WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine sediment-water interface

  1. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment-water interface that may influence community stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, M.C.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Hutchings, P.; Boucher, G.; Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Heip, C.H.R.; King, G.; Koike, I.; Smith, C.

    2002-01-01

    Linkages across the sediment-water interface (SWI) between biodiversity and community stability appear to exist but are very poorly studied. Processes by which changes in biodiversity could affect stability on the other side of the SWI include carbon transfer during feeding, decomposition of organic

  2. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

  4. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    affects nodule abundance estimates based on photos. A model showing variable burial (or exposure) depending upon the thickness of the Sediment-Water Interface Boundary (SWIB) layer is presented. Standard relationships can be established between nodule...

  5. Nutrient fluxes across sediment-water interface in Bohai Bay Coastal Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Yuan, Dekui; Feng, Huan; Xing, Fangwei; Teo, Fang Yenn; Li, Shuangzhao

    2017-01-30

    Sediment cores and overlying water samples were collected at four sites in Tianjin Coastal Zone, Bohai Bay, to investigate nutrient (N, P and Si) exchanges across the sediment-water interface. The exchange fluxes of each nutrient species were estimated based on the porewater profiles and laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed significant differences between the two methods, which implied that molecular diffusion alone was not the dominant process controlling nutrient exchanges at these sites. The impacts of redox conditions and bioturbation on the nutrient fluxes were confirmed by the laboratory incubation experiments. The results from this study showed that the nutrient fluxes measured directly from the incubation experiment were more reliable than that predicted from the porewater profiles. The possible impacts causing variations in the nutrient fluxes include sewage discharge and land reclamation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the yearly increasing marine culture activities in floating cages in Daya Bay, China, the effects of pollution may overlap and lead to more severe water environmental problems. In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were sampled by cylindrical samplers at three representative aquaculture areas of Daya Bay. The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Fick’s Law. A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. The results showed that the sediments, with a high content and a large annual released quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus, constitute a potential inner source of seawater pollution. Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about 1 km long and 50 m wide. Seawater in this area is vulnerable to eutrophication.

  7. Radioisotope mobility across the sediment/water interface in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ten Brink, M.R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The removal of radiotracers from water to sediments and their partitioning between phases were used to study the rates and mechanisms of transfer for trace elements across the sediment/water interface in the deep sea. The in situ mobility of 22 Na, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 65 Zn, 125 Sb, 7 Be, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 113 Gd, and 141 Ce was measured using MANOP Lander benthic chambers in the N. equatorial Pacific and in San Clemente Basin. The contributions to mobility of diffusion, bioturbation, advection of pore waters, and transport across the diffusive boundary layer was assessed. The penetration of particle reactive tracers in the upper cm suggested a mixing rate of ≤10 -7 cm 2 /s at Sites C and S and ≤10 -5 cm 2 /s at Sites M and H. Greater penetration could be correlated with worm tubes but no evidence of irrigation was found. The presence of nodules did not prevent transport of soluble tracers to the underlying sediment or concentrate tracers. Diffusion was the predominant mode of transport for radiotracers in the short-term in situ experiments

  8. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  9. A review of the persistence of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment - sediment/water interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    There is a considerable international concern regarding the advisability and safety of the disposal or dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans. The assimilation capacity of the ocean for long-lived radionuclides will depend largely on the maximum concentrations that can be safely or agreeably contained within it. Since the mechanisms for removal or control are radioactive decay or association with particles and burial in the sediments, an understanding of the processes involved, in sediment-particle/water interactions, at the sediment/water interface, and within the sediment is extremely important. During the last 35 years there have been considerable inputs of long-lived radionuclides into the oceans as a result of weapons testing, routine releases from fuels reprocessing plants and operating nuclear reactors, and accidental releases from a variety of sources; this provides an excellent opportunity to study their behaviour in the oceans. Thus, the purpose here is to synthesize the present state of our knowledge of sediment/water interactions from studies, mainly of plutonium and americium, conducted in a wide range of environments from the Arctic to the tropics. (author)

  10. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  11. Water and sediment temperature dynamics in shallow tidal environments: The role of the heat flux at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, M.; Carniello, L.; Gardner, J.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, we investigate the energy flux at the sediment-water interface and the relevance of the heat exchanged between water and sediment for the water temperature dynamics in shallow coastal environments. Water and sediment temperature data collected in the Venice lagoon show that, in shallow, temperate lagoons, temperature is uniform within the water column, and enabled us to estimate the net heat flux at the sediment-water interface. We modeled this flux as the sum of a conductive component and of the solar radiation reaching the bottom, finding the latter being negligible. We developed a "point" model to describe the temperature dynamics of the sediment-water continuum driven by vertical energy transfer. We applied the model considering conditions characterized by negligible advection, obtaining satisfactory results. We found that the heat exchange between water and sediment is crucial for describing sediment temperature but plays a minor role on the water temperature.

  12. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water andd air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, B.; Hammond, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainity of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of bethic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water inteface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2--6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models

  13. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  15. Influence of an aerobic sediment-water interface in relation to reduced risk of phosphorus leaching from re-established wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes controlling phosphorus dynamics in wetlands, and different hydrological pathways such as groundwater discharge and surface water flooding are operating within wetlands (Hoffmann et al., 2009). During groundwater discharge...... depends both on the hydrological regimes and the processes taking place at the sediment-water interface. Re-oxidation of iron might allow a recapturing of phosphorus (Zak et al., 2004), and thereby impede P losses to the aquatic environment....

  16. Effect of environmental conditions on variation in the sediment-water interface created by complex macrofaunal burrows on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We quantified the increase in the sediment-water interface created by the burrowing activities of the resident macrofaunal community and its variation with respect to the physical conditions of the habitat on a tidal fat. We investigated environmental factors and dimensions of macrofaunal burrows with respect to tidal height and vegetation during spring and summer at three sites. A resin-casting method was used to quantify the dimensions of all burrows at each site. The dimensions of macrofaunal burrows varied both temporally and spatially and the increase in the sediment-water interface reached a maximum of 311%, ranging from 20 to 255% under different habitat conditions. The sediment-water interface depended on the duration of exposure resulting from tidal height, increased temperatures resulting from seasonality, and marsh plant density. Burrows were deeper and more expansive at both higher tidal levels and higher temperatures in summer. Burrow dimensions were sharply reduced with the disappearance of adult macrofauna in areas where the roots of the marsh plant Suaeda japonica were dense. The significance of this study lies in quantifying the burrow dimensions of the entire macrofaunal community, rather than just a single population, and confirming their spatial and temporal variation with respect to physical conditions of the habitat. Environmental factors responsible for variation in burrow dimensions are discussed.

  17. Measurements of gaseous mercury exchanges at the sediment-water, water-atmosphere and sediment-atmosphere interfaces of a tidal environment (Arcachon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Sylvain; Tessier, Emmanuel; Monperrus, Mathilde; Bridou, Romain; Clavier, Jacques; Thouzeau, Gerard; Amouroux, David

    2011-05-01

    The elemental mercury evasion from non-impacted natural areas is of significant importance in the global Hg cycle due to their large spatial coverage. Intertidal areas represent a dynamic environment promoting the transformations of Hg species and their subsequent redistribution. A major challenge remains in providing reliable data on Hg species variability and fluxes under typical transient tidal conditions found in such environment. Field experiments were thus carried out to allow the assessment and comparison of the magnitude of the gaseous Hg fluxes at the three interfaces, sediment-water, sediment-atmosphere and water-atmosphere of a mesotidal temperate lagoon (Arcachon Bay, Aquitaine, France) over three distinct seasonal conditions. The fluxes between the sediment-water and the sediment-atmosphere interfaces were directly evaluated with field flux chambers, respectively static or dynamic. Water-atmosphere fluxes were evaluated from ambient concentrations using a gas exchange model. The fluxes at the sediment-water interface ranged from -5.0 to 5.1 ng m(-2) h(-1) and appeared mainly controlled by diffusion. The occurrence of macrophytic covers (i.e.Zostera noltii sp.) enhanced the fluxes under light radiations. The first direct measurements of sediment-atmosphere fluxes are reported here. The exchanges were more intense and variable than the two other interfaces, ranging between -78 and 40 ng m(-2) h(-1) and were mostly driven by the overlying atmospheric Hg concentrations and superficial sediment temperature. The exchanges between the water column and the atmosphere, computed as a function of wind speed and gaseous mercury saturation ranged from 0.4 to 14.5 ng m(-2) h(-1). The flux intensities recorded over the intertidal sediments periodically exposed to the atmosphere were roughly 2 to 3 times higher than the fluxes of the other interfaces. The evasion of elemental mercury from emerged intertidal sediments is probably a significant pathway for Hg evasion in

  18. Oxygen imaging at the sediment-water interface using lifetime-based laser induced fluorescence (tau LIF) of nano-sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murniati, E.; Gross, D.; Herlina, H.

    2016-01-01

    Most applications of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for dissolved oxygen (DO) imaging in flowing water are based on luminescence intensity measurements of a dissolved indicator. A major limitation for applying the technique in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) is the sorption of the luminescent dye...... to organic surfaces at the sediment. Many sediment and soil studies have used planar optodes on transparent foils as an imaging technique for observing concentration distributions across the sediment-water interface. The presence of the foil, however, is restricting the free flow and therewith the DO...

  19. Temporal variability of exchange between groundwater and surface water based on high-frequency direct measurements of seepage at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Sheibley, Rich W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Simonds, Frederic W.; Naftz, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Seepage at the sediment-water interface in several lakes, a large river, and an estuary exhibits substantial temporal variability when measured with temporal resolution of 1 min or less. Already substantial seepage rates changed by 7% and 16% in response to relatively small rain events at two lakes in the northeastern USA, but did not change in response to two larger rain events at a lake in Minnesota. However, seepage at that same Minnesota lake changed by 10% each day in response to withdrawals from evapotranspiration. Seepage increased by more than an order of magnitude when a seiche occurred in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Near the head of a fjord in Puget Sound, Washington, seepage in the intertidal zone varied greatly from −115 to +217 cm d−1 in response to advancing and retreating tides when the time-averaged seepage was upward at +43 cm d−1. At all locations, seepage variability increased by one to several orders of magnitude in response to wind and associated waves. Net seepage remained unchanged by wind unless wind also induced a lake seiche. These examples from sites distributed across a broad geographic region indicate that temporal variability in seepage in response to common hydrological events is much larger than previously realized. At most locations, seepage responded within minutes to changes in surface-water stage and within minutes to hours to groundwater recharge associated with rainfall. Likely implications of this dynamism include effects on water residence time, geochemical transformations, and ecological conditions at and near the sediment-water interface.

  20. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  1. Calibration and application of an automated seepage meter for monitoring water flow across the sediment-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengyi; Fu, Dafang; Jenkinson, Byron; Jafvert, Chad T

    2015-04-01

    The advective flow of sediment pore water is an important parameter for understanding natural geochemical processes within lake, river, wetland, and marine sediments and also for properly designing permeable remedial sediment caps placed over contaminated sediments. Automated heat pulse seepage meters can be used to measure the vertical component of sediment pore water flow (i.e., vertical Darcy velocity); however, little information on meter calibration as a function of ambient water temperature exists in the literature. As a result, a method with associated equations for calibrating a heat pulse seepage meter as a function of ambient water temperature is fully described in this paper. Results of meter calibration over the temperature range 7.5 to 21.2 °C indicate that errors in accuracy are significant if proper temperature-dependence calibration is not performed. The proposed calibration method allows for temperature corrections to be made automatically in the field at any ambient water temperature. The significance of these corrections is discussed.

  2. Investigating the Role of Hydrologic Residence Time in Nitrogen Transformations at the Sediment-Water Interface using Controlled Variable Head Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, T. B.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    Many important biogeochemical processes governing both carbon and nitrogen dynamics in streams take place at the sediment-water interface (SWI). This interface is highly variable in biogeochemical function, with stream stage often influencing the magnitude and direction of water and solute exchange through the SWI. It is well known that the SWI can be an important location for carbon and nitrogen transformations, including denitrification and greenhouse gas production. The degree of mixing of carbon and nitrate, along with oxygen from surface waters, is strongly influenced by hydrologic exchange at the SWI. We hypothesize that hydrologic residence time, which is also determined by the magnitude of exchange, is a key control on the fate of nitrate at the SWI and on the end products of denitrification. Previous studies in the headwaters of the Ipswich River in MA as part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiments (LINX II) and other long-term monitoring suggest that the Ipswich River SWI represents an important source of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. Using a novel constant-head infiltrometer ring embedded in the stream sediments, we created four unique controlled down-welling (i.e., recharge) conditions, and tested how varying this hydrologic flux and thus the residence time distribution influenced biogeochemical function of the Ipswich River SWI. Specifically, we added isotopically-labelled 15N-nitrate to stream water during each controlled hydrologic flux experiment to quantify nitrate transformation rates, including denitrification end products, under the different hydrologic conditions. We also measured a suite of carbon and nitrogen solutes, along with dissolved oxygen conditions throughout each experiment to characterize the broader residence timescale and biogeochemical responses to the hydrologic manipulations. Initial results show that the oxic conditions of the SWI were strongly responsive to changes in hydrologic flux rates, thereby changing the

  3. Sediment-water chemical exchange in the coastal zone traced by in situ radon-222 flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, C.S.; Kipphut, G.W.; Klump, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    In situ radon-222 flux experiments conducted in benthic chambers in Cape Lookout Bight, a small marine basin on the North Carolina coast, reveal that enhanced chemical transport across the sediment-water interface during summer months is caused by abiogenic bubble tube structures. Transport rates for dissolved radon, methane, and ammonium more than three times greater than those predicted on the basis of molecular diffusion occur when open tubes are maintained by semidiurnal low-tide bubbling

  4. Biogeochemical processes of incorporation and transformation of 14C labelled fulvic acid, humic acid and simple organic molecules at the sediment-water interface (submarine canyon of the NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscail, R.; Gadel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The input of organic compounds at the marine water-sediment interface was simulated by the injection of 14 C labelled raygrass fulvic and humic acids and glutamic acid in the overlying water of three identically preserved interfaces. After incubations of 6 days under in situ conditions (13 0 C, oxidizing conditions), separation of the resulting products are carried out by successive chemical extractions. They correspond to the relative importance of biological (respiration, assimilation) and geochemical (condensation in geopolymers and adsorption) processes. Two experiments have showed predominance of biological processes (with 14 C fulvic and glutamic acids), while in the case of 14 C humic acid, incorporation in sediment and geochemical processes are more important. (Auth.)

  5. Spatial variation in sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Florida Bay: AMP as a model organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2010-10-15

    Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) has been recognized as dominant components in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools in many coastal waters, and its exchange between sediment and water is an important process in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was employed as a model DOP compound to simulate phosphorus exchange across sediment-water interface in Florida Bay. The sorption data from 40 stations were fitted to a modified Freundlich equation and provided a detailed spatial distribution both of the sediment's zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC(0-T)) and of the distribution coefficient (K(d-T)) with respect to TDP. The K(d-T) was found to be a function of the index of phosphorus saturation (IPS), a molar ratio of the surface reactive phosphorus to the surface reactive iron oxide content in the sediment, across the entire bay. However, the EPC(0-T) was found to correlate to the contents of phosphorus in the eastern bay only. Sediment in the western bay might act as a source of the phosphorus in the exchange process due to their high EPC(0-T) and low K(d-T), whereas sediments in the eastern bay might act as a sink because of their low EPC(0-T) and high K(d-T). These results strongly support the hypothesis that both phosphorus and iron species in calcareous marine sediments play a critical role in governing the sediment-water exchange of both phosphate and DOP in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems.

  6. Delivering research output to the user using ICT services: Marine contamination database web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Burhanuddin Ahmad; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Md Suhaimi Elias

    2010-01-01

    This project is about developing a web-based interface for accessing the Marine Contamination database records. The system contains of information pertaining to the occurrence of contaminants and natural elements in the marine eco-system based on samples taken at various locations within the shores of Malaysia in the form of sediment, seawater and marine biota. It represents a systematic approach for recording, storing and managing the vast amount of marine environmental data collected as output of the Marine Contamination and Transport Phenomena Research Project since 1990. The resultant collection of data is to form the background information (or baseline data) which could later be used to monitor the level of marine environmental pollutions around the country. Data collected from the various sampling and related laboratory activities are previously kept in conventional forms such as Excel worksheets and other documents, both in digital and/or paper form. With the help of modern database storage and retrieval techniques, the task of storage and retrieval of data has been made easier and manageable. It can also provide easy access to other parties who are interested in the data. (author)

  7. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1995-01-01

    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse...... metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples....

  8. Development of RESTful services and map-based user interface tools for access and delivery of data and metadata from the Marine-Geo Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J. J.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS, www.marine-geo.org) operates an interactive digital data repository and metadata catalog that provides access to a variety of marine geology and geophysical data from throughout the global oceans. Its Marine-Geo Digital Library includes common marine geophysical data types and supporting data and metadata, as well as complementary long-tail data. The Digital Library also includes community data collections and custom data portals for the GeoPRISMS, MARGINS and Ridge2000 programs, for active source reflection data (Academic Seismic Portal), and for marine data acquired by the US Antarctic Program (Antarctic and Southern Ocean Data Portal). Ensuring that these data are discoverable not only through our own interfaces but also through standards-compliant web services is critical for enabling investigators to find data of interest.Over the past two years, MGDS has developed several new RESTful web services that enable programmatic access to metadata and data holdings. These web services are compliant with the EarthCube GeoWS Building Blocks specifications and are currently used to drive our own user interfaces. New web applications have also been deployed to provide a more intuitive user experience for searching, accessing and browsing metadata and data. Our new map-based search interface combines components of the Google Maps API with our web services for dynamic searching and exploration of geospatially constrained data sets. Direct introspection of nearly all data formats for hundreds of thousands of data files curated in the Marine-Geo Digital Library has allowed for precise geographic bounds, which allow geographic searches to an extent not previously possible. All MGDS map interfaces utilize the web services of the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis for displaying global basemap imagery and for dynamically provide depth values at the cursor location.

  9. Alternative biosphere modeling for safety assessment of HLW disposal taking account of geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard

    2001-03-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system, it is required to estimate radiological impacts on future human beings arising from potential radionuclide releases from a deep repository into the surface environment. In order to estimated the impacts, a biosphere model is developed by reasonably assuming radionuclide migration processes in the surface environment and relevant human lifestyles. It is important to modify the present biosphere models or to develop alternative biosphere models applying the biosphere models according to quality and quantify of the information acquired through the siting process for constructing the repository. In this study, alternative biosphere models were developed taking geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment into account. Moreover, the flux to dose conversion factors calculated by these alternative biosphere models was compared with those by the present basic biosphere models. (author)

  10. Decomposition of 14C-labeled organic substances in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The depth variation of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter composition and porewater composition in marine sediments suggest that different components of the organic matter undergo decomposition at widely different rates. The decomposition of 14 C-labeled organic substances was followed in sediment microcosms in the laboratory. The substances used were chosen to simulate a portion of material settling to the sediment-water interface (a marine diatom) or hypothesized components of refractory sediment organic matter (melanoidins and a bacterial polymer). The microcosms were found to be good models of the sediment-water interface in terms of how well they mimicked sediment decomposition rates and processes. The decomposition of the labeled material and the natural sediment TOC were monitored over 1 month: the water overlying the sediment remained oxic, and net consumption of nitrate was small. There was no detectable sulfate reduction. The algae and the bacterial polymer were decomposed on average 9x faster than the melanoidins and 90x faster than the natural sediment TOC. The soluble fraction of the algae was decomposed more rapidly than the particulate material

  11. Widespread ecomorphological convergence in multiple fish families spanning the marine-freshwater interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron M; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2017-05-17

    The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments. We demonstrate significant widespread convergence across many lineages occupying equivalent trophic niches, particularly feeding habits such as herbivory and biting of attached prey off hard substrates. These include several examples of convergent morphotypes evolving independently in marine and freshwater clades, separated by deep evolutionary divergences (tens of millions of years). The Terapontoidei present a new example of the macroevolutionary dynamics of morphological and ecological coevolution in relation to habitat and trophic preferences, at a greater phylogenetic and habitat scale than most well-studied adaptive radiations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Aerosol characteristics in the entrainment interface layer in relation to the marine boundary layer and free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dadashazar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses airborne data from two field campaigns off the California coast to characterize aerosol size distribution characteristics in the entrainment interface layer (EIL, a thin and turbulent layer above marine stratocumulus cloud tops, which separates the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL from the free troposphere (FT. The vertical bounds of the EIL are defined in this work based on considerations of buoyancy and turbulence using thermodynamic and dynamic data. Aerosol number concentrations are examined from three different probes with varying particle diameter (Dp ranges: > 3 nm, > 10 nm, and 0.11–3.4 µm. Relative to the EIL and FT layers, the sub-cloud (SUB layer exhibited lower aerosol number concentrations and higher surface area concentrations. High particle number concentrations between 3 and 10 nm in the EIL are indicative of enhanced nucleation, assisted by high actinic fluxes, cool and moist air, and much lower surface area concentrations than the STBL. Slopes of number concentration versus altitude in the EIL were correlated with the particle number concentration difference between the SUB and lower FT layers. The EIL aerosol size distribution was influenced by varying degrees from STBL aerosol versus subsiding FT aerosol depending on the case examined. These results emphasize the important role of the EIL in influencing nucleation and aerosol–cloud–climate interactions.

  13. Aerosol characteristics in the entrainment interface layer in relation to the marine boundary layer and free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashazar, Hossein; Braun, Rachel A.; Crosbie, Ewan; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Woods, Roy K.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-02-01

    This study uses airborne data from two field campaigns off the California coast to characterize aerosol size distribution characteristics in the entrainment interface layer (EIL), a thin and turbulent layer above marine stratocumulus cloud tops, which separates the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL) from the free troposphere (FT). The vertical bounds of the EIL are defined in this work based on considerations of buoyancy and turbulence using thermodynamic and dynamic data. Aerosol number concentrations are examined from three different probes with varying particle diameter (Dp) ranges: > 3 nm, > 10 nm, and 0.11-3.4 µm. Relative to the EIL and FT layers, the sub-cloud (SUB) layer exhibited lower aerosol number concentrations and higher surface area concentrations. High particle number concentrations between 3 and 10 nm in the EIL are indicative of enhanced nucleation, assisted by high actinic fluxes, cool and moist air, and much lower surface area concentrations than the STBL. Slopes of number concentration versus altitude in the EIL were correlated with the particle number concentration difference between the SUB and lower FT layers. The EIL aerosol size distribution was influenced by varying degrees from STBL aerosol versus subsiding FT aerosol depending on the case examined. These results emphasize the important role of the EIL in influencing nucleation and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions.

  14. Algal and archaeal polyisoprenoids in a recent marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, Liangqiao; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Xie, Tianmin

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of C-13 contents of individual organic molecules in a marine sediment show that crocetane, 2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane, an isomer of phytane, is produced by microorganisms that use methane as their main source of carbon. The sediments lie at a water depth of 68 m in the Kattegat......, the strait between Denmark and Sweden. Crocetane appears first 185 cm below the sediment-water interface, in the zone marking the transition from sulfate reduction to methanogenesis. Its delta C-13 value is -90 +/- 10 parts per thousand versus Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). Its structure, which includes......-consuming member of the microbial consortium responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of methane [Hoehler et al., 1994], in which, as first demonstrated quantitatively in these sediments [Iversen and Jorgensen, 1985], electrons are transferred from methane to sulfate. The presence of archaeal biomass throughout...

  15. Silicon Isotopes of Marine Pore Water: Tracking the Destiny of Marine Biogenic Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, L.; Hendry, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Silicon isotopes (δ30Si) are a powerful tool for the studying of the past and present silicon cycles, which is closely linked to the carbon cycle. Siliceous phytoplankton, such as diatoms, as one of the major conveyors of carbon to marine sediments. δ30Si from fossil diatoms has been shown to represent past silicic acid (DSi) utilization in the photic zone, since the lighter isotope is preferentially incorporated in their skeleton, the frustule. This assumes that species in the sediments depict past blooms and that frustules are preserved in their initial state during burial. Here we present new silicon isotopes data of sea water and pore water of deep marine sediments from two contrasted environments, the Equatorial Atlantic and West Antarctic Peninsula. δ30Si and DSi concentration, of both sea water and pore water, are negatively correlated. Marine biogenic opal dissolution can be tracked using δ30Si signature of pore water as lighter signals and high DSi concentrations are associated with the biogenic silica. Our data enhances post depositional and diagenesis processes during burial with a clear highlight on the sediment water interface exchanges.

  16. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: method development and microplastic accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Therese; Vethaak, A.D.; Carney Almroth, Bethany; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on

  17. Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, A.D.; Meysman, F.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Bonnet, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Diagenetic modeling presents an interesting and robust way to understand sediment-water column processes. Here we present the application of such a model to the Day River in Northern Vietnam, a system that is subject to high levels of domestic wastewater inputs from the Hanoi metropolitan area.

  18. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 μmol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  19. Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Stewart, A. Robin; Fend, Steven V.; Parcheso, Francis; Moon, Gerald E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    summary information (figuratively at the top of the pyramid) and the later details of methods or results (figuratively towards the base of the pyramid) using hyperlinks to supporting figures and tables, and an electronically linked Table of Contents. During two sampling events, two replicate sediment cores (Coring methods; Fig. 2) from each of three reservoir locations (Fig. 1) were used in incubation experiments to provide flux estimates and benthic biological characterizations. Incubation of these cores provided ?snapshots? of solute flux across the sediment-water interface in the reservoir, under benthic, environmental conditions representative of the time and place of collection. Ancillary data, including nutrient and ligand fluxes, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. The following major observations from interdependent physical, biological, and chemical data were made:

  20. Sediment-water oxygen, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus fluxes in a turbid freshwater estuary (Curonian lagoon, Lithuania: evidences of benthic microalgal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bartoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal measurements of total and diffusive benthic fluxes were performed during the ice-free period in the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania. This mostly freshwater hypertrophic basin exhibits wide seasonal variations of water temperature (1-22°C and inorganic nitrogen availability and it is subjected to dramatic blooms of diatoms and cyanobacteria (>100 μg chl a l-1. In this shallow lagoon, nutrient exchanges at the sediment-water interface and the regulating factors have been poorly explored. Overall aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the activity of benthic microalgae, generally neglected in turbid systems, can be a relevant regulator of sedimentary processes. To this purpose, light and dark fluxes of oxygen, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus were measured seasonally by intact core laboratory incubation and diffusive fluxes were calculated from sediment profiles. We investigated sandy sediments that were collected from the central area lagoon, that is representative of the most of the shallower lagoon area. Oxygen and ammonium fluxes were significantly different under light and dark incubations, suggesting an active role of benthic microalgae at the sediment-water interface. In the light net oxygen production was measured in three out of four samplings, with July as only exception, and ammonium was retained within sediments. In the dark sediment respiration displayed a temperature-dependent pattern while ammonium efflux increased from March to October. Fluxes of reactive phosphorus varied significantly with sampling seasons but were less affected by the incubation condition. Diffusive fluxes peaked in July, where highest concentration gradients at the interface and theoretical efflux of ammonium and reactive phosphorous were calculated. The marked differences between diffusive and total nutrient fluxes are probably due to photosynthetic activity by benthic microalgae, and thus oxygen production, enhancement of aerobic

  1. Best Practices for In-Situ Sediment-Water Incubations with Benthic Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anders; Kononets, Mikhail; Hall, Per; Nilsson, Madeleine; Ekeroth, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Biological, chemical, physical and geological processes that take place at the seafloor are crucial in influencing and regulating many aquatic environments. One method to estimate exchange rates, fluxes, between the sediment and the overlying water is in-situ sediment-water incubations using autonomous chamber landers. As for all field sampling and measurements best practices methods are needed to obtain high quality data. With experiences form many years usage of the Gothenburg autonomous bottom lander systems this presentation will describe some of the experimental work that has been done with focus on quality control and data evaluation methods.

  2. Dynamic sorption data of selected radionuclides in sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 48 sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region about 300 continuous-flow-column experiments were performed with 10 radionuclides. To simulate conditions as close as possible to natural ones (as regards the bedding of sediments, speed of filtration, environment, and microbiology - if necessary) for the sediment-groundwater-systems, the ranges of retardation factors for fresh, mixed and salt water systems were specified. For the investigated sand-water-systems, a comparison of the results obtained from continuous-flow-column and batch experiments for 85Sr and 134Cs was made. (orig.) [de

  3. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  4. [Sediment-water flux and processes of nutrients and gaseous nitrogen release in a China River Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu-hong; Chen, Neng-wang; Wu, Yin-qi; Mo, Qiong-li; Zhou, Xing-peng; Lu, Ting; Tian, Yun

    2014-09-01

    The key processes and fluxes of nutrients (N and P) and gaseous N (N2 and N2O) across the sediment-water interface in a river reservoir (Xipi) of the Jiulong River watershed in southeast China were studied. Intact core sediment incubation of nutrients exchange, in-situ observation and lab incubation of excess dissolved N2 and N2O (products of nitrification, denitrification and Anammox), and determination of physiochemical and microbe parameters were carried out in 2013 for three representative sites along the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Results showed that ammonium and phosphate were generally released from sediment to overlying water [with averaged fluxes of N (479.8 ± 675.4) mg. (m2. d)-1 and P (4. 56 ± 0.54) mg. (m2 d) -1] , while nitrate and nitrite diffused into the sediment. Flood events in the wet season could introduce a large amount of particulate organic matter that would be trapped by the dam reservoir, resulting in the high release fluxes of ammonium and phosphate observed in the following low-flow season. No clear spatial variation of sediment nutrient release was found in the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Gaseous N release was dominated by excess dissolved N2 (98% of total), and the N2 flux from sediment was (15.8 ± 12. 5) mg (m2. d) -1. There was a longitudinal and vertical variation of excess dissolved N2, reflecting the combined results of denitrification and Anammox occurring in anoxic sediment and fluvial transport. Nitrification mainly occurred in the lower lacustrine zone, and the enrichment of N2O was likely regulated by the ratio of ammonium to DIN in water.

  5. Increased carbon uptake in marine sediment enabled by naturally occurring electrical conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Cahoon, D. P.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) gradients are common across marine sediment-water interfaces and result from microbially-mediated reactions such as the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of electron acceptors. Most microbes living in sediments do not have direct access to oxygen in their immediate environment, however it has recently been shown that sulfide-oxidizing microbes may employ extracellular electron transfer (EET) to couple the oxidation of sulfide in the anoxic zone to reduction of oxygen at the sediment-water interface located several centimeters away. However, no mechanisms for this observed phenomenon have been validated. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that conductive minerals in marine sediment (specifically pyrite) can couple spatially separated redox reactions such as anaerobic respiration and oxygen reduction. Marine sediment was amended with naturally occurring pyrite in varying concentrations (0, 2, 10 and 50 weight-percent) and then incubated with 10 μM 13C-labeled acetate. After six hours, the treatments with the greatest amount of added pyrite showed the greatest incorporation of acetate from the labeled pool. The fraction of labeled acetate incorporation more than doubled in the 10 and 50 weight-percent treatments compared to the control sediment. We also designed a circuit to investigate the electrical conductivity of the sediment treatments as a function of added pyrite. A potentiostat was used to establish a known voltage across a sediment column and current was measured. Resistance (the inverse of conductance) was calculated from a linear fit of current data over a range of voltages ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 V. The treatments with added pyrite had lower resistance than background sediment, with the lowest resistance corresponding to the 50% pyrite treatment. We also examined the effect of varying pyrite content on microbial community composition using massively parallel 16S rRNA sequencing. Microbial community analyses

  6. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on pelagial and near-sediment water traits in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Banaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC on the environmental conditions of macrophytes has been studied in 35 lakes divided into soft- and hardwater: oligohumic (16.0 mg C dm-3. The optimum environmental conditions for macrophytes have been found in oligohumic lakes, characterised by low water colour and its good transparency. In soft- and hardwater lakes increasing concentration of DOC is accompanied with an increase in the colour (r=0.95, while the visibility decreases. With increasing DOC in the near-sediment layer the pH values decrease while the concentration of nitrogen increases and the concentration of phosphorus slightly increases. In hardwater lakes with increasing DOC concentration, the redox potential, conductivity, total hardness and calcium concentration in the near-sediment water decrease, whereas the content of CO2 remains at a very low level.

  7. Sediment-water distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Yangtze River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; You Chun

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution in water and sediment in Yangtze River Estuary showed that the estuary was a sink for PFOS. Salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. As the salinity (S per mille ) increased from 0.18 to 3.31, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between sediment and water linearly increased from 0.76 to 4.70 L g -1 . The study suggests that PFOS may be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reaches to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity. - PFOS may be largely scavenged to the sediment in estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity during its transport from lands to oceans.

  8. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia; Pan Gang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl 2 concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L -1 at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl 2 . Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl 2 in the concentration of 0.5 mol L -1 . The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  9. Effect of salinity and sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate at sediment-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Chun; Jia Chengxia [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Pan Gang, E-mail: gpan@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the influence of solution salinity, pH and the sediment characteristics on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The results showed that the sorption of PFOS onto sediment increased by a factor of 3 as the CaCl{sub 2} concentration increased from 0.005 to 0.5 mol L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, and nearly 6 at pH 8.0. Desorption hysteresis occurred over all salinity. The thermodynamic index of irreversibility (TII) values increased with increasing concentration of CaCl{sub 2}. Maximum irreversibility was found in the sorption systems with CaCl{sub 2} in the concentration of 0.5 mol L{sup -1}. The results suggested that PFOS can be largely removed from the water with increasing salinity, and get trapped onto sediments irreversibly. These phenomena could be explained by salting-out effect and Ca-bridging effect. Studies also suggested that the content of total organic carbon is the dominant psychochemical properties of sediment controlling the sorption of PFOS. - Salinity is an important environmental parameter affecting the transport and fate of PFOS in aquatic environment.

  10. Effects of bioirrigation on the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen above the sediment-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murniati, E.; Gross, D.; Herlina, H.

    2017-01-01

    Burrow ventilation by tube-dwelling benthic animals affects solute exchange between sediments and water by 2 means. Drawing of O2-rich water into the burrow increases O2 availability in the sediment and stimulates biogeochemical and microbial processes, whereas flushing of the burrow creates a 3......-dimensional flow field above the burrow, which induces mixing. Previous studies have revealed the role of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness on the exchange of solutes between the sediment and overlying water. Mapping the O2 gradient within the DBL is a challenging task in the presence of benthic...... the outlet of the burrows and drawdown of O2-rich water above the inlet caused by peristaltic pumping of C. plumosus larvae. Vertical O2 gradients changed dynamically during burrow ventilation relative to in a control tank without animals. The advective transport of O2 above the opening caused by burrow...

  11. Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sebacher, D.I.; Bartlett, K.B.; Bartlett, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH 4 /sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH 4 /sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH 4 /sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle

  12. Influence of macrobenthos on chemical diagenesis of marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, R.C.

    1977-05-01

    Diagenetic reactions involving the decomposition of organic matter and the dissolution, mobilization, and reprecipitation of metals sensitive to oxidation-reduction reactions, are most intense and rapid in the upper 1 m and especially the upper 10 cm of marine sediment. It is in this upper zone where most benthic organisms live and interact with sediments and where exchange rates of dissolved and particulate material between sediment and overlying water are largely determined. In Long Island Sound, U.S.A., both spatial and temporal trends in sediment chemistry and the flux of material out of the bottom demonstrate the control of diagenesis by bottom fauna. /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U disequilibrium studies demonstrate that particle reworking rates near the sediment-water interface vary both temporally and spatially in the Sound. The most rapid reworking occurs in protobranch-inhabited bottom areas as do the highest /sup 234/Th inventories. Excess /sup 234/Th profiles in the sediment allow determination of the rates of selected diagenetic reactions, such as Mn/sup + +/ production, near the sediment surface. Both the /sup 234/Th disequilibrium and flux measurements indicate that intra-estuarine redistribution of metals continually takes place.

  13. Macrobenthic diversity and sediment-water exchanges of oxygen and ammonium: Example of two subtidal communities of the eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous Rius, Armonie; Denis, Lionel; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Spilmont, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    In organic-rich shallow habitats, benthic macrofauna is known to play a major role in the geochemical functioning of surficial sediments through its metabolism, as well as its bioirrigation and/or bioturbation activity. In this paper, the effects of benthic macrofauna on metabolic fluxes at the sediment-water interface were studied at four dates, from winter to late summer, on two major macrobenthic communities of the eastern English Channel (macrotidal system): the fine sand Abra alba community (2 stations) and the sandy gravel Ophiothrix fragilis community (1 station). Oxygen and ammonium fluxes showed temporal changes that could be attributed to the variation of sea water temperature. Once the effect of temperature removed (using Q10 = 2.5), the average fauna mediated fluxes (FFauna) represented respectively 77% and 76% of average total fluxes. Considering the whole dataset, species number and biomass showed a significant correlation with fauna mediated fluxes of O2 and NH4+, while the relationships with abundance were not significant. The species composition of the community might influence ecosystem functioning, but in the present study, functional groups have a very poor relationship with FFauna (O2) and FFauna (NH4+). Despite the presence of engineer species, establishing general and simple rules to link macrofaunal parameters to functional attributes remains very difficult, suggesting that communities rather followed the idiosyncrasy and rivet hypothesis.

  14. Radionuclide transport in the "sediments - water - plants" system of the water bodies at the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanova, A K; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Polevik, V V

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs. The distribution coefficient (K d ) was calculated as the ratio of the content of radionuclides in the sediments to the content in water, and the concentration ratio (F V ) was calculated as the ratio of radionuclide content in plants to the content in sediments or soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dating ice shelf edge marine sediments: A new approach using single-grain quartz luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2010-01-01

    the Antarctic Peninsula, sediment-water-interface (“zero-age” analogs), silt-rich short cores were collected in 2001–2003, originally only for fine silt dating tests. Later access to suitable instrumentation also permitted testing the potential of single-grain quartz (SGQ) dating of sand grains from these cores...

  16. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates

  17. Marine sampling in Malaysia coastal area: the challenge, problems and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfaizal Mohamed; Khairul Nizam Razali; Mohd Rafaie Mohd Murtadza; Muhammad Amin Abdul Ghani; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project is one of the five research contracts that was signed between MINT and AELB. Three marine sampling expeditions had been carried out using K.L. PAUS vessel owned by Malaysian Fisheries Institute, Chendering, Terengganu. The first marine sampling expedition was taken place at East Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters on August 2003, followed on February 2004 at West Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters, and lastly at Sarawak-Sabah waters on July 2004. Many challenges and problems were faced when collecting sediment, water, biota and plankton sample during this marine sampling. (Author)

  18. Copper, Cadmium and Lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon Dearborni, in two Lagoons of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.; Lemus, M.; Chung, K. S

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprenodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos Lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant waste water from Cumana city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in Frebruary 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26± 210.68 μg/g for Cu, 44.71±45.58 μg/g for Cd, and 9.31±23.34 μg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88±16.30, 19.48± 5.81 and 22.85±20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for cooper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. (Author) [es

  19. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  20. Heavy metal partitioning of suspended particulate matter-water and sediment-water in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenghong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yin, Su; Tian, Chenhao; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-10-01

    The partitioning of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) between the water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediments in seven channel sections during three hydrologic seasons in the Yangtze Estuary was comprehensively investigated. Special attention was paid to the role of tides, influential factors (concentrations of SPM and dissolved organic carbon, and particle size), and heavy metal speciation. The SPM-water and sediment-water partition coefficients (K p ) of the heavy metals exhibited similar changes along the channel sections, though the former were larger throughout the estuary. Because of the higher salinity, the K p values of most of the metals were higher in the north branch than in the south branch. The K p values of Cd, Co, and As generally decreased from the wet season to the dry season. Both the diagonal line method and paired samples t-test showed that no specific phase transfer of heavy metals existed during the flood and ebb tides, but the sediment-water K p was more concentrated for the diagonal line method, owing to the relatively smaller tidal influences on the sediment. The partition coefficients (especially the K p for SPM-water) had negative correlations with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but positive correlations were noted with the particle size for most of the heavy metals in sediment. Two types of significant correlations were observed between K p and metal speciation (i.e., exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic, and residual fractions), which can be used to identify the dominant phase-partition mechanisms (e.g., adsorption or desorption) of heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  2. Mercury in Sediment, Water, and Biota of Sinclair Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Keys, Morgan E.; Scholting, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    Historical records of mercury contamination in dated sediment cores from Sinclair Inlet are coincidental with activities at the U.S. Navy Puget Sound Naval Shipyard; peak total mercury concentrations occurred around World War II. After World War II, better metallurgical management practices and environmental regulations reduced mercury contamination, but total mercury concentrations in surface sediment of Sinclair Inlet have decreased slowly because of the low rate of sedimentation relative to the vertical mixing within sediment. The slopes of linear regressions between the total mercury and total organic carbon concentrations of sediment offshore of Puget Sound urban areas was the best indicator of general mercury contamination above pre-industrial levels. Prior to the 2000-01 remediation, this indicator placed Sinclair Inlet in the tier of estuaries with the highest level of mercury contamination, along with Bellingham Bay in northern Puget Sound and Elliott Bay near Seattle. This indicator also suggests that the 2000/2001 remediation dredging had significant positive effect on Sinclair Inlet as a whole. In 2007, about 80 percent of the area of the Bremerton naval complex had sediment total mercury concentrations within about 0.5 milligrams per kilogram of the Sinclair Inlet regression. Three areas adjacent to the waterfront of the Bremerton naval complex have total mercury concentrations above this range and indicate a possible terrestrial source from waterfront areas of Bremerton naval complex. Total mercury concentrations in unfiltered Sinclair Inlet marine waters are about three times higher than those of central Puget Sound, but the small numbers of samples and complex physical and geochemical processes make it difficult to interpret the geographical distribution of mercury in marine waters from Sinclair Inlet. Total mercury concentrations in various biota species were compared among geographical locations and included data of composite samples, individual

  3. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Preface Preface of the first editionBiographies of the authors Part one - Preliminaries1. Environmental fluid mechanics: Current issues and future outlook B. Cushman-Roisin, C. Gualtieri & D.T. MihailovicPart two - Processes at atmospheric interfaces2. Point source atmospheric diffusionB. Rajkovic, I. Arsenic & Z. Grsic3. Air-sea interaction V. Djurdjevic & B. Rajkovic4. Modelling of flux exchanges between heterogeneous surfaces and atmosphere D.T. Mihailovic & D. Kapor5. Desert dust uptake-transport and deposition mechanisms - impacts of dust on radiation, clouds and precipitation G. Kallos, P. Katsafados & C. SpyrouPart three - Processes at water interfaces6. Gas-transfer at unsheared free-surfaces C. Gualtieri & G. Pulci Doria7. Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows H. Chanson8. Exchanges at the bed sediments-water column interface F.A. Bombardelli & P.A. Moreno9. Surface water and streambed sediment interaction: The hyporheic exchange D. Tonina10. Environm...

  4. The Link between Microbial Diversity and Nitrogen Cycling in Marine Sediments Is Modulated by Macrofaunal Bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani Foshtomi, Maryam; Braeckman, Ulrike; Derycke, Sofie; Sapp, Melanie; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The marine benthic nitrogen cycle is affected by both the presence and activity of macrofauna and the diversity of N-cycling microbes. However, integrated research simultaneously investigating macrofauna, microbes and N-cycling is lacking. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns in microbial community composition and diversity, macrofaunal abundance and their sediment reworking activity, and N-cycling in seven subtidal stations in the Southern North Sea. Our results indicated that bacteria (total and β-AOB) showed more spatio-temporal variation than archaea (total and AOA) as sedimentation of organic matter and the subsequent changes in the environment had a stronger impact on their community composition and diversity indices in our study area. However, spatio-temporal patterns of total bacterial and β-AOB communities were different and related to the availability of ammonium for the autotrophic β-AOB. Highest bacterial richness and diversity were observed in June at the timing of the phytoplankton bloom deposition, while richness of β-AOB as well as AOA peaked in September. Total archaeal community showed no temporal variation in diversity indices. Distance based linear models revealed that, independent from the effect of grain size and the quality and quantity of sediment organic matter, nitrification and N-mineralization were affected by respectively the diversity of metabolically active β-AOB and AOA, and the total bacteria, near the sediment-water interface. Separate models demonstrated a significant and independent effect of macrofaunal activities on community composition and richness of total bacteria, and diversity indices of metabolically active AOA. Diversity of β-AOB was significantly affected by macrofaunal abundance. Our results support the link between microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in marine sediments, and provided broad correlative support for the hypothesis that this relationship is modulated by macrofaunal activity. We

  5. The Link between Microbial Diversity and Nitrogen Cycling in Marine Sediments Is Modulated by Macrofaunal Bioturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yazdani Foshtomi

    Full Text Available The marine benthic nitrogen cycle is affected by both the presence and activity of macrofauna and the diversity of N-cycling microbes. However, integrated research simultaneously investigating macrofauna, microbes and N-cycling is lacking. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns in microbial community composition and diversity, macrofaunal abundance and their sediment reworking activity, and N-cycling in seven subtidal stations in the Southern North Sea.Our results indicated that bacteria (total and β-AOB showed more spatio-temporal variation than archaea (total and AOA as sedimentation of organic matter and the subsequent changes in the environment had a stronger impact on their community composition and diversity indices in our study area. However, spatio-temporal patterns of total bacterial and β-AOB communities were different and related to the availability of ammonium for the autotrophic β-AOB. Highest bacterial richness and diversity were observed in June at the timing of the phytoplankton bloom deposition, while richness of β-AOB as well as AOA peaked in September. Total archaeal community showed no temporal variation in diversity indices.Distance based linear models revealed that, independent from the effect of grain size and the quality and quantity of sediment organic matter, nitrification and N-mineralization were affected by respectively the diversity of metabolically active β-AOB and AOA, and the total bacteria, near the sediment-water interface. Separate models demonstrated a significant and independent effect of macrofaunal activities on community composition and richness of total bacteria, and diversity indices of metabolically active AOA. Diversity of β-AOB was significantly affected by macrofaunal abundance. Our results support the link between microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in marine sediments, and provided broad correlative support for the hypothesis that this relationship is modulated by macrofaunal

  6. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  7. Application of nanoparticle tracking analysis for characterising the fate of engineered nanoparticles in sediment-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ping; Roca, Alejandro; Tiede, Karen; Privett, Katie; Jiang, Jiachao; Pinkstone, John; Ma, Guibin; Veinot, Jonathan; Boxall, Alisatair

    2018-02-01

    Novel applications of nanotechnology may lead to the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), which result in concerns over their potential environmental hazardous impact. It is essential for the research workers to be able to quantitatively characterise ENPs in the environment and subsequently to assist the risk assessment of the ENPs. This study hence explored the application of nanoparticle tracking system (NTA) to quantitatively describe the behaviour of the ENPs in natural sediment-water systems. The NTA allows the measurement of both particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) of the ENPs. The developed NTA method was applied to a range of gold and magnetite ENPs with a selection of surface properties. The results showed that the positively-charged ENPs interacted more strongly with the sediment than neutral and negatively-charged ENPs. It was also found that the citrate coated Au ENPs had a higher distribution percentage (53%) than 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid coated Au ENPs (20%) and citrate coated magnetite ENPs (21%). The principles of the electrostatic interactions between hard (and soft) acids and bases (HSAB) are used to explain such behaviours; the hard base coating (i.e. citrate ions) will interact more strongly with hard acid (i.e. magnetite) than soft acid (i.e. gold). The results indicate that NTA is a complementary method to existing approaches to characterise the fate and behaviour of ENPs in natural sediment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  9. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  10. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  11. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  12. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  13. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  14. A new look into the small-scale dispersal of free-living marine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli C Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the hypothesis that prevailing locomotion/feeding strategies and body morphology may lead to more active dispersal of free-living marine nematodes, besides passive transport. Neutral Red was applied to the sediment inside cores and the red plume formed during the flood tide was divided into near, middle, and distant zones. At 0.5 m and 1 m from the stained cores, sampling nets were suspended 5 and 10 cm above the sediment-water interface. Dispersion behaviors were defined as a function of a the numbers of stained recaptured nematodes in comparison to their mean densities in the sediment, b movement in the sediment or swimming in the water column, and c body morphology. Tidal currents with average velocities of 9 cm/s resuspended the numerically dominant nematode taxa Sabatieria sp., Terschellingia longicaudata de Man, 1907, Metachromadora sp. and Viscosia sp. The recapture of stained nematodes as far as 2 m from the original stained cores showed that, despite their small body size, they can disperse through relatively large distances, either passively or actively, via the water column during a single tidal event. Recapture patterns in the sediment and in the water column indicate that nematode dispersal is directly influenced by their body morphology and swimming ability, and indirectly by their feeding strategies, which ultimately define their position in the sediment column. Besides stressing the role played by passive transport in the water column, our experiment additionally showed that mobility and feeding strategies also need to be considered as determinant of short-scale nematode dispersal.

  15. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  16. Origin and behaviour of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the sediment-water-biota system of Strangford Lough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Ryan, R.W.; Leon Vintro, L.; Ledgerwood, F.K.; Larmour, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Strangford Lough, located on the NE coast of Ireland, is a marine nature reserve of considerable ecological importance. Here, we report selected features from a recent (September 1997) detailed study of the radioecological status of the lough, including the spatial distribution of radionuclides in sea water, sediment and biota within the lough, the chemical speciation of Pu in lough waters and measured Pu concentrations through the narrows at ebb and flood tide

  17. Environmental risk assessment of triclosan and ibuprofen in marine sediments using individual and sub-individual endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, F H; Choueri, R B; Pereira, C D S; Cortez, F S; Santos, D R A; Moreno, B B; Santos, A R; Rogero, J R; Cesar, A

    2018-01-01

    The guidelines for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) recommend the use of standard ecotoxicity assays and the assessment of endpoints at the individual level to evaluate potential effects of PPCP on biota. However, effects at the sub-individual level can also affect the ecological fitness of marine organisms chronically exposed to PPCP. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the environmental risk of two PPCP in marine sediments: triclosan (TCS) and ibuprofen (IBU), using sub-individual and developmental endpoints. The environmental levels of TCS and IBU were quantified in marine sediments from the vicinities of the Santos submarine sewage outfall (Santos Bay, São Paulo, Brazil) at 15.14 and 49.0 ng g -1 , respectively. A battery (n = 3) of chronic bioassays (embryo-larval development) with a sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) and a bivalve (Perna perna) were performed using two exposure conditions: sediment-water interface and elutriates. Moreover, physiological stress through the Neutral Red Retention Time Assay (NRRT) was assessed in the estuarine bivalve Mytella charruana exposed to TCS and IBU spiked sediments. These compounds affected the development of L. variegatus and P. perna (75 ng g -1 for TCS and 15 ng g -1 for IBU), and caused a significant decrease in M. charruana lysosomal membrane stability at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.08 ng g -1 for TCS and 0.15 ng g -1 for IBU). Chemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated and the risk quotient estimated for TCS and IBU were higher than 1.0, indicating a high environmental risk of these compounds in sediments. These are the first data of sediment risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products of Latin America. In addition, the results suggest that the ERA based only on individual-level and standard toxicity tests may overlook other biological effects that can affect the health of marine organisms

  18. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  19. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  20. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  1. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  3. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  4. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  5. Interface Anywhere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current paradigms for crew interfaces to the systems that require control are constrained by decades old technologies which require the crew to be physically near an...

  6. Impact of dechlorination processes on the sediment-water exchange of PCDD/F in Passaic river cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaens, P.; Khijniak, A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Jones, K.; Green, N. [Environmental Science, Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Gruden, C. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The potential for natural dechlorination processes in sediments to impact the biogeochemical cycling of dioxins and furans has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the prevalence of lesser halogenated dioxins and furans at the air-water interface. The hypothesis was supported by multiple lines of evidence, but has not been directly demonstrated. Field evidence indicated dynamic air-water exchange of PCDD/Fs in the Raritan Bay/Hudson River Estuary, whereby lesser chlorinated (predominantly diCDD/F) were present in the particle and apparent dissolved phase. Fugacity calculations indicated that the water column served as the source of these homologue groups. Laboratory evidence from Passaic River sediment cores and microbiallymediated dechlorination demonstrated that historic dioxins can undergo extensive dechlorination reactions, culminating in the formation of mono-and diCDD homologues. Similar pathways have been observed with PCDF, resulting in the accumulation of triCDF. The current paper reports on an investigation addressing the hypothesis of whether the lesser chlorinated PCDD/F observed at the air-water interface could be the result of selective dissolution of these congeners or homologues from sediments as they are produced during microbial dechlorination.

  7. Speedy instrumental decoding of the marine-sediment as an indicator of environment pollution (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehana, I.; Ishfaq, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pedogenesis and drainage determine quantity and quality of material to be transported from the terrestrial ecosystem to aquatic ecosystem. Thus identification of controlling factors for the accumulation of certain elemental burden is important while, studying recent anthropogenic sources on soil and ground water elemental geochemistry. The continuous supply of organic and inorganic material in aquatic system such as lake, rivers and estuaries renders the sediment-water interface by marked chemical changes, resulting in steep gradients in physical, chemical and biological properties. Biogenic, authigenic and mineral particle which settle at the sediment surface accumulate to relatively high concentration and compared to their time in water column, have an appreciably long time in which to react mutually henceforth to the surrounding interacting forces. The particle flux in the ocean response to wind speed, aerosol deposition, nutrient level, carbon dioxide levels in the mixed layer, availability of the trace element such as Fe and volcanic emissions. Biochemical processes taking place in the deep ocean are coupled to the atmospheric processes via the particle flux in the ocean. As the oceanic flux, responds to the climatic and environmental forces, it has also a potential to detect and monitor, thus permitting the reconstruction of the global changes in the past. Thus, in spite of the fact that are distinct correlation between concentration and the distance of the sampling point from potential source such as industry, highway or municipal can not be established sediments from sea, lake, estuaries or river could be valuable tool to show spatial and temporal trends of metal contamination. Studies have been undertaken to construct a comprehensive scenario of environmental impact from marine pollution. Hence present work attempts to evaluate enrichment of various metals and cations in marine sediments from Japanese and Pakistan coastal areas. Concentration of Cr, Cu, Cd

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  11. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  13. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  16. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  18. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  19. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  20. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  1. Assessing Sub-Lethal Impacts of Petroleum Compounds on Marine Benthic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, J. Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    Petroleum and its different distillates commonly end up in the marine environment. One source of these additions is discharges originating from shipping activities; accidents, ship wrecks, operational spills etc. Depending on several different factors that govern the fate of petroleum released into the marine environment the effects of the discharge will differ, from acute toxic to long term sub-lethal effects. While effects on biota from large spills have thoroughly been investigated in the past long term sub-lethal effects are somewhat less examined. Therefore the objective of this thesis has been to develop and apply a method to analyze what effects low concentrations of petroleum, which often ends up in marine sediments, have on benthic sediment biota. Ecotoxicological endpoints that were evaluated were density changes of meiofauna and variations in the microbial community function, measured as inorganic nutrient fluxes over the sediment-water interface the potential to perform a metabolic process. These types of organisms are two important key players in marine benthic sedimentary habitats, performing ecosystem services such as degradation of organic matter, recycling of nutrients and various pollutants and they constitute a carbon link to higher trophic levels. As manual classification of meiofauna is very time-consuming process including an extended learning process for the taxonomist, this thesis is in its first part focused at the field of automatic classification. To classify meiofaunal communities a novel technique was developed where the image analysis software ZooImage was adapted to automatically classify higher taxonomic taxa of meiofauna, with successful results. The technique was evaluated by classifying meiofaunal communities from five different depths in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. The accuracy of the analyses was tested using ZooImage's internal 10-fold cross-validation method, and by comparing digitalized samples from the different sites

  2. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  3. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  4. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  6. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  13. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  14. Evaluation of the effect of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on Hg concentration in sediments, water, molluscs and algae of the delta of the Ebro river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on mercury levels in sediments, water, molluscs and algae from the delta of the Ebro river (NE Spain) were determined in this study. Mercury concentrations were measured in a cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of mercury concentrations were the following: sediments, 0.014-0.185 microgram g-1; water, 0.001-0.018 microgram g-1; molluscs, 0.118-0.861 microgram g-1; and algae 0.008-0.026 microgram g-1. Although not statistically significant, a decrease in the pH of the water corresponded with a diminution in the content of mercury in sediments and molluscs, while the mercury levels in water and algae were lower in the areas with high levels of bioproduction. The concentrations of mercury in water significantly decreased with temperature. However, the differences with temperature of the mercury concentrations in sediments did not reach the level of significance. Consequently, water would not be an adequate indicator to determine the levels of mercury contamination, although both sediments and molluscs can be used for this purpose.

  15. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  16. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Cottrell

    Full Text Available Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables.Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1% concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01 than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01 compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C. Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1 with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis.Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and

  17. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...... tilrettelæggelsen af den fremtidige formidling. Samtidig får museets genstande en ny status som flygtige ikoner i det digitale rum, og alt i alt inviterer det til, at museerne kan forholde sig mere åbent og eksperimenterende til egen praksis og rolle som kulturinstitution....

  18. Ca Isotope Geochemistry in Marine Deep Sea Sediments of the Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, A.; Gussone, N. C.; Derigs, D.; Schälling, M.; Teichert, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Ca isotope ratio analysis (δ44/40Ca) is a powerful tool to investigate diagenetic reactions in marine sedimentary porewater systems, as it is sensitive to processes such as carbonate dissolution, precipitation, recrystallization, ion exchange and deep fluid sources, due to the isotopic difference between dissolved Ca and solid carbonate minerals (e.g. [1];[2]). We analyzed eight sediment cores of the (paleo-) Pacific equatorial age transect. Two sediment cores show decreasing Ca isotope profiles starting at the sediment/water interface with seawater-like values down to sediment-like values due to recrystallization and an increasing in the bottom part again to seawater-like values. The other studied cores show different degrees of flattening of this middle bulge. We interpret this pattern either as an effect of sediment composition and thickness, decreasing recrystallization rates and/or fluid flux or a combination of all of these factors at the respective sampling sites. Element concentration profiles and Sr-isotope variations on some of these sediment cores show a similar behavior, supporting our findings ([3]; [4]). Seawater influx at (inactive) seamounts is supposed to cause seawater-like values at the bottom of the sediment cores by fluids migrating through the oceanic basement (e.g. [5]). While [6] hypothesizes that two seamounts or bathymetric pits are connected, with a recharge and a discharge site [7] say that uptaken fluids could be released through the surrounding seafloor as well due to diffusive exchange with the underlying oceanic crust. Our Ca isotope results combined with a transport reaction model approach support the latter hypothesis. References: [1] Teichert B. M., Gussone N. and Torres M. E. (2009) [2] Ockert C., Gussone N., Kaufhold S. and Teichert B. (2013) [3] Pälike H., Lyle M., Nishi H., Raffi I., Gamage K. and Klaus A. (eds.) (2010) [4] Voigt J., Hathorne E. C., Frank M., Vollstaedt H. and Eisenhauer A. (2015) [5] Villinger H. W

  19. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  20. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  1. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  2. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  3. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  4. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  6. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  7. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  8. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  9. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  10. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  11. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  12. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  14. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  15. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  16. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  17. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  18. Interface magnons. Magnetic superstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    1975-01-01

    The localized magnons at an interface between two Heisenberg ferromagnets are studied with a simple model. The effect of the coupling at the interface on the existence condition for the localized modes, the dispersion laws and the possible occurrence of magnetic superstructures due to soft modes are investigated. Finally a comparison is made with the similar results obtained for interface phonons [fr

  19. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  20. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  1. Graphical Interfaces for Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, J. D.; And Others

    This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design…

  2. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, A.K.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Slomp, C.P; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus release from sediments can exacerbate the effect of eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems. The flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the overlying water is highly dependent on the redox conditions at the sediment-water interface. Bacteria are key players in the biological

  3. Marine proteomics: a critical assessment of an emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Corrales, Jone; Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Gochfeld, Deborah J; Willett, Kristine L; Rimoldi, John M

    2012-10-26

    The application of proteomics to marine sciences has increased in recent years because the proteome represents the interface between genotypic and phenotypic variability and, thus, corresponds to the broadest possible biomarker for eco-physiological responses and adaptations. Likewise, proteomics can provide important functional information regarding biosynthetic pathways, as well as insights into mechanism of action, of novel marine natural products. The goal of this review is to (1) explore the application of proteomics methodologies to marine systems, (2) assess the technical approaches that have been used, and (3) evaluate the pros and cons of this proteomic research, with the intent of providing a critical analysis of its future roles in marine sciences. To date, proteomics techniques have been utilized to investigate marine microbe, plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate physiology, developmental biology, seafood safety, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental change. However, marine proteomics studies often suffer from poor experimental design, sample processing/optimization difficulties, and data analysis/interpretation issues. Moreover, a major limitation is the lack of available annotated genomes and proteomes for most marine organisms, including several "model species". Even with these challenges in mind, there is no doubt that marine proteomics is a rapidly expanding and powerful integrative molecular research tool from which our knowledge of the marine environment, and the natural products from this resource, will be significantly expanded.

  4. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  5. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  6. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  7. Water at Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding.

  8. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  9. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  10. Fine scale remobilisation of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd in contaminated marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankere-Muller, Sophie; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2007-01-01

    to less than 0.3 μM. With both DET and DGT measurements, there were sharply defined maxima of Cu and Cd within 2 mm of the sediment water interface, consistent with their release from organic material as it is oxidised. There was a Co maximum about 5–8 mm lower than the Cu and Cd maxima, apparently...... coincidental with Mn mobilisation. While there were clear Ni maxima, their location appeared to vary from being coincident with Co to a few mm above the Co maxima. The remobilisation of metals could not be explained by the pH gradients in the near-surface sediments. As sulphate reduction rates were appreciable...

  11. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  12. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  13. User interface support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  14. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces....... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  15. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  16. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  17. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  18. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  19. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  20. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... controls Human Element Human factors engineering Safety management systems Human and controls interface... professional exchange of information on topics ranging from technological impacts on the marine industry..., 2012. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION below for other dates related to submission of abstracts, draft...

  1. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  2. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  3. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  4. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  5. Icinga Monitoring System Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Neculae, Alina Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a web interface that would be used by the Icinga monitoring system to manage the CMS online cluster, in the experimental site. The interface would allow users to visualize the information in a compressed and intuitive way, as well as modify the information of each individual object and edit the relationships between classes.

  6. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  7. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  8. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  9. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  10. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  11. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  12. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  13. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  14. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  15. Operator interface for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  16. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  17. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  18. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  19. User interface development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrawal, Bharat

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.

  20. Natural gesture interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, Illya

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the system of interaction with virtual objects based on gestures. The paper describes the common problems of interaction with virtual objects, specific requirements for the interfaces for virtual and augmented reality.

  1. Pattern formation at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Giulio; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Applying modern nonlinear stability theory to problems of continuous media mechanics in the presence of interfaces, this text is relevant to materials science, chemical engineering, and heat transfer technologies, as well as to reaction-diffusion systems.

  2. Universal quantum interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Landahl, Andrew J.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    2004-01-01

    To observe or control a quantum system, one must interact with it via an interface. This article exhibits simple universal quantum interfaces--quantum input/output ports consisting of a single two-state system or quantum bit that interacts with the system to be observed or controlled. It is shown that under very general conditions the ability to observe and control the quantum bit on its own implies the ability to observe and control the system itself. The interface can also be used as a quantum communication channel, and multiple quantum systems can be connected by interfaces to become an efficient universal quantum computer. Experimental realizations are proposed, and implications for controllability, observability, and quantum information processing are explored

  3. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  4. Multiscale phase inversion of seismic marine data

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-08-17

    We test the feasibility of applying multiscale phase inversion (MPI) to seismic marine data. To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. Results with synthetic data and field data from the Gulf of Mexico produce robust and accurate results if the model does not contain strong velocity contrasts such as salt-sediment interfaces.

  5. Introduction to interfaces 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje; Høgel, Christian; Borsa, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions.......The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions....

  6. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  8. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  9. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  10. MER SPICE Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  11. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  12. Touchfree medical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossol, Nathaniel; Cheng, Irene; Rui Shen; Basu, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Real-time control of visual display systems via mid-air hand gestures offers many advantages over traditional interaction modalities. In medicine, for example, it allows a practitioner to adjust display values, e.g. contrast or zoom, on a medical visualization interface without the need to re-sterilize the interface. However, when users are holding a small tool (such as a pen, surgical needle, or computer stylus) the need to constantly put the tool down in order to make hand gesture interactions is not ideal. This work presents a novel interface that automatically adjusts for gesturing with hands and hand-held tools to precisely control medical displays. The novelty of our interface is that it uses a single set of gestures designed to be equally effective for fingers and hand-held tools without using markers. This type of interface was previously not feasible with low-resolution depth sensors such as Kinect, but is now achieved by using the recently released Leap Motion controller. Our interface is validated through a user study on a group of people given the task of adjusting parameters on a medical image.

  13. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  14. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  15. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  16. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  17. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  18. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  19. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  20. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  1. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  2. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  3. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  4. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  5. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  6. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  7. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  8. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  9. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  10. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  11. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  12. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named Marine Medicinal Glycomics.

  13. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  14. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  15. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  16. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  17. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  18. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  19. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  20. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  1. Advanced Water Quality Modelling in Marine Systems: Application to the Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J.; Smits, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for knowledge and models that arise from water management in relation to water quality, sediment quality (ecology) and sediment accumulation (ecomorphology). Recently, models for sediment diagenesis and erosion developed or incorporated by Delft Hydraulics integrates the relevant physical, (bio)chemical and biological processes for the sediment-water exchange of substances. The aim of the diagenesis models is the prediction of both sediment quality and the return fluxes of substances such as nutrients and micropollutants to the overlying water. The resulting so-called DELWAQ-G model is a new, generic version of the water and sediment quality model of the DELFT3D framework. One set of generic water quality process formulations is used to calculate process rates in both water and sediment compartments. DELWAQ-G involves the explicit simulation of sediment layers in the water quality model with state-of-the-art process kinetics. The local conditions in a water layer or sediment layer such as the dissolved oxygen concentration determine if and how individual processes come to expression. New processes were added for sulphate, sulphide, methane and the distribution of the electron-acceptor demand over dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and carbon dioxide. DELWAQ-G also includes the dispersive and advective transport processes in the sediment and across the sediment-water interface. DELWAQ-G has been applied for the Wadden Sea. A very dynamic tidal and ecologically active estuary with a complex hydrodynamic behaviour located at the north of the Netherlands. The predicted profiles in the sediment reflect the typical interactions of diagenesis processes.

  2. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  3. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  4. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-15

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  5. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding......When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...

  6. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  7. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  8. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point...

  9. Natural User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara , António

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra This project’s main subject are Natural User Interfaces. These interfaces’ main purpose is to allow the user to interact with computer systems in a more direct and natural way. The popularization of touch and gesture devices in the last few years has allowed for them to become increasingly common and today we are experiencing a transition of interface p...

  10. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  11. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  12. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    (1) a user study with a prototype of an elastic, deformable display, and (2) a user study of deformable interfaces for performing music. The first study reports a guessability study with an elastic, deformable display where 17 participants suggested fitting gestures for 29 tasks, including navigation......, Transformation, Adaptation and Physicalization. In synthesis, the work presented in this thesis shows (1) implications of usefulness for deformable interfaces and how their new input modalities can redefine the way users interact with computers, and (2) how a systematic understanding of conventional design...

  13. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...... surface and thus demands the overview of an autonomous consciouness. Instead we introduce the term interlace, a mingling of representational and physical levels, thus describing the computer's ambiguous blending of imaginary and real. The proposition is demonstrated through analysis of different recent...

  14. CAMAC to GPIB interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naivar, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A CAMAC module developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory allows any device conforming to the GPIB standard to be connected to a CAMAC system. This module incorporates a microprocessor to control up to 14 GPIB-compatible instruments using a restricted set of CAMAC F-N-A commands. The marriage of a device-independent bus (IEEE Standard 488-1975) to a computer-independent bus (IEEE Standard 583-1975) provides a general method for interfacing a system of programmable instruments to any computer. This module is being used to interface a variety of interactive devices on a control console to a control computer

  15. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  16. Bioturbation: impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Gilbert, Jack A; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Sediments play a key role in the marine nitrogen cycle and can act either as a source or a sink of biologically available (fixed) nitrogen. This cycling is driven by a number of microbial remineralization reactions, many of which occur across the oxic/anoxic interface near the sediment surface. The presence and activity of large burrowing macrofauna (bioturbators) in the sediment can significantly affect these microbial processes by altering the physicochemical properties of the sediment. For example, the building and irrigation of burrows by bioturbators introduces fresh oxygenated water into deeper sediment layers and allows the exchange of solutes between the sediment and water column. Burrows can effectively extend the oxic/anoxic interface into deeper sediment layers, thus providing a unique environment for nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. Recent studies have shown that the abundance and diversity of micro-organisms can be far greater in burrow wall sediment than in the surrounding surface or subsurface sediment; meanwhile, bioturbated sediment supports higher rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification reactions and increased fluxes of ammonium to the water column. In the present paper we discuss the potential for bioturbation to significantly affect marine nitrogen cycling, as well as the molecular techniques used to study microbial nitrogen cycling communities and directions for future study.

  17. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  18. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...

  19. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  20. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  1. Is the interface OK?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    When a peripheral device fails, software methods can be initially resorted to before the usual hardware test procedures are used. A test program is presented here that allows various peripherals, inter-faced to a Norsk Data computer, to be tested...

  2. Pollution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-plant system and the sediment-water column around a former Pb/Zn-mining area in NE Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Abdellah; Rhoujjati, Ali; El Hachimi, Moulay Laârabi; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul

    2017-10-01

    This study discussed the environmental fate and ecological hazards of heavy metals in the soil-plant system and sediment-water column around the former Pb-Zn mining Zeïda district, in Northeastern Morocco. Spatial distribution, pollution indices, and cluster analysis were applied for assessing Pb, Zn, As, Cu and Cd pollution levels and risks. The geo-accumulation index (I geo ) was determined using two different geochemical backgrounds: i) the commonly used upper crust values, ii) local geochemical background calculated with exploratory data analysis. The soils in the vicinity of the tailings, as well as the sediments downstream of the latter, displayed much higher metal concentrations, I geo, and potential ecology risk coefficient values than other sites, classifying these sites as highly contaminated and severely hazardous. The concentrations of Pb in contaminated sediment samples also exceeded the PEC limits and are expected to cause harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. Based on the comparison with the toxicity limits, the most contaminated plant samples were found around the tailings piles. The metal concentrations in both raw and filtrated water samples were overall below the drinking water standards in samples upstream and downstream of the mining center, indicating that heavy metals levels in the Moulouya River surface waters were not affected by the tailings spill. Cluster analysis suggest that: i) Pb and Zn in sediments were derived from the abandoned tailings and are mainly stored and transported as particle-bound to the bedload, ii) Pb, Zn, and Cu in the soil-plant system were related to the dispersion of tailings materials while As and Cd originated primarily from natural geological background in both the soil-plant and the water-sediment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  4. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  5. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  6. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  7. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  8. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  9. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  10. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  11. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  12. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, D O; Blattner, M M; Tong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  13. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  14. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  15. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  16. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  17. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  18. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  19. Bacteria interface interactions in Ecology-on-a-Chip by holographic microscopy and interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    To improve our remediation of oil spills into marine system, one must understand the fate of oil under complex physical, chemical and biological environments. It is found that various processes such as wind, wave, turbulence and currents break oil into suspensions of droplets, in which states consumption by microbial further degrade the oil. Our prior studies show that marine bacteria do not adopt biofilm life style at oil-water interface in comparison to those near a solid substrate. On the contrary, Extracellular Polymer Substance of oily microbial aggregates is easily formed around an oil droplet. This highlights complexities of cell oil interactions at a liquid-liquid interface. To investigate these mechanisms at oil water interface quantitative, we have developed a micro-bioassay consisting of continuous microfluidics with a substrate printed with oil droplet array, namely Ecology-on-a-Chip, and an integrated digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and interferometer (DHI). The oil-water interface can be maintained over days (>10 days), suitable for conducting long-term observations. 3D movements of bacteria are tracked by DHM, while the interface morphology are measured by DHI at 10nm. The system is applied to Pseudomonas sp. (PS62) near crude-water interface and Escherichia coli (AW405) at hexadecane-water interface subject to low surface tension. The 3D motility, attachment, detachment and dispersion of cells as well as motility induced interface change are discussed. Funded by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  20. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  1. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  2. Safety Parameters Graphical Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canamero, B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power plant data are received at the Operations Center of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear in emergency situations. In order to achieve the required interface and to prepare those data to perform simulation and forecasting with already existing computer codes a Safety Parameters Graphical Interface (IGPS) has been developed. The system runs in a UNIX environment and use the Xwindows capabilities. The received data are stored in such a way that it can be easily used for further analysis and training activities. The system consists of task-oriented modules (processes) which communicate each other using well known UNIX mechanisms (signals, sockets and shared memory segments). IGPS conceptually have two different parts: Data collection and preparation, and Data monitorization. (Author)

  3. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  4. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  5. The technical supervision interface

    CERN Document Server

    Sollander, P

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) is currently using 30 different applications for the remote supervision of the technical infrastructure at CERN. These applications have all been developed with the CERN made Uniform Man Machine Interface (UMMI) tools built in 1990. However, the visualization technology has evolved phenomenally since 1990, the Technical Data Server (TDS) has radically changed our control system architecture, and the standardization and the maintenance of the UMMI applications have become important issues as their number increases. The Technical Supervision Interface is intended to replace the UMMI and solve the above problems. Using a standard WWW-browser for the display, it will be inherently multi-platform and hence available for control room operators, equipment specialists and on-call personnel.

  6. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  7. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...... interface’ asking what its affordances as an idea may contribute to our understanding of interface. I draw historically on information theory in particular to initiate this exploration....

  8. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  9. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  11. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  12. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  13. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  14. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Interface Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  17. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  20. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  1. Magnons and interface magnetic substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    1975-01-01

    The localized magnons at an interface between two Heisenberg ferromagnets and the ferromagnetic stability at the interface are studied. The authors consider simple cubic crystals having the same lattice parameter and the same spin value in the fundamental state on each site, but different exchange integrals between first and second nearest neighbours. An interface by coupling two semi-infinite crystals having the same crystallographic surface is defined. The conditions for the existence of localized magnons at (001) interfaces as well as the dispersion curves of localized and resonant magnons in the high symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone are studied. The effect of the interface interactions on these modes is determined. It is shown that magnetic superstructures may exist at (110) interfaces. Such an instability is given by the existence of a soft localized mode at the interface [fr

  2. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  3. Curriculum at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Symposium presents curriculum design and content issues in a Scandinavian business school at its Centenary. The aim is an exploration of an educational institution at the interface of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) within the historical trends of the European Union. We hope...... of interdisciplinarity, use of text production as a tool in support of project and thesis writing, and the use of plurilingual content based teaching in a cooperative learning model for European studies. The history of one curriculum model initiated to educate better citizens, combining interdisciplinary methods...

  4. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  5. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  6. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  7. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  8. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin transfer from land to sea otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Miller

    Full Text Available "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine

  9. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal

  10. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    For decades, terrestrial microorganisms have been used as sources of countless enzymes and chemical compounds that have been produced by pharmaceutical and biotech companies and used by mankind. There is a need for new chemical compounds, including antibiotics,new enzymatic activities and new...... microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...

  11. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  12. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  13. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  14. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    the tropical Mandovi 2 Zuari estuarine system are suggesting that the preponderant particle-colonizing bacteria perform better than their counterparts in free-living format. In their natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide range of physical... Shanta Nair suggests, despite the immense clinical significance of antibiotics in health care, little is understood on the ecology of the organisms that produce them. Since marine environment harbors a wide range of microbes capable of exhibiting...

  15. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  16. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  17. Faunistics (marine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    These PowerPoint files are compiled from various sources: Internet, field guides, scientific monographs, textbooks, my own photos and drawings, etc. I have no copyright or permission to use most of the illustrations. The file is therefore only intended for internal use within the Marine Biology...... for identification have only been included for about a quarter of the species only, because of lack of time).     These files contain information of about 570 species of marine invertebrates found in the waters around Denmark. They should be the most common species. Which species should be selected for files like......) with the programme PowerPoint X for Mac® Service Release 1.     Comments and suggestions are welcome from students and colleagues. HD&P = Køie, Kristiansen & Weitemeyer, Havets dyr og planter. DN = Danmarks Natur, vol. 3, Havet     Tomas Cedhagen, Department of Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14...

  18. Marine botany. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses

  19. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  1. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  2. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  3. Web Site on Marine Connecivity Around Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Scott

    2005-06-01

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), with support from the Western Australian Government, has developed an online tool for marine scientists and managers to investigate the largescale patterns of spatial connectivity around Australia that are associated with ocean current transport (,Figure 1). This tool, referred to as the Australian Connectivity Interface, or Aus-ConnIe, is expected to find applications in areas such as tracer dispersion studies (see example by Ridgway and Condie [2004](, larval dispersion and recruitment, and the development of scenarios and preliminary risk assessments for contaminant dispersion in the marine environment. After selecting a region of interest, users can investigate where material carried into that region comes from, or where material originating in that region goes to, over a range of timescales (weeks to months). These connectivity statistics are based on large numbers of particle trajctories (one million at any given time) estimated from satellite altimeter data, coastal tide-gauge data, and winds from meteorological models. Users can save the results in a variety of formats (CSV, Excel, or XML) and, as an option, may save their sessions by first registering.

  4. Combinatorial Nano-Bio Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yun-Long; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-08

    Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation. In this Perspective, we address challenges in combinatorial nano-bio interfaces and call for multiparametric nanocombinatorics (composition, morphology, mechanics, surface chemistry), multiscale bioevaluation (biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues/organs), and the recruitment of computational modeling and artificial intelligence. Leveraging combinatorial nano-bio interfaces will shed light on precision nanomedicine and its potential applications.

  5. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  6. Urban Media and Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    For ten weeks in 2013, nineteen eclectic students from Anthropology, Ethnology and Design formed cross-disciplinary teams to research existing practices and possible futures in Blågården. Social media is radically changing how urban space is explored, experienced and communicated. For example...... for current and potential visitors as mentioned in the social housing plan for the area. On the other hand, the area's mixed ethnicity, colorful shops and cafes are valued by city tourists and other visitors who seek authentic experiences in local contexts. Against this background, Det Gode Naboskab......, Wonderful Copenhagen and Socialsquare jointly raise these questions: What is the role of social media as interface between the area around Blågårds Plads, its local communities and (potential) visitors, considering perspectives of security, control and planning? What are the challenges and opportunities...

  7. Embodiment and Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard; Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses – based on neurological and phenomenological theory - how the human embodiment supports and constrains the interaction between players and video games. It analyses embodied interaction with the specific hardware/software configuration of the Nintendo Wii and Wii Tennis as well...... as other game system configurations. The article argues that playing video games may provide experiences of extended embodiment where players may experience ownership of both actions and virtual bodies related to the represented game world. The article shows how ownership may be related to differences...... of the player as patient, i.e. being the object of another agent’s actions.  Keywords: Video games, embodiment, interface, agency, action, control, cognition  ...

  8. Porphyrins at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  9. The Moves of a Bajau Middlewomen: Understanding the Disparity between Trade Networks and Marine Conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    At the interface of Indonesia and Malaysia, border-crossing maritime trade appears to elude attempts to conserve marine resources. In Berau district (East Kalimantan) attempts to protect coastal waters from illegal fishing and trade fail to correspond with mobile trade networks. In this article, I

  10. APST interfaces in LINCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  11. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  12. Global marine radioactivity database (GLOMARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Gayol, J.; Togawa, O.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the request of Member States and under the IAEA's mandate, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has established and maintains a Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD). It is a vast project compiling radionuclide measurements taken in the marine environment. It consists of systematic input of all radionuclide concentration data available for sea water, sediment, biota and suspended matter. The GLOMARD is therefore a powerful tool for the researchers of MEL as it integrates the results of analyses in most of the areas of the marine environment which have been investigated

  13. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  14. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  15. Playful User Interfaces. Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  16. Configurations of NPD : production interfaces and interface integration mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Boer, H.; Hansen, P.H.K.; Gubi, E.; Dorst, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates different configurations of the interface between new product development and production processes, including both intra–firm and inter–firm interfaces. These configurations are partly based on a process view of product innovation and partly on a structural view

  17. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  18. Extremozymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Marine microorganisms that have the possibility to survive in diverse conditions such as extreme temperature, pH, pressure, and salinity are known as extremophiles. They produce biocatalysts so named as extremozymes that are active and stable at extreme conditions. These enzymes have numerous industrial applications due to its distinct properties. Till now, only a fraction of microorganisms on Earth have been exploited for screening of extremozymes. Novel techniques used for the cultivation and production of extremophiles, as well as cloning and overexpression of their genes in various expression systems, will pave the way to use these enzymes for chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  20. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  1. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  2. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available , Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Marine Sedimentology and the newly formed Ocean Engineering programme. This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1987 and emphasizes important findings and conclusions...

  3. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  4. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  5. Furthering interface design in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secomandi, F.; Snelders, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses ideas from the book Interface: An Approach to Design (Bonsiepe 1999) as a springboard for thinking through the design and use of services. We introduce Bonsiepe’s take on phenomenological philosophy of technology in his conception of the user interface. Next to that,

  6. Human-machine interface upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Chab, V.

    2002-01-01

    The article describes a new human-machine interface that was installed at the VR-1 training reactor. The human-machine interface upgrade was completed in the summer 2001. The interface was designed with respect to functional, ergonomic and aesthetic requirements. The interface is based on a personal computer equipped with two displays. One display enables alphanumeric communication between the reactor operator and the nuclear reactor I and C. The second display is a graphical one. It presents the status of the reactor, principal parameters (as power, period), control rods positions, course of the reactor power. Furthermore, it is possible to set parameters, to show the active core configuration, to perform reactivity calculations, etc. The software for the new human-machine interface was produced with the InTouch developing tool of the Wonder-Ware Company. It is possible to switch the language of the interface between Czech and English because of many foreign students and visitors to the reactor. Microcomputer based communication units with proper software were developed to connect the new human-machine interface with the present reactor I and C. The new human-machine interface at the VR-1 training reactor improves the comfort and safety of the reactor utilisation, facilitates experiments and training, and provides better support for foreign visitors. (orig.)

  7. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  8. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  9. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  10. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  11. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  12. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  13. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  14. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  15. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  16. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  17. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  18. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  19. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  20. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  1. Power User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  2. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  3. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  4. A Guideline for Marine Corps Financial Managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Anthone

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Marine Corps orders, publications and directives to determine those keys areas considered most essential to Marine Corps financial management specialists in the performance of their duties...

  5. The marine geochemistry of actinium-227: Evidence for its migration through sediment pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    227 Ac with a half life of 21.8 years has a potential utility as a tracer of deep water circulation and mixing studies on time scales less than 100 years. Here the authors present the first measurement of 227 Ac profile in the pore water of Northwest Pacific deep-sea sediment and in the ∼10,000 m long water column of Izu-Ogasawara Trench. The results clearly show that 227 Ac is supplied from the sediment to the overlying water through migration in the pore water. The model calculation indicates that the molecular diffusion alone through sediment porewater can support only a half of the standing crop of excess 227 Ac in the water column and the enhanced supply of 227 Ac by particle mixing is necessary to account for the remainder. Thus, bioturbation in the deep sea plays an important role in controlling the flux of some short-lived radionuclides such as 227 Ac and 228 Ra across the sediment-water interface

  6. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  8. Micro-Mar: a database for dynamic representation of marine microbial biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Valera Francisco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cataloging of marine prokaryotic DNA sequences is a fundamental aspect for bioprospecting and also for the development of evolutionary and speciation models. However, large amount of DNA sequences used to quantify prokaryotic biodiversity requires proper tools for storing, managing and analyzing these data for research purposes. Description The Micro-Mar database has been created to collect DNA diversity information from marine prokaryotes for biogeographical and ecological analyses. The database currently includes 11874 sequences corresponding to high resolution taxonomic genes (16S rRNA, ITS and 23S rRNA and many other genes including CDS of marine prokaryotes together with available biogeographical and ecological information. Conclusion The database aims to integrate molecular data and taxonomic affiliation with biogeographical and ecological features that will allow to have a dynamic representation of the marine microbial diversity embedded in a user friendly web interface. It is available online at http://egg.umh.es/micromar/.

  9. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  10. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  11. Marine radioecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  12. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  13. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  14. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of us...

  15. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  16. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  17. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  18. Molecular characterization of composite interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was applied to elucidate the molecular structures of the glass/matrix interface. The various interfaces and interphases were studied. It is found that the structure of the silane in a treating solution is important in determining the structure of the silane on glass fibers, influences the macroscopic properties of composites. The amount of silane on glass fibers, the state of hydrogen bonding, orientation, copolymerization of the organicfunctionality with the matrix, curing of the silane, and effect of water on the interface were investigated. It is shown that the molecular approach is useful to interpret and predict physicomechanical properties of composites

  19. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  20. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  1. VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1987-01-01

    A high performance VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs and other similar devices used in nuclear spectroscopy coincidence experiments has been developed. This new module can be used to interface existing spectroscopy ADCs with fast parallel data transfer into the industry standard multiprocessor VMEbus. The unit provides a fast direct readout of the ADC data into the VMEbus memory. The interface also has built-in capabilities that enable it to be used in coincidence experiments for slow data timing and ADC pattern recognition. (orig.)

  2. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  3. Enzymatic Processes in Marine Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio

    2017-03-25

    In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity. Fields of applications are easily individuated: (i) the biorefinery value-chain, where the provision of biomass is one of the most important aspects, with aquaculture as the prominent sector; (ii) the food industry, where the interest in the marine domain is similarly developed to deal with the enzymatic procedures adopted in food manipulation; (iii) the selective and easy extraction/modification of structurally complex marine molecules, where enzymatic treatments are a recognized tool to improve efficiency and selectivity; and (iv) marine biomarkers and derived applications (bioremediation) in pollution monitoring are also included in that these studies could be of high significance for the appreciation of marine bioprocesses.

  4. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  5. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  6. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  7. Marine Radioactivity Mapping in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on data collection, mapping and also development of marine radioactivity which obtained from a few researchs from year 2003 until 2008. The aims of the database reported in this book is to become a benchmark as well to be a reference material for future researchers. Furthermore, this book contained the radionuclide pollution information and distribution pattern mapping in marine environment. To strengthen the content for this book, the authors also provide a complete technical information which consist methods, prepation and sample analysis either in field work or laboratory. By producing this book, the author hope that it will help future researcher who are involved in oceanography and marine radioactivity.

  8. The HEASARC graphical user interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Jacobs, P.; Oneel, B.

    1992-01-01

    An OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface has been developed to facilitate the use of the database and data analysis software packages available from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). It can also be used as an interface to other, similar, routines. A small number of tables are constructed to specify the possible commands and command parameters for a given set of analysis routines. These tables can be modified by a designer to affect the appearance of the interface screens. They can also be dynamically changed in response to parameter adjustments made while the underlying program is running. Additionally, a communication protocol has been designed so that the interface can operate locally or across a network. It is intended that this software be able to run on a variety of workstations and X terminals.

  9. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  10. Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    technology for recording and stimulating from the auditory and olfactory sensory nervous systems of the awake, swimming nurse shark , G. cirratum (Figures...overlay of the central nervous system of the nurse shark on a horizontal MR image. Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks ...Neural Interfaces for Characterizing Population Responses to Odorants and Electrical Stimuli in the Nurse Shark , Ginglymostoma cirratum.” AChemS Abs

  11. Flippable User Interfaces for Internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Khaddam, Iyad; Vanderdonckt, Jean; 3rd ACM Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems EICS’2011

    2011-01-01

    The language reading direction is probably one of the most determinant factors influencing the successful internationalization of graphical user interfaces, beyond their mere translation. Western languages are read from left to right and top to bottom, while Arabic languages and Hebrew are read from right to left and top to bottom, and Oriental languages are read from top to bottom. In order to address this challenge, we introduce flippable user interfaces that enable the end user to change t...

  12. Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kira Astakhova

    2013-01-01

    Many exciting research studies in Science today lie at the interface between various disciplines. The interface between Chemistry and Biology is particularly rich, since it closely reflects Nature and the origins of Life. Multiple research groups in the Chemistry Departments around the world have made substantial efforts to interweave ideas from Chemistry and Biology to solve important questions related to material science and healthcare, just to name a few. International Journal of Bioorgani...

  13. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces describes the concept of the environmental interface, defined as a surface between two either abiotic or biotic systems. These are in relative motion and exchange mass, heat and momentum through biophysical and/or chemical processes. These processes are fluctuating temporally and spatially.The book will be of interest to graduate students, PhD students as well as researchers in environmental sciences, civil engineering and environmental engineering, (geo)physics and applied mathematics.

  14. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  15. Development of a model capable of predicting the performance of piston ring-cylinder liner-like tribological interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, C.L.; Vølund, A.; Imran, Tajammal

    2010-01-01

    Friction in the piston ring package (piston, piston rings, and liner) is a major source of power consumption in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. In order to improve the frictional and wear performance, knowledge about the tribological interface between piston rings and liner is needed...

  16. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  17. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  18. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  19. Changes in Reef Fish Abundances Associated with the Introduction of Indo-Pacific Lionfish to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: a Twenty Year Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gittings, S.; Stallings, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a partnership between academic, private, and government researchers seeking to understand how marine biodiversity changes over long periods of time. In this context, a study of the multi-agency Reef Visual Census (RVC) data, collected over twenty years in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), was analyzed to measure possible changes in reef fish abundances as a result of possible predation by lionfish predation or due to related trophic cascading. Lionfish were first sighted in the FKNMS in January 2009, with abundances and frequency of occurrence increasing three to six fold throughout the sanctuary by 2011. Their high consumption rates of smaller fish, coupled with their rapidly increasing densities may be having a significant effect on coral reef fish communities. The study compares the natural variability in reef fish abundances from 1994-2009 in the FKNMS, 15 years prior to the first lionfish detected in the sanctuary, to changes in reef fish abundances 5 years after the invasion. The MBON project also aims to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) technology for conducting biodiversity assessments. eDNA is an emerging technique that seeks to quantify biodiversity in an area by obtaining genetic material directly from environmental samples (soil, sediment, water, etc.) without any obvious signs of biological source material. All marine organisms shed DNA into their surrounding habitat, leaving a "fingerprint." Similar to forensic science, the DNA can be collected from seawater and analyzed to determine what species were recently present. The MBON team is evaluating whether eDNA can be used to adequately monitor reef fish biodiversity in coral reef ecosystems. We will compare species detected in our samples to the taxonomic composition of reef fish communities at the sample site as recorded over the past twenty years in the Reef Visual Census data.

  20. Science at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr Cetina, K.

    2004-01-01

    the stakes against those who might want to enter. Laboratory sciences interface nature in a peculiar way: by barring real natural objects from entering the lab and by substituting for them reconfigured versions of these objects to work with in research. These supplemental versions of natural objects do refer back to natural processes or conditions, but at the same time they are also autonomous new objects and processes with differential qualities and reproductive powers within laboratory contexts. Laboratory sciences have the disadvantage that their products must be freshly contextualized when they leave the lab to reenter natural environments. In the natural sciences, re-contextualization is often accomplished by transferring some of the conditions that obtained in the lab onto the natural environment. Re-contextualization in the natural sciences may also just be a metaphor for a long chain of processes, involving specialized disciplines, by which some natural scientific results are used to create technologies which are then used in practice - a process that often fails, involves political strategies of persuasion and other complications. Contextualization involves adaptation not only to new laboratory external physical environments but also to the social world. One direction of social science research maintains that a form of (re) contextualization of a much larger scope and impact is evident today in contemporary societies, affecting in tendency all sciences and technological fields. This assessment is encapsulated in the idea that we have progressed from Mode 1 science and technology to a Mode 2 situation where knowledge is generated in the context of application and implication. (author)

  1. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  2. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  3. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine... Alaska to investigate their foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of natural...

  4. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  5. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  6. Pre-1947 Marine Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  7. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  8. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  9. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    Seagrasses, a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians. Seagrass...

  10. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  11. Studies on antagonistic marine streptomycetes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.

    three strains inhibited all the test cultures. In addition to the above test cultures marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp.) resistant to few known antibiotics (tetracycline, penicillin...

  12. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    manipulation is now reality. High yielding, fast growing and disease resistant strains of fish, shellfish and algae will boost the aquaculture industry. There may be a solution for all the problems of waste disposal in the marine environment. Considering...

  13. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  14. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  15. Marine Structures with Heavy Overtopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of wave overtopping of marine structures is described. Focus is put on structures with realtively low crest levels and various slope layouts subjected to non-breaking waves. Influence of slope draught and angle is investigated....

  16. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  17. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    ). Studies concerning microzooplankton in marine coastal, estuarine and brackish-water systems along tropical Indian waters are limited. Hence, in the following sections, I provide the results obtained by the research conducted in the tropical Vellar... estuarine systems, southeast coast of India. This was one of the first comprehensive studies on microzooplankton in India. There are also comparative accounts of microzooplankton researches from my studies in Japanese coastal marine waters. Microzooplankton...

  18. Marine Corps Budgetary Reprogramming Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    infrastructure (Appropriations Act of Congress, 2008). The environmental restoration is a transfer account controlled by the DOD. Usually in the case of...at an average just over 11 percent and the Marine Corps encircle the backend of the DOD portion of reprogramming with the Marine Corps reprogramming...blue force tracker (BFT), radio systems, high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), medium tactical vehicle replacement (MTVR), and

  19. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  20. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Harrison The Source of Marine Magnetic Anomalies Christopher GA. Harrison • 52 Principles of Operation and Applications of RF-driven SQUID Magnetometers... ink recorder, and thereby obtained detailed data over the limited range in which Layer 2 appeared as a first arrival. Those researchers who waited to... Extract from MPL [Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography] Quarterly Reports, 1 April to 30 June 1949, by R. W. Raitt

  1. Governance in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, T.

    2015-01-01

    The governance of the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies is complex, endlessly fascinating and often politically charged. There is no area where this complexity is more demonstrable than in the marine environment, where the issues of extended maritime boundaries granted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fishing and prospecting rights, marine conservation and competing sovereignty mean that the practical application of the law in this area is particularly d...

  2. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution, as well as a number of allied technologies. Many of the topics discussed are presented in a summary of a workshop on bioremediation of marine oil pollution. The summary includes an overview of the formal presentations as well as the results of the working groups.

  3. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  4. Oceanotron, Scalable Server for Marine Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubrieu, T.; Bregent, S.; Blower, J. D.; Griffiths, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ifremer, French marine institute, is deeply involved in data management for different ocean in-situ observation programs (ARGO, OceanSites, GOSUD, ...) or other European programs aiming at networking ocean in-situ observation data repositories (myOcean, seaDataNet, Emodnet). To capitalize the effort for implementing advance data dissemination services (visualization, download with subsetting) for these programs and generally speaking water-column observations repositories, Ifremer decided to develop the oceanotron server (2010). Knowing the diversity of data repository formats (RDBMS, netCDF, ODV, ...) and the temperamental nature of the standard interoperability interface profiles (OGC/WMS, OGC/WFS, OGC/SOS, OpeNDAP, ...), the server is designed to manage plugins: - StorageUnits : which enable to read specific data repository formats (netCDF/OceanSites, RDBMS schema, ODV binary format). - FrontDesks : which get external requests and send results for interoperable protocols (OGC/WMS, OGC/SOS, OpenDAP). In between a third type of plugin may be inserted: - TransformationUnits : which enable ocean business related transformation of the features (for example conversion of vertical coordinates from pressure in dB to meters under sea surface). The server is released under open-source license so that partners can develop their own plugins. Within MyOcean project, University of Reading has plugged a WMS implementation as an oceanotron frontdesk. The modules are connected together by sharing the same information model for marine observations (or sampling features: vertical profiles, point series and trajectories), dataset metadata and queries. The shared information model is based on OGC/Observation & Measurement and Unidata/Common Data Model initiatives. The model is implemented in java (http://www.ifremer.fr/isi/oceanotron/javadoc/). This inner-interoperability level enables to capitalize ocean business expertise in software development without being indentured to

  5. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  6. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice ...

  7. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  8. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  10. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  11. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C. E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  12. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  13. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  14. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  15. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  16. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  17. Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2006-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook covers the major developments in surface sciences of recent decades, from experimental tricks and basic techniques to the latest experimental methods and theoretical understanding. It is unique in its attempt to treat the physics of surfaces, thin films and interfaces, surface chemistry, thermodynamics, statistical physics and the physics of the solid/electrolyte interface in an integral manner, rather than in separate compartments. The Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces is designed as a handbook for the researcher as well as a study-text for graduate students in physics or chemistry with special interest in the surface sciences, material science, or the nanosciences. The experienced researcher, professional or academic teacher will appreciate the opportunity to share many insights and ideas that have grown out of the author's long experience. Readers will likewise appreciate the wide range of topics treated, each supported by extensive references. Graduate students will benefit f...

  18. Control by personal computer and Interface 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Mug; Park, Sun Ho

    1989-03-01

    This book consists of three chapters. The first chapter deals with basic knowledge of micro computer control which are computer system, micro computer system, control of the micro computer and control system for calculator. The second chapter describes Interface about basic knowledge such as 8255 parallel interface, 6821 parallel interface, parallel interface of personal computer, reading BCD code in parallel interface, IEEE-488 interface, RS-232C interface and transmit data in personal computer and a measuring instrument. The third chapter includes control experiment by micro computer, experiment by eight bit computer and control experiment by machine code and BASIC.

  19. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  20. Interface language for diagnostic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron multichannel collimator diagnostic on TFTR is run with the help of a keyboard-entered interface language. The language allows the user to interact with the real-time control and data analysis systems in a consistent and efficient manner. It uses a vocabulary that can be abbreviated into one character commands which the proficient user may concatenate into command words. This allows the user to progress quickly from a novice to an expert operating mode. A similar type interface language could be applied to many interactive applications accepting keyboard inputs

  1. Polymers and biopolymers at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. R.; Geoghegan, M.

    2018-03-01

    This review updates recent progress in the understanding of the behaviour of polymers at surfaces and interfaces, highlighting examples in the areas of wetting, dewetting, crystallization, and ‘smart’ materials. Recent developments in analysis tools have yielded a large increase in the study of biological systems, and some of these will also be discussed, focussing on areas where surfaces are important. These areas include molecular binding events and protein adsorption as well as the mapping of the surfaces of cells. Important techniques commonly used for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces are discussed separately to aid the understanding of their application.

  2. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  3. Interfacing robotics with plutonium fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing robotic systems with nuclear fuel fabrication processes resulted in a number of interfacing challenges. The system not only interfaces with the fuel process, but must also interface with nuclear containment, radiation control boundaries, criticality control restrictions, and numerous other safety systems required in a fuel fabrication plant. The robotic system must be designed to allow operator interface during maintenance and recovery from an upset as well as normal operations

  4. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  5. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  6. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  7. International laboratory of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The director's report presents the overall aims and objectives of the laboratory, and some of the significant findings to date. Among these is the different behaviour in oceans of Pu and Am. Thus, fallout Pu, in contrast to Am, tends to remain in the soluble form. The vertical downward transport of Am is much quicker than for Pu. Since 1980, uptake and depuration studies of sup(95m)Tc have been carried out on key marine species. Marine environmental behaviour of Tc is being evaluated carefully in view of its being a significant constituent of nuclear wastes. Growing demands are being made on the laboratory for providing intercalibration and instrument maintenance services, and for providing training for scientists from developing countries. The body of the report is divided into 5 sections dealing with marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geochemistry/sedimentation, environmental studies, and engineering services, respectively. Appendices list laboratory staff, publications by staff members, papers and reports presented at meetings or conferences, consultants to the laboratory from 1967-1980, fellowships, trainees and membership of committees, task forces and working groups

  8. Marine microorganisms. Umi no biseibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, U. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Applied Biological Science)

    1992-11-10

    This paper explains properties, interactions, and activities of marine microorganisms. Marine bacteria include bacteria of vibrio family of arteromonas genus, luminous bacteria, and aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of marine bacteria is halophilic, and many proliferate at 5[degree]C or lower. Some of them can proliferate at 20[degree]C to 30[degree]C, or as high temperature as 80[degree]C and higher. Spongiaria and tumicata have many symbiotic microorganisms, and genes equivalent to luminous bacteria genes were discovered in DNA of light emitting organs in luminous fishes. It was verified that animal groups in upwelling zones are supported by bacteria that assimilate inorganics supplied from ocean bottoms. Marine bacteria decompose almost all of organics brought in from land to sea, and those produced in sea. Marine bacteria engage in complex interrelations with other organisms for competition, antagonism, parasitism, and symbiosis. The bacteria make antibacterial substances, anti-algae bacteria, enzyme inhibitors, toxins, pharmacologically active substances, and such physiologically active substances as deposition promoting substances to undersea structures including shells and barnacles, and deposition blocking substances. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The Development of Coastal and Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Widjojo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and development process of oastaland marine resources tends centralized and adopted top down policy, without any active participations from coastal and marine communities. In order to reach integrated and sustainable development in coastaland marine areas, people should have both complete and up to date information, so that planning and decision making for all aspect of the environment can be done easily. People should give a high attention of surveis, mappings, as well as science and technology of coastal and marine sectors, in order to change the paradigm of development from inland to coastal and marine. Moreover, people should give high attention of potential resources of coastal and marine areas.

  10. A database for TMT interface control documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  11. Spatiotemporal distributions of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in nearby marine surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, M.; Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Misonoo, J. [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Spatiotemporal distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides in marine surface sediments off Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were analyzed on the basis of data collected during the monitoring program launched by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in 2011 right after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident began. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the surface sediments varied spatially by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 to 580 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and there was no obvious correlation between {sup 137}Cs concentration and the proximity of the sampling location to the accident site. The total inventory of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the upper 3 cm of surface sediments in the monitoring area was estimated to be 3.78 x 10{sup 13} Bq, that is, 0.1-2% of the total {sup 137}Cs flux from the plant to the ocean as a result of the accident (the percentage depends on the model used to estimate the total flux). The spatial variations of {sup 137}Cs concentration and inventory depended on two main factors: the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the overlying water during the first several months after the accident and the physical characteristics of the sediments (water content and bulk density). The temporal variations of the concentrations of other anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 110} {sup m}Ag, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}Te, and {sup 129} {sup m}Te) in the sediments were also investigated. Activity ratios of these nuclides to {sup 137}Cs suggest that the nuclides themselves were not homogenized before they were removed from seawater to the sediments.

  12. Microscopic Mechanisms of Dissolution-Precipitation at the Water-Manganese Mineral Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    The fate and transport of metal contaminants in water are often affected by the manganese redox cycling and the accompanying dissolution and precipitation reactions. Direct microscopic observations of such dynamic reactions, however, are sparse. In this work, microscopic mechanisms of simultaneous dissolution and precipitation of manganese minerals is studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) at circumneutral pH. The effects of the substrate surface morphology, the substrate atomic structure, and the aqueous concentration of Mn2+ on the formation of Mn oxide islands are investigated. Under oxic conditions, Mn2+(aq) dissolved from MnCO3 surface is reacted with O2(aq) at circumneutral pH to form Mn oxide islands on the (10-14) surface of MnCO3. The Mn oxide islands grow heteroepitaxially. On terraces, rhombohedral islands form with 90° rotation relative to crystallographic axis of the underlying substrate, and with z-directional self-limitation. Comparison studies done with MgCO3 and CaCO3 show that the former also promotes heteroepitaxial growth whereas the latter does not. This difference is explained by the relative bond length mismatch between the structures of the carbonate substrates and the atomic structures of Mn oxide islands. A free energy model is also employed to explain why the heights of the Mn oxide islands self limit. Our results provide an improved understanding for the development of predictive models both of exchange across the sediment-water interfaces and the fate and transport of contaminants in aqueous environments.

  13. Influence of fishing activity over the marine debris composition close to coastal jetty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Eduardo G G; Preichardt, Paulo R; Dantas, David V

    2018-04-23

    Worldwide, the marine debris emissions have been provoking impacts in ecosystems, generating massive mortality of different species with commercial interest. In South America, we have a lack of studies to verify the marine debris composition in transitional environments such as adjacent regions of coastal jetties. These are hydraulic engineering constructions used to maintain the navigation channel access between the sea-estuarine interface and are also used by teleost fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks like artificial shelters (reefs), being excellent fishing grounds. Therefore, the present study was devoted to qualitatively evaluate the composition of marine debris in an internal jetty portion of a Laguna Estuarine System (LES) located in South America (Brazil). Six hundred freediving were conducted to collect marine debris in the study region. The in situ campaigns were performed in 2016 during all spring season (sand substrata) in four distinct zones with 26,400 m 2 each one covering almost all adjacent jetty extension, to evaluate possible spatial changes in the marine debris composition. All material obtained was identified, measured, weighed, and ordered in eight groups, with six groups being related to the fishing activity and two groups related to the tourism/community in the study region. So, it was possible to observe possible relations between the marine debris distribution to artisanal and recreational local fishing. After 600 freediving sampling efforts, 2142 marine debris items were obtained, totaling close to 100 kg of solid waste removed from the inner portion of the coastal jetty. Notably, 1752 units (50 kg) of fishing leads were collected being this item the main marine debris residue found in the four sampled areas, corresponding to nearly 50% of the total weight of the collected waste. Ninety-eight percent of marine debris were derived from the local fishing activities, and just 2% were derived from tourism/community. Considering the total

  14. Cardioprotective peptides from marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnedy, Padraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure or hypertension is one of the fastest growing health problems worldwide. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, dietary factors play an important role. With the high costs and adverse side-effects associated with synthetic antihypertensive drugs and the awareness of the link between diet and health there has been increased focus on identification of food components that may contribute to cardiovascular health. In recent years special interest has been paid to the cardioprotective activity of peptides derived from food proteins including marine proteins. These peptides are latent within the sequence of the parent protein and only become active when released by proteolytic digestion during gastrointestinal digestion or through food processing. Current data on antihypertensive activity of marine-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides in animal and human studies is reviewed herein. Furthermore, products containing protein hydrolysates/peptides from marine origin with antihypertensive effects are discussed.

  15. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  16. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, H.; Kester, L.; Hummel, H.; Nadolski, R.; Jochems, W.; Merriënboer, J.; Koper, R.

    2003-01-01

    An important question in web-based education is how to deal with the design of the interface. What will the actual screen look like? Two main issues that are especially relevant for educational purposes are discussed, both from a Human-Computer Interaction and an Educational Psychology perspective.

  17. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  18. Embodied agents in de interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, M.J.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2001-01-01

    Steeds meer zien we het gebruik van mensachtige, geanimeerde figuren in interfaces en andere software applicaties, niet alleen in onderzoeksprojecten maar ook in commerciële software. Een voorbeeld dat bijna iedereen wel kent (en waar velen wel wat op aan te merken hebben) is de ‘office assistant’

  19. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.

    1987-03-01

    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Diagnostic interface problems on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, S.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic equipment on TFTR has functional interfaces with many machine systems. Salient requirements include plasma access, environmental resistance to thermal, magnetic and radiation effects, automated data acquisition and controls, remote handling and personnel safety. Problems imposed by these requirements and the solutions being considered are described

  1. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  2. PACE: A Browsable Graphical Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Jamshid; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes PACE (Public Access Catalogue Extension), an alternative interface designed to enhance online catalogs by simulating images of books and library shelves to help users browse through the catalog. Results of a test in a college library against a text-based online public access catalog, including student attitudes, are described.…

  3. Web OPAC Interfaces: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B. Ramesh; O'Brien, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a review of six Web OPAC interfaces in use in academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Presents a checklist and guidelines of important features and functions that are currently available, including search strategies, access points, display, links, and layout. (Author/LRW)

  4. Robust Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain

  5. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Huib; Kester, Liesbeth; Hummel, Hans; Nadolski, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This text should be referred to as: Tabbers, H., Kester, L., Hummel, H. G. K., & Nadolski, R. J. (2003). Interface design for digital courses. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer, & R. Koper (Eds). Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology & organisation (pp. 100-111). London:

  6. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  7. Status and strategies for marine biodiversity of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The status of marine biodiversity and factors responsible for the degradation and loss of marine biodiversity are discussed. Goa has abundant marine wealth. Phytoplankton, marine algae, manglicolous fungi, seagrasses, mangrove flora and other...

  8. Brittany. Brest tackles marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guerny, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how the Brittany region finances the extension and diversification of the Brest harbour so that it will be able get new contracts and to enable the setting up of plants related to marine energies. Some local actors are already committed in this sector, notably DCNS with the first submerged marine current power installation. Moreover, a contract has been signed between the region and DCNS to develop floating offshore wind energy. Some important local actors are indicated (an existing and a projected techno-pole, Alcatel-Lucent, a research centre). They are located in Rennes, Saint-Malo, Lannion, Lorient or Fougeres

  9. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  10. Constructing Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Searching the Marine Realms Information Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Guthrie A.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2009-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a digital library that provides access to free online scientific information about the oceans and coastal regions. To search its collection, MRIB uses a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program, which allows automated search requests using Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). This document provides an overview of how to construct URLs to execute MRIB queries. The parameters listed allow detailed control of which records are retrieved, how they are returned, and how their display is formatted.

  11. Properties and determination of the interface stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Danxu; Zhang Hao; Srolovitz, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical potential of a curved interface contains a term that is proportional to the product of the interface curvature and the interface stiffness. In crystalline materials, the interface stiffness is a tensor. This paper examines several basic issues related to the properties of the interface stiffness, especially the determination of the interface stiffness in particular directions (i.e. the commonly used scalar form of the interface stiffness). Of the five parameters that describe an arbitrary grain boundary, only those describing the inclination are crucial for the scalar stiffness. We also examine the influence of crystal symmetry on the stiffness tensor for both free surfaces and grain boundaries. This results in substantial simplifications for cases in which interfaces possess mirror or rotational symmetries. An efficient method for determining the interface stiffness tensor using atomistic simulations is proposed

  12. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  13. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  14. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  15. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  16. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  17. Summary report on marine research 1988.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available , Estuaries/ Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Ocean Engineering and a South African contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1988 and emphasizes...

  18. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Xu, Sharon Ying

    2012-01-01

    for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening

  19. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  20. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    In this issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter topics including radiotracers as new barometers of ocean-climate coupling, bio-indicatos species in detecting marine radioactvity and pollution as well as training activities are covered

  1. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, February to March 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  3. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic... readily audible to the animals based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of the marine... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific...

  4. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central-Western Bering Sea, August 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  6. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... for marine animals before and during airgun operations. NMFS believes that the realistic possibility... Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, April to June 2010 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  7. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, June Through July 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and...

  8. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  9. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  10. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  11. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  12. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  13. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  14. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  15. Promotion Factors For Enlisted Infantry Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Marine Corps. However, due to periods of growth during two major conflicts , quality has given way to quantity to fulfill the needs of the Marine...Corps. As conflicts draw down, the Marine Corps shifts from promoting and retaining quantity to high-quality Marines. Throughout this thesis, we use...historically possessed an innate drive to succeed, to excel in all that they do, including winning in combat. We will sustain this trait and ensure this

  16. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  18. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  19. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa da Silva Alan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data. ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  20. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa da Silva, Alan W; Vranken, Wim F

    2012-07-23

    ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein-ligand complexes from the PDB. ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  1. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal

  2. Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce

    Science.gov (United States)

    share current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box Search Field: SMS Website Search Twitter SMS Home › Welcome to the Smithsonian Marine Station Homepage slideshow Who We Are... The

  3. Marine environment news. Vol. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is the first issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter which is hoped to inform Member States, research partners, visitors and other stakeholders of highlights of the marine projects, surveys, hot issues, discoveries and training programmes being delivered by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. In this issue the mission of the MEL and its various activities are presented

  4. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  5. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1983

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available , Estuaries, Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution and Marine Sedimentology. This report includes summaries for the activities of each of these programmes for 1983, and emphasises important findings and conclusions. The total budget for SANCOR for 1983 was R l 831...

  6. Climate change and marine top predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate change affects all components of marine ecosystems. For endothermic top predators, i.e. seabirds and marine mammals, these impacts are often complex and mediated through trophic relationships. In this Research Topic, leading researchers attempt to identify patterns of change among seabirds...... and marine mammals, and the mechanisms through which climate change drives these changes....

  7. 8. Danish meeting for marine researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 8th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Odense (Denmark) on January 25th - 27th, 1994, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulation, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (AB)

  8. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes is widely distributed on the ground primarily in marine environments. Nowadays, more than 340 isotopes has been identified exist in our earth especially in marine environment. From that total, 80 isotopes was radioactive. The existence of radioactivity in the marine environment is through the direct and indirect distribution of radionuclides

  9. The 10. Danish marine research meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 10th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Hirtshals (Denmark) on January 21 - 27, 1998, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulations, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (EG)

  10. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  11. Reefgenomics.Org - a repository for marine genomics data

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2016-11-01

    Over the last decade, technological advancements have substantially decreased the cost and time of obtaining large amounts of sequencing data. Paired with the exponentially increased computing power, individual labs are now able to sequence genomes or transcriptomes to investigate biological questions of interest. This has led to a significant increase in available sequence data. Although the bulk of data published in articles are stored in public sequence databases, very often, only raw sequencing data are available; miscellaneous data such as assembled transcriptomes, genome annotations etc. are not easily obtainable through the same means. Here, we introduce our website (http://reefgenomics.org) that aims to centralize genomic and transcriptomic data from marine organisms. Besides providing convenient means to download sequences, we provide (where applicable) a genome browser to explore available genomic features, and a BLAST interface to search through the hosted sequences. Through the interface, multiple datasets can be queried simultaneously, allowing for the retrieval of matching sequences from organisms of interest. The minimalistic, no-frills interface reduces visual clutter, making it convenient for end-users to search and explore processed sequence data.

  12. Reefgenomics.Org - a repository for marine genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Yi Jin; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advancements have substantially decreased the cost and time of obtaining large amounts of sequencing data. Paired with the exponentially increased computing power, individual labs are now able to sequence genomes or transcriptomes to investigate biological questions of interest. This has led to a significant increase in available sequence data. Although the bulk of data published in articles are stored in public sequence databases, very often, only raw sequencing data are available; miscellaneous data such as assembled transcriptomes, genome annotations etc. are not easily obtainable through the same means. Here, we introduce our website (http://reefgenomics.org) that aims to centralize genomic and transcriptomic data from marine organisms. Besides providing convenient means to download sequences, we provide (where applicable) a genome browser to explore available genomic features, and a BLAST interface to search through the hosted sequences. Through the interface, multiple datasets can be queried simultaneously, allowing for the retrieval of matching sequences from organisms of interest. The minimalistic, no-frills interface reduces visual clutter, making it convenient for end-users to search and explore processed sequence data. DATABASE URL: http://reefgenomics.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Reefgenomics.Org - a repository for marine genomics data

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advancements have substantially decreased the cost and time of obtaining large amounts of sequencing data. Paired with the exponentially increased computing power, individual labs are now able to sequence genomes or transcriptomes to investigate biological questions of interest. This has led to a significant increase in available sequence data. Although the bulk of data published in articles are stored in public sequence databases, very often, only raw sequencing data are available; miscellaneous data such as assembled transcriptomes, genome annotations etc. are not easily obtainable through the same means. Here, we introduce our website (http://reefgenomics.org) that aims to centralize genomic and transcriptomic data from marine organisms. Besides providing convenient means to download sequences, we provide (where applicable) a genome browser to explore available genomic features, and a BLAST interface to search through the hosted sequences. Through the interface, multiple datasets can be queried simultaneously, allowing for the retrieval of matching sequences from organisms of interest. The minimalistic, no-frills interface reduces visual clutter, making it convenient for end-users to search and explore processed sequence data.

  14. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  15. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  16. Marine Picoeukaryotes in Cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nikolaj

    Picoeukaryotes form an important part of marine ecosystems, both as primary producers, bacterial grazers and parasites. The Arctic is experiencing accelerated global warming and picoeukaryotes may thus be considered to be at the forefront of climate change. This PhD thesis sets out to investigate...

  17. Microplastics Monitoring in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the need for future spatiotemporal comparisons of microplastic abundance across marine environment, through standardized methods for microplastic sampling and analysis in sea water, beach and seabed sediment and marine organism. Pretreatment of the sample prior to the elimination of organic matter should be done using appropriate reagents was also described. Extraction of microplastics from environmental matrices is based on the different density of targeted microplastics with saturated salt solutions (NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, ZnCl2 and lithium metatungstate. Quantification can be achieved by microscopic techniques (binocular, stereomicroscope, fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope and discussion on identification methods including FTIR, Pyr-GC/MS and Raman spectroscopy will be provided. This review also endorses the importance of further study regarding the fate and impact of microplastics on marine biota and human health, especially when we acknowledge that co-pollution may occur during the transport on microplastic in marine environment.

  18. Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Schouten, S.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Biphytanyl membrane lipids and 16S rRNA sequences derived from marine Crenarchaeota were detected in shallow North Sea surface water in February 2002. To investigate the carbon fixation mechanism of these uncultivated archaea in situ 13C bicarbonate tracer experiments were performed with this water

  19. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  20. The marine renewable energies file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A set of articles addresses several aspects and issues related to the development of renewable marine energies: the objectives defined by the French government and the European Union in terms of share of renewable energies in energy consumption, some existing projects, the definition and assessment of the different renewable marine energies (offshore wind energy, sea thermal energy, sea current energy, sea tide energy, sea wave energy, marine biomass, osmotic energy), the need for a national strategy according to two researchers belonging to IFREMER, the implementation of the first offshore test platform by the Ecole Centrale de Nantes, the role of the ADEME (financial support, marketing studies, legislation, definition of a national programme), the recommendation by the European Commission of a large scale offshore wind energy development, the activities of EDF and Total in the field of marine energy, the problems faced by the first French offshore wind generator project, the actions undertaken in La Reunion in the field of sea thermal energy, and the opportunities in the use of micro-algae for hydrogen, bio-fuel or biogas production