular mechanism of ITm transposition and its regulation. We focus mostly on the mariner elements, which are understood in the greatest detail owing to in vitro reconstitution and structural analysis. Nevertheless, the most important characteristics are probably shared across the grouping. Members of the ITm family are mobilized by a cut-and-paste mechanism and integrate at 5'-TA dinucleotide target sites. The elements encode a single transposase protein with an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The phosphoryl-transferase reactions during the DNA-strand breaking and joining reactions are performed by the two metal-ion mechanism. The metal ions are coordinated by three or four acidic amino acid residues located within an RNase H-like structural fold. Although all of the strand breaking and joining events at a given transposon end are performed by a single molecule of transposase, the reaction is coordinated by close communication between transpososome components. During transpososome assembly, transposase dimers compete for free transposon ends. This helps to protect the host by dampening an otherwise exponential increase in the rate of transposition as the copy number increases.

  15. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project"…

  16. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  17. Four-Strand Core Suture Improves Flexor Tendon Repair Compared to Two-Strand Technique in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Wichelhaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the amount of suture material on the formation of peritendinous adhesions of intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs. Materials and Methods. In 14 rabbits, the flexor tendons of the third and the fourth digit of the right hind leg were cut and repaired using a 2- or 4-strand core suture technique. The repaired tendons were harvested after three and eight weeks. The range of motion of the affected toes was measured and the tendons were processed histologically. The distance between the transected tendon ends, the changes in the peritendinous space, and cellular and extracellular inflammatory reaction were quantified by different staining. Results. A 4-strand core suture resulted in significantly less gap formation. The 2-strand core suture showed a tendency to less adhesion formation. Doubling of the intratendinous suture material was accompanied by an initial increase in leukocyte infiltration and showed a greater amount of formation of myofibroblasts. From the third to the eighth week after flexor tendon repair, both the cellular and the extracellular inflammation decreased significantly. Conclusion. A 4-strand core suture repair leads to a significantly better tendon healing process with less diastasis between the sutured tendon ends despite initially pronounced inflammatory response.

  18. Ionizing-radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks: A direct and indirect lighting up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignard, Julien; Mirey, Gladys; Salles, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation has been extensively studied by biochemical or cell imaging techniques. Cell imaging development relies on technical advances as well as our knowledge of the cell DNA damage response (DDR) process. The DDR involves a complex network of proteins that initiate and coordinate DNA damage signaling and repair activities. As some DDR proteins assemble at DSBs in an established spatio-temporal pattern, visible nuclear foci are produced. In addition, post-translational modifications are important for the signaling and the recruitment of specific partners at damaged chromatin foci. We briefly review here the most widely used methods to study DSBs. We also discuss the development of indirect methods, using reporter expression or intra-nuclear antibodies, to follow the production of DSBs in real time and in living cells

  19. Detection of bacteriophage phi 6 minus-strand RNA and novel mRNA isoconformers synthesized in vivo and in vitro, by strand-separating agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagratis, N.; Revel, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two urea-free agarose gel protocols that resolve the six individual strands of bacteriophage phi 6 dsRNA were developed and used to analyze phage RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Citrate gels separate strands of the large and medium chromosomes while Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) gels resolve the medium and small dsRNA segments. Minus strands migrate faster than plus strands on citrate gels but are retarded on TBE gels. A study of electrophoretic conditions showed that pH affects strand resolution on citrate gels, and that voltage gradient, agarose concentration, and ethidium bromide significantly alter strand migration on TBE gels. Analysis of native phi 6 RNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro showed that the large and medium message RNAs comigrate with the corresponding plus strands of denatured virion dsRNA. The small messenger RNA is exceptional. Native small mRNA was detected as three isoconformers in vivo and in vitro. The isoconformers were converted by heat denaturation to a single RNA species that comigrates with the virion s+ strand. Minus strands labeled in vivo were detected only after heat denaturation. Minus strand synthesis was detected also in heat-denatured samples from in vitro phi 6 nucleocapsid RNA polymerase reactions at pH values suboptimal for transcription

  20. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  1. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  2. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  3. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand...

  4. Inter-strand resistance measurements in the termination of the ITER SULTAN samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, F; Bruzzone, P

    2009-01-01

    In cabled conductors a perfect uniformity of the current among the strands is hardly reached, due to the non-homogeneity of the contact resistance distribution between the strands and the copper of the electrical terminations. In the case of large current unbalance, the overloaded strands hit the critical surface at high field early, developing a current sharing voltage, which drives the redistribution of the current, mainly in the electrical terminations where the inter-strand resistance is lower than in the high field conductor. If the inter-strand resistance in the termination is low, the voltage levels are sufficiently low to allow an effective redistribution of the current to the less loaded strands. The inter-strand resistance of three different termination layouts of ITER short length samples is measured to make a database available which can be used to qualify the layout of the joints and their capability of redistributing the current among the strands.

  5. Corrosion characteristics of post-tensioning strands in ungrouted ducts : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To prevent corrosion of post-tensioning strands, FDOT construction specifications currently require post-tensioning ducts to be grouted within seven calendar days of strand installation. This period challenges construction schedules on large projects...

  6. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  7. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  8. IHF-independent assembly of the Tn10 strand transfer transpososome: implications for inhibition of disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Barry J.; Wardle, Simon J.; Haniford, David B.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of DNA transposition in transposition systems that employ a strand transfer step may be significantly affected by the occurrence of a disintegration reaction, a reaction that reverses the strand transfer event. We have asked whether disintegration occurs in the Tn10 transposition system. We show that disintegration substrates (substrates constituting one half of the strand transfer product) are assembled into a transpososome that mimics the strand transfer intermediate. This str...

  9. DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in x-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.; Gillespie, C.J.; Chapman, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of unrepairable single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells were measured by low-speed neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation in order to investigate the relation between these lesions and reproductive death. After maximal single-strand rejoining, at all doses, the number of residual single-strand breaks was twice the number of residual double-strand breaks. Both double-strand and unrepairable single-strand breaks were proportional to the square of absorbed dose, in the range 10-50 krad. No rejoining of double-strand breaks was observed. These observations suggest that, in mammalian cells, most double-strand breaks are not repairable, while all single-strand breaks are repaired except those that are sufficiently close on complementary strands to constitute double-strand breaks. Comparison with cell survival measurements at much lower doses suggests that loss of reproductive capacity corresponds to induction of approximately one double-strand break

  10. Oriented-strand-board- the wave of the future- for the building trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Ashton

    1984-01-01

    Move over, plywood. Oriented-strand board is here. It's less expensive. It's as durable. It has as many uses. And it is the wave of the future. "Oriented-strand board is a direct substitute for plywood" said Jerry Buckner, plant manager for the Martco oriented-strand board plant in Lemoyen. OSB, as it is commonly called, is a structural panel made...

  11. Probing electronic coupling between adenine bases in RNA strands from synchrotron radiation circular dichroism experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectra (176–330 nm) of RNA adenine oligomers, (rA)n (n = 1–10, 12, 15, and 20), reveal electronic coupling between two bases in short strands. The number of interacting bases in long strands is more and larger than that reported previously for the corresponding DNA strands....

  12. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  13. Torsional regulation of hRPA-induced unwinding of double-stranded DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vlaminck, I.; Vidic, I.; Van Loenhout, M.T.J.; Kanaar, R.; Lebbink, J.H.G.; Dekker, C.

    2010-01-01

    All cellular single-stranded (ss) DNA is rapidly bound and stabilized by single stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs). Replication protein A, the main eukaryotic SSB, is able to unwind double-stranded (ds) DNA by binding and stabilizing transiently forming bubbles of ssDNA. Here, we study the

  14. Structural features in the HIV-1 repeat region facilitate strand transfer during reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Vastenhouw, N. L.; Klasens, B. I.; Huthoff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Two obligatory DNA strand transfers take place during reverse transcription of a retroviral RNA genome. The first strand transfer is facilitated by terminal repeat (R) elements in the viral genome. This strand-transfer reaction depends on base pairing between the cDNA of the 5'R and the 3'R. There

  15. 75 FR 62820 - Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Providers of Synthetic Double- Stranded DNA AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the.... Government has developed Guidance that provides a framework for screening synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This document, the Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA...

  16. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized... Publication 4162 (June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Investigation Nos... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed...

  17. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Yeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+-strand] sgmRNA required for (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1 Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−-strand sgmRNA complement. (2 Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−-strand sgmRNA. (3 Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4 Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1 of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  18. Radiation dose response of strand breaks in SINPV-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunxiang; Luo Daling; Li Mianfeng; Liu Xiaowei; Zeng Rong; Wang Xunzhang

    1995-01-01

    The Spodoplera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses (SINPV) is a kind of insectile virus with a simple structure, in which a double helix DNA is encapsulated in a protein coat and there is no function of enzymatic repair. The SINPV samples in dry powdered form held in sealed plastic tube were irradiated by 1-100 kGy gamma rays. The single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced in SINPV after irradiation were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A dose-response function combining the responses of one-hit and two-hit events was used to describe the SSB and DSB dose-response curves. It is shown that the SSB are one-hit events and the DSB are the combination of both one-hit, and two-hit events, and two-hit events are predominant in the DSB process

  19. Dynamic protein assembly by programmable DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca P.; Blackstock, Daniel; Sun, Qing; Chen, Wilfred

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by the remarkable ability of natural protein switches to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental queues, here we report a strategy to engineer synthetic protein switches by using DNA strand displacement to dynamically organize proteins with highly diverse and complex logic gate architectures. We show that DNA strand displacement can be used to dynamically control the spatial proximity and the corresponding fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two fluorescent proteins. Performing Boolean logic operations enabled the explicit control of protein proximity using multi-input, reversible and amplification architectures. We further demonstrate the power of this technology beyond sensing by achieving dynamic control of an enzyme cascade. Finally, we establish the utility of the approach as a synthetic computing platform that drives the dynamic reconstitution of a split enzyme for targeted prodrug activation based on the sensing of cancer-specific miRNAs.

  20. DNA single strand break in fibroblast from Down syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozga, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of tree trisomic (trisomia +21) strains of human fibroblasts to gamma radiation has been investigated in vitro and the causes of induction and repair of single strand DNA breaks in these cells have been estimated. The single strand breaks in DNA of normal and trisomic cells have been found to be ameliorated with an approximately equal efficiency. Repair has been found to be three times slower in trisomic cells compared to their normal relevant, most likely due to their elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the following mortality of trisomic cells, and/or the potential occurrence of a great number of chromosome aberrations in cells irradiated in vitro. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  2. Risk Analysis Reveals Global Hotspots for Marine Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Wilcox, C.; Townsend, K.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.; Balazs, G.; van Sebille, E.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle, and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study, and turtle species. There was no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia, and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris.

  3. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Targeting abnormal DNA double strand break repair in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rassool, Feyruz V.; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer treatment is the development of therapies that target cancer cells with little or no toxicity to normal tissues and cells. Alterations in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in cancer cells include both elevated and reduced levels of key repair proteins and changes in the relative contributions of the various DSB repair pathways. These differences can result in increased sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and increased genomic instability. The development of agent...

  5. Turbulent Flow Validation in the Helios Strand Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-07

    line Gauss - Seidel (GS) methods are employed to solve this system, where contributions along strands are collected to form a tridiagonal system. To...Qk ) . (50) Upon convergence of the linear iterations in l, the linear system of Equation 48 is satisfied. At that point, the next pseudo-time step in...k proceeds. When the pseudo-time iterations converge , then the residual equation R(Q) is satisfied for a given physical time station. All Jacobian

  6. Five strands of math tasks big book : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  7. Five strands of math drills big book : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  8. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridah Md Tahir; Ong, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  9. Formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated ( 60 Co)Ex coli bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks, is investigated. The profiles of sedimentation of DNA Ex coli cells, irradiated at 0-2 deg C in the salt medium and in EDTA-borate buffer, are presented. It is shown that when irradiating cells in EDTA-borate buffer, the output of single- and double strand breaks in DNA is much higher than in the case of their irradiation in the minimum salt medium. The dependence of output of single-strand and double-strand breaks depending on the radiatier doze of E coli cells in the salt medium and EDTA-borate buffer, is studied. The supposition is made on the presence of a regulative interaction between the accumulation of DNA single-breaks and their repair with the formation of double-strand breaks. The functionating of fast and superfast repair processes considerably affects the formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of a bacterium cell. A considerable amount of double-breaks registered immediately after irradiation forms due to a close position of single-strand breaks on the opposite DNA strands

  10. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barnett

    Full Text Available Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM. Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1 and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2. In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  11. POSTMORTEM FINDINGS IN CETACEANS FOUND STRANDED IN THE PELAGOS SANCTUARY, ITALY, 2007-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Federica; Ballardini, Marco; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Grattarola, Carla; Iulini, Barbara; Mignone, Walter; Goria, Maria; Serracca, Laura; Varello, Katia; Dondo, Alessandro; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Gustinelli, Andrea; Mazzariol, Sandro; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Tittarelli, Cristiana; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    Between 2007 and 2014, 83 cetaceans were found stranded along the Ligurian coast of Italy, in the Pelagos Sanctuary, the largest marine protected area in the Mediterranean basin. Forty-nine (59%) were submitted to complete or partial necropsy, depending on the conservation status of the carcass. Based on gross and histological pathology and ancillary testing, the cause of death was determined and categorized as anthropogenic or natural (i.e., nonanthropogenic) in origin for 33 animals (67%) and of undetermined origin in the remaining 16 (33%). Natural causes of death, accompanied by either poor or good nutritional status, were attributed to 29 animals (59%), whereas four (8%) were diagnosed with an anthropogenic cause of death, consisting of interaction with fishing activities. Infectious and noninfectious disease was the most common cause of death, involving 29 cetaceans (59%). These data are valuable for understanding health and mortality trends in cetacean populations and can provide information for establishing policies for cetacean conservation and management in such an important protected area of the Mediterranean basin.

  12. Prevalence of Urogenital Carcinoma in Stranded California Sea Lions ( Zalophus Californianus) from 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Alissa C; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Duignan, Padraig J; Hall, Ailsa J; Wellehan, James F X; Gulland, Frances M D

    2018-03-02

    Urogenital carcinoma is common in wild California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) along the west coast of the US. From 1979 to 1994, this cancer was observed in 18% (66/370) of necropsied subadult and adult sea lions at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California. A retrospective review of records from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 was performed to characterize prevalence and characteristics of cancer over this decade. Fourteen percent (263/1917) of necropsied sea lions had cancer, of which 90% (237/263) were urogenital carcinoma. The prevalence of urogenital carcinoma was significantly higher in adults compared to juveniles and subadults. Advanced-stage disease with metastases was identified histologically in 78% (182/232) of cases and was the cause of death in 95% (172/182) of these cases. Metastases were most common in lung and lymph nodes, and hydronephrosis, secondary to ureter obstruction by metastases, was identified in 62% (114/185) of animals with advanced disease. No significant temporal change in prevalence was detected over the decade, and this highly aggressive, fatal cancer remains common in stranded California sea lions.

  13. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  14. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  15. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  16. Programmable autonomous synthesis of single-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Schaus, Thomas E.; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Xuan, Feng; Yin, Peng

    2018-02-01

    DNA performs diverse functional roles in biology, nanotechnology and biotechnology, but current methods for autonomously synthesizing arbitrary single-stranded DNA are limited. Here, we introduce the concept of primer exchange reaction (PER) cascades, which grow nascent single-stranded DNA with user-specified sequences following prescribed reaction pathways. PER synthesis happens in a programmable, autonomous, in situ and environmentally responsive fashion, providing a platform for engineering molecular circuits and devices with a wide range of sensing, monitoring, recording, signal-processing and actuation capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate a nanodevice that transduces the detection of a trigger RNA into the production of a DNAzyme that degrades an independent RNA substrate, a signal amplifier that conditionally synthesizes long fluorescent strands only in the presence of a particular RNA signal, molecular computing circuits that evaluate logic (AND, OR, NOT) combinations of RNA inputs, and a temporal molecular event recorder that records in the PER transcript the order in which distinct RNA inputs are sequentially detected.

  17. Paul Strand y las paradojas de la modernidad americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez Biosca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As contribuições de Strand para o cinema estão estreitamente relacionadas com seus trabalhos fotográficos da época e mesmo com um olhar que, apesar de suas múltiplas diferenças, possui muitos pontos em comum. Se em Manhatta (1920, Strand (em colaboração com Sheeler oferece uma síntese da natureza e da modernidade, em Redes (1934 o que predomina, em contrapartida, é a experiência da arte muralista mexicana e a influência de Eisenstein (em suas andanças por México são os fatores que determinam seus esforços na construção de uma épica dos operários. Mas sem dúvida, o projeto mais ambicioso de Strand (ao mando da produtora Frontier Films foi Native Land, o filme que atendeu às demandas do American Popular Front e as moldou nas palavras dos fundadores da pátria americana.

  18. Commercial possibilities for stranded conventional gas from Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stranded gas resources are defined for this study as gas resources in discrete accumulations that are not currently commercially producible, or producible at full potential, for either physical or economic reasons. Approximately 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of stranded gas was identified on Alaska’s North Slope. The commercialization of this resource requires facilities to transport gas to markets where sales revenue will be sufficient to offset the cost of constructing and operating a gas delivery system. With the advent of the shale gas revolution, plans for a gas pipeline to the conterminous US have been shelved (at least temporarily) and the State and resource owners are considering a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project that targets Asian markets. This paper focuses on competitive conditions for Asian gas import markets by estimating delivered costs of competing supplies from central Asia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia in the context of a range of import gas demand projections for the period from 2020 to 2040. These suppliers’ costs are based on the cost of developing, producing, and delivering to markets tranches of the nearly 600 TCF of recoverable gas from their own conventional stranded gas fields. The results of these analyses imply that Alaska’s gas exports to Asia will likely encounter substantial competitive challenges. The sustainability of Asia’s oil-indexed LNG pricing is also discussed in light of a potentially intense level of competition.

  19. Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ina

    2013-06-01

    Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Equipment related to the installation and operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanu, Sergio; Carli, Filippo Maria; Piermattei, Viviana; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo Aurelio; Dampney, Keith; Norris, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Results of activities under project Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network for Emerging Energy Technologies (MaRINET) are reported, which led to DEMTE, a database, created on the basis of standardized monitoring of the marine environment during installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. Obtained with the consortium partners’ available techniques and equipment, the database shows that such instruments cover all identified marine environmental compartments, despite the lack of underwater vehicles and the reduced skills in using satellite technologies. These weaknesses could be overcome by an accurate planning of equipment, techniques and knowledge sharing. The approach here presented also leads to an effective analysis even in non-marine contexts

  2. Sub-ensemble monitoring of DNA strand displacement using multiparameter single-molecule FRET

    OpenAIRE

    Baltierra Jasso, Laura; Morten, Michael; Magennis, Steven William

    2018-01-01

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constan...

  3. In vitro Assays for Eukaryotic Leading/Lagging Strand DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Grant; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Mike

    2017-09-20

    The eukaryotic replisome is a multiprotein complex that duplicates DNA. The replisome is sculpted to couple continuous leading strand synthesis with discontinuous lagging strand synthesis, primarily carried out by DNA polymerases ε and δ, respectively, along with helicases, polymerase α-primase, DNA sliding clamps, clamp loaders and many other proteins. We have previously established the mechanisms by which the polymerases ε and δ are targeted to their 'correct' strands, as well as quality control mechanisms that evict polymerases when they associate with an 'incorrect' strand. Here, we provide a practical guide to differentially assay leading and lagging strand replication in vitro using pure proteins.

  4. Implementing and Innovating Marine Monitoring Approaches for Assessing Marine Environmental Status

    KAUST Repository

    Danovaro, Roberto; Carugati, Laura; Berzano, Marco; Cahill, Abigail E.; Carvalho, Susana; Chenuil, Anne; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Cristina, Sonia; David, Romain; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Dzhembekova, Nina; Garcé s, Esther; Gasol, Joseph M.; Goela, Priscila; Fé ral, Jean-Pierre; Ferrera, Isabel; Forster, Rodney M.; Kurekin, Andrey A.; Rastelli, Eugenio; Marinova, Veselka; Miller, Peter I.; Moncheva, Snejana; Newton, Alice; Pearman, John K.; Pitois, Sophie G.; Reñ é , Albert; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Simis, Stefan G. H.; Stefanova, Kremena; Wilson, Christian; Lo Martire, Marco; Greco, Silvestro; Cochrane, Sabine K. J.; Mangoni, Olga; Borja, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental monitoring has tended to focus on site-specific methods of investigation. These traditional methods have low spatial and temporal resolution and are relatively labor intensive per unit area/time that they cover. To implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), European Member States are required to improve marine monitoring and design monitoring networks. This can be achieved by developing and testing innovative and cost-effective monitoring systems, as well as indicators of environmental status. Here, we present several recently developed methodologies and technologies to improve marine biodiversity indicators and monitoring methods. The innovative tools are discussed concerning the technologies presently utilized as well as the advantages and disadvantages of their use in routine monitoring. In particular, the present analysis focuses on: (i) molecular approaches, including microarray, Real Time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and metagenetic (metabarcoding) tools; (ii) optical (remote) sensing and acoustic methods; and (iii) in situ monitoring instruments. We also discuss their applications in marine monitoring within the MSFD through the analysis of case studies in order to evaluate their potential utilization in future routine marine monitoring. We show that these recently-developed technologies can present clear advantages in accuracy, efficiency and cost.

  5. Implementing and Innovating Marine Monitoring Approaches for Assessing Marine Environmental Status

    KAUST Repository

    Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-11-23

    Marine environmental monitoring has tended to focus on site-specific methods of investigation. These traditional methods have low spatial and temporal resolution and are relatively labor intensive per unit area/time that they cover. To implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), European Member States are required to improve marine monitoring and design monitoring networks. This can be achieved by developing and testing innovative and cost-effective monitoring systems, as well as indicators of environmental status. Here, we present several recently developed methodologies and technologies to improve marine biodiversity indicators and monitoring methods. The innovative tools are discussed concerning the technologies presently utilized as well as the advantages and disadvantages of their use in routine monitoring. In particular, the present analysis focuses on: (i) molecular approaches, including microarray, Real Time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and metagenetic (metabarcoding) tools; (ii) optical (remote) sensing and acoustic methods; and (iii) in situ monitoring instruments. We also discuss their applications in marine monitoring within the MSFD through the analysis of case studies in order to evaluate their potential utilization in future routine marine monitoring. We show that these recently-developed technologies can present clear advantages in accuracy, efficiency and cost.

  6. Rescuing policy in tourism network research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful lens to understand complex relational entanglements that are transforming social, economic and political life. Through a discussion of the various streams of network research in tourism, this paper argues that policy matters run across and throughout these strands....... Rather than arguing for increased interest in tourism policy network research as a separate subfield, the paper argues for deeper theoretical engagement with the policy dimension in tourism network research. Researchers adopting a network ontology could gain considerable insights and open up new lines...

  7. Metallographic investigation of fracture behavior in ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C; Nijhuis, A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we specify the extent to which fracture in two ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn composite strands occurs in a collective or individual manner, under mechanical tension and bending from the TARSIS apparatus at the University of Twente. A bronze-route strand from European Advanced Superconductors (EAS), which has very uniform, well-spaced filaments, has a widely distributed (200 μm) fracture field and exhibits a composite of individual and collective cracks. An internal tin strand from Oxford Instruments – Superconducting Technology (OST) demonstrates much more localized, collective fracture behavior. The filaments in this strand are about four times larger (in area) than the filaments in the EAS strand, and also agglomerate significantly during heat treatment upon conversion of the Nb to Nb$_{3}$Sn. These results demonstrate that the architecture of the strand can play a significant role in determining the mechanical toughness of the composite, and that strand design should incorporate mechanical consider...

  8. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  9. Hybrid Method Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye

    This present thesis consists of an extended summary and five appended papers concerning various aspects of the implementation of a hybrid method which combines classical simulation methods and artificial neural networks. The thesis covers three main topics. Common for all these topics...... only recognize patterns similar to those comprised in the data used to train the network. Fatigue life evaluation of marine structures often considers simulations of more than a hundred different sea states. Hence, in order for this method to be useful, the training data must be arranged so...... that a single neural network can cover all relevant sea states. The applicability and performance of the present hybrid method is demonstrated on a numerical model of a mooring line attached to a floating offshore platform. The second part of the thesis demonstrates how sequential neural networks can be used...

  10. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  12. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  13. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  14. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  15. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  16. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  17. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  18. A Bacteriophage-Related Chimeric Marine Virus Infecting Abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Cai, Guiqin; Lin, Qiying; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2010-01-01

    Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV) can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin). The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB) protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria. PMID:21079776

  19. A bacteriophage-related chimeric marine virus infecting abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhuang

    Full Text Available Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin. The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.

  20. Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Marcello A; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P

    2015-11-17

    Cetacean mass strandings occur regularly worldwide, yet the compounded effects of natural and anthropogenic factors often complicate our understanding of these phenomena. Evidence of past stranding episodes may, thus, be essential to establish the potential influence of climate change. Investigations on bones from the site of Grotta dell'Uzzo in North West Sicily (Italy) show that the rapid climate change around 8,200 years ago coincided with increased strandings in the Mediterranean Sea. Stable isotope analyses on collagen from a large sample of remains recovered at this cave indicate that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers relied little on marine resources. A human and a red fox dating to the 8.2-kyr-BP climatic event, however, acquired at least one third of their protein from cetaceans. Numerous carcasses should have been available annually, for at least a decade, to obtain these proportions of meat. Our findings imply that climate-driven environmental changes, caused by global warming, may represent a serious threat to cetaceans in the near future.

  1. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  2. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  3. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  4. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  5. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  6. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  7. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  8. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  9. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  10. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  11. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  12. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  13. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  14. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  15. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named Marine Medicinal Glycomics.

  16. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  17. Current topics in DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Takata, Minoru; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Tauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the most critical types of damage which is induced by ionizing radiation. In this review, we summarize current progress in investigations on the function of DSB repair-related proteins. We focused on recent findings in the analysis of the function of proteins such as 53BP1, histone H2AX, Mus81-Eme1, Fanc complex, and UBC13, which are found to be related to homologous recombination repair or to non-homologous end joining. In addition to the function of these proteins in DSB repair, the biological function of nuclear foci formation following DSB induction is discussed. (author)

  18. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.

  20. Higher 5-hydroxymethylcytosine identifies immortal DNA strand chromosomes in asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Cohen, Justin; Sherley, James L

    2013-10-15

    Immortal strands are the targeted chromosomal DNA strands of nonrandom sister chromatid segregation, a mitotic chromosome segregation pattern unique to asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs). By nonrandom segregation, immortal DNA strands become the oldest DNA strands in asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs. Nonrandom segregation of immortal DNA strands may limit DSC mutagenesis, preserve DSC fate, and contribute to DSC aging. The mechanisms responsible for specification and maintenance of immortal DNA strands are unknown. To discover clues to these mechanisms, we investigated the 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content on chromosomes in mouse hair follicle DSCs during nonrandom segregation. Although 5-methylcytosine content did not differ significantly, the relative content of 5hmC was significantly higher in chromosomes containing immortal DNA strands than in opposed mitotic chromosomes containing younger mortal DNA strands. The difference in relative 5hmC content was caused by the loss of 5hmC from mortal chromosomes. These findings implicate higher 5hmC as a specific molecular determinant of immortal DNA strand chromosomes. Because 5hmC is an intermediate during DNA demethylation, we propose a ten-eleven translocase enzyme mechanism for both the specification and maintenance of nonrandomly segregated immortal DNA strands. The proposed mechanism reveals a means by which DSCs "know" the generational age of immortal DNA strands. The mechanism is supported by molecular expression data and accounts for the selection of newly replicated DNA strands when nonrandom segregation is initiated. These mechanistic insights also provide a possible basis for another characteristic property of immortal DNA strands, their guanine ribonucleotide dependency.

  1. Molecular investigation of evaporation of biodroplets containing single-strand DNA on graphene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fahimeh; Foroutan, Masumeh

    2018-02-14

    In this study, the water droplet behaviour of four different types of single-strand DNA with homogeneous base sequence on a graphene substrate during evaporation of the droplet was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results indicated that the evaporation depended on the DNA sequence. The observed changes can be divided into four parts: (i) vaporization mode, (ii) evaporation flux, (iii) mechanism of single-strand placement on the surface, and (iv) consideration of remaining single strands after evaporation. Our simulation observations indicated different evaporation modes for thymine biodroplets as compared to those for other biodroplets. The evaporation of the thymine biodroplets occurred with an increase in the contact angle, while that of the other biodroplets occur in a constant contact angle mode. Moreover, thymine biodroplets generate the lowest contact line compared to other single strands, and it is always placed far away from the centre of the droplets during evaporation. Investigating variations in the evaporation flux shows that thymine has the highest evaporation flux and guanine has the lowest. Moreover, during initial evaporation, the flux of evaporation increases at the triple point of the biodroplets containing thymine single strands, while it decreases in the other biodroplets. The following observation was obtained from the study of the placement of single strands on the substrate: guanine and thymine interacted slower than other single strands during evaporation with graphene, adenine single strand had a higher folding during evaporation, and guanine single strand showed the lowest end-to-end distance. The investigation of single-strand DNA after evaporation shows that adenine produces the most stable structure at the end of evaporation. In addition, cytosine is the most stretched single-strand DNA due to its lack of internal π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding. Therefore, cytosine single strand is more

  2. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  3. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  4. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  5. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  6. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  7. Trace elements in two odontocete species (Kogia breviceps and Globicephala macrorhynchus) stranded in New Caledonia (South Pacific)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, P.; Garrigue, C.; Breau, L.; Caurant, F.; Dabin, W.; Greaves, J.; Dodemont, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in whales on New Caledonia beaches are below levels for concern. - Liver, muscle and blubber tissues of two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and two pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) stranded on the coast of New Caledonia have been analysed for 12 trace elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, organic and total Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn). Liver was shown to be the most important accumulating organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Se, and Zn in both species, G. macrorhynchus having the highest Cd, Hg, Se and Zn levels. In this species, concentrations of total Hg are particularly elevated, reaching up to 1452 μg g -1 dry wt. Only a very low percentage of the total Hg was organic. In both species, the levels of Hg are directly related to Se in liver. Thus, a molar ratio of Hg:Se close to 1.0 was found for all specimens, except for the youngest K. breviceps. Our results suggest that G. macrorhynchus have a physiology promoting the accumulation of high levels of naturally occurring toxic elements. Furthermore, concentrations of Ni, Cr and Co are close to or below the detection limit in the liver and muscles of all specimens. This suggests that mining activity in New Caledonia, which typically elevates the levels of these contaminants in the marine environment, does not seem to be a significant source of contamination for these pelagic marine mammals

  8. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  9. IPANEMA 6 Initiative Partenariale Nationale pour l'emergence des Energies Marines (National partnership initiative for the emergence of marine energies). Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IPANEMA initiative is a work group built up by public and private actors. Its objectives are the development of scientific and industrial sector dedicated to marine energies, to set up a coordinated network of French actors involved in marine energies, to develop offshore test sites adapted to different technologies aimed at the exploitation of marine energies, and to facilitate the development of demonstrators. After a presentation of the participants, of the overall project governance and of projects which currently are being developed in France, this report makes and discusses some propositions to reach the above-mentioned objectives. It also outlines necessary transversal actions to anticipate the deployment of marine energies

  10. Human RECQ5 helicase promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks by synthesis-dependent strand annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paliwal, S.; Kanagaraj, R.; Sturzenegger, A.; Burdová, Kamila; Janščák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2014), s. 2380-2390 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0565; GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A-129747; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A_146206 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Human RECQ5 helicase * DNA double-strand breaks * mitotic homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  11. DNA strand scission by the novel antitumor antibiotic leinamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Mitsunobu; Saitoh, Yutaka; Nakano, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    Leinamycin is a recently discovered antitumor antibiotic with an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane structure. It preferentially inhibits the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the acid-insoluble fraction of Bacillus subtilis. In vitro, leinamycin causes single-strand cleavage of supercoiled double-helical pBR322 DNA in the presence of thiol cofactors. Scavengers of oxygen radical did not suppress the DNA-cleaving activity. Thiol-activated leinamycin binds calf thymus DNA at 4 degree C and thermal treatment of the leinamycin-DNA adduct released a chemically modified leinamycin from the complex. The lack of cytotoxicity and DNA-cleaving activity for S-deoxyleinamycin indicates that the 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for the activity of leinamycin. Thus, the primary cellular target of leinamycin appears to be DNA. It binds DNA and causes single-strand break at low concentrations, which may account for the potent antitumor activity

  12. Protection of DNA strand breakage by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won

    1997-12-01

    Human ceruloplasmin, the plasma copper containing protein, is thought to play an essential role in iron metabolism, but it also has antioxidant properties. Ceruloplasmin directly scavenged hydroxyl radicals (.OH) generated in dithiothreitol/FeCl 3 system besides inhibitory function of hydroxyl radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Polyamines, spermidine and spermine, significantly protected the supercoiled DNA strand breakage by hydroxyl radicals and DNA strand breakage by UV was highly protected by all four polyamines used in this study. In polyamine deficient mutant KL527. It was shown that cell survivability following UV irradiation was slightly increased by exogenous polyamines putrescine and spermidine supplement. However the cell survivability of wild type (MG 1655) was not influenced by polyamine supplement. In γ-irradiated cells, cell survivability of polyamine-deficient mutant strain KL527 was significantly increased by exogenous putrescine supplement and that of wild type strain MG1655 was similar irrespective of polyamine supplement. These results implicate the possibility that polyamines play a potent role in radioprotection of cell and DNA level. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs

  13. Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Leduc

    Full Text Available Determination of cellular DNA damage has so far been limited to global assessment of genome integrity whereas nucleotide-level mapping has been restricted to specific loci by the use of specific primers. Therefore, only limited DNA sequences can be studied and novel regions of genomic instability can hardly be discovered. Using a well-characterized yeast model, we describe a straightforward strategy to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks without compromising nucleotide-level resolution. This technique, termed "damaged DNA immunoprecipitation" (dDIP, uses immunoprecipitation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL to capture DNA at break sites. When used in combination with microarray or next-generation sequencing technologies, dDIP will allow researchers to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks as well as other types of DNA damage and to establish a clear profiling of altered genes and/or intergenic sequences in various experimental conditions. This mapping technique could find several applications for instance in the study of aging, genotoxic drug screening, cancer, meiosis, radiation and oxidative DNA damage.

  14. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  15. Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormelink, Richard; Garcia, Maria Laura; Goodin, Michael; Sasaya, Takahide; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2011-12-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome organization, while others have just recently been/or are still classified in floating genera. In most cases, at least two striking differences can still be discerned between the animal/human-infecting viruses and their plant-infecting counterparts which for the latter relate to their adaptation to plants as hosts. The first one is the capacity to modify plasmodesmata to facilitate systemic spread of infectious viral entities throughout the plant host. The second one is the capacity to counteract RNA interference (RNAi, also referred to as RNA silencing), the innate antiviral defence system of plants and insects. In this review an overview will be presented on the negative-strand RNA plant viruses classified within the families Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Ophioviridae and floating genera Tenuivirus and Varicosavirus. Genetic differences with the animal-infecting counterparts and their evolutionary descendants will be described in light of the above processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortín, Juan, E-mail: jortin@cnb.csic.es [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC) and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Jaime, E-mail: jmartinb@cnb.csic.es [Department of Macromolecular Structures, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.

  17. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortín, Juan; Martín-Benito, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes

  18. Breaks in plasmid DNA strand induced by laser radiation at a wavelength of 193 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.G.; Shul'te Frolinde, D.

    1996-01-01

    DNA of plasmid pB322 irradiated with laser at a wavelength of 193 nm was treated with an extract containing proteins from E.coli K12 AB1157 (wild-type). The enzymes were found to produce single- and double-strand DNA breaks, which was interpreted as a transformation of a portion of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts into nonrepairable single-strand DNA breaks. The products resulted from ionization of DNA, in particular, single-strand breaks, transform to double-strand breaks. A comparison of these data with the data on survival of plasmid upon transformation of E.coli K12 AB1157 enables one to assess the biological significance of single- and double-strand breaks. The inactivation of the plasmid is mainly determined by the number of directly formed laser-induced single-strand breaks. 26 refs.; 2 figs

  19. Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) Measurements of LHC Superconducting NbTi Cable Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Charifoulline, Z

    2006-01-01

    The Rutherford-type superconducting NbTi cables of the LHC accelerator are currently manufactured by six industrial companies. As a part of the acceptance tests, the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of superconducting strands is systematically measured on virgin strands to qualify the strands before cabling and on extracted strands to qualify the cables and to check the final heat treatment (controlled oxidation to control interstrand resistance). More than 12000 samples of virgin and extracted strands have been measured during last five years. Results show good correlation with the measurements done by the companies and reflect well the technological process of cable production (strand annealing, cabling, cable heat treatment). This paper presents a description of the RRR-test station and the measurement procedure, the summary of the results over all suppliers and finally the correlation between RRR-values of the cables and the magnets.

  20. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2017-10-18

    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Estimation of Prestress Force Distribution in the Multi-Strand System of Prestressed Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunhee Cho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete (PSC is one of the most reliable, durable and widely used construction materials, which overcomes the weakness of concrete in tension by the introduction of a prestress force. Smart strands enabling measurement of the prestress force have recently been developed to maintain PSC structures throughout their lifetime. However, the smart strand cannot give a representative indication of the whole prestress force when used in multi-strand systems since each strand sustains a different prestress force. In this paper, the actual distribution of the prestress force in a multi-strand system is examined using elastomagnetic (EM sensors to develop a method for tracking representative indicators of the prestress force using smart strands.

  2. Estimation of Prestress Force Distribution in the Multi-Strand System of Prestressed Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Keunhee; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Jeong-Rae; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Young-Hwan

    2015-06-15

    Prestressed concrete (PSC) is one of the most reliable, durable and widely used construction materials, which overcomes the weakness of concrete in tension by the introduction of a prestress force. Smart strands enabling measurement of the prestress force have recently been developed to maintain PSC structures throughout their lifetime. However, the smart strand cannot give a representative indication of the whole prestress force when used in multi-strand systems since each strand sustains a different prestress force. In this paper, the actual distribution of the prestress force in a multi-strand system is examined using elastomagnetic (EM) sensors to develop a method for tracking representative indicators of the prestress force using smart strands.

  3. Investigations of radiation-induced strand breaks of poly(U) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, D.G.E.

    1984-01-01

    DNA strand breaks induced by γ irradiation were studied in polyuridylic acid (Poly(U)), a single-strand model substance with a single base. Poly(U) in diluted, aqueous solution was irradiated in a Co-γ source, and the 100 eV yields of strand breaks (Cr values) were determined on the basis of the loss of molecular weight. The molecular weight was determined by small-angle laser light scattering. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3?ddR5p) at the 3?-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electr...

  5. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    currents and water properties (Moorings, Ocean Gliders and HF Radar) and three for coastal ecosystems (Acoustic Tagging and Tracking, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and a biophysical sensor network on the Great Barrier Reef). The value from this infrastructure investment lies in the coordinated deployment of a wide range of equipment aimed at deriving critical data sets that serve multiple applications. Additional information on IMOS is available at the website (http://www.imos.org.au). The IMOS Operators are Australian Institute of Marine Science, James Cook University, Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Geoscience Australia, Bureau of Meteorology, South Australia Research and Development Institute, University of Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Tasmania.

  6. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  7. Workshop on effects of chromium coating on Nb3Sn superconductor strand: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Chromium coating on superconductor strand -- an overview; technology of chromium plating; comparison of wires plated by different platers; search for chromium in copper; strand manufactures' presentations; chromium plating at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; a first look at a chromium plating process development project tailored for T.P.X. and I.T.E.R. strand; and influence of chromium diffusion and related phenomena on the reference ratios of bare and chromium plated Nb 3 Sn strand

  8. Toxin MqsR Cleaves Single-Stranded mRNA with Various 5 Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    either protein ORIGINAL RESEARCH Toxin MqsR cleaves single- stranded mRNA with various 5’ ends Nityananda Chowdhury1,*, Brian W. Kwan1,*, Louise C...in which a single 5′- GCU site was predicted to be single- stranded (ssRNA), double- stranded (dsRNA), in the loop of a stem - loop (slRNA), or in a...single- stranded 5′- GCU sites since cleavage was approximately 20- fold higher than cleavage seen with the 5′- GCU site in the stem - loop and

  9. Flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuhui [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: leiwlei@hotmail.com [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Zhang, Jianren; Ma, Yafei [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Liu, Yongming [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85281 Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Flexural behavior of bonded PT beams with strand corrosion is experimental tested. • Cracking, stiffness, ultimate strength, failure & ductility of beams are clarified. • A coefficient is proposed to measure incompatible strain between strand & concrete. - Abstract: An experimental test is performed to investigate the flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion. Eight beams are designed and subjected to accelerated method to different corrosion levels. The initial stiffness of beams is observed by cyclic loading-unloading test during the corrosion procedure. Corrosion effects on concrete cracking, post-cracking stiffness, ultimate strength, failure mode and ductility are then clarified by the flexural test. And, a coefficient is introduced to quantify the incompatible strain between corroded strand and concrete. Results show that the prestress force loss of strand has almost the linear relation with corrosion loss. Strand corrosion affects slightly the initial stiffness of beam before flexural cracking, but degrades significantly the post-cracking stiffness of beam as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%. Slight corrosion of strand has little effects on beams flexural behavior. The severe corrosion, however, decreases the number of crack, changes the failure mode form the concrete crushing to strand rupture, degrades the ductility and the ultimate strength of beams, and leads to the incompatible strain between strand and concrete. In the present test, the incompatible strain decreases about 20% of the flexural strength as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%.

  10. Necropsy report of a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded in Denmark in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Hedayat, Abdi; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    There is little detailed information on stranded fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the scientific literature (Notarbartolo di Sciara et al., 2003). In Denmark, at least eight fin whales stranded between the years 1603 and 1958 (Kinze, 1995). On 16 June 2010, a live subadult or adult male fin...... whale stranded in the Bay of Vejle (55º 69' N, 9º 58' E), Denmark. Despite several attempts, it was not possible to rescue the fin whale, which was only partially exposed by the water. The fin whale succumbed after 5 d stranded in shallow water. The dead fin whale was transported to a nearby pier...

  11. Development of a 10 m quasi-isotropic strand assembled from 2G wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Changtao; Wang, Yinshun; Hou, Yanbing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    Quasi-isotropic strands made of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are attractive to applications of high-field magnets at low temperatures and power transmission cables at liquid nitrogen temperature in virtue of their high current carrying capability and well mechanical property. In this contribution, a 10 m length quasi-isotropic strand is manufactured and successfully tested in liquid nitrogen to verify the feasibility of an industrial scale production of the strand by the existing cabling technologies. The strand with copper sheath consists of 72 symmetrically assembled 2G wires. The uniformity of critical properties of long quasi-isotropic strands, including critical current and n-value, is very important for their using. Critical currents as well as n-values of the strand are measured every 1 m respectively and compared with the simulation results. Critical current and n-value of the strand are calculated basing on the self-consistent model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Effects of self-field on the critical current and n-value distributions in wires of the strand are analyzed in detail. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data and the 10 m quasi-isotropic strand has good critical properties uniformity.

  12. Flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuhui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Ma, Yafei; Liu, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexural behavior of bonded PT beams with strand corrosion is experimental tested. • Cracking, stiffness, ultimate strength, failure & ductility of beams are clarified. • A coefficient is proposed to measure incompatible strain between strand & concrete. - Abstract: An experimental test is performed to investigate the flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion. Eight beams are designed and subjected to accelerated method to different corrosion levels. The initial stiffness of beams is observed by cyclic loading-unloading test during the corrosion procedure. Corrosion effects on concrete cracking, post-cracking stiffness, ultimate strength, failure mode and ductility are then clarified by the flexural test. And, a coefficient is introduced to quantify the incompatible strain between corroded strand and concrete. Results show that the prestress force loss of strand has almost the linear relation with corrosion loss. Strand corrosion affects slightly the initial stiffness of beam before flexural cracking, but degrades significantly the post-cracking stiffness of beam as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%. Slight corrosion of strand has little effects on beams flexural behavior. The severe corrosion, however, decreases the number of crack, changes the failure mode form the concrete crushing to strand rupture, degrades the ductility and the ultimate strength of beams, and leads to the incompatible strain between strand and concrete. In the present test, the incompatible strain decreases about 20% of the flexural strength as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%.

  13. Structure-spectrophotometric selectivity relationship in interactions of quercetin related flavonoids with double stranded and single stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantanida, Ivo; Mašić, Lozika; Rusak, Gordana

    2009-04-01

    Interactions of five flavonoids with dsRNA and single stranded ssRNA were studied by UV/vis titrations. The results obtained supported the intercalative binding mode as a dominant interaction of studied flavonoids with dsRNA as well as major interaction with ssRNA. Furthermore, changes of the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids induced by addition of poly G or poly C, respectively, are significantly stronger than changes induced by double stranded poly G-poly C, pointing to essential role of the free poly G or poly C sequence (not hydrogen bonded in double helix). Exclusively poly G caused significant batochromic shift of the UV/vis maxima of all studied flavonoids, whereby the intensity of batochromic shift is nicely correlated to the number of OH groups of flavonoid. Unlikely to poly G, addition of poly A and poly U induced measurable changes only in the UV/vis spectra of flavonoids characterised by no OH (galangin) or three OH groups (myricetin) on the phenyl part of the molecule. Consequently, flavonoids with one- or two-OH groups on the phenyl part of the molecule (luteolin, fisetin, kaempferol) specifically differentiate between poly A, poly U (negligible changes in the UV/Vis spectra) and poly G (strong changes in the UV/Vis spectra) as well as poly C (moderate changes in the UV/Vis spectra).

  14. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate) can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Zapotoczny and Sekelsky.

  15. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells.

  16. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  17. Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in mainland Portugal: Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Monteiro, Sílvia S; Pereira, Andreia T; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Torres, Jordi; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Pollution is among the most significant threats that endanger sea turtles worldwide. Waters off the Portuguese mainland are acknowledged as important feeding grounds for juvenile loggerheads. However, there is no data on trace element concentrations in marine turtles occurring in these waters. We present the first assessment of trace element concentrations in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) occurring off the coast of mainland Portugal. Also, we compare our results with those from other areas and discuss parameters that may affect element concentrations. Trace element concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, Zn) were determined in kidney, liver and muscle samples from 38 loggerheads stranded between 2011 and 2013. As was the only element with higher concentrations in muscle (14.78 μg g -1 ww) than in liver or kidney. Considering non-essential elements, Cd presented the highest concentrations in kidney (34.67 μg g -1 ) and liver (5.03 μg g -1 ). Only a weak positive link was found between renal Cd and turtle size. Inter-elemental correlations were observed in both liver and kidney tissues. Hepatic Hg values (0.30 ± 0.03 μg g -1 ) were higher than values reported in loggerheads in the Canary Islands but lower than in Mediterranean loggerheads. Cd concentrations in the present study were only exceeded by values found in turtles from the Pacific. Although many endogenous and exogenous parameters related with complex life cycle changes and wide geographic range may influence trace element accumulation, the concentrations of Cd are probably related to the importance of crustaceans in loggerhead diet in the Portuguese coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  19. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  20. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  1. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  2. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  3. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /Oxford Supercond. Tech., Carteret

    2006-08-01

    The high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing.

  4. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pishalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Field, M.; Hong, S.; Parrell, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The high performance Nb 3 Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R and D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing

  5. Enzymatic Production of Monoclonal Stoichiometric Single-Stranded DNA Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M.; Högberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools as probes for diagnostics and gene therapy. Today, production of oligonucleotides is done via solid-phase synthesis. However, the capabilities of current polymer chemistry are limited in comparison to what can be produced in biological systems. The errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and sequence diversity can often be a problem. Here, we present the Monoclonal Stoichiometric (MOSIC) method for enzymatic DNA oligonucleotide production. Using this method, we amplify oligonucleotides from clonal templates followed by digestion of a cutter-hairpin, resulting in pools of monoclonal oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We present data where MOSIC oligonucleotides, 14–378 nt long, were prepared either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification, or by amplification in Escherichia coli in the form of phagemid DNA. The formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides. PMID:23727986

  6. Enzymatic production of 'monoclonal stoichiometric' single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M; Högberg, Björn

    2013-07-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools, as diagnostic probes, in gene therapy and in DNA nanotechnology. Oligonucleotides are typically produced via solid-phase synthesis, using polymer chemistries that are limited relative to what biological systems produce. The number of errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and the resulting diversity of sequences can be a problem. Here we present the 'monoclonal stoichiometric' (MOSIC) method for enzyme-mediated production of DNA oligonucleotides. We amplified oligonucleotides from clonal templates derived from single bacterial colonies and then digested cutter hairpins in the products, which released pools of oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We prepared 14-378-nucleotide MOSIC oligonucleotides either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification or by amplification of phagemid DNA in Escherichia coli. Analyses of the formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides.

  7. Hepatic lesions in cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Arbelo, M; Andrada, M; Hidalgo, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Van Den Ingh, T; Fernández, A

    2004-03-01

    This article describes the gross, histopathologic, and ultrastructural findings of the livers of cetaceans stranded on the coast of the Canary Islands between 1992 and 2000. A total of 135 cetaceans were included in the study, among which 25 were common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), 23 Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), 19 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), and 15 other species of dolphins and whales. The most common lesion observed in these animals was a nonspecific chronic reactive hepatitis (47/135), followed by hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes (33/135). Parasitic cholangitis was detected in 8/135 animals, whereas hepatic lipidosis was presented in 7/135 animals. The ultrastructure of hyaline hepatocytic cytoplasmic inclusions is described, and possible causes of these inclusions are discussed.

  8. The interaction of fine particles with stranded oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of micron-sized mineral particles with stranded oil reduces its adhesion to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. Oil and Fine-particle Interaction ('OFI') can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. Fine-particle interaction can be accelerated during a spill response by relocating the oiled sediments into the surf zone. This has been achieved successfully on two occasions to date: the Tampa Bay response in Florida, and the Sea Empress operation in Wales. Sediment relocation also causes physical abrasion by the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and surf washing usually occur in combination on open coasts. (author)

  9. Regulatory RNA design through evolutionary computation and strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, William; Landrain, Thomas E; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and study of a vast number of regulatory RNAs in all kingdoms of life over the past decades has allowed the design of new synthetic RNAs that can regulate gene expression in vivo. Riboregulators, in particular, have been used to activate or repress gene expression. However, to accelerate and scale up the design process, synthetic biologists require computer-assisted design tools, without which riboregulator engineering will remain a case-by-case design process requiring expert attention. Recently, the design of RNA circuits by evolutionary computation and adapting strand displacement techniques from nanotechnology has proven to be suited to the automated generation of DNA sequences implementing regulatory RNA systems in bacteria. Herein, we present our method to carry out such evolutionary design and how to use it to create various types of riboregulators, allowing the systematic de novo design of genetic control systems in synthetic biology.

  10. Bellahøj. Ballerup. Brøndby Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, S.

    I maj 1945 var forventningerne store, og alle så frem til at "der snart ville komme en båd med bananer". Det gjaldt ikke mindst for byggeriet, som så frem til at afhjælpe den store boligmangel. Det tog tid, men opgaven blev løst - gennem udvikling og industrialisering. Byggeriets udvikling - især...... det der skete? Hvem tog initiativet? Hvorfor lykkedes det med så stor succes, som det faktisk gjorde? Hvilke tanker, idealer og indgreb var udgangspunkt for den store indsats? På grundlag af disse spørgsmål har Sven Bertelsen i "Bellahøj - Ballerup - Brøndby Strand" skildret en væsentlig epoke i dansk...

  11. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  12. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  13. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  14. In vivo quantification of DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsson, M.; Qvarnstroem, F.; Turesson, I.; Johansson, K.-A.; Nyman, J.; Hermansson, I.; Oden, A.; Book, M.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be introduced in the genome by exposure to exogenous agents such as ionising radiation and radio-mimetic chemicals. The biological importance of these breaks is significant even at low numbers. Inaccurate repair or lack of repair of a single DSB has the potential to kill a cell or lead to tumourigenesis. Thus the induction and repair of DSBs are crucial events in the onset of malignancies. Following the induction of DSBs, the core histone H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated at residue serine 139. This phosphorylated form of H2AX is referred to as gH2AX. Histones wrapped in megabase regions flanking these breaks are involved in this process, which results in the formation of discrete nuclear foci. It has previously been shown that a single DSB is sufficient to produce a detectable focus. So far there has been a lack of methods capable of measuring the amount of DSBs at clinically relevant quantities. Such a method would embrace a wide field of applications. It could be applied as a biological dosimeter when studying carcinogenic effects and provide the basis for an assay predicting individual radiosensitivity. We describe a measurement procedure that detects and quantifies small amounts of DSBs in vivo. This is accomplished using immunofluorescence detection of the molecular marker gH2AX. The gH2AX foci are quantified in histological sections using basic digital image analysis methods as the main component. In a primary assessment of the procedure we analysed the in vivo dose response of prostate cancer patients in clinical practice undergoing radiotherapy. Epidermal nucleated cells in skin biopsies taken 30 minutes following the first single dose delivered show linear dose response for low doses ranging from 0 - 1.2 Gy. The described procedure for double strand break quantification can detect dose changes as low as 0.18 Gy

  15. Development of a stranded oil in coarse sediment (SOCS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Owens, E.; Sergy, G.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spills in Canadian waters have a high probability of impacting coarse sediment beaches, yet the ability to predict oil fate and estimate natural self-cleaning rates is less than adequate. Data is lacking to understand fully many oil sediment interactions. Historically, shoreline interactions have been considered using fairly simple concepts. The authors examined the processes that may occur on a coarse sediment beach, selected those which are important, and developed a fate and persistence model for stranded oil. The processes were divided into stages relative to the spill event, and the factors which affect each stage were evaluated. Three areas of special interest were the capacity of a beach to hold oil, the residual capacity of a beach for oil, and the long-term fate of the oil. After developing model algorithms, the outputs were compared to a data base of information collected during the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The stranded oil in coarse sediment model will provide information at two levels: a general level for planning and sensitivity mapping and a more detailed level intended for the prediction of oil fate on specific known beaches. The strengths and weaknesses of the model have been assessed in terms of data deficiencies. The type and nature of the data which are most useful to, and which need to be collected for, spill planning and spill monitoring were identified. The model shows that the important factors directing the fate of oil on coarse sediment beaches are porosity and permeability, determined by grain size and oil properties (composition, viscosity, etc.). The natural rate of removal of oil, modeled as a first-order (exponential) removal, is dependent on the stage of the spill process and on wave energy

  16. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  17. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  18. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  19. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  20. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  1. Radiation induced strand breaks and time scale for repair of broken strands in superinfecting phage lambda DNA in Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, I.; Boye, E.; Brustad, T.

    1975-01-01

    The production of the first radiation induced break in covalent lambda DNA molecules in pol + and pol A 1 lysogenic host cells was measured after exposure to electrons from a linear accelerator and transfer to alkaline detergent within 100 ms from the onset of irradiation. The results revealed the presence of an oxygen effect in DNA strand breakage. In both pol + and pol A 1 host cells the rate of production in nitrogen was 1.2x10 -12 DNA single strand breaks per rad per dalton as compared to 5x10 -12 in oxygen. The yields of strand breaks in lambda DNA in pol + host cells under oxygenated or anoxic conditions are independent of whether the cells are irradiated in buffer at room temperature, in buffer at ice temperature, or in growth medium at 37 0 C. These results indicate that enzymic repair of DNA strand breaks before analysis is insignificant in these experiments. The presence of an oxygen effect in DNA strand breakage under these conditions suggest that an actual difference exists between initial number of breaks produced in nitrogen and in oxygen. The kinetics of rejoining of broken molecules under optimal growth conditions was measured by incubating the irradiated host cells prior to lysis. In pol + host cells 50% of the lambda DNA molecules broken in presence of oxygen are rejoined within 10 to 20 seconds of incubation. A significantly lower recovery is seen in pol + host cells after irradiation in nitrogen. The rejoining of broken lambda DNA strands in pol A 1 host cells is impaired after irradiation in presence of oxygen as well as under anoxia. These results show that DNA polymerase I is needed for the rapid rejoining of radiation induced strand breaks in the DNA, and that oxygen promoted strand breaks are more easily rejoined than are those produced in nitrogen. (author)

  2. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in blubber of 16 species of cetaceans stranded in the Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Melannie J; Keller, Jennifer M; West, Kristi L; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic man-made chemicals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food webs, making them a ubiquitous threat to the marine environment. Although many studies have determined concentrations of POPs in top predators, no studies have quantified POPs in stranded cetaceans within the last 30 years around the Hawaiian Islands. A suite of POPs was measured in the blubber of 16 cetacean species that stranded in the tropical Pacific, including Hawai'i from 1997 to 2011. The sample set includes odontocetes (n=39) and mysticetes (n=3). Median (range) contaminant concentrations in ng/g lipid for the most representative species category (delphinids excluding killer whales [n=27]) are: 9650 (44.4-99,100) for ∑DDTs, 6240 (40.8-50,200) for ∑PCBs, 1380 (6.73-9520) for ∑chlordanes, 1230 (13.4-5510) for ∑toxaphenes, 269 (1.99-10,100) for ∑PBDEs, 280 (2.14-4190) for mirex, 176 (5.43-857) for HCB, 48.1 (0.063), but sex/age class influences were evident with adult males exhibiting greater contaminant loads than adult females and juveniles for ∑DDT, ∑PCBs, ∑CHLs, and mirex (p≤0.036). POP concentrations were lower in mysticetes than odontocetes for many compound classes (p≤0.003). p,p'-DDE/∑DDTs ratios were greater than 0.6 for all species except humpback whales, suggesting exposure to an old DDT source. These POP levels are high enough to warrant concern and continued monitoring. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  4. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  5. Regions of incompatibility in single-stranded DNA bacteriophages phi X174 and G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; van Arkel, G. A.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular presence of a recombinant plasmid containing the intercistronic region between the genes H and A of bacteriophage phi X174 strongly inhibits the conversion of infecting single-stranded phi X DNA to parental replicative-form DNA. Also, transfection with single-stranded or

  6. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E; Johnson, Kevin M; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S

    2017-06-20

    Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3'ddR5p) at the 3'-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3'ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3'ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. 75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel... antidumping investigation of prestressed concrete steel strand (``PC strand'') from the People's Republic of... are shown in the ``Final Determination Margins'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Prestressed Concrete...

  8. Mouse RAD54 affects DNA double-strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Beverloo (Berna); R.D. Johnson (Roger); M. Jasin (Maria); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we

  9. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it

  10. Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Rothstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize in ...

  11. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.370 RUS specification for seven wire galvanized... Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1, 1990...

  12. A Stress Measurement Method for Steel Strands Based on LC Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prestress loss is one of the main factors affecting the safety of prestressed concrete structure. While the detecting signals like sound and light are difficult to spread in steel strands, there is no effective method for prestress detection of the bonded prestressed steel strands in existing structures yet. In this paper, taking into consideration that the electromagnetic oscillation characteristic can make the signal propagate effectively on the bonded prestressed steel strands, a nondestructive prestress detection method based on the electromagnetic effect to detect oscillation frequency is proposed. In a detection circuit, the steel strands are simulated as an inductance component, in which an induced electromagnetic signal passes through the steel strands to form resonance. And then, a frequency meter is used to detect the oscillation frequency of the resonant circuit. The oscillation frequency is supposed to have relationship with the prestress loading on the steel strands. A section of steel strands with a length of 1.2 m is adopted to test the correlation of stress and oscillation frequency. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the resonant frequency of the circuit decreases with the increase of the stress of the strand and is linear in a certain range.

  13. Statistical analysis of the Nb3Sn strand production for the ITER toroidal field coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vostner, A.; Jewell, M.C.; Pong, I.; Sullivan, N.; Devred, A.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The ITER toroidal field (TF) strand procurement initiated the largest Nb3Sn superconducting strand production hitherto. The industrial-scale production started in Japan in 2008 and finished in summer 2015. Six ITER partners (so-called Domestic Agencies, or DAs) are in charge of the procurement and

  14. Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdan, Samir M.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    In all organisms, the protein machinery responsible for the replication of DNA, the replisome, is faced with a directionality problem. The antiparallel nature of duplex DNA permits the leading-strand polymerase to advance in a continuous fashion, but forces the lagging-strand polymerase to

  15. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3’ddR5p) at the 3’-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3’ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3’ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. PMID:28531327

  16. The percentage of bacterial genes on leading versus lagging strands is influenced by multiple balancing forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xizeng; Zhang, Han; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genes are located on the leading strand, and the percentage of such genes has a large variation across different bacteria. Although some explanations have been proposed, these are at most partial explanations as they cover only small percentages of the genes and do not even consider the ones biased toward the lagging strand. We have carried out a computational study on 725 bacterial genomes, aiming to elucidate other factors that may have influenced the strand location of genes in a bacterium. Our analyses suggest that (i) genes of some functional categories such as ribosome have higher preferences to be on the leading strands; (ii) genes of some functional categories such as transcription factor have higher preferences on the lagging strands; (iii) there is a balancing force that tends to keep genes from all moving to the leading and more efficient strand and (iv) the percentage of leading-strand genes in an bacterium can be accurately explained based on the numbers of genes in the functional categories outlined in (i) and (ii), genome size and gene density, indicating that these numbers implicitly contain the information about the percentage of genes on the leading versus lagging strand in a genome. PMID:22735706

  17. Checkpoint Kinase Rad53 Couples Leading- and Lagging-Strand DNA Synthesis under Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Haiyun; Yu, Chuanhe; Devbhandari, Sujan; Sharma, Sushma; Han, Junhong; Chabes, Andrei; Remus, Dirk; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2017-10-19

    The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is activated during replication stress to prevent fork collapse, an essential but poorly understood process. Here we show that Rad53 couples leading- and lagging-strand synthesis under replication stress. In rad53-1 cells stressed by dNTP depletion, the replicative DNA helicase, MCM, and the leading-strand DNA polymerase, Pol ε, move beyond the site of DNA synthesis, likely unwinding template DNA. Remarkably, DNA synthesis progresses further along the lagging strand than the leading strand, resulting in the exposure of long stretches of single-stranded leading-strand template. The asymmetric DNA synthesis in rad53-1 cells is suppressed by elevated levels of dNTPs in vivo, and the activity of Pol ε is compromised more than lagging-strand polymerase Pol δ at low dNTP concentrations in vitro. Therefore, we propose that Rad53 prevents the generation of excessive ssDNA under replication stress by coordinating DNA unwinding with synthesis of both strands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  19. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas