WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine mammal conservation

  1. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  2. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  3. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  4. Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; Sims, David W

    2008-01-01

    Sexual segregation occurs when members of a species separate such that the sexes live apart, either singly or in single-sex groups. It can be broadly categorised into two types: habitat segregation and social segregation. Sexual segregation is a behavioural phenomenon that is widespread in the animal kingdom yet the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Sexual segregation has been widely studied among terrestrial mammals such as ungulates, but it has been less well documented in the marine environment. This chapter clarifies terms and concepts which have emerged from the investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ecology and examines how a similar methodological approach may be complicated by differences of marine species. Here we discuss the behavioural patterns of sexual segregation among marine fish, reptile, bird and mammal species. Five hypotheses have been forwarded to account for sexual segregation, largely emerging from investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ungulates: the predation risk, forage selection, activity budget, thermal niche-fecundity and social factors hypotheses. These mechanisms are reviewed following careful assessment of their applicability to marine vertebrate species and case studies of marine vertebrates which support each mechanism recounted. Rigorous testing of all hypotheses is lacking from both the terrestrial and marine vertebrate literature and those analyses which have been attempted are often confounded by factors such as sexual body-size dimorphism. In this context, we indicate the value of studying model species which are monomorphic with respect to body size and discuss possible underlying causes for sexual segregation in this species. We also discuss why it is important to understand sexual segregation, for example, by illustrating how differential exploitation of the sexes by humans can lead to population decline.

  5. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  6. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  7. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  8. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  9. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  10. Positive Interactions among Foraging Seabirds, Marine Mammals and Fishes and Implications for Their Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Veit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of “positive interactions” among species in structuring communities. For seabirds, an important kind of positive interaction is the use of birds of the same species, birds of other species, and other marine predators such as cetaceans, seals and fishes as cues to the presence of prey. The process by which a single bird uses, say, a feeding flock of birds as a cue to the presence of prey is called “local enhancement” or “facilitation.” There are subtly different uses of each of these terms, but the issue we address here is the ubiquity of positive interactions between seabirds and other marine predators when foraging at sea, and whether as a result of their associations the feeding success, and therefore presumably the fitness, of individual seabirds is increased. If this contention is true, then it implies that conservation of any one species of seabird must take into consideration the status and possible conservation of those species that the focal species uses as a cue while foraging. For example, conservation of great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis, which often feed over tuna (e.g., Thunnus schools, should take in to consideration conservation of tuna. Ecosystem management depends on understanding the importance of such processes; the loss of biodiversity, and the consequent threat to foraging success, may be a substantial threat to the stability of marine ecosystems.

  11. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  12. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  13. Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Harry; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lowry, Lloyd; Moore, Sue E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Wiig, Øystein; Boveng, Peter; Angliss, Robyn P.; Born, Erik W.; Litovka, Dennis; Quakenbush, Lori; Lydersen, Christian; Vongraven, Dag; Ugarte, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arctic marine mammals (AMMs) are icons of climate change, largely because of their close association with sea ice. However, neither a circumpolar assessment of AMM status nor a standardized metric of sea ice habitat change is available. We summarized available data on abundance and trend for each AMM species and recognized subpopulation. We also examined species diversity, the extent of human use, and temporal trends in sea ice habitat for 12 regions of the Arctic by calculating the dates of spring sea ice retreat and fall sea ice advance from satellite data (1979–2013). Estimates of AMM abundance varied greatly in quality, and few studies were long enough for trend analysis. Of the AMM subpopulations, 78% (61 of 78) are legally harvested for subsistence purposes. Changes in sea ice phenology have been profound. In all regions except the Bering Sea, the duration of the summer (i.e., reduced ice) period increased by 5–10 weeks and by >20 weeks in the Barents Sea between 1979 and 2013. In light of generally poor data, the importance of human use, and forecasted environmental changes in the 21st century, we recommend the following for effective AMM conservation: maintain and improve comanagement by local, federal, and international partners; recognize spatial and temporal variability in AMM subpopulation response to climate change; implement monitoring programs with clear goals; mitigate cumulative impacts of increased human activity; and recognize the limits of current protected species legislation. PMID:25783745

  14. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  15. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off Massachusetts AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... documentation may be obtained by writing to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division...) implementing passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals to supplement the effectiveness of visual sightings...

  16. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  17. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  18. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  19. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone... surveys to document seasonal distribution and abundance of marine mammals in western lower Cook Inlet... on the human environment in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of [[Page 72681...

  20. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  1. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  2. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  3. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  4. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  5. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  6. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  7. Alabama ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal distribution...

  8. American Samoa ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales and dolphins in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  9. A review of the conservation status of Australian mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper provides a summary of results from a recent comprehensive review of the conservation status of all Australian land and marine mammal species and subspecies. Since the landmark date of European settlement of Australia (1788), at least 28 of the ca. 272 Australian endemic land mammal species have been rendered extinct.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Extinctions have occurred at a more or less consistent rate of one to two species per decade since the 1840s, with that rate conti...

  10. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  11. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... request from Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment...

  12. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  13. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  14. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  15. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  16. 76 FR 18725 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 14330 and 14335

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... (Phoca vitulina) on St. Paul, St. George, Otter, and Walrus Islands, and Sea Lion Rock, all of the... marine mammals in Alaska: (File No. 14330) the Aleut Community of St. Paul Island, Tribal Government, Ecosystem Conservation Office, St. Paul Island, AK; and (File No. 14335) the Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward...

  17. 75 FR 58352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... pinnipeds and to assess potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The amendment is for the... Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 West Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001... environmental impact statement. Dated: September 17, 2010. P. Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and...

  18. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized

  19. Projecting Marine Mammal Distribution in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K. Silber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate-related shifts in marine mammal range and distribution have been observed in some populations; however, the nature and magnitude of future responses are uncertain in novel environments projected under climate change. This poses a challenge for agencies charged with management and conservation of these species. Specialized diets, restricted ranges, or reliance on specific substrates or sites (e.g., for pupping make many marine mammal populations particularly vulnerable to climate change. High-latitude, predominantly ice-obligate, species have experienced some of the largest changes in habitat and distribution and these are expected to continue. Efforts to predict and project marine mammal distributions to date have emphasized data-driven statistical habitat models. These have proven successful for short time-scale (e.g., seasonal management activities, but confidence that such relationships will hold for multi-decade projections and novel environments is limited. Recent advances in mechanistic modeling of marine mammals (i.e., models that rely on robust physiological and ecological principles expected to hold under climate change may address this limitation. The success of such approaches rests on continued advances in marine mammal ecology, behavior, and physiology together with improved regional climate projections. The broad scope of this challenge suggests initial priorities be placed on vulnerable species or populations (those already experiencing declines or projected to undergo ecological shifts resulting from climate changes that are consistent across climate projections and species or populations for which ample data already exist (with the hope that these may inform climate change sensitivities in less well observed species or populations elsewhere. The sustained monitoring networks, novel observations, and modeling advances required to more confidently project marine mammal distributions in a changing climate will ultimately

  20. Recent sightings of marine mammals in Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitopan Malakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports opportunistic sightings of marine mammals between August 2013 and January 2014 in the Andaman region.  Seven sightings were recorded during this period out of which one was of a Dugong, which is significant considering its small population size in India and limited data on its distribution and abundance.  The rest were 24 dolphins (Tursiops sp..  Four sightings were of the same pod of dolphins on different days at the same location.  Two sightings occurred during regular coral reef monitoring survey and the other five during fishery resource survey by trawling operations.  These sightings are of great significance as there is a lack of studies on marine mammals from the region.  Sighting records are useful for understanding aggregation site, behaviour, habits and habitat and residency patterns and provide important information for conservation of marine mammals

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  2. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... exploration drilling program on U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS... proposed drilling program in Camden Bay on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature... acoustic effects on marine mammals relate to sound produced by drilling activity, vessels, and aircraft...

  3. ORTHOMYXO- AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN MARINE MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Gulyaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Marine mammals play the role of "sentries", standing guard over the health and functioning of marine ecosystems. The analysis of data reported in literature was carried out to understand and to evaluate a circulation of representatives of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, dangerous pathogens capable to cause morbidity and mortality in marine warm-blooded animals. Discussion. In the population of marine animals, in the available literature, no more than twenty infectious diseases were described. At the same time, according to preliminary estimates, about 15% of marine mammals die from indicated diseases. Previous studies conducted by various groups of scientists have already shown the circulation of various viral pathogens, which cause different infections in these animals. The present fact indicates the important role of marine mammals in the ecology and spreading of a number of viruses. In accordance with a literature data, representatives of Orthomixoviruses and Paramyxoviruses are among the most dangerous pathogens, which may infect this type of animals. Thus, it was suggested that seals may be infected with a wide range of influenza viruses without prior adaptation. It was emphasized that pinnipeds are one of the reservoir of a human influenza B virus in nature. Infections caused by morbilliviruses, can be the reason of epizootics in a population of seals and among the other species of marine mammals. Signs of a disease are similar to the clinic of carnivore plague. Main conclusions. The data presented in literature is extremely not enough for fully understanding a role of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, morbilliviruses and others. Thus, this issue requires further more detailed study.

  4. Area selection for conservation of Mexican mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, L. B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of priority cells for mammal conservation in Mexico were identified using distributional data. A complementarity approach was implemented through linear integer programming. The minimum set of sites required for the representation of each mammal species varied between 38 (5.4% grid cells for at least one occurrence, 110 (15.6% grid cells for at least three occurrences, and 173 (24.5% grid cells for at least five occurrences. The complementary analyses mainly highlighted three regions of particular concern for mammal conservation in Mexico: (i the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and natural provinces of the Pacific Coast, (ii Sierra Madre del Sur and the Highlands of Chiapas, and (iii the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The results reported here did not indicate absolute priority locations for conservation activities, but rather identified locations warranting further investigation at finer resolutions more appropriate to such activity

  5. 76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy's EROS operations in 2010: Marine mammals Biological impacts Company Structure Dates sighted... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  6. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  7. 75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  8. 76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  9. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  10. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  11. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  12. 76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  13. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  14. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  15. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification...

  16. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  17. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  18. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  19. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  20. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  1. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine... Alaska to investigate their foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of natural...

  2. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  3. AKRO/PR: Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program (AMMOP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NMFS is mandated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to measure and report on the effects of commercial fisheries on marine mammal stocks. One of the ways...

  4. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  5. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  6. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T.C. Harder (Timm); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously

  7. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  8. 75 FR 24906 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... physical effects; and, at least in theory, temporary or permanent hearing impairment (Richardson et al... based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of that mammal group. Although various... must adapt, the introduction of strong sounds into the sea at frequencies important to marine mammals...

  9. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    separate and associate calls from individual animals . Marine mammal; Passive acoustic monitoring; Localization; Tracking; Multiple source; Sparse array...position and hydrophone timing offset in addition to animal position Almost all marine mammal tracking methods treat animal position as the only unknown...Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization (DCL) of Marine Mammals). The animals were expected to be relatively close to the surface

  10. 77 FR 27719 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...., Riverhead, NY 11901 to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. ADDRESSES: The permits and... Register (76 FR 51001) that requests for permits to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles had... governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973...

  11. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16919

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  12. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered...

  13. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 14535 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.); and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No...

  14. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The amended...

  15. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... INFORMATION: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C...

  16. 77 FR 72829 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 16305 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104-9300, to receive, import, and export marine mammal and sea... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  17. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  18. 78 FR 39713 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17751

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17751 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17751 authorizes Dr. Mitani to study gray and killer whales...

  19. 76 FR 72178 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Mammals; File No. 14334 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act...

  20. 76 FR 30109 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15453

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 15453 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act...

  1. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  2. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK, has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  3. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14791

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Mammals; File No. 14791 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered...

  4. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit has been issued to Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  5. 75 FR 8303 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13430

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 13430 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... National Marine Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are...

  6. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  7. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK 99811, has applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U...

  8. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Flagler Road, Milltown, MT 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  9. 77 FR 54902 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17278

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Mammals; File No. 17278 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., 404H West, Boston, MA 02215, to import and receive marine mammal parts for scientific research... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing...

  10. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR [[Page 269...

  11. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric....], P.O. Box 1346, Route 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 to import marine mammal parts for... Register (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research...

  12. 77 FR 19004 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes harassment of...

  13. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...) prepared in response to a public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations...

  14. 76 FR 32144 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Mammals; File No. 15543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  15. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... amendment has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 63296 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  17. 76 FR 2888 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Mammals; File No. 16000 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or...

  18. 77 FR 4765 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Mammals; File No. 15142 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant proposes to...

  19. 77 FR 51519 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17403

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 17403 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  20. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... to take marine mammals in the Pacific Ocean for the purposes of scientific research. ADDRESSES: The... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the...

  1. 76 FR 81916 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16685

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Mammals; File No. 16685 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The permit authorizes photo...

  2. 78 FR 29117 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part...

  3. 76 FR 67151 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  4. 77 FR 21753 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). NHK...

  5. 77 FR 50289 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... areas of high marine animal densities, we believe that the incidental take of marine mammals would... response, tagging of free-ranging marine animals at-sea, and radar-based detection of marine mammals from... effects of sonar use will not be greater on animals listed under the ESA than the effects on other marine...

  6. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...

  7. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... the shutdown zone clear of marine mammals; animals will be allowed to remain in the shutdown zone (i.e... these problems, any adverse responses to construction activities by marine mammals, and a complete... of impacts of sound on marine mammals, it is common practice to estimate how many animals are likely...

  8. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    .... Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS leases located greater than 60 mi... in the Chukchi Sea on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature. Petroleum development and associated activities introduce sound into the marine environment. Potential acoustic effects on...

  9. 76 FR 28422 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Paul E. Nachtigall, PhD, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  10. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  11. 78 FR 39258 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Investigator: Peter Corkeron] to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. ADDRESSES: The permit and... to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles had been submitted by the above-named applicant... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  12. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon written request or by... Register (76 FR 13603) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been [[Page...

  13. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Research Consortium (NPUMMRC), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC., Canada. ADDRESSES... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  14. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as... mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  15. 78 FR 56219 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Mammals; File No. 17115 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 17115-01 authorizes the permit...

  16. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for...

  17. Critical factors for the recovery of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Heike K; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Magera, Anna M

    2017-12-01

    {en} Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or continue to decline. To understand these discrepancies, we used a published database on abundance trends of 137 populations of marine mammals worldwide and compiled data on 28 potentially critical factors for recovery. We then applied random forests and additive mixed models to determine which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. A mix of life-history characteristics, ecological traits, phylogenetic relatedness, population size, geographic range, human impacts, and management efforts explained why populations recovered or not. Consistently, species with lower age at maturity and intermediate habitat area were more likely to recover, which is consistent with life-history and ecological theory. Body size, trophic level, social interactions, dominant habitat, ocean basin, and habitat disturbance also explained some differences in recovery patterns. Overall, a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors were important for species' recovery, pointing to cumulative effects. Our results provide insight for improving conservation and management strategies to enhance recoveries in the future. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Reducing marine mammal bycatch in global fisheries: An economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Rebecca; Squires, Dale

    2017-06-01

    The broader ecosystem impacts of fishing continue to present a challenge to scientists and resource managers around the world. Bycatch is of greatest concern for marine mammals, for which fishery bycatch and entanglement is the number one cause of direct mortality. Climate change will only add to the challenge, as marine species and fishing practices adapt to a changing environment, creating a dynamic pattern of overlap between fishing and species (both target and bycatch). Economists suggest policy instruments for reducing bycatch that move away from top-down, command-and-control measures (e.g. effort reduction, time/area closures, gear restrictions, bycatch quotas) towards an approach that creates incentives to reduce bycatch (e.g. transferable bycatch allowances, taxes, and other measures). The advantages of this flexible, incentive-oriented approach are even greater in a changing and increasingly variable environment, as regulatory measures would have to be adapted constantly to keep up with climate change. Unlike the regulatory process, individual operators in the fishery sector can make adjustments to their harvesting practices as soon as the incentives for such changes are apparent and inputs or operations can be modified. This paper explores policy measures that create economic incentives not only to reduce marine mammal bycatch, but also to increase compliance and induce technological advances by fishery operators. Economists also suggest exploration of direct economic incentives as have been used in other conservation programs, such as payments for economic services, in an approach that addresses marine mammal bycatch as part of a larger conservation strategy. Expanding the portfolio of mandatory and potentially, voluntary, measures to include novel approaches will provide a broader array of opportunities for successful stewardship of the marine environment.

  19. Global mammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2006-12-19

    Hotspots, which have played a central role in the selection of sites for reserves, require careful rethinking. We carried out a global examination of distributions of all nonmarine mammals to determine patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment, and to evaluate the degree of congruence among hotspots of these three measures of diversity in mammals. We then compare congruence of hotspots in two animal groups (mammals and birds) to assess the generality of these patterns. We defined hotspots as the richest 2.5% of cells in a global equal-area grid comparable to 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude. Hotspots of species richness, "endemism," and extinction threat were noncongruent. Only 1% of cells and 16% of species were common to the three types of mammalian hotspots. Congruence increased with increases in both the geographic scope of the analysis and the percentage of cells defined as being hotspots. The within-mammal hotspot noncongruence was similar to the pattern recently found for birds. Thus, assigning global conservation priorities based on hotspots is at best a limited strategy.

  20. Prioritizing conservation investments for mammal species globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A.; Evans, Megan C.; Di Marco, Moreno; Green, David C.; Boitani, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution prioritization analysis for mammals at a global scale that accounts for the risk of habitat loss, the actions required to abate this risk, the costs of these actions and the likelihood of investment success. We evaluated the likelihood of success of investments using information on the past frequency and duration of legislative effectiveness at a country scale. The establishment of new protected areas was the action receiving the greatest investment, while restoration was never chosen. The resolution of the analysis and the incorporation of likelihood of success made little difference to this result, but affected the spatial location of these investments. PMID:21844046

  1. 77 FR 60966 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16239

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., proposed energy and construction areas; (2) movement patterns of marine mammal species most at risk; and (3... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC268 Marine Mammals; File No. 16239 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... of marine mammal parts (hard and soft parts) from up to 200 animals per year within the order Cetacea... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  3. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... subsistence harvests; from marine mammals caught incidental to fisheries; or from animals in foreign countries... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... to augment the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank or state tissue archives. No animals would be... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  5. 75 FR 34106 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... the Government of Mexico under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This affirmative finding will... Importing of Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... based on review of documentary evidence submitted by the Government of Mexico and obtained from the...

  6. 76 FR 40700 - Taking and Importing of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... affirmative finding annual renewal to the Government of Mexico under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA... Importing of Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Government of Mexico and obtained from the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the...

  7. 77 FR 32571 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Bruce R. Mate, Ph.D., Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals world-wide for the purposes of scientific research... identified species of marine mammals species world-wide. The purposes of the proposed research are to: (1...

  8. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No...

  9. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May 31, 2012. The minor amendment (No. 978-1857... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  10. Marine Mammals and Noise-Progress Since 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals & Noise - Progress Since 1995 Christine...effects of underwater noise on marine mammals has grown steadily over the last few decades. Results and information are scattered across the peer...reviewed and grey literature. In this project, we try to review the information on noise impacts on marine mammals , focussing on results since the

  11. 78 FR 30873 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but.... The clamshell would be used to grasp and lift large components. When a wooden pile cannot be...

  12. 77 FR 9628 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... revised LOA that is valid for two years, to take marine mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy... 3395). The application requested authorization, for a period of two years, to take, by harassment..., 2011 within the required timeframes and it is posted on NMFS Web site: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr...

  13. 77 FR 30996 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... harassment incidental to its Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the NAVSEA... period of four years, to take, by harassment, marine mammals incidental to proposed training activities... Navy's 2011 RDT&E activities can be found in the exercise report posted on NMFS Web site: http://www...

  14. 75 FR 20344 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... traditional haulout site) during the December 7 survey; however, this has been the trend during the past few... subsistence uses. In addition, NMFS must prescribe regulations that include permissible methods of taking and... missile on July 18, 2008 at 1:47:00 a.m. ADT. Aerial surveys to document marine mammals in the primary...

  15. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    .../navfac/navfac--ww--pp/ navfac--hq--pp/navfac--environmental/mra) to estimate densities of the species in... temperature, precipitation, and percent cloud cover, etc.); Condition of the marine mammal observation....g., wind speed and direction, sea state, cloud cover, and visibility); (7) the species...

  16. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-injurious) thresholds for underwater sound sources (except explosives and tactical active sonar) based on... this recommendation as a mitigation measure to be impracticable for both economic and practical reasons... vessel activity, Apache will follow NMFS' Marine Mammal Viewing Guidelines and Regulations and will alter...

  17. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... discussion of the functional hearing ranges of the different groups of marine mammals (by frequency) as well... discussion of each species' description, status, behavior and ecology, and vocalizations. The Description of... numbers,'' (2) provide a basis for that threshold, and (3) work with the Fish and Wildlife Service and the...

  18. 75 FR 53271 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15271

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ..., Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone (301)713-2289; fax (301)713-0376; Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 West Ocean... behaviors as marine mammals exploit prey resources; (3) determine types of acoustic behavior of marine...

  19. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, has applied in due form for a permit to import marine... the dietary preferences and feeding ecology of Antarctic marine mammals by analyzing seal and whale...

  20. Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Research Collection (MMASTR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla houses one of the largest marine mammal and marine turtle sample collections in the world, with over 140,000...

  1. 78 FR 71566 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... fields. These observers will be required to watch the Navy's Marine Species Awareness Training video and... state); Species, numbers, and, if possible, sex and age class of marine mammals; Description of any...

  2. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Mammal Stock Assessment Reports AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... of marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs). The 2011 reports are final and available to the... individual reports at the following address: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/ . You also may send requests...

  3. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut ...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Mammals: Hearing and Echolocation at Coconut Island

  4. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  6. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1979-1991): Sighting and Census (F127) (NODC Accession 0014197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  7. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  8. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... filmmaker hopes to document the behavior of marine animals in the presence of a gray whale carcass. Filming... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  9. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... behavior of marine animals in the presence of a gray whale carcass. Filming will occur between April and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  10. 78 FR 37796 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... permit has been issued to Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. 78 FR 15933 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17952

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  13. 75 FR 72807 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... the application are available by writing to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education...) warfare training, including bombing, strafing, special (laser systems) weapons; surface fires using non... Guidelines designed to prevent harassment to marine mammals ( http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/education/southeast...

  14. Contaminants, lipids, fatty acids, and stable isotopes in tissues of various marine mammals - Biomonitoring of marine mammals as part of the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (MMHSRP) was established in 1992 under Title IV of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The MMHSRP...

  15. Descriptions of marine mammal specimens in Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1938-01-01 to 2015-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0140937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin and manatees in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  18. 75 FR 14425 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... rosmarus) annually for research on marine mammal population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive... such permit: (1) was applied for in good faith; (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such...

  19. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., has applied for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written, telefaxed... five-year permit to investigate the foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of...

  20. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Responsible Party), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal... studies of population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive physiology, toxicology and health of...

  1. 76 FR 28423 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... and endangered species parts of all marine mammals under NMFS. Please refer to the following Web site... authorized and no incidental harassment of animals would occur. Parts would be archived by the Burke Museum...

  2. Supplemental Equipment Request for Advanced Marine Mammal Acoustic Localization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thode, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    ...). The overall project goal is to modify flash-memory recorders, originally developed for marine mammal acoustic tags, into modular, portable, and rugged array systems that can be deployed in multiple...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Aerial Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals and...

  4. 75 FR 32497 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... bench above the beach. A diesel bus would be used to transport passengers between the hovercraft and... marine mammal Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Program (MTRP) indicates that on average, less than one sea...

  5. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... (16 U.S.C. 1151 et seq.). The applicant requests a permit to import, export and archive marine mammal... incidentally in fisheries (bycatch), including products legally sold in wildlife and fisheries markets...

  6. Measures of Auditory Function in Stranded Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketten, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    .... Behavioral measures, which consist of simple yes-no replies to a sound stimulus, are possible in trained marine mammals but are not applicable to the large number and diverse species of wild animals...

  7. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Vessel Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large vessel surveys were conducted during June-August and Oct-Nov, 2010 in the north central Gulf of Mexico to collect data on marine mammal spatial distribution...

  8. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  9. Potential Impacts of Ambient Noise in the on Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, George

    2003-01-01

    The Committee was charged with assessing our state of knowledge of underwater noise and recommending research areas to assist in determining whether noise in the ocean adversely affects marine mammals...

  10. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring

  11. The Marine Mammal Programme at the Prince Edward Islands: 38 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Marine Mammal Programme (MMP) conducts research on pinnipeds and killer whales Orcinus orca at Marion Island, Prince Edward Islands, under the auspices of the Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria. The history of the MMP, which has benefited from ...

  12. Toxicology of Marine Mammals: New Developments and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that marine mammals are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants, with a weight of evidence indicating impacts on their health. Since hundreds of new chemicals enter the global market every year,the methods, approaches and technologies used to characterize pollution levels or impacts are also in a constant state of flux. However, legal and ethical constraints often limit the type and extent of toxicological research being carried out in marine mammals. Nevertheless, new and emerging in vivo, in vitro as well as in silico research opportunities abound in the field of marine mammal toxicology. In the application of findings to population-, species-, or habitat-related risk assessments, the identification of causal relationships which inform source apportionment is important. This, in turn, is informed by a comprehensive understanding of contaminant classes, profiles and fate overspace and time. Such considerations figure prominently in the design and interpretation of marine mammal (eco)-toxicology research. This mini-review attempts to follow the evolution behind marine mammal toxicology until now,highlight some of the research that has been done and suggest opportunities for future research. This Special Issue will showcase new developments in marine mammal toxicology, approaches for exposure-effect research in risk assessment as well as future opportunities.

  13. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  14. Virginia ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin, seals, whales, and porpoise in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  15. Maryland ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, porpoise, and dolphin in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  16. 76 FR 56167 - Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... problem interactions. See http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/Marine-Mammals/Seals-and-Sea-Lions/Sec-120-Authority.cfm... to the pinniped predation problem at Bonneville Dam and is not a na[iuml]ve animal that can be driven... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA681 Marine...

  17. Detection and Classification of Marine mammals using an LFAS system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Beerend, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    World wide a concern is emerging about the influence of man-made sound in the sea on marine life, and particularly about high power active sonars systems. Most concern lies with marine mammals, which fully depend on sound in their natural behaviour (foraging, navigation and communication). One of

  18. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... Jennifer Burns, University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form...

  19. 78 FR 42757 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit has been issued to Dr. Jennifer Burns, University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department...

  20. Checklist of marine tetrapods (reptiles, seabirds, and mammals) of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜSOY, Harun; KARAUZ, Emine Sühendan; KIRAÇ, Cem Orkun; BİLECENOĞLU, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of a total of 61 marine tetrapod species is presented in this paper, including 3 sea turtles, 43 sea birds, and 15 marine mammals. Distribution of each reported species along the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean, and Levantine coasts of Turkey is mentioned, associated with key references.

  1. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  2. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  3. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, February to March 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  5. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic... readily audible to the animals based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of the marine... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific...

  6. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  7. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central-Western Bering Sea, August 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  8. 75 FR 8652 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... for marine animals before and during airgun operations. NMFS believes that the realistic possibility... Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, April to June 2010 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  9. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, June Through July 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and...

  10. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  11. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  13. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems in Marine Mammal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fiori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, commonly referred to as drones, are finding applications in several ecological research areas since remotely piloted aircraft (RPA technology has ceased to be a military prerogative. Fixed-wing RPA have been tested for line transect aerial surveys of geographically dispersed marine mammal species. Despite many advantages, their systematic use is far from a reality. Low altitude, long endurance systems are still highly priced. Regulatory bodies also impose limitations while struggling to cope with UAS rapid technological evolution. In contrast, small vertical take-off and landing (VTOL UAS have become increasingly affordable but lack the flight endurance required for long-range aerial surveys. Although this issue and civil aviation regulations prevent the use of VTOL UAS for marine mammal abundance estimation on a large scale, recent studies have highlighted other potential applications. The present note represents a general overview on the use of UAS as a survey tool for marine mammal studies. The literature pertaining to UAS marine mammal research applications is considered with special concern for advantages and limitations of the survey design. The use of lightweight VTOL UAS to collect marine mammal behavioral data is also discussed.

  15. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  16. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  17. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 182 September 19, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the Central Coast of California...

  18. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo

  19. Marine bird and mammal data integration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  20. 75 FR 2490 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations Activities at Eglin...) for authorization to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training operations, military readiness activities, at Eglin AFB, FL from...

  1. Horizontal transfers of Mariner transposons between mammals and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sarah G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transposable elements (TEs can be passed between genomes of different species by horizontal transfer (HT. This may help them to avoid vertical extinction due to elimination by natural selection or silencing. HT is relatively frequent within eukaryotic taxa, but rare between distant species. Findings Closely related Mariner-type DNA transposon families, collectively named as Mariner-1_Tbel families, are present in the genomes of two ants and two mammalian genomes. Consensus sequences of the four families show pairwise identities greater than 95%. In addition, mammalian Mariner1_BT family shows a close evolutionary relationship with some insect Mariner families. Mammalian Mariner1_BT type sequences are present only in species from three groups including ruminants, tooth whales (Odontoceti, and New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. Conclusions Horizontal transfer accounts for the presence of Mariner_Tbel and Mariner1_BT families in mammals. Mariner_Tbel family was introduced into hedgehog and tree shrew genomes approximately 100 to 69 million years ago (MYA. Most likely, these TE families were transferred from insects to mammals, but details of the transfer remain unknown.

  2. Horizontal transfers of Mariner transposons between mammals and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah G; Bao, Weidong; Martins, Cesar; Jurka, Jerzy

    2012-09-26

    Active transposable elements (TEs) can be passed between genomes of different species by horizontal transfer (HT). This may help them to avoid vertical extinction due to elimination by natural selection or silencing. HT is relatively frequent within eukaryotic taxa, but rare between distant species. Closely related Mariner-type DNA transposon families, collectively named as Mariner-1_Tbel families, are present in the genomes of two ants and two mammalian genomes. Consensus sequences of the four families show pairwise identities greater than 95%. In addition, mammalian Mariner1_BT family shows a close evolutionary relationship with some insect Mariner families. Mammalian Mariner1_BT type sequences are present only in species from three groups including ruminants, tooth whales (Odontoceti), and New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). Horizontal transfer accounts for the presence of Mariner_Tbel and Mariner1_BT families in mammals. Mariner_Tbel family was introduced into hedgehog and tree shrew genomes approximately 100 to 69 million years ago (MYA). Most likely, these TE families were transferred from insects to mammals, but details of the transfer remain unknown.

  3. 77 FR 73986 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ..., Department of Biology, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI on June 5, 2012, for level B harassment of... INFORMATION for a list of names and address of recipients. ADDRESSES: The Letters of Confirmation and related... research that may result only in taking by level B harassment of marine mammals. The following Letters of...

  4. A Proposal Towards a Dutch Caribbean Marine Mammal Sanctuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Witte, R.H.; Scheidat, M.; Lucke, K.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the goals set forth in the Dutch Biodiversity Policy Programme, The Netherlands has a traditionally strong commitment to protect biodiversity and marine mammals both internationally and in its own national and Kingdom waters. Last year the responsible ministry, namely the Netherlands

  5. The Delphinus array for passive marine mammal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Beerens, S.P.; Lam, F.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    To protect marine mammals from potential negative impacts of high-power sound from tactical sonar, the use of passive acoustic monitoring prior and during sonar exercises is a possible non-intrusive solution for the monitoring requirements for naval forces. Particularly deep-diving beaked whales

  6. 77 FR 31835 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16580

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Public Comment'' from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16580 from the list of available.... Marine mammal parts will be used incidentally for educational purposes. Import/export activities would...

  7. 78 FR 66681 - Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... may be publicly accessible. Do not submit Confidential Business Information or otherwise sensitive or... completed in 1995. The MMPA requires NMFS and FWS to review the SARs at least annually for strategic stocks... non-strategic stocks. The term ``strategic stock'' means a marine mammal stock: (A) For which the...

  8. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) The person transferring the part receives no remuneration of any kind for the marine mammal part... specifically authorized by the Regional Director, consistent with the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (a... Regional Director of the transfer, including a description of the part, the person to whom the part was...

  9. 76 FR 18232 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Island group, located in the central Aleutian Island chain, declined by about 94 percent; aerial survey... the construction seasons. Supplies, equipment, and personnel would be routed from the proposed beach... Habitat and Marine Mammals Affected by the Activity Three monthly surveys for sea otters were conducted in...

  10. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16160 from the list of available applications. These... taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended... waters of Washington State. This research would contribute to a long-term data set (Orca Master) that has...

  11. Characterisation of North American Brucella isolates from marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M Whatmore

    Full Text Available Extension of known ecological niches of Brucella has included the description of two novel species from marine mammals. Brucella pinnipedialis is associated predominantly with seals, while two major Brucella ceti clades, most commonly associated with porpoises or dolphins respectively, have been identified. To date there has been limited characterisation of Brucella isolates obtained from marine mammals outside Northern European waters, including North American waters. To address this gap, and extend knowledge of the global population structure and host associations of these Brucella species, 61 isolates from marine mammals inhabiting North American waters were subject to molecular and phenotypic characterisation enabling comparison with existing European isolates. The majority of isolates represent genotypes previously described in Europe although novel genotypes were identified in both B. ceti clades. Harp seals were found to carry B. pinnipedialis genotypes previously confined to hooded seals among a diverse repertoire of sequence types (STs associated with this species. For the first time Brucella isolates were characterised from beluga whales and found to represent a number of distinct B. pinnipedialis genotypes. In addition the known host range of ST27 was extended with the identification of this ST from California sea lion samples. Finally the performance of the frequently used diagnostic tool Bruce-ladder, in differentiating B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, was critically assessed based on improved knowledge of the global population structure of Brucella associated with marine mammals.

  12. 78 FR 19288 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-FHC-2013-N047; FF07CAMM00.FX.FR133707PB000] Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Fairweather, LLC........ Exploration........ Beaufort Sea Acoustic Monitoring July 15, 2012. Recorder...

  13. 76 FR 68777 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-FHC-2011-N188; FF07CAMM00... of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection... Acoustic July 15, 2011. Monitoring Recorder Deployment and Retrieval Project. Olgoonik Fairweather, LLC...

  14. Characterisation of North American Brucella isolates from marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Dawson, Claire; Muchowski, Jakub; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma; Koylass, Mark; Foster, Geoffrey; Davison, Nicholas J; Quance, Christine; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara L; St Leger, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Extension of known ecological niches of Brucella has included the description of two novel species from marine mammals. Brucella pinnipedialis is associated predominantly with seals, while two major Brucella ceti clades, most commonly associated with porpoises or dolphins respectively, have been identified. To date there has been limited characterisation of Brucella isolates obtained from marine mammals outside Northern European waters, including North American waters. To address this gap, and extend knowledge of the global population structure and host associations of these Brucella species, 61 isolates from marine mammals inhabiting North American waters were subject to molecular and phenotypic characterisation enabling comparison with existing European isolates. The majority of isolates represent genotypes previously described in Europe although novel genotypes were identified in both B. ceti clades. Harp seals were found to carry B. pinnipedialis genotypes previously confined to hooded seals among a diverse repertoire of sequence types (STs) associated with this species. For the first time Brucella isolates were characterised from beluga whales and found to represent a number of distinct B. pinnipedialis genotypes. In addition the known host range of ST27 was extended with the identification of this ST from California sea lion samples. Finally the performance of the frequently used diagnostic tool Bruce-ladder, in differentiating B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, was critically assessed based on improved knowledge of the global population structure of Brucella associated with marine mammals.

  15. An interlaboratory comparison exercise for organohalogens in marine mammal blubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, J.; Becker, P.; Pugh, R. [NIST, Hollings Marine Lab., Charleston (United States); Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [NIST, Gaithersburg (United States); Rowles, T. [NOAA, Silversprings (United States)

    2004-09-15

    For analytical data generated on marine mammal tissues, such as blubber, harmonizing measurements of organohalogen compounds is very important. Often organohalogen data on marine mammal samples from different laboratories are combined to provide an indication of geographical trends or to help ascertain toxicological significance. In at least one study that combined data on organohalogen concentrations from marine mammal blubber to examine geographical trends, it was found that among laboratory variability contributed significantly to the observed data variability (Schwacke, personal communication). To help resolve such problems, NIST and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated an interlaboratory comparison exercise program patterned after the exercise described above but using marine mammal blubber as the exercise materials. The objective of this paper is to describe the exercises, summarize selected results, and discuss the value of these interterlaboratory comparison exercises. The exercises have been held on a small scale (<10 laboratories) starting in 1991 and on a larger scale (10 or more laboratories) starting in 1999. Twenty-four laboratories participated in the 2003 exercise.

  16. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... commercial/educational photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational or commercial purposes...

  17. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon... photography on 12 cetacean species had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has...

  18. 76 FR 13603 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year... californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustrirostris... capture and handling, and 1,135 by incidental disturbance. Up to 2,766 northern elephant seals may be...

  19. 76 FR 43266 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR Part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), crabeater seals... juveniles; 600 Antarctic fur seal pups; 50 leopard seal adults and juveniles; 50 southern elephant seal...

  20. 78 FR 28809 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... permit has been issued to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G; Responsible Party: Robert Small... Skidmore, (301) 427-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 10, 2012, notice was published in the..., productivity, feeding habits, and health status of marine mammals. No takes of live animals are authorized. The...

  1. 75 FR 37388 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... cognitive function among pinnipeds and to assess potential impacts of human noise on marine mammals. The... Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 West Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213; phone (562)980-4001... environmental impact statement. Concurrent with the publication of this notice in the Federal Register, NMFS is...

  2. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... the animals, their handlers, or other persons. (d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary... used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained on...

  3. Sealpox Virus in Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Facility

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-03

    Benjamin Monroe, a CDC health scientist, discusses the sealpox virus and its impact on marine rehabilitation facilities.  Created: 4/3/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/3/2012.

  4. 78 FR 44539 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... time, resulting in a larger temporal footprint for the project. That is, soft start requires a longer... project personnel to provide real-time information on marine mammals observed in the area as necessary. (2... period. This procedure is repeated two additional times. However, implementation of soft start for...

  5. 78 FR 69825 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... project personnel to provide real-time information on marine mammals observed in the area as necessary. (2... able to effectively receive real-time information on the presence or absence of whales, sufficient to... additional times. However, implementation of soft start for vibratory pile driving during previous pile...

  6. 78 FR 43148 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... the ongoing suite of actions at NBKB and may reasonably be used as a reference for the current...-measured source levels from other similar pile driving events to estimate potential marine mammal exposures... actually occur. Description of Sound Sources and Distances to Thresholds An in-depth description of sound...

  7. 78 FR 30273 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment].'' Summary of Request We received... fish populations; however, the entire barge mooring project is scheduled to be completed by September...), biological (e.g., sounds produced by marine mammals, fish, and invertebrates), and anthropogenic sound (e.g...

  8. Osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Soponteerakul, Ratsadakorn; Kaewkumpai, Piyatida; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Chawangwongsanukun, Rachanchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in marine mammals is still questionable. Here we investigated the prevalence of OA in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (Asian elephant, Asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, Malayan tapir, Assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). Skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bones were observed for OA lesions. The prevalence of OA was reported as number of OA lesions/total number of bones. Our results revealed that the presence of OA in marine species (dolphin and dugong) was 2.44% and 3.33%, respectively. In dolphins, the highest OA occurrence was on the left and right humeral trochlea, with 13.68% and 12.63%, respectively, while the highest number of OA lesions in dugongs was on the lumbar vertebrae (8.79%). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of OA between sexes in dolphins and dugongs was observed, but we found a significant difference (P mammals, similar to terrestrial mammals, even though their natural habitat is the ocean. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  9. 78 FR 56218 - Marine Mammals; File No. 18171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701; phone (727) 824-5312... Conservation Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be submitted by facsimile to (301) 713... mammal program. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq...

  10. 76 FR 25479 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities Conducted Within the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Hearing of Marine Animals Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and Tracking of Marine Mammals The... impact of MFAS and underwater explosive detonations on marine animals. Top priorities of the ICMP include.... Furthermore, these large-grouped gregarious animals are very likely to be detected by Marine Mammal Observers...

  11. 77 FR 12010 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... NMFS to study and document the health and biology of wild marine mammals as well as those marine... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  12. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Murai

    Full Text Available Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1 the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2 wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3 the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789 elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592 chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal

  13. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, Margarida; Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb by alpha spectrometry and for 137 Cs and 40 K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 ± 32 Bq kg -1 wet weight (w.w.), while 210 Pb averaged 0.17 ± 0.07 Bq kg -1 w.w., 137 Cs averaged 0.29 ± 0.28 Bq kg -1 w.w., and 40 K 129 ± 48 Bq kg -1 w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 μGy h -1 on a whole body basis. 210 Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from 210 Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high 210 Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: → In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of 40 K and 210 Po. → Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h -1 on a whole body basis. → Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. → The high 210 Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. → The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  14. Roentgenographic indicators of skeletal maturity in marine mammals (Cetacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    A new roentgenographic classification (grading) scheme is presented for utilization in studies of skeletal development and maturation in marine mammals, particularly cetaceans. This is based on adequate description of the extent of development and maturation of the various secondary ossification centers, their eventual patterns of fusion, and subsequent remodeling with the metaphysis. The six stages are illustrated schematically and roentgenographically. This scheme may be applied to any cetacean longitudinal bone developing proximal and distal epiphyseal ossification centers. (orig.)

  15. Equity and career-life balance in marine mammal science?

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Simmons, Samantha E.; Stimpert, Alison K.; McDonald, Birgitte I.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that family and care-giving responsibilities are driving women away from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Marine mammal science often incurs heavy fieldwork and travel obligations, which make it a challenging career in which to find work-life balance. This opinion piece explores gender equality, equity (the principles of fairness that lead to equality), and work-life balance in science generally and in this field in particular. We aim ...

  16. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  17. Understanding the potential risk to marine mammals from collision with tidal turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea; Grear, Molly; Jepsen, Richard; Chartrand, Chris; Gorton, Alicia

    2017-09-01

    The advent of the marine renewable energy industry has raised questions, particularly for tidal turbines, about potential threats to populations of marine mammals. This research examines the sequence of behavioral events that lead up to a potential collision of a marine mammal with a tidal turbine, within the context of the physical environment, the attributes of the tidal device, and the biomechanical properties of a marine mammal that may resist injury from a tidal blade collision. There are currently no data available to determine the risk of collision to a marine mammal, and obtaining those data would be extremely difficult. The surrogate data examined in this research (likelihood of a marine mammal being in close proximity to a tidal turbine, biomechanics of marine mammal tissues, and engineering models) provide insight into the interaction.

  18. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion.

  19. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... levels for these animals may be estimated using TTS data from marine mammals and relationships between... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  20. 75 FR 69295 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Effects of Sound on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and... Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted Within the Northwest Training... Administration 50 CFR Part 218 [Docket No. 0906101030-0489-03] RIN 0648-AX88 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals...

  1. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., and location) and marine mammal and/or indicator presence, species, number of animals, their behavior... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  2. 75 FR 42698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... or ingestion of proposed action-related trash and debris by marine mammals would not be expected... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data Collection Facilities in the Mid- Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  3. 75 FR 60694 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marine Mammals, by Harassment, Incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations... School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... authorization to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal...

  4. 78 FR 20800 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... mammals observed by species, sex, age class, their location within the zone, and their reaction (if any... or description of the animal(s) involved; (8) the fate of the animal(s); and (9) photographs or video... Protected Resources, within 24 hours of the discovery. Port Dolphin should provide photographs or video...

  5. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... area is 995 km\\2\\ (384 mi\\2\\). The receiver layout and seismic survey data will be acquired using the... desirable acoustic environment; and Cease feeding or social interaction. For example, at the Guerreo Negro... similar to those in humans and other terrestrial mammals (Southall et al. 2007). Based on data from...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, porpoise, and whales in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  7. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  8. 76 FR 20257 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... marine mammals (e.g., whale watching or dolphin watching boats), scientists have documented that animals... marine mammal(s) Wave height (in feet) Visibility Sonar source in use (y/n) Indication of whether animal...-AX11 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation...

  9. PROTOCOL FOR GAS SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN STRANDED MARINE MAMMALS

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Óscar González-Díaz, Manuel Arbelo, Marisa Andrada & Antonio Fernández ### Abstract Gas sampling in stranded marine mammals can now be performed in situ using the appropriate vacuum tubes, insulin syringes and an aspirometer. Glass vacuum tubes are used for extraction of gas from cavities such as the intestine, pterigoyd air sacs, pneumothorax or subcapsular emphysema as well as for storage of the gas sample at room temperature and pressure. Insulin s...

  10. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malta, Margarida [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb by alpha spectrometry and for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 {+-} 32 Bq kg{sup -1} wet weight (w.w.), while {sup 210}Pb averaged 0.17 {+-} 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., {sup 137}Cs averaged 0.29 {+-} 0.28 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., and {sup 40}K 129 {+-} 48 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {sup 210}Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from {sup 210}Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high {sup 210}Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: {yields} In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Po. {yields} Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {yields} Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. {yields} The high {sup 210}Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. {yields} The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  11. Deepwater Horizon MC252 marine mammal data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing marine mammal aerial observations, bottlenose dolphin stock boundaries, dolphin telemetry datasets, marine mammal unusual mortality events (UME), related marine mammal data, and sea turtle data collected for the DWH response between 2010-04-28 and 2010-08-25 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163809)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers that represent marine mammal surveys, observations,...

  12. Deepwater Horizon MC252 marine mammal data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing marine mammal aerial observations, bottlenose dolphin stock boundaries, marine mammal Unusual Mortality Events (UME), and related marine mammal data collected during the DWH Response from 2010-05-07 to 2015-01-31 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163810)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers that represent marine mammal surveys, observations,...

  13. 75 FR 52721 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15471

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...(s): Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East... health assessment studies in Punta San Juan, Peru. There will be no non-target species taken incidentally... Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2010-21407...

  14. 78 FR 34069 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... mammals incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey on the high seas (i.e., International Waters) and... to the west of Spain. The cruise will be in International Waters (i.e., high seas) and in the... infinite homogeneous water column, not bounded by a seafloor). Because the L-DEO model assumes a...

  15. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Mammals of Zoque Forest, Mexico: richness, use and conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Galindo-Leal, Carlos; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Zoque Forest is one of the richest and threatened regions in Southeastern Mexico, and for which few studies on mammal biology and use are available. Here we analyzed the conservation status of mammalian species according to Mexican and international laws, with an updated checklist of mammals in this forest, and some information on their use by some rural communities. Basic information was obtained from national and international collections and publications. A total of 42 fieldtrips, that followed conventional techniques, were conducted from 2003 through 2010, and some questionnaires to local hunters were applied. The mammalian fauna found in the area was composed of 149 species belonging to 99 genera and 30 families; these results support that the Zoque Forest is the richest in the number of mammalian species in Mexico. A total of 35 species were considered at risk by the Mexican National Law NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, and 21 species were found to be registered in the IUCN Red List or in CITES. Of the 40 species included in any of the lists, only the Baird's tapir, jaguar and white-lipped peccary were included in all three lists and 14 species were shared by the two of them. The main uses of mammals in order of importance are: 1) bushmeat, 2) pets, 3) skins, and 4) traditional medicine. Subsistence hunting and trade are unofficially allowed for farmers in this area. As for now, the region has healthy populations of a large number of mammals even though they have been used by local residents. However, since a considerable number of these species are listed under some criterion of threat, local authorities are called for more control.

  17. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Western... conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the western tropical Pacific Ocean... Science Foundation (NSF), and ``Environmental Assessment of a Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey by the...

  18. 77 FR 19242 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...., 1995; Thorpe, 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, May Through June, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  19. 78 FR 42042 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... of marine mammals (e.g., milling, travel, social, foraging); (4) location and relative distance from... principal marine mammal stranding networks and other media to correlate analysis of any dolphin strandings... strike if the animal has disappeared), and whether the animal is alive or dead (or unknown); Report to us...

  20. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs, and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58. We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority

  1. AFSC/NMML: Known human-caused marine mammal injury and mortalities from 2007 to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is required under the MMPA to estimate the annual human-caused mortality and serious injury of marine mammal stocks by...

  2. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival.'' Section 101(a)(5)(D... one method to mitigate effects on marine life during nighttime A-S gunnery exercises when visibility..., the aircraft will relocate to another target area and repeat the clearance procedures. A typical...

  3. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  4. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  5. PAH data in tissues of subsistence harvested marine mammal - Determination of PAH baseline values in tissues from subsistence-harvested marine mammals on the North Slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past 15 years, high quality marine mammal tissue and fluid samples collected by subsistence hunters in the North Slope region of Alaska have been archived...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and

  7. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... December 31, 2010; and Russian River Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental...

  8. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan; and Feasibility of Alternatives to the Goat Rock State...

  9. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  10. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training operations at... Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations at Eglin Air Force... and the Issuance of Letters of Authorization to Take Marine Mammals, by Level B Harassment, Incidental...

  11. Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of airguns in Antarctic waters (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittekind, D.; Tougaard, J.; Stilz, P.; Dähne, M.; Lucke, K.; Clark, C.W.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Ainslie, M.A.; Siebert, U.

    2013-01-01

    Functional marine mammal acoustic communication evolved under natural ambient noise levels, which makes communication vulnerable to intense, anthropogenic noise sources. We consider the potential long-range reduction effects of airgun noise on marine mammal communication range. During the

  12. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  13. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  14. 75 FR 77617 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... functions, such as orientation, communication, finding prey, and avoiding predators, marine mammals that... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the San Francisco... California. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal...

  15. Rescue, rehabilitation, and release of marine mammals: An analysis of current views and practices.

    OpenAIRE

    St. Aubin, David J.; Geraci, Joseph R.; Lounsbury, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    Stranded marine mammals have long attracted public attention. Those that wash up dead are, for all their value to science, seldom seen by the public as more than curiosities. Animals that are sick, injured, orphaned or abandoned ignite a different response. Generally, public sentiment supports any effort to rescue, treat and return them to sea. Institutions displaying marine mammals showed an early interest in live-stranded animals as a source of specimens -- in 1948, Marine Studios in...

  16. Tracking Dietary Sources of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine Mammals through a Subtropical Marine Food Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Chen, Hui; Du, Bibai; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-09-05

    Our previous study revealed an elevated accumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in marine mammals from Hong Kong waters in the South China Sea. To examine the bioaccumulation potential and biomagnification in these apex predators, we sampled the dietary items of marine mammals and tracked the sources of SCCPs and MCCPs through a marine food web in this region. Sixteen fish species, seven crustacean species, and four mollusk species were collected, and the main prey species were identified for two species of marine mammals. Concentrations of ∑SCCPs and ∑MCCPs in these collected species suggested a moderate pollution level in Hong Kong waters compared to the global range. Lipid content was found to mediate congener-specific bioaccumulation in these marine species. Significantly positive correlations were observed between trophic levels and concentrations of ∑SCCPs or ∑MCCPs (p mammals was observed. This is the first report of dietary source tracking of SCCPs and MCCPs in marine mammals. The elevated biomagnification between prey and marine mammals raises environmental concerns about these contaminants.

  17. 75 FR 45527 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., Effects of Sound on Hearing of Marine Animals, and Passive Acoustic Detection, Classification, and.... 0907281180-0269-02] RIN 0648-AX90 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  18. Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

  19. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Selig

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ. Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

  20. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and at least 200 yards (183 m) from marine mammals other than whales, and avoid approaching animals...) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) environmental information associated with... of marine animals. These transect data will provide an opportunity to collect data of marine mammals...

  2. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  3. MONITORING SEABIRDS AND MARINE MAMMALS BY GEOREFERENCED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by

  4. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  5. Seabird, fish, marine mammal and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, July 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — We conducted a survey of seabirds, fishes, marine mammals and oceanographic conditions near the Pribilof Islands, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiˆglaˆx during 20-26...

  6. 75 FR 61432 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Parsons Slough...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... on Marine Mammals Sound is a physical phenomenon consisting of minute vibrations that travel through... free-ranging subjects may have been more tolerant of exposures because of motivation to return to a...

  7. YIP Expansion: Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds Applied Research Laboratory The Pennsylvania State...relatively stereotyped calls, commonly considered types of automatic detection include spectrogram correlation and matched filtering. Spectrogram

  8. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Roman

    Full Text Available It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.

  9. 78 FR 42653 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... defines a strategic stock of marine mammals as a stock: (1) For which the level of direct human-caused... Whales, Eubalaena australis. Behaviour 88(1/2):42-60. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED...

  10. Strandings of Marine Mammals in Alabama from 16 Dec 1978 - 31 Dec 2015 (NCEI Accession 0117461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information about marine mammal strandings documented in Alabama waters between 1978 and 2015. Data include identity, size, condition, sex, and...

  11. NODC Standard Product: Gulf of Mexico hydrographic data and marine mammal data (NODC Accession 0095924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM was produced in cooperation with the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Department of Oceanography. It includes hydrographic and marine mammal sighting...

  12. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ecology of selected marine communities in Glacier Bay: Zooplankton, forage fish, seabirds and marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Anson, Jennifer Marie; Abookire, Alisa A.; Bodkin, James L.; Hooge, Philip N.; Speckman, Suzann G.

    2003-01-01

    We studied oceanography (including primary production), secondary production, small schooling fish (SSF), and marine bird and mammal predators in Glacier Bay during 1999 and 2000. Results from these field efforts were combined with a review of current literature relating to the Glacier Bay environment. Since the conceptual model developed by Hale and Wright (1979) ‘changes and cycles’ continue to be the underlying theme of the Glacier Bay ecosystem. We found marked seasonality in many of the parameters that we investigated over the two years of research, and here we provide a comprehensive description of the distribution and relative abundance of a wide array of marine biota. Glacier Bay is a tidally mixed estuary that leads into basins, which stratify in summer, with the upper arms behaving as traditional estuaries. The Bay is characterized by renewal and mixing events throughout the year, and markedly higher primary production than in many neighboring southeast Alaska fjords (Hooge and Hooge, 2002). Zooplankton diversity and abundance within the upper 50 meters of the water column in Glacier Bay is similar to communities seen throughout the Gulf of Alaska. Zooplankton in the lower regions of Glacier Bay peak in abundance in late May or early June, as observed at Auke Bay and in the Gulf of Alaska. The key distinction between the lower Bay and other estuaries in the Gulf of Alaska is that a second smaller peak in densities occurs in August. The upper Bay behaved uniformly in temporal trends, peaking in July. Densities had begun to decline in August, but were still more than twice those observed in that region in May. The highest density of zooplankton observed was 17,870 organisms/m3 in Tarr Inlet during July. Trends in zooplankton community abundance and diversity within the lower Bay were distinct from upper-Glacier Bay trends. Whereas the lower Bay is strongly influenced by Gulf of Alaska processes, local processes are the strongest influence in the upper

  14. 76 FR 34656 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... revised application from the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  15. Detection Classification and Localisation of Marine Mammals Using the Passive Acoustic Capabilities of an LFAS System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, M.K.; IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Beerens, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide a concern is emerging about the influence of man-made sound on marine life and more particularly marine mammals, who fully depend on sound in their natural behaviour. High power active sonars systems like Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFAS) are at stake. These systems, designed for long

  16. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Samarra, F.I.P.; Beerens, S.P.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the

  17. 77 FR 14736 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for Fishermen's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), Fishermen's would report... animals. Population trends for all U.S. stocks of harbor porpoises are currently unknown. Gulf of Maine... earthquakes, and animals are natural sound sources throughout the marine environment. Marine mammals produce...

  18. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  19. 77 FR 38587 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, one-year, Incidental... as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico. Northern elephant seals spend much of the year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We...

  20. Some examples of marine mammal 'discomfort thresholds' in relation to man-made noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, W.C.; Kastelein, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life and particularly on marine mammals and fish. One of the acoustic polluters of the world’s oceans is high-power active sonar, but also pile driving and seismic activities at sea are of concern with respect to animal

  1. 78 FR 60852 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be close enough to be exposed to high... sighting; (6) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) when in relation to... animal. In addition, the reports will include an estimate of the number and species of marine mammals...

  2. 77 FR 43238 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... which case the animal's hearing threshold will recover over time (Southall et al. 2007). Since marine... et al. 2002). However, in order for marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals have to be... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training...

  3. 76 FR 7156 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... whale. If no marine mammals are seen by the observer in that time it would be assumed that the animal... of marine animals sighted; (7) Direction of travel; (8) Environmental information associated with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the San Francisco...

  4. 78 FR 2371 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the East Span of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... which case the animal's hearing threshold will recover over time (Southall et al. 2007). Since marine... re 1 [mu]Pa (RMS) at 1 m. However, in order for marine mammals to experience TTS or PTS, the animals... numbers of marine mammals observed, time and location of observation and behavior of the animal. In...

  5. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... effects that confined blasting can have on marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual... Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations... Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps of...

  6. Breaking Through Barriers for Participatory Marine Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, P.; Wheeler, L.

    2016-02-01

    Marine scientists and influential members of the diving community are realizing that ecology, like politics, is local and we need to be more proactive to promote conservation where we live and wherever we go in the marine world. Scientists can no longer simply pursue pure "loading dock" science because ocean degradation is accelerating and soon there may be little or nothing to study. This is especially acute in the tropics where fragile terrestrial and marine landscapes are coming under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Clearly it is in everyone's best interests to do what we can to protect and restore tropical ecosystems. We work to create a growing community of eco-divers and land-based members who are actively involved in local watershed and coral reef cleanup dives, international outreach expeditions, and watershed awareness. Our operating principle is based on the concept that people feel connected when they get involved in a cause they are passionate about. The transcending simplicity of active participation, working together for a cause beyond an immediate goal, empowers people to change the world. Our activities strive to inspire K-12 and beyond to become stewards of the ocean, which translates to the planet. We will describe three active projects in Bali, Belize, and Hawaii that blend science and sociology. This fusion of scientific and sport diving for reef conservation based on the tenets that: 1. Local actions can help prevent losses from local threats, which builds resilience to larger scale stress. 2. The action plan must be guided by good scientific knowledge and the Precautionary Principle. 3. There must be clear solutions that are economically viable without depleting the "resource". 4. The knowledge must be shared with locals who can effect real sociological changes. 5. Cultural sustainability means that "progress" cannot destroy culture and intergenerational equity. 6. Allow the ecological infrastructure to function in a near-intact condition.

  7. Diving physiology of seabirds and marine mammals: Relevance, challenges and some solutions for field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russel D; Enstipp, Manfred R

    2016-12-01

    To fully understand how diving seabirds and marine mammals balance the potentially conflicting demands of holding their breath while living their lives underwater (and maintaining physiological homeostasis during exercise, feeding, growth, and reproduction), physiological studies must be conducted with animals in their natural environments. The purpose of this article is to review the importance of making physiological measurements on diving animals in field settings, while acknowledging the challenges and highlighting some solutions. The most extreme divers are great candidates for study, especially in a comparative and mechanistic context. However, physiological data are also required of a wide range of species for problems relating to other disciplines, in particular ecology and conservation biology. Physiological data help with understanding and predicting the outcomes of environmental change, and the direct impacts of anthropogenic activities. Methodological approaches that have facilitated the development of field-based diving physiology include the isolated diving hole protocol and the translocation paradigm, and while there are many techniques for remote observation, animal-borne biotelemetry, or "biologging", has been critical. We discuss issues related to the attachment of instruments, the retrieval of data and sensing of physiological variables, while also considering negative impacts of tagging. This is illustrated with examples from a variety of species, and an in-depth look at one of the best studied and most extreme divers, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). With a variety of approaches and high demand for data on the physiology of diving seabirds and marine mammals, the future of field studies is bright. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ruggedized Portable Instrumentation Package for Marine Mammal Evoked Potential Hearing Measurements (DURIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology,Marine Mammal...Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology P.O. Box 1106 Kailua, Hawaii 96734 phone: (808) 247-5297 fax: (808) 247-5831 email: nachtiga...portable equipment was used at the Hilo Stranding Center to obtain the audiograms. Ready and available for RIMPAC excercises. 2 IMPACT

  9. Wind turbine underwater noise and marine mammals : implications of current knowledge and data needs

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, P T; Wahlberg, M; Tougaard, J; Lucke, K; Tyack, Peter Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    The demand for renewable energy has led to construction of offshore wind farms with high-power turbines, and many more wind farms are being planned for the shallow waters of the world's marine habitats. The growth of offshore wind farms has raised concerns about their impact on the marine environment. Marine mammals use sound for foraging, orientation and communication and are therefore possibly susceptible to negative effects of man-made noise generated from constructing and operating large ...

  10. Alignment between values of dryland pastoralists and conservation needs for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Jane; Pavey, Chris R

    2017-04-01

    Policies for conservation outside protected areas, such as those designed to address the decline in Australian mammals, will not result in net improvements unless they address barriers to proenvironmental behavior. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore potential value-action gaps (disconnects between values and subsequent action) for small mammal conservation behaviors among pastoralists in dryland Australia. Using semistructured surveys and open-ended interviews (n = 43), we explored values toward small mammals; uptake of a range of current and intended actions that may provide benefit to small mammals; and potential perceived barriers to their uptake. Pastoralists assigned great conservation value to small mammals; over 80% (n = 36) agreed to strongly agreed that small mammals on their property were important. These values did not translate into stated willingness to engage in voluntary cessation of wild-dog control (r 2 = 0.187, p = 0.142, n = 43). However, assigning great conservation value to small mammals was strongly related to stated voluntary willingness to engage in the proenvironmental behavior most likely to result in benefits to small mammals: cat and fox control (r 2 = 0.558, p = 0.000, n = 43). There was no significant difference between stated voluntarily and incentivized willingness to engage in cat and fox control (p = 0.862, n = 43). The high levels of willingness to engage in voluntary cat and fox control highlight a potential entry point for addressing Australia's mammal declines because the engagement of pastoralists in conservation programs targeting cat and fox control is unlikely to be prevented by attitudinal constraints. Qualitative data suggest there is likely a subpopulation of pastoralists who value small mammals but do not wish to engage in formal conservation programs due to relational barriers with potential implementers. A long-term commitment to engagement with pastoralists by implementers will thus be necessary for

  11. Marine mammal distribution in the open ocean: a comparison of ocean color data products and levant time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohern, J.

    2016-02-01

    Marine mammals are generally located in areas of enhanced surface primary productivity, though they may forage much deeper within the water column and higher on the food chain. Numerous studies over the past several decades have utilized ocean color data from remote sensing instruments (CZCS, MODIS, and others) to asses both the quantity and time scales over which surface primary productivity relates to marine mammal distribution. In areas of sustained upwelling, primary productivity may essentially grow in the secondary levels of productivity (the zooplankton and nektonic species on which marine mammals forage). However, in many open ocean habitats a simple trophic cascade does not explain relatively short time lags between enhanced surface productivity and marine mammal presence. Other dynamic features that entrain prey or attract marine mammals may be responsible for the correlations between marine mammals and ocean color. In order to investigate these features, two MODIS (moderate imaging spectroradiometer) data products, the concentration as well as the standard deviation of surface chlorophyll were used in conjunction with marine mammal sightings collected within Ecuadorian waters. Time lags between enhanced surface chlorophyll and marine mammal presence were on the order of 2-4 weeks, however correlations were much stronger when the standard deviation of spatially binned images was used, rather than the chlorophyll concentrations. Time lags also varied between Balaenopterid and Odontocete cetaceans. Overall, the standard deviation of surface chlorophyll proved a useful tool for assessing potential relationships between marine mammal sightings and surface chlorophyll.

  12. Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Savirina, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches is not unusual. However, there appears to be no single cause for this, with several causes being probable, such as starvation, contact with humans (for example boat strike or entanglement with fishing gear), disease, and parasitism. We evaluated marine mammal stranding off the Washington and Oregon coasts and looked at offshore earthquakes as a possible contributing factor. Our analysis showed that offshore earthquakes did not make marine mammals more likely to strand. We also analysed a subset of data from the north of Washington State and found that non-adult animals made up a large proportion of stranded animals, and for dead animals the commonest cause of death was disease, traumatic injury, or starvation. Abstract The causes of marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches are not well understood, but may relate to topography, currents, wind, water temperature, disease, toxic algal blooms, and anthropogenic activity. Offshore earthquakes are a source of intense sound and disturbance and could be a contributing factor to stranding probability. We tested the hypothesis that the probability of marine mammal stranding events on the coasts of Washington and Oregon, USA is increased by the occurrence of offshore earthquakes in the nearby Cascadia subduction zone. The analysis carried out here indicated that earthquakes are at most, a very minor predictor of either single, or large (six or more animals) stranding events, at least for the study period and location. We also tested whether earthquakes inhibit stranding and again, there was no link. Although we did not find a substantial association of earthquakes with strandings in this study, it is likely that there are many factors influencing stranding of marine mammals and a single cause is unlikely to be responsible. Analysis of a subset of data for which detailed descriptions were available showed that most live stranded animals were pups, calves, or

  13. 78 FR 42935 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... permit has been issued to Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of... captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...

  14. 78 FR 21112 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... hereby given that (1) Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P... (Pseudorca crassidens) maintained in captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...

  15. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  16. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: An Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic and cultural dependence on the marine environment in Oceania and a rapidly expanding human population, many marine species populations are in decline and may be vulnerable to extinction from a number of local and regional threats. IUCN Red List assessments, a widely used system for quantifying threats to species and assessing species extinction risk, have been completed for 1190 marine species in Oceania to date, including all known species of corals, mangroves, seagrasses, sea snakes, marine mammals, sea birds, sea turtles, sharks, and rays present in Oceania, plus all species in five important perciform fish groups. Many of the species in these groups are threatened by the modification or destruction of coastal habitats, overfishing from direct or indirect exploitation, pollution, and other ecological or environmental changes associated with climate change. Spatial analyses of threatened species highlight priority areas for both site- and species-specific conservation action. Although increased knowledge and use of newly available IUCN Red List assessments for marine species can greatly improve conservation priorities for marine species in Oceania, many important fish groups are still in urgent need of assessment.

  18. Marine mammal sightings around oil and gas installations in the central North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Rahbek, Malene Louise; Roesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    288 animals were reported between May 2013 and May 2016. A total of seven marine mammal species were identified, five cetaceans: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), killer whale (Orcinus orca), pilot whales......Relatively little is known about the distribution and diversity of marine mammals around offshore anthropogenic structures. Wepresentresultsobtainedfromincidentalsightings ofmarinemammalsaroundoilandgasinstallationslocated200 kmoff the Danish coast. A total of 131 sightings corresponding to about...... (Globicephala spp.) and two species of pinnipeds: harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The most sighted species were harbour porpoise (41%) and minke whale (31%). Relative counts and biodiversity of marine mammals observed around installations corresponded well with the expected...

  19. Automated Video Surveillance for the Study of Marine Mammal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Karnowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems for detecting and tracking social marine mammals, including dolphins, can provide data to help explain their social dynamics, predict their behavior, and measure the impact of human interference. Data collected from video surveillance methods can be consistently and systematically sampled for studies of behavior, and frame-by-frame analyses can uncover insights impossible to observe from real-time, freely occurring natural behavior. Advances in boat-based, aerial, and underwater recording platforms provide opportunities to document the behavior of marine mammals and create massive datasets. The use of human experts to detect, track, identify individuals, and recognize activity in video demands significant time and financial investment. This paper examines automated methods designed to analyze large video corpora containing marine mammals. While research is converging on best solutions for some automated tasks, particularly detection and classification, many research domains are ripe for exploration.

  20. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  1. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  2. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  3. 77 FR 27189 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... information when a marine mammal is sighted: (i) Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable... about the sighting will be recorded: 1. Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable... animal(s) involved; Fate of the animal(s); and Photographs or video footage of the animal(s) (if...

  4. 78 FR 22239 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... the vicinity of the array), in a constant-velocity half space (infinite homogeneous ocean layer... behavior, as well as sea state, weather conditions, and light levels. The detectability of marine mammals... observation platform, the eye level would be approximately 21.5 m (70.5 ft) above sea level, and the observer...

  5. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...is to develop methods to estimate marine mamal tissue compartment sizes, and tissue gas solubility. We aim to improve the data available for the

  6. 78 FR 19446 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... numerous problems with the new verbiage trying to estimate the number of animals either entangled or... PBR (the maximum number of animals, not including natural mortality, that may be removed from a marine... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC062 Marine...

  7. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal Protection Act... whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and... report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http...

  8. A critique of the UK's JNCC seismic survey guidelines for minimising acoustic disturbance to marine mammals: Best practise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, E.C.M.; Dolman, Sarah J.; Jasny, Michael; Rose, Naomi A.; Simmonds, Mark P.; Wright, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The United Kingdom's statutory conservation agency, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), developed guidelines in 1995 to minimise acoustic disturbance of marine mammals by oil and gas industry seismic surveys. These were the first national guidelines to be developed and have subsequently become the standard, or basis, of international mitigation measures for noise pollution during seismic surveys. However, relatively few aspects of these measures have a firm scientific basis or proven efficacy. Existing guidelines do not offer adequate protection to marine mammals, given the complex propagation of airgun pulses; the difficulty of monitoring in particular the smaller, cryptic, and/or deep-diving species, such as beaked whales and porpoises; limitations in monitoring requirements; lack of baseline data; and other biological and acoustical complications or unknowns. Current guidelines offer a 'common sense' approach to noise mitigation, but in light of recent research and ongoing concerns, they should be updated, with broader measures needed to ensure adequate species protection and to address data gaps.

  9. Status and Conservation Possibilities of Papua New Guinea’s Terrestrial Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of Papua New Guinea’s terrestrial mammals is revised according to their geographical distribution,life history characteristics, and current conservation plans and legislation. Considering their uniqueness andthreatening factors, their appropriate management is critical to achieve sustainable development in the country.Concerning marsupial species no one has been yet domesticated, there is no organized breeding and theirnatural productivity is generally lower than ruminants. Their conservation status is related to their size assmaller species are usually more prolific, less conspicuous, and less preferred by hunters. Differences onevolutionary ecology between families are discussed, and recommendations are given for the assessment andfurther conservation of vulnerable species. Conservation programs must go alongside with rural livelihoodsimprovement through ecotourism, food security, and marketing of non timber forest products.Keywords: terrestrial mammal, marsupial spesies, conservation status, Papua New Guinea

  10. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones ( glucocorticoids ...either cortisol or corticosterone) are easily measured in blood and are an important measure of stress. However, a large proportion of glucocorticoids ...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid ” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  11. Marine Mammals and Climate Change in the Pacific Arctic: Impacts & Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme reductions in Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have become a hallmark of climate change, but impacts to the marine ecosystem are poorly understood. As top predators, marine mammals must adapt to biological responses to physical forcing and thereby become sentinels to ecosystem variability and reorganization. Recent sea ice retreats have influenced the ecology of marine mammals in the Pacific Arctic sector. Walruses now often haul out by the thousands along the NW Alaska coast in late summer, and reports of harbor porpoise, humpback, fin and minke whales in the Chukchi Sea demonstrate that these temperate species routinely occur there. In 2010, satellite tagged bowhead whales from Atlantic and Pacific populations met in the Northwest Passage, an overlap thought precluded by sea ice since the Holocene. To forage effectively, baleen whales must target dense patches of zooplankton and small fishes. In the Pacific Arctic, bowhead and gray whales appear to be responding to enhanced prey availability delivered both by new production and advection pathways. Two programs, the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR), include tracking of marine mammal and prey species' responses to ecosystem shifts associated with sea ice loss. Both programs provide an integrated-ecosystem baseline in support of the development of a web-based Marine Mammal Health Map, envisioned as a component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). An overarching goal is to identify ecological patterns for marine mammals in the 'new' Arctic, as a foundation for integrative research, local response and adaptive management.

  12. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  13. 77 FR 33199 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Technology, Silver Spring, MD, (Brandon Southall, Ph.D.--Principal Investigator) for research on marine...) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered species; and (3) is consistent with the...

  14. 76 FR 63609 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... permit has been issued to David Honig, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine... incidental harassment of animals would occur. The permit is valid for five years from the date of issuance...

  15. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... following locations: Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315... from the requirement to prepare an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement. As...

  16. Review Paper Trends in tagging of marine mammals: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of scientific papers resulting from biologging instruments deployed on marine mammals is increasing as improved technologies result in smaller devices and improved sensor-, storage- and transmission capabilities. I undertook a comprehensive review of papers resulting from biologging deployments on ...

  17. 75 FR 61426 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... disturb normal marine mammal behaviors (e.g., feeding, social interactions), mask calls from conspecifics..., the 1,000-meter EZ will remain in place. Triggers and protocol for pile driving shut down for this... Driving Shut-down and Delay Triggers and Procedures At least one protected species observer (PSO...

  18. A List of the Marine Mammals of the World. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Dale W.

    This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration publication lists 116 species of living and recently extinct marine mammals of the world. Included are 36 species of Order Carnivora (polar bear, sea otter, and 34 pinnipeds); 5 species of Order Sirenia; 10 of Order Mysticeti (baleen whales); and 65 species of Order Odontoceti (tooth whales).…

  19. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... pot fishery for the CA/OR/WA fin and sperm whale stocks. Response: NMFS agrees and is issuing the... individuals of three stocks of marine mammals listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species...) and the incidental, but not intentional, taking of individuals from one stock by the Washington/Oregon...

  20. 78 FR 23910 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Orcas Island and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... wounded animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), WSDOT shall report... that relatively few animals are likely to be within the immediate vicinity of the terminals; thus, NMFS... animals (WSDOT 2012). In addition, we expect marine mammals will avoid areas of high intensity noise...

  1. 78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... or related to the activities authorized in the IHA (e.g., previously wounded animal, carcass with... marine mammal moves outside of the exclusion zone or if the animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes... animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes. Soft-start Procedures A ``soft-start'' technique will be...

  2. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. George Island, Traditional Council (Council) petitioned... St. George Island to take male fur seal young of the year during the fall. NMFS solicits public...

  3. 77 FR 59377 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... of five times per year. To conduct the census, the researchers would travel by foot approximately 1... order to implement the mitigation measures that require real-time monitoring, and to satisfy the... marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) of the Act establishes a 45-day time limit for our...

  4. 78 FR 54867 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Level A Stranding and... governments; not-for-profit institutions; business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of... collection; they also will become a matter of public record. Dated: August 30, 2013. Gwellnar Banks...

  5. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  6. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebjørg H Nymo

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  7. Acoustic Response and Detection of Marine Mammals Using an Advanced Digital Acoustic Recording Tag(Rev 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-13

    the SERDP program. With the reduced size and weight of the new tag as compared to the original design, less flotation was required resulting in a...Plenary Meeting of Marine Mammal Commission Federal Advisory Committee on Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals, Silver Spring Maryland, April 19-21...2002. Mass stranding of beaked whales in the Galapagos Islands, April 2000. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring. Harwood, J. 2000 Risk

  8. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  9. Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadamus, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them. To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions. Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat. Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also

  10. Conservation priorities for mammals in megadiverse Mexico: the efficiency of reserve networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo

    2007-03-01

    A major goal of conservation biologists is to identify critical areas for the conservation of biological diversity and then strategically include them in an efficient system of reserves. In general, however, reserve networks have been selected for different objectives, and most countries lack an evaluation of their reserves' ability to represent a percentage of the national diversity. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a network of reserves to represent the species of mammals in Mexico. The focus of the analyses is on species and site level, evaluating the representation of all terrestrial mammals in the 30 most important reserves. The representation of all species, endemic species, endangered species, and species with restricted distributions in the reserves was assessed and compared. Endemic or endangered species with restricted distributions were expected to be less represented in reserves than were widespread species. The most important reserves for the conservation of mammals were determined with the use of complementarity analyses. Priority sites for the representation of all the species currently absent from the reserve network were then selected. The results have broad applications for conservation. First, 82% of the mammal species from Mexico were represented in the reserve network, which covers a small portion (3.8%) of the country. Second, this percentage is certainly larger as several reserves were not evaluated due to a lack of data. A priority for a national conservation strategy could be to conduct biological surveys in those reserves lacking inventories to evaluate their contribution to conservation. Third, in spite of its demonstrated value, Mexico's reserve network can be improved by designating complementary areas. Additional priority sites, where reserves are required to represent most gap species in the network, were identified. Finally, it is clear that this reserve network has limitations for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem

  11. Kelp-Fed Beef, Swimming Caribou, Feral Reindeer, and Their Hunters: Island Mammals in a Marine Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Reedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula residents have selectively introduced land mammals to their primarily marine based economy over the past two centuries. This paper describes these many introductions, contexts, and the longer term roles of these cattle, sheep, reindeer, and other land mammals in discrete island settings and the regional food economy based upon interviews in ten communities and comprehensive household surveys in eight of these. Caribou are indigenous and traditionally hunted in other parts of the state but are legally “invasive” in island contexts now managed by the federal government. Access to land and natural resources by Alaska Natives and rural peoples is regulated by state and federal agencies, but Aleutian residents have shaped their environment and engineered food sources to support their communities. This paper demonstrates that hardline approaches to removing invasive land mammal species will have human consequences and an integrated management policy emphasizing food security and conservation that includes reducing the density of these introduced species is most appropriate.

  12. Biochemical genetics in marine fisheries management and conservation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    - 403004 NBDBlDBTSponsored Training on Taxonomy, GOIdia turd Gme Bturking o/Coastal and Marine Bloresources, CIFE, Mumbal BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS IN MARINE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION Maria R. Menezes Introduction . Species of fish, like most... population structure may have evolved and been maintained in species of fish ofeconomic interest has led to the concept of 'stock'. The stock concept dominates much of marine fisheries management, theory and practice because the identification of discrete...

  13. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.; Astrup, J.; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  14. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E; Astrup, J; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  15. 76 FR 53884 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... disruption of natural behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, surfacing, nursing... pinnipeds), by harassment, incidental to upcoming training, testing, and routine military operations (all... states that these training, testing, and routine military activities may expose some of the marine...

  16. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...) consist of multiple animals and animals such as beluga whales often travel in groups. There were 731... MARAD complied with this requirement by assembling a monitoring team from the Alaska Pacific University... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 600 hours of scientific...

  17. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... monitoring team from the Alaska Pacific University (APU) to implement a NMFS-approved scientific monitoring..., from May 4 through November 18, 2009, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students..., comprising 54 groups, and one harbor seal traveling through the study area. Spatial distribution analysis...

  18. Is arsenobetaine the major arsenic compound in the liver of birds marine mammals, and sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, R.; Kunito, T.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in the livers of birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles by using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) and high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Marine mammals feeding on cephalopods and crustaceans accumulated higher arsenic concentrations than the species feeding on fishes. No significant age and gender differences in arsenic concentrations were observed for most of the species of marine mammals. Elevated total arsenic concentrations were found in livers of black-footed albatross and loggerhead turtles and these values were comparable to those of lower trophic marine animals. Arsenobetaine was the major arsenical in the livers of most of the species examined. Particularly, in seabirds, mean proportions of arsenobetaine was more than90% of total extractable arsenic In contast, arsenobetaine was a minor constituent in dugong. The compositions of arsenic compounds were different among the species examined. These results might be due to the differences in the metabolic capacity among species and/or the different compositions of arsenic compounds in their preys.

  19. 75 FR 29316 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13599

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...; fax (301) 713-0376; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, Florida 33701... the Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division, at the address listed above. Comments may... black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  20. 77 FR 13562 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14241

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... the permit, July 31, 2014. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C.... Documents may be reviewed in the following locations: Permits and Conservation Division, Office of Protected... Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701; phone (727) 824-5312; fax (727...

  1. 76 FR 28421 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15646

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...- 4018; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, Florida 33701; phone (727..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be submitted... duration of the import permit is 5 years. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  2. 77 FR 26513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15777

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...; fax (978) 281-9394; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701... the Chief, Permits and Conservation Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be... compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), an initial...

  3. 75 FR 16077 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15430

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...) 713-0376; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701; phone (727..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be submitted... with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), an initial determination...

  4. 78 FR 7755 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17754

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...)713-0376; and Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701; phone (727..., Permits and Conservation Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be submitted by... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), an initial determination has been made that the activity proposed...

  5. 76 FR 51001 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Southeast Region, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701; phone (727) 824-5312; fax (727..., Conservation and Education Division, at the address listed above. Comments may also be submitted by facsimile... in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), to examine...

  6. 77 FR 38587 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... appointment in the following offices: Permits and Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS... restraint of pups in the eastern Distinct Population Segment (eDPS) and western DPS (wDPS); capture of adult... have a significant adverse impact on the human environment. As required by the ESA, issuance of this...

  7. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Alejandro Acevedo- Guti[eacute]rrez, Ph.D., Biology Department, Western Washington University, Bellingham... Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring... permit to address the interactions between humans and harbor seals in the Salish Sea, USA. They propose...

  8. 75 FR 49465 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14682

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the ESA. Documents may be reviewed in the following locations: Permits, Conservation and Education... permit will not significantly impact the quality of the human environment and that preparation of an environmental impact statement was not required. That determination is documented in a Finding of No Significant...

  9. 75 FR 30383 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14610

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG), Division of Wildlife Conservation, Juneau, AK (Principal...-7249. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tammy Adams or Carrie Hubard, (301)713-2289. SUPPLEMENTARY... abundance, stock structure, feeding areas and other important habitats, migration routes, behavior relative...

  10. 76 FR 329 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    .... Paul, St. George, Otter, and Walrus Islands, and Sea Lion Rock, all of the Pribilof Island group in the... hereby given that the Aleut Community of St. Paul Island, Tribal Government, Ecosystem Conservation..., Disentanglement, and Island Sentinel program responsibilities as established under the co-management agreement...

  11. 78 FR 42756 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Islands, and Sea Lion Rock, all of the Pribilof Island group in the Bering Sea. The amendment was to... hereby given that the Aleut Community of St. Paul Island, Tribal Government, Ecosystem Conservation Office, St. Paul Island, AK, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 14330-01...

  12. 78 FR 23908 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... and Southern Oceans. Methods to be used include suction cup tagging, acoustic playbacks, passive... macrocephalus), and southern right (Eubalaena australis) whales, as well as 31 cetacean species that are not... Scientific Advisors. Documents may be reviewed in the following locations: Permits and Conservation Division...

  13. A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Castley, J Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥ 5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥ 15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species.

  14. A Population Accounting Approach to Assess Tourism Contributions to Conservation of IUCN-Redlisted Mammal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C.; Castley, J. Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C.; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species. PMID:22984467

  15. A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥ 5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥ 15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species.

  16. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  17. Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...

  18. Adaptive evolution of conserved noncoding elements in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Kim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Conserved noncoding elements (CNCs are an abundant feature of vertebrate genomes. Some CNCs have been shown to act as cis-regulatory modules, but the function of most CNCs remains unclear. To study the evolution of CNCs, we have developed a statistical method called the "shared rates test" to identify CNCs that show significant variation in substitution rates across branches of a phylogenetic tree. We report an application of this method to alignments of 98,910 CNCs from the human, chimpanzee, dog, mouse, and rat genomes. We find that approximately 68% of CNCs evolve according to a null model where, for each CNC, a single parameter models the level of constraint acting throughout the phylogeny linking these five species. The remaining approximately 32% of CNCs show departures from the basic model including speed-ups and slow-downs on particular branches and occasionally multiple rate changes on different branches. We find that a subset of the significant CNCs have evolved significantly faster than the local neutral rate on a particular branch, providing strong evidence for adaptive evolution in these CNCs. The distribution of these signals on the phylogeny suggests that adaptive evolution of CNCs occurs in occasional short bursts of evolution. Our analyses suggest a large set of promising targets for future functional studies of adaptation.

  19. Conservation science for marine megafauna in Europe: Historical perspectives and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, M.; Spitz, J.; Blanck, A.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    A broad range of marine species have been named as marine megafauna, however providing a precise definition of this term is difficult. It is not a taxonomically defined group, as it includes sea mammals, birds, reptiles, large fish and elasmobranchs (Fig. 1). Overall, marine megafauna species are large vertebrates that depend on marine resources for their food. These mobile species are generally at the top of their trophic food webs and have none or few predators. From the tiny storm-petrel to the gigantic blue whale, this group is biologically diverse and brings together species which cannot be strictly defined by morphological or physiological similarities. Rather, our perception of marine megafauna as a coherent group is based on ecological similarities and shared conservation issues. These species are exposed to similar threats and generally show limited resilience due to their intrinsic life history traits such as low fecundity rates and high longevity. Consequently, they share common conservation challenges (e.g. Hooker and Gerber, 2004; Lascelles et al., 2014).

  20. Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. PMID:26549748

  1. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...will be applied also to other species such as sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (whose high source level assures long range detection and amplifies...improve the accuracy of marine mammal density estimation based on counting echolocation clicks, and will be applicable to density estimates obtained

  2. 78 FR 25958 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... stock under the MMPA. Further information on the biology and local distribution of these marine mammal... harassment, is at or above 90 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for harbor seals and at or above 100 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for... threshold for Level B harassment, is at or above 90 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for harbor seals and at or above 100...

  3. 76 FR 3095 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy Training in the Hawaii Range Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... July, MMOs also participated in a Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) to look for any live, injured, or dead..., observational effort for marine mammals was possible on both sides of the aircraft. BDA began at approximately...

  4. Detection of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. from the aquatic environment of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, C G; Matteo, M J; Loureiro, J D; Degrossi, J; Teves, S; Heredia, S Rodriguez; Alvarez, K; González, A Beltrán; Catalano, M; Boccio, J; Cremaschi, G; Solnick, J V; Zubillaga, M B

    2009-01-13

    The mechanism by which Helicobacter species are transmitted remains unclear. To examine the possible role of environmental transmission in marine mammals, we sought the presence of Helicobacter spp. and non-Helicobacter bacteria within the order Campylobacterales in water from the aquatic environment of marine mammals, and in fish otoliths regurgitated by dolphins. Water was collected from six pools, two inhabited by dolphins and four inhabited by seals. Regurgitated otoliths were collected from the bottom of dolphins' pools. Samples were evaluated by culture, PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Sequences from dolphins' water and from regurgitated otoliths clustered with 99.8-100% homology with sequences from gastric fluids, dental plaque and saliva from dolphins living in those pools, and with 99.5% homology with H. cetorum. Sequences from seals' water clustered with 99.5% homology with a sequence amplified from a Northern sea lion (AY203900). Control PCR on source water for the pools and from otoliths dissected from feeder fish were negative. The findings of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the aquatic environment suggests that contaminated water from regurgitated fish otoliths and perhaps other tissues may play a role in Helicobacter transmission among marine mammals.

  5. Passive Acoustic Monitoring of the Environmental Impact of Oil Exploration on Marine Mammals in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, Natalia A; Ackleh, Azmy S; Tiemann, Christopher O; Ma, Baoling; Ioup, Juliette W; Ioup, George E

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is a region densely populated by marine mammals that must adapt to living in a highly active industrial environment. This paper presents a new approach to quantifying the anthropogenic impact on the marine mammal population. The results for sperm and beaked whales of a case study of regional population dynamics trends after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, derived from passive acoustic-monitoring data gathered before and after the spill in the vicinity of the accident, are presented.

  6. Transforming Conflict into Effective Action: A Case Study on the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jill K.

    Like many wicked environmental problems of our time, marine sound and its potential effects on marine mammals is characterized by high levels of scientific uncertainty, diversified values across many stakeholder groups, political and regulatory complexities, and a continually evolving ecological and social environment. Further, the history of conflict and the relationships between major actors has rooted the issue firmly in identity conflict where prejudices lead to avoidance of working together. What results is continuing controversy, failed management decisions, litigation and an increasing frustration by all parties on why a better solution cannot be found. Ultimately, the intractability of the issue is not about the science, nor will the science ever tame the issue on its own. Rather, the issue is intractable because of the conflict between people about the most appropriate path forward. It is then imperative to understand, address, and transform this conflict in order to move off the decision carousel toward improved conservation outcomes and sustainable decisions for all. This research used an explanatory case study approach to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the context and reasoning underlying conflict on this issue. Three methods were used in order to triangulate the data, and thus add rigor, including: (1) a document review of 230 publications: (2) exploratory interviews with 10 collaborative action experts and semi-structured interviews with 58 marine mammals and sound stakeholders; and (3) participant review of selected analyses. Data elucidate how different stakeholder groups define the problem and potential solutions, how they see their role and view the role of other stakeholders, specific experiences that increased or decrease conflict, and design preferences for a collaborative effort. These data are combined with conflict transformation principles to provide recommendations for a collaborative, transformative framework designed to

  7. Priority conservation plans of ecological function areas for terrestrial endangered mammals in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gongqi Sun; Yi Qu; Meiqing Tang; Xiao Liu; Xiaofeng Luan

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costs and maximize species protection in China, we identified conservation priorities of endangered terrestrial mammals. Using geographic information system (GIS), we identified the irreplaceable values (IR) of 1,434 units of the terrestrial ecological function areas. Based on the IR values of the units, we divided the units into three classes with decreasing priorities, including the mandatory reserve (MR) units (20), the negotiable reserve (NR) units (29), and the partially reserv...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  9. Collapse of a marine mammal species driven by human impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Harkonen

    Full Text Available Understanding historical roles of species in ecosystems can be crucial for assessing long term human impacts on environments, providing context for management or restoration objectives, and making conservation evaluations of species status. In most cases limited historical abundance data impedes quantitative investigations, but harvested species may have long-term data accessible from hunting records. Here we make use of annual hunting records for Caspian seals (Pusa caspica dating back to the mid-19(th century, and current census data from aerial surveys, to reconstruct historical abundance using a hind-casting model. We estimate the minimum numbers of seals in 1867 to have been 1-1.6 million, but the population declined by at least 90% to around 100,000 individuals by 2005, primarily due to unsustainable hunting throughout the 20(th century. This collapse is part of a broader picture of catastrophic ecological change in the Caspian over the 20(th Century. Our results combined with fisheries data show that the current biomass of top predators in the Caspian is much reduced compared to historical conditions. The potential for the Caspian and other similar perturbed ecosystems to sustain natural resources of much greater biological and economic value than at present depends on the extent to which a number of anthropogenic impacts can be harnessed.

  10. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating the potential use of environmental DNA (eDNA for genetic monitoring of marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available The exploitation of non-invasive samples has been widely used in genetic monitoring of terrestrial species. In aquatic ecosystems, non-invasive samples such as feces, shed hair or skin, are less accessible. However, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been shown to be an effective tool for genetic monitoring of species presence in freshwater ecosystems. Detecting species in the marine environment using eDNA potentially offers a greater challenge due to the greater dilution, amount of mixing and salinity compared with most freshwater ecosystems. To determine the potential use of eDNA for genetic monitoring we used specific primers that amplify short mitochondrial DNA sequences to detect the presence of a marine mammal, the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in a controlled environment and in natural marine locations. The reliability of the genetic detections was investigated by comparing with detections of harbor porpoise echolocation clicks by static acoustic monitoring devices. While we were able to consistently genetically detect the target species under controlled conditions, the results from natural locations were less consistent and detection by eDNA was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species detection of marine mammals.

  12. Environmental impact assessment. Investigation of marine mammals in relation to the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    Elsamproject has decided to carry out an environmental impact assessment with the aim to investigate whether the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef may impact on breeding and non-breeding marine mammals, particularly harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and common seal Phoca vitulina. The marine mammals of the northern part of the German Bight can be characterised by a regular occurrence of harbour porpoise and common seal throughout the year, an irregular occurrence of grey seal Halichoerus grypus and white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and rare occurrences of white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. The environment impact assessment therefore focuses on the evaluation of the possible effects on harbour porpoise and common seal. The investigation constitutes the first phase of a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of the occurrence of harbour porpoise before, during and after the construction of the wind farm. (au)

  13. Brucella Genetic Variability in Wildlife Marine Mammals Populations Relates to Host Preference and Ocean Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Baker, Kate S; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Cloeckaert, Axel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2017-07-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens probably arose when their ancestor adapted from a free-living environment to an intracellular one, leading to clonal bacteria with smaller genomes and less sources of genetic plasticity. Still, this plasticity is needed to respond to the challenges posed by the host. Members of the Brucella genus are facultative-extracellular intracellular bacteria responsible for causing brucellosis in a variety of mammals. The various species keep different host preferences, virulence, and zoonotic potential despite having 97-99% similarity at genome level. Here, we describe elements of genetic variation in Brucella ceti isolated from wildlife dolphins inhabiting the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison with isolates obtained from marine mammals from the Atlantic Ocean and the broader Brucella genus showed distinctive traits according to oceanic distribution and preferred host. Marine mammal isolates display genetic variability, represented by an important number of IS711 elements as well as specific IS711 and SNPs genomic distribution clustering patterns. Extensive pseudogenization was found among isolates from marine mammals as compared with terrestrial ones, causing degradation in pathways related to energy, transport of metabolites, and regulation/transcription. Brucella ceti isolates infecting particularly dolphin hosts, showed further degradation of metabolite transport pathways as well as pathways related to cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis and motility. Thus, gene loss through pseudogenization is a source of genetic variation in Brucella, which in turn, relates to adaptation to different hosts. This is relevant to understand the natural history of bacterial diseases, their zoonotic potential, and the impact of human interventions such as domestication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  15. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Johanna; Arponen, Anni; Visconti, Piero; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-09-27

    Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

  16. Marine mammal fauna of potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal, an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale. The spinner dolphin and the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  17. THE MARINE MAMMAL FAUNA OF POTENTIAL OTEC SITES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HAWAII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is Tursiops truncatus, the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, Stenella plagiodon, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Stenella longirostris, the spinner dolphin; and Tursiops sp., the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  18. The impact of predation by marine mammals on patagonian toothfish longline fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Söffker

    Full Text Available Predatory interaction of marine mammals with longline fisheries is observed globally, leading to partial or complete loss of the catch and in some parts of the world to considerable financial loss. Depredation can also create additional unrecorded fishing mortality of a stock and has the potential to introduce bias to stock assessments. Here we aim to characterise depredation in the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides fishery around South Georgia focusing on the spatio-temporal component of these interactions. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus, and orcas (Orcinus orca frequently feed on fish hooked on longlines around South Georgia. A third of longlines encounter sperm whales, but loss of catch due to sperm whales is insignificant when compared to that due to orcas, which interact with only 5% of longlines but can take more than half of the catch in some cases. Orca depredation around South Georgia is spatially limited and focused in areas of putative migration routes, and the impact is compounded as a result of the fishery also concentrating in those areas at those times. Understanding the seasonal behaviour of orcas and the spatial and temporal distribution of "depredation hot spots" can reduce marine mammal interactions, will improve assessment and management of the stock and contribute to increased operational efficiency of the fishery. Such information is valuable in the effort to resolve the human-mammal conflict for resources.

  19. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  1. The role of DNA barcodes in understanding and conservation of mammal diversity in southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning.

  2. 76 FR 38621 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... mammal is sighted: (i) Species, group size, age/size/sex categories (if determinable), behavior when...) involved; Fate of the animal(s); and Photographs or video footage of the animal(s) (if equipment is... provide photographs or video footage (if available) or other documentation of the stranded animal sighting...

  3. 75 FR 44770 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ..., adversely affect the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival.'' Section... mammals present in the action area. In summary, a typical daytime cruise would have scheduled two PSVOs on..., visibility, and sun glare. One of the primary purposes of monitoring is to result in ``increased knowledge of...

  4. Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

  5. Science Partnerships for a Sustainable Arctic: the Marine Mammal Nexus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Marine mammals are both icons of Arctic marine ecosystems and fundamental to Native subsistence nutrition and culture. Eight species are endemic to the Pacific Arctic, including the polar bear, walrus, ice seals (4 species), beluga and bowhead whales. Studies of walrus and bowheads have been conducted over the past 30 years, to estimate population size and elucidate patterns of movement and abundance. With regard to the three pillars of the SEARCH program, these long-term OBSERVATIONS provide a foundation for research seeking to UNDERSTAND and RESPOND to the effects of rapid climate change on the marine ecosystem. Specifically, research on the coastal ecosystem near Barrow, Alaska focuses on late-summer feeding habitat for bowheads in an area where whales are hunted in autumn. This work is a partnership among agency, academic and local scientists and the residents of Barrow, all of whom seek to better UNDERSTAND how recent dramatic changes in sea ice, winds and offshore industrial activities influence whale movements and behavior. In regard to RESPONDING to climate change, the nascent Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (SIWO) is a science partnership that projects sea ice and wind conditions for five villages in the Bering Strait region. The objective of the SIWO is to provide information on physical conditions in the marine environment at spatial and temporal scales relevant to walrus hunters. Marine mammals are a strong and dynamic nexus for partnerships among scientists, Arctic residents, resource managers and the general public - as such, they are essential elements to any science plan for a sustainable Arctic.

  6. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Meraz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan comentarios sobre el registro de 8 especies en la zona, incluyendo las localidades y fechas de los avistamientos. Stenella attenuata es la especie más abundante, y la zona de Zipolite-Isla Roca Blanca la localidad con el mayor número de avistamientos. Dado el crecimiento turístico del lugar, es importante contar con este tipo de registros ya que es poco lo que se sabe sobre estas especies en esta porción de la costa oaxaqueña.With the aim of documenting the species of marine mammals that occur along the central coast of Oaxaca, a list with the characteristics of the records was elaborated based on observations made throughout 30 surveys from Huatulco Bays to La Escobilla beach between June 1999 and January 2004. Additional records from stranded animals are included, as well observations from the coast. Comments on 8 species are presented, including localities and dates of sightings. Stenella attenuata is the most abundant species. Zipolite-Roca Blanca island was the locality with the highest number of sightings. This records are important to promote conservation due growth of tourism in the area, given that Oaxaca coast is poorly known regarding marine mammals.

  7. Review of scientific information on impacts of seismic sound on fish, invertebrates, marine turtles and marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, H.

    2004-09-01

    This review of scientific literature on impacts of seismic sound on aquatic organisms was initiated following a 2003 workshop to develop a decision framework for seismic survey referrals in Canadian waters. That workshop revealed that there are sources of uncertainty about the effects of seismic sound on aquatic organisms. It was determined that seismic sounds on the marine environment are not completely without consequence nor are they certain to result in serious harm. Following the workshop, and in order to clearly determine the level of risk posed by seismic sounds, teams of scientists prepared reviews of literature on experimental studies and field monitoring on the effects of seismic sound on marine organisms. Standards and mitigation methods were also reviewed. The scientific deliberations resulted in a body of information that allowed several conclusions to be reached that provide a scientific basis for developing a regulatory framework for conducting seismic surveys in marine environments. This paper presented literature highlights regarding: habitat concern; management considerations; physical and behavioural effects on fish; functional uses of sound; physical, physiological and behavioural effects on invertebrates; effects of seismic sound on zooplankton, eggs, larvae of fish and invertebrates; effect of seismic sound on marine turtles; and mortality, physical and behavioural effects on marine mammals. The literature review sought to seek if seismic sound contributed to displacement and migratory diversion; changes in dive and respiratory patterns; changes in social behaviour; and changes in vocalisation patterns. Several areas of future research needs were identified following this literature review which revealed that the long-term effects of seismic sound on marine animals remain inconclusive. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  8. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .../sex categories (if determinable); behavior when first sighted and after initial sighting; heading (if... first found, observed behaviors (if alive), and photo or video, if available. Estimated Take of Marine...

  9. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular expertise and...

  10. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals: Marine Protected Area (MPA) or marine polluted area? The case study of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Casini, Silvia; Caliani, Ilaria; Gaspari, Stefania; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begoña; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2013-05-15

    The concurrence of man-made pressures on cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea is potentially affecting population stability and marine biodiversity. This needs to be proven for the only pelagic marine protected area in the Mediterranean Sea: the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals. Here we applied a multidisciplinary tool, using diagnostic markers elaborated in a statistical model to rank toxicological stress in Mediterranean cetaceans. As a case study we analyzed persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals combined with a wide range of diagnostic markers of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants and genetic variation as marker of genetic erosion in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Finally, a statistical model was applied to obtain a complete toxicological profile of the striped dolphin in the Pelagos Sanctuary and other Mediterranean areas (Ionian Sea and Strait of Gibraltar). Here we provide the first complete evidence of the toxicological stress in cetaceans living in Pelagos Sanctuary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. © 2013.

  12. Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H. [NCCOSC, San Diego, CA (United States). RDTE Division

    1995-12-31

    Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

  13. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization.

  14. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  15. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  16. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  17. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  18. Marine mammal observations collected using aircraft by ConocoPhillips in the Chukchi Sea, 1989-1991 and submitted as part of the ConocoPhillips and Shell Joint Monitoring Program in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (NODC Accession 0120533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel- and aircraft-based marine mammal surveys in the Chukchi Sea collected from 1989 to 1991. The aerial marine mammal surveys were...

  19. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Marsh, H

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystem-scale networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools, but their effectiveness is difficult to quantify in a time frame appropriate to species conservation because of uncertainties in the data available. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a mobile marine species that occurs in shallow inshore waters of an ecosystem-scale network of MPAs (the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area [GBRWHA]). We developed a rapid approach to assess risk to dugongs in the region and evaluate options to ameliorate that risk. We used expert opinion and a Delphi technique to identify and rank 5 human factors with the potential to adversely affect dugongs and their sea grass habitats: netting, indigenous hunting, trawling, vessel traffic, and poor-quality terrestrial runoff. We then quantified and compared the distribution of these factors with a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution. We estimated that approximately 96% of habitat of high conservation value for dugongs in the GBRWHA is at low risk from human activities. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that to decrease risk, commercial netting or indigenous hunting had to be reduced in remote areas and the effects of vessel traffic, terrestrial runoff, and commercial netting had to be reduced in urban areas. This approach enabled us to compare and rank risks so as to identify the most severe risks and locate specific sites that require further management attention.

  20. A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Martin; Hudgins, Jillian; Sweet, Michael

    2016-10-15

    This review focuses on the effect that ghost gear entanglement has on marine megafauna, namely mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs. A total of 76 publications and other sources of grey literature were assessed, and these highlighted that over 5400 individuals from 40 different species were recorded as entangled in, or associated with, ghost gear. Interestingly, there appeared to be a deficit of research in the Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans; and so, we recommend that future studies focus efforts on these areas. Furthermore, studies assessing the effects of ghost gear on elasmobranchs, manatees, and dugongs should also be prioritised, as these groups were underrepresented in the current literature. The development of regional databases, capable of recording entanglement incidences following a minimum global set of criteria, would be a logical next step in order to analyse the effect that ghost gear has on megafauna populations worldwide. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals and Endangered Species; File Nos. 14245, 1596-03, and 14726-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... behavior in the Pacific Ocean between their foraging areas and nesting beaches. The modification is valid... Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans on marine mammals including endangered blue (Balaenoptera musculus.... Research activities in the Southern Ocean were withdrawn by NMML after the close of the public comment...

  2. Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittekind, Dietrich; Tougaard, Jakob; Stilz, Peter; Dähne, Michael; Clark, Christopher W.; Lucke, K.; Benda-Beckmann, von Sander; Ainslie, Michael A.; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi- continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received

  3. Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittekind, D.; Tougaard, J.; Stilz, P.; Dähne, M.; Clark, C.W.; Lucke, K.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Ainslie, M.A.; Siebert, U.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi- continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received

  4. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals--Acoustic Threshold Levels for... available in electronic form via the Internet at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/acoustics/ . You may submit...: Acoustic Guidance. Instructions: All comments received are a part of the public record and will generally...

  5. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  6. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...., previously wounded animal, carcass with moderate to advanced decomposition, or scavenger damage), the Port... activities (e.g., a fresh carcass). If additional measures are not likely to reduce the risk of additional...). Marine mammal reactions to sound may depend on sound frequency, ambient sound, what the animal is doing...

  7. 76 FR 71517 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... (for example, name, address, etc.) voluntarily submitted by the commenter may be publicly accessible... adequate observation of the proposed project area for marine mammals. Selection of explosive products and...; Acceptable rock breakage for excavation; Tolerable vibration level emitted; Directional vibration; and...

  8. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymo Ingebjørg H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.

  9. Mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in urban green spaces: implications for urban wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Fidino, Mason; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Magle, Seth B

    2017-12-01

    As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, Illinois, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates. For example, coyotes (Canis latrans) had the highest, but white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) the lowest probability of persistence in golf courses compared to other green space types. Further, most species had a difficult time colonizing city parks even when sites were seemingly available. Our results indicate that urban green spaces contribute different, but collectively important, habitats for maintaining and conserving biodiversity in cities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Exposure and potential risks of dioxins to the marine mammal Dugong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaus, C.; Mueller, J. [Univ. of Queensland, EnTox, Brisbane (Australia); Donohue, M.O. [South East Queensland Water Corp., Brisbane (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia); Haynes, D. [Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition is considered a key pathway of PCDD/F input into marine systems. However, their strong affinity for particulates can result in significant sediment/soil associated PCDD/F transport from local emissions, in particular within riverine systems. In the subtropical/tropical coastal zone of Queensland, Australia, numerous large-scale tributaries feed into shallow embayments of the near shore marine environment. This environment sustains diverse and unique ecosystems associated with the world heritage Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. These include extensive seagrass habitats providing the food source for the only strictly herbivorous marine mammal dugong (Dugong dugon). Dugongs represent the last extant species in the family Dugongidae of the order Sirenia (the latter also including three species of manatee) and are listed as vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. While Australia supports the most significant portion of the worlds remaining dugong populations, surveys have indicted a strong decline to only 3% of the population estimated in the 1960s. Dugongs frequent coastal waters with habitats predominantly in wide shallow protected bays with a relatively small home range, varying from 5 to 64 km{sup 2}. Dugongs have a long life-span ({proportional_to}70 years), low reproductive rate and relatively long gestation and lactation periods. They are hindgut fermenters with highly specialized dietary requirements, uprooting whole seagrass plants and often selectively foraging on a few pioneer seagrass species. Low metabolic rates, high seagrass consumption rates and inordinately long passage times of digesta through the gut ({proportional_to}6-7 days), compensate for the low nutrient containing seagrass diet. Long life span, high fat repositories, narrow home ranges and highly specialized food requirements render the dugong potentially vulnerable to the regional PCDD/F contamination observed in

  11. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  12. Acoustic Studies of the Effects of Environmental Stresses on Marine Mammals in Large Ocean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ma, B.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of environmental stresses on deep-diving marine mammal populations have not been studied systematically. Long-term regional passive acoustic monitoring of phonating marine mammals opens opportunities for such studies. This paper presents a unique multi-year study conducted by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to understand short-term and long-term effects of anthropogenic stresses on resident populations of endangered sperm and elusive beaked whales. Both species spend many hours each day in deep dives which last about one hour each, so any visual observations for population estimates and behavioral responses are very limited. However, much more cost-efficient acoustic recordings of the phonations during dives on bottom-mounted hydrophones are not skewed by weather conditions or daylight requirements. Broadband passive acoustic data were collected by LADC in 2007 and 2010 at three ranges, 15, 40, and 80 km away from the 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill site. Pre-spill and post-spill data processing and comparison allow observing responses of both species to local short-term environmental condition changes and long-term responses to the spill. The short-term effects are studied by correlating daily activity cycles with anthropogenic noise curve daily and weekly cycles at different sites. The strong correlation between the decrease in overall daily activity and the increase in anthropogenic noise level associated with seismic exploration signals can be seen. After streaming raw acoustic data through detection algorithms and detailed assessment of false detection rates, the temporal densities of acoustic phonations are passed into statistical algorithms for resident population estimations. The statistically significant results have shown different regional abundance trends, associated with long-term responses to environmental stresses, for these two species.

  13. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, Anna; Bavel, Bert van; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  14. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-04-29

    Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to a warming climate and highlight the fact that assisted migration has

  15. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naia Morueta-Holme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus, which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be

  16. The durability of private sector-led marine conservation: A case study of two entrepreneurial marine protected areas in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M.J.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the durability of entrepreneurial marine protected areas (EMPAs) by exploring the role of the private sector in marine conservation. Set within a wider set of social science questions around the marine protected areas as negotiated interventions, we focus on whether and how

  17. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter is unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure leve...... on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.......Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels...... were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water...

  18. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Preston Matthew; Harcourt Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 n...

  19. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P.; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137 Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (± SD) of 137 Cs were: 0.72 ± 0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49 ± 0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25 ± 0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22 ± 0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36 ± 0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137 Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137 Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137 Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79 ± 32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244 ± 36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in the marine ecosystem

  20. Identification of a novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl bioaccumulating in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G.; Athanasiadou, M.; Bergman, Aa.; Athanassiadis, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Endo, Tetsuya [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan). Fac. of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The screening of persistent halogenated organic pollutants has in recent years ended up with findings of numerous compounds being natural products. These compounds have preferably been reported from the marine environment and comprise, several hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) including monochlorinated ditto, a dimethoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether i.e. 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, four halogenated dimethylated bipyrroles (HDBPs) with a 2,2'-bipyrrole backbone, a heptachlorinated 1,2'-bipyrrole i.e. heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1)6 and a halogenated monoterpene holding two bromine and three chlorine atoms. We have taken interest in an organobrominated compound with an unknown structure but with a molecule ion of m/z = 526 and a four bromine isotope pattern according to mass spectrometry (MS), detected in marine mammal samples of which the majority were collected from Japanese coastal waters. This compound has recently been reported from several marine mammals collected on the Southern hemisphere, but neither the chemical structure nor the type of substance group were established. We here report the structure of this organobrominated compound, a dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which likely is of natural origin. The identification was done by the comparison of relative retention time (RRT) on two GC columns with different polarities and by comparing mass spectra from three different ionization techniques i.e. PICI, ECNI and EI, of the unknown compound from the samples with an authentic reference compound. Levels of the novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl are reported as well as the levels (for comparison) of some other known polybrominated compounds, both brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and natural products i.e. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2

  1. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and marine capture fisheries production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Pathways for moving towards the goals of biodiversity conservation and food security in terrestrial systems include the application of trait-based ecology to develop highly productive agroecosystems with less negative effects on biodiversity. Although marine ecosystems have been impacted by human...... activity over several centuries, the changes have been unintentional and undirected; we have not learned how to enhance food production from the sea and are reliant, as hunter-gatherers, on natural production. The goals of maximising fisheries production and maintaining biodiversity may be difficult...

  2. Fascinating and forgotten: the conservation status of marine elapid snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Australia. Three of the seven threatened species occur at Ashmore and Hibernia Reefs in the Timor Sea, while the remaining threatened taxa occur in the Philippines, Niue, and Solomon Islands. The majority of Data Deficient species are found in Southeast Asia. Threats to marine snakes include loss of coral...... reefs and coastal habitat, incidental bycatch in fisheries, as well as fisheries that target snakes for leather. The presence of two Critically Endangered and one Endangered species in the Timor Sea suggests the area is of particular conservation concern. More rigorous, long-term monitoring...

  3. Status and challenges for conservation of small mammal assemblages in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    South America spans about 44° latitude, covers almost 18 million km(2) , and is second only to Africa in continental mammal species richness. In spite of this richness, research on the status of this fauna and on the nature and magnitude of contemporary threats remains limited. Distilling threats to this diverse fauna at a continental scale is challenging, in part because of the limited availability of rigorous studies. Recognizing this constraint, we summarize key threats to small mammals in South America, emphasizing the roles of habitat loss and degradation, direct persecution, and the increasing threat of climate change. We focus on three regional 'case studies': the tropical Andes, Amazonia and adjacent lowland regions, and the southern temperate region. We close with a brief summary of recent findings at our long-term research site in north-central Chile as they pertain to projected threats to this fauna. Habitat alteration is a pervasive threat that has been magnified by market forces and globalization (e.g. extensive agricultural development in Amazonia), and threatens increasing numbers of populations and species. Climate change poses even greater threats, from changes in rainfall and runoff regimes and resulting changes in vegetative structure and composition to secondary influences on fire dynamics. It is likely that many changes have yet to be recognized, but existing threats suggest that the future may bring dramatic changes in the distribution of many mammal taxa, although it is not clear if key habitat elements (vegetation) will respond as rapidly as climatic factors, leading to substantial uncertainty. Climate change is likely to result in 'winners' and 'losers' but available information precludes detailed assessment of which species are likely to fall into which category. In the absence of long-term monitoring and applied research to characterize these threats more accurately, and to develop strategies to reduce their impacts, managers already are

  4. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participants expressed a common goal of recovering depleted species and ensuring the sustainability of indigenous fishing. We found strong support for spatial protection measures, and significant overlaps amongst participants in the areas suggested for protection. The most common type of protection recommended by participants was the exclusion of commercial and recreational fisheries while allowing for indigenous fishing; this stands in contrast to the emphasis on strict no-take MPAs advocated in the literature. Similarities in the goal, and level and areas of protection point to a gap in conservation approaches: the conservation of important areas and resources to indigenous people, allowing the continued practice and adaptation of their culture.

  5. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  7. Marine mammal blubber reference and control materials for use in the determination of halogenated organic compounds and fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, John R.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Becker, Paul R. [Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Charleston, SC (United States); Schantz, Michele M.; Porter, Barbara J.; Poster, Dianne L.; Leigh, Stefan; Wise, Stephen A. [NIST, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Rowles, Teri K. [National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a diverse collection of control materials derived from marine mammal blubber, fat, and serum. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber was recertified for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. SRM 1945 has also been assigned mass fraction values for compounds not frequently determined in marine samples including toxaphene congeners, coplanar PCBs, and methoxylated PBDE congeners which are natural products. NIST also has assigned mass fraction values, as a result of interlaboratory comparison exercises, for PCB congeners, organochlorine pesticides, PBDE congeners, and fatty acids in six homogenate materials produced from marine mammal blubber or serum. The materials are available from NIST upon request; however, the supply is very limited for some of the materials. The materials include those obtained from pilot whale blubber (Homogenates III and IV), Blainville's beaked whale blubber (Homogenate VII), polar bear fat (Homogenate VI), and California sea lion serum (Marine Mammal Control Material-1 Serum) and blubber (Homogenate V). (orig.)

  8. Guidance related to the efficacy of measures used to mitigate potential impacts of seismic sound on marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Research has established that the effectiveness of mitigation of seismic sound operational techniques, described in the statement of Canadian practice, can vary with varying conditions in the marine environment. Among the six factors that should be taken into account, two are emphasized in this review. These are: the establishment of a safety zone, which affects the ability of observers to detect marine mammals; and factors which impact the effectiveness of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) in detecting vocalizing marine mammals under the standard operating conditions of a seismic survey. Some recommendations were put forward for further research, including active acoustics research, and included: building a larger signals library for PAM; and carrying out autonomous PAM with underwater gliders. These suggestions were given with a view to mounting a collegial effort in the future that will advance our collective knowledge concerning the mitigation of the influence of seismic sound on marine mammals rather than entrusting this to any one particular government agency, regulatory body or offshore oil and gas company.

  9. Humpback whale populations share a core skin bacterial community: towards a health index for marine mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Apprill

    possibly serve as a useful index for health and skin disorder monitoring of threatened and endangered marine mammals.

  10. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels (Leq) in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106-109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125-250 Hz, 1-2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant). Outside the range 125-250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq) 121-125 dB re 1 μPa) was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.

  11. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tougaard

    Full Text Available Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth. Median sound pressure levels (Leq in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106-109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125-250 Hz, 1-2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant. Outside the range 125-250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq 121-125 dB re 1 μPa was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.

  12. Object permanence in marine mammals using the violation of expectation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Rebecca; Henderson, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Object permanence refers to the ability to process information about objects even when they are not visible. One stage of object permanence, called visible displacement, involves being able to find an object that has been fully hidden from view. Visible displacement has been demonstrated in many animal species, yet very little is known about object permanence in marine mammals. In addition, the methodology for testing visible displacement has sometimes been called into question because alternative explanations could account for subjects' success. The current study investigated visible displacement in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions using a methodology called violation of expectation, in which the animal's fish bucket was placed on a table surrounded on three sides by curtains. A solid screen placed in front of the bucket was then rotated in an arc from front to back. The screen was rotated either 120° (possible event) or 180° (surprising event), appearing as if the bucket disappeared. Both dolphins and sea lions looked significantly longer during the 180°, unexpected, trials than the expected event trials. Results suggest that both dolphins and sea lions pass visible displacement tests without the use of perceptual cues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals in the High Arctic Pack Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude R. Joiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ, the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI, the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns.

  14. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  15. Marine mammal tracks from two-hydrophone acoustic recordings made with a glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Elizabeth T.; Munoz, Tessa; Siderius, Martin; Mellinger, David K.; Heimlich, Sara

    2017-04-01

    A multinational oceanographic and acoustic sea experiment was carried out in the summer of 2014 off the western coast of the island of Sardinia, Mediterranean Sea. During this experiment, an underwater glider fitted with two hydrophones was evaluated as a potential tool for marine mammal population density estimation studies. An acoustic recording system was also tested, comprising an inexpensive, off-the-shelf digital recorder installed inside the glider. Detection and classification of sounds produced by whales and dolphins, and sometimes tracking and localization, are inherent components of population density estimation from passive acoustics recordings. In this work we discuss the equipment used as well as analysis of the data obtained, including detection and estimation of bearing angles. A human analyst identified the presence of sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) regular clicks as well as dolphin clicks and whistles. Cross-correlating clicks recorded on both data channels allowed for the estimation of the direction (bearing) of clicks, and realization of animal tracks. Insights from this bearing tracking analysis can aid in population density estimation studies by providing further information (bearings), which can improve estimates.

  16. Oil Spills and Marine Mammals in British Columbia, Canada: Development and Application of a Risk-Based Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvela Rosenberger, Adrianne L; MacDuffee, Misty; Rosenberger, Andrew G J; Ross, Peter S

    2017-07-01

    Marine mammals are inherently vulnerable to oil spills. We developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts of potential oil exposure on marine mammals and applied it to 21 species inhabiting coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Oil spill vulnerability was determined by examining both the likelihood of species-specific (individual) oil exposure and the consequent likelihood of population-level effects. Oil exposure pathways, ecology, and physiological characteristics were first used to assign species-specific vulnerability rankings. Baleen whales were found to be highly vulnerable due to blowhole breathing, surface filter feeding, and invertebrate prey. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were ranked as highly vulnerable due to their time spent at the ocean surface, dense pelage, and benthic feeding techniques. Species-specific vulnerabilities were considered to estimate the likelihood of population-level effects occurring after oil exposure. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations were deemed at highest risk due to small population sizes, complex social structure, long lives, slow reproductive turnover, and dietary specialization. Finally, we related the species-specific and population-level vulnerabilities. In BC, vulnerability was deemed highest for Northern and Southern Resident killer whales and sea otters, followed by Bigg's killer whales and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Our findings challenge the typical "indicator species" approach routinely used and underscore the need to examine marine mammals at a species and population level for risk-based oil spill predictions. This conceptual framework can be combined with spill probabilities and volumes to develop more robust risk assessments and may be applied elsewhere to identify vulnerability themes for marine mammals.

  17. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  18. Marine Mammal Sighting and Census data from Coastal Alaska from 1985-05-05 to 1985-06-13 (NODC Accession 8600633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Mammal Sighting and Census data were collected from Coastal Alaska. Data were collected by Alaska Department of Fish and Game from 05 May 1985 to 13 June...

  19. Predicting Natural Neuroprotection in Marine Mammals: Environmental and Biological Factors Affecting the Vulnerability to Acoustically Mediated Tissue Trauma in Marine Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    comparing both globin deposition profiles from carcasses ranging in age from neonates to adults, as well as the change in mass-specific metabolic demands...to acoustically mediated trauma, 1) molecular and biochemical evaluation of neuroprotection at the tissue level, and 2) whole animal /physiological...Noren, UCSC.) The second component of this study examined the susceptibility of marine mammals to decompression illness at the whole animal

  20. Conservation of the rad21 Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA double-strand break repair gene in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Michael J.; Spek, Peter van der; Kanaar, Roland; Smit, Bep; Bootsma, Dirk; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.

    1996-01-01

    DNA dsb processing. Elevated expression of mHR21 sp in testis and thymus supports a possible role for therad21 mammalian homologs in recombinational DNA dsb processing, while conserved cell cycle mRNA regulation is consistent with conservation of rad21 function between S. pombe and mammals

  1. Comparative analysis of components incorporated in conservation priority assessments: a case study based on South African species of terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keith, M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available priority assessments of South African terrestrial mammals 99 Estimates of conservation value a) Relative Endemism (RE) – (modified from Freitag & van Jaarsveld (1997)). The extent of occurrence, obtained from various sources (Halte- north & Diller 1980... of threat a) Relative Body Mass (RBM) – Based on average body weights (in grams) for each taxon obtained from Dorst & Dandelot (1972), Haltenorth & Diller (1980), Skinner & Smithers (1990), and Skinner & Chimimba (2005) and was computed as: RBM = log...

  2. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental

  3. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the ...

  4. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124 and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.

  5. Conservation of lipid metabolic gene transcriptional regulatory networks in fish and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Tocher, Douglas R; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Leaver, Michael J

    2014-01-15

    Lipid content and composition in aquafeeds have changed rapidly as a result of the recent drive to replace ecologically limited marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil (FO). Terrestrial plant products are the most economic and sustainable alternative; however, plant meals and oils are devoid of physiologically important cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Although replacement of dietary FO with vegetable oil (VO) has little effect on growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), several studies have shown major effects on the activity and expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. In vertebrates, sterols and LC-PUFA play crucial roles in lipid metabolism by direct interaction with lipid-sensing transcription factors (TFs) and consequent regulation of target genes. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of key TFs in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in fish by transfection and overexpression of TFs. The results show that the expression of genes of LC-PUFA biosynthesis (elovl and fads2) and cholesterol metabolism (abca1) are regulated by Lxr and Srebp TFs in salmon, indicating highly conserved regulatory mechanism across vertebrates. In addition, srebp1 and srebp2 mRNA respond to replacement of dietary FO with VO. Thus, Atlantic salmon adjust lipid metabolism in response to dietary lipid composition through the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. It may be possible to further increase efficient and effective use of sustainable alternatives to marine products in aquaculture by considering these important molecular interactions when formulating diets. © 2013.

  6. Hydrographic observations by instrumented marine mammals in the Sea of Okhotsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Ohshima, Kay I.; Mensah, Vigan; Mitani, Yoko; Hattori, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Mari; Roquet, Fabien; Sakurai, Yasunori; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    The Sea of Okhotsk is a challenging environment for obtaining in situ data and satellite observation in winter due to sea ice cover. In this study, we evaluated the validity of hydrographic observations by marine mammals (e.g., seals and sea lions) equipped with oceanographic conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors. During 4-yr operations from 2011 to 2014, we obtained total of 997 temperature-salinity profiles in and around the Soya Strait, Iony Island, and Urup Strait. The hydrographic data were mainly obtained from May to August and the maximum profile depth in shelf regions almost reaches to the seafloor, while valuable hydrographic data under sea ice cover were also obtained. In strong thermoclines, the seal-derived data sometimes showed positive biases in salinity with spike-like signal. For these salinity biases, we applied a new thermal mass inertia correction scheme, effectively reducing spurious salinity biases in the seasonal thermocline. In the Soya Strait and the adjacent region, the detailed structure of the Soya Warm Current including the cold-water belt was well identified. Dense water up to 27.0σθ, which can be a potential source of Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water, has flowed from the Soya Strait into the Sea of Okhotsk in mid-winter (February). In summer, around the Iony Island and Urup Strait, remarkable cold and saline waters are localized in the surface layers. These regions are also characterized by weak stratification, suggesting the occurrence of tidally induced vertical mixing. Thus, CTD-tag observations have a great potential in monitoring data-sparse regions in the Sea of Okhotsk.

  7. Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, Jo-Ann; Hindle, Allyson; Skinner, John; Horning, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The conflicting needs of homeostasis in air versus water complicate our understanding of thermoregulation in marine mammals. Large-scale modeling efforts directed at predicting the energetic impact of changing sea ice conditions on polar ecosystems require a better understanding of thermoregulation in air of free-ranging animals. We utilized infrared imaging as an indirect approach to determine surface temperatures of dry, hauled-out Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n = 35) of varying age and body condition during the Antarctic summer. The study groups provided a fivefold range in body mass and a threefold range in blubber depth. Surface temperature (T s) did not vary by body region (head, shoulder, axilla, torso, hip, flippers). Average seal T s (mean 13.9 ± 11.2 °C) was best described through a combination of the physical traits of body mass and environmental variables of ambient temperature T air, and wind speed. Additional factors of ice temperature (T ice), relative humidity and cloud cover did not improve the model. Heat transfer model estimates suggested that radiation contributed 56.6 ± 7.7 % of total heat loss. Convection and conduction accounted for the remaining 15.7 ± 12.3 and 27.7 ± 9.3 %, respectively. Heat loss by radiation was primarily influenced by body mass and wind speed, whereas convective heat loss was influenced primarily by blubber depth and wind speed. Conductive heat loss was modeled largely as a function of physical traits of mass and blubber depth rather than any environmental covariates, and therefore was substantially higher in animals in leaner condition.

  8. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Pedler, Byron E. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: bpedler@whoi.edu; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: ahangsterfer@whoi.edu; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2006-11-15

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7}, and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 {mu}g/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl may be significant in the formation of C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl.

  9. Comparison of the Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids at the Sn-2 Position of Phospholipids and Triacylglycerols in Marine Fishes and Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Keiko; Okada, Ayako; Hirosaki, Yoshitsugu; Okazaki, Masako; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-11-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) binding at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL) becomes a resource for prostaglandin, leukotriene, resolvin, and protectin synthesis. Both triacylglycerol (TAG) and PL synthesis pathways in vivo are via phosphatidic acid; therefore, the distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position must theoretically be the same for TAG and PL if rearrangement does not occur. However, it is known that little HUFA is located at the sn-2 position of TAG in marine mammals. Therefore, distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-2 position of TAG and PL was compared between marine fishes and mammals in this study. The composition of fatty acids binding at the sn-2 or sn-1,3 position of PL and TAG was analyzed via hydrolysis with enzymes and GC-FID. The results showed that 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were primarily located at the sn-1,3 positions of TAG in marine mammals. Comparison of the binding positions of HUFA and 16:0 in PL and TAG suggested the existence of Lands' cycle in marine fishes and mammals. In conclusion, both marine fishes and mammals condensed HUFA as a source of eicosanoid at the sn-2 position of PL. Furthermore, abundance ratios for 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 position (sn-2 ratio) in TAG and PL (calculated by the equation: [abundance ratio at sn-2 position of TAG]/[abundance ratio at sn-2 position of PL]) was less than 0.35 in marine mammals; however, it was greater than 0.80 in marine fishes. These differences suggested that the HUFA consisted of 22 carbon atoms and had different roles in marine fishes and mammals.

  10. Advancing marine conservation in European and contiguous seas with the MarCons Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering these seas. Social, economic and political heterogeneity adds to the challenge of balancing conservation with sustainable use of the seas. Comprehensive macro-regional coordination is needed to ensure effective conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity of this region. Under the European Union Horizon 2020 framework programme, the MarCons COST action aims to promote collaborative research to support marine management, conservation planning and policy development. This will be achieved by developing novel methods and tools to close knowledge gaps and advance marine conservation science. This action will provide support for the development of macro-regional and national policies through six key actions: to develop tools to analyse cumulative human impacts; to identify critical scientific and technical gaps in conservation efforts; to improve the resilience of the marine environment to global change and biological invasions; to develop frameworks for integrated conservation planning across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments; to coordinate marine conservation policy across national boundaries; and to identify effective governance approaches for marine protected area management. Achieving the objectives of these actions will facilitate the integration of marine conservation policy into macro-regional maritime spatial planning agendas for the European and contiguous seas, thereby offsetting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in this region.

  11. Predicting and setting conservation priorities for Bolivian mammals based on biological correlates of the risk of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, Diego A; Simonetti, Javier A

    2015-06-01

    The recognition that growing proportions of species worldwide are endangered has led to the development of comparative analyses to elucidate why some species are more prone to extinction than others. Understanding factors and patterns of species vulnerability might provide an opportunity to develop proactive conservation strategies. Such comparative analyses are of special concern at national scales because this is the scale at which most conservation initiatives take place. We applied powerful ensemble learning models to test for biological correlates of the risk of decline among the Bolivian mammals to understand species vulnerability at a national scale and to predict the population trend for poorly known species. Risk of decline was nonrandomly distributed: higher proportions of large-sized taxa were under decline, whereas small-sized taxa were less vulnerable. Body mass, mode of life (i.e., aquatic, terrestrial, volant), geographic range size, litter size, home range, niche specialization, and reproductive potential were strongly associated with species vulnerability. Moreover, we found interacting and nonlinear effects of key traits on the risk of decline of mammals at a national scale. Our model predicted 35 data-deficient species in decline on the basis of their biological vulnerability, which should receive more attention in order to prevent their decline. Our results highlight the relevance of comparative analysis at relatively narrow geographical scales, reveal previously unknown factors related to species vulnerability, and offer species-by-species outcomes that can be used to identify targets for conservation, especially for insufficiently known species. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Seventy-one important questions for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E C M; Favaro, Brett; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bauer, Amy L; Blight, Louise K; Cigliano, John A; Coleman, Melinda A; Côté, Isabelle M; Draheim, Megan; Fletcher, Stephen; Foley, Melissa M; Jefferson, Rebecca; Jones, Miranda C; Kelaher, Brendan P; Lundquist, Carolyn J; McCarthy, Julie-Beth; Nelson, Anne; Patterson, Katheryn; Walsh, Leslie; Wright, Andrew J; Sutherland, William J

    2014-10-01

    The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the world's marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

  15. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE IN MARINE MAMMALS OF NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC AND ARCTIC CANADA: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 85 POSTMORTEM INVESTIGATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, Nicole D; Butler, Brian P; Stone, Diana; Hariharan, Harry; Fields, Paul J; Ferguson, Hugh W; Haulena, Martin; Cotrell, Paul; Nielsen, Ole; Raverty, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    :  Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators

  16. 76 FR 30552 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes Range Complex and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... addressed to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected... Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway... certification includes critically important anti- submarine warfare that requires training on the use and...

  17. 75 FR 5575 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Navy Training Activities Conducted in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East... sources will be utilized during Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) Tracking and Torpedo Exercises, Extended Echo.... Michael Payne, Chief, Division of Permits, Conservation, and Education, Director, Office of Protected...

  18. Radar-Based Detection, Tracking and Speciation of Marine Mammals from Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeProspo, Douglas F; Mobley, Joseph; Hom, Wai; Carron, Mike

    2005-01-01

    ...., those encountered during Navy-sponsored Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar tests). Irrespective of the method of mammal injury or death, the act of injuring or killing whales can and does result in litigation proceedings...

  19. Radar-Based Detection, Tracking and Speciation of Marine Mammals from Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeProspo, Douglas F; Mobley, Joseph; Hom, Wai; Carron, Mike

    2004-01-01

    ...., those encountered during Navy-sponsored Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar tests. Irrespective of the method of mammal injury or death, the act of injuring or killing whales can and does result in litigation proceedings...

  20. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity data collected by instrumented marine mammals in the Southern Ocean, South Atlantic and other locations for the Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole (MEOP) project from 2004-01-27 to 2015-05-26 (NCEI Accession 0131830)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Some marine mammals travel thousands of kilometres to find their food, continuously diving to great depths. By instrumenting them, it is possible to directly observe...

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Marine Mammal Hunting in Northern and Western Alaska Using Traditional Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Huntington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iñupiaq, Yup'ik, and Cup'ik hunters in 14 Alaska Native communities described a rapidly changing marine environment in qualitative traditional knowledge interviews conducted over the course of a decade with 110 individuals. Based on their observations, sea ice conditions are the most notable change, with later freeze-up, thinner and less reliable ice, and earlier and more rapid break-up. Marine mammal populations in northern and western Alaska have been affected by changes in the physical environment, with alterations to migratory timing and routes, distribution, abundance, health, and behavior. Despite these changes, marine mammal populations in the region remain generally healthy and abundant. For hunters, access is the biggest challenge posed by changing conditions. Sea ice is less safe for travel, particularly for more southerly communities, making hunting more dangerous or impossible. Rapid break-up has reduced the time available for hunting amid broken ice in spring, formerly a dependable and preferred season. Social change also affects the ways in which hunting patterns change. Increased industrial development, for example, can also alter marine mammal distribution and reduce hunting opportunity. Reduced use of animal skins for clothing and other purposes has reduced demand. More powerful and reliable engines make day trips easier, reducing the time spent camping. An essential component of adjustment and adaptation to changing conditions is the retention of traditional values and the acquisition of new information to supplement traditional knowledge. Our findings are consistent with, and add detail to, what is known from previous traditional knowledge and scientific studies. The ways in which hunters gather new information and incorporate it into their existing understanding of the marine environment deserves further attention, both as a means of monitoring change and as a key aspect of adaptation. While the changes to date have been

  2. Operant psychology makes a splash--in marine mammal training (1955-1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspy, James Arthur; Brinegar, Jennifer L; Bailey, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide spread use of operant conditioning within marine animal training, relatively little is known about this unique application of behavioral technology. This article explores the expansion of operant psychology to commercial marine animal training from 1955 to 1965, specifically at marine parks such as Marine Studios Florida, Marineland of the Pacific, Sea Life Park, and SeaWorld. The contributions of Keller and Marian Breland and their business Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) as well as other early practitioners of behavioral technology are reviewed. We also describe how operant technology was introduced and formalized into procedures that have become the cornerstone of marine animal training and entertainment. The rapid growth of the marine park industry during this time was closely linked to the spread of behavioral technology. The expansion of operant training methods within marine animal training is a unique success story of behavioral technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. "Conserving Marine Biodiversity in the Global Marine Commons: Co-evolution and Interaction with the Law of the Sea"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Margaret Warner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As global shipping intensifies and technological advances provide more opportunities to access the resources of the high seas and the deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, the catalogue of threats to the marine environment and its biodiversity increase commensurately. Beyond these threats, new and emerging uses of ABNJ including more intrusive marine scientific research, bio-prospecting, deep seabed mining and environmental modification activities to mitigate the effects of climate change have the potential to harm the highly interconnected and sensitive ecosystems of the open ocean and the deep seabed if not sustainably managed now and into the future. Modern conservation norms such as environmental impact assessment, marine protected areas, marine spatial planning and development mechanisms such as technology transfer and capacity building are under developed in the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ. This article examines key normative features of the legal and institutional framework for ABNJ and their applicability to conservation of marine biodiversity, gaps and disconnects in that framework and ongoing global initiatives to develop more effective governance structures. It discusses some of the options being considered in the UN Ad Hoc Informal Open-ended Working Group to study issues related to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Working Group to evolve the legal and institutional framework for conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in ABNJ and their current and future relevance for the law of the sea. It concludes that the discussions in the BBNJ Working Group and related initiatives in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and at regional level have demonstrated that a more integrated legal and institutional structure is needed to address growing threats to marine biodiversity in ABNJ.

  4. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  5. An on-line tissue bank for marine mammals of the Mediterranean sea and adjacent waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballarin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports on the activities of the Mediterranean Tissue Bank for Marine Mammals, established in January 2002. The bank collects fragments of tissues sampled from marine mammals stranded along the Mediterranean coastline and distributes them to scientists working in the field. Tissues are a critical resource for biomedical and innovative research in anatomy, histo-pathology, genetics and toxicology, and the bank exploits the potentials of stranded animals to serve the scientific community of dolphin and whale investigators. Riassunto Una banca on line per i tessuti dei Mammiferi marini del Mediterraneo e dei mari limitrofi. Questo articolo presenta le attività della Banca per i tessuti dei Mammiferi Marini del Mediterraneo, istituita nel gennaio 2002. I tessuti sono una risorsa critica e innovativa per le ricerche biomediche in anatomia, istopatologia, genetica e tossicologia. La banca raccoglie campioni di tessuto dai mammiferi marini spiaggiati lungo le coste del Mediterraneo e li distribuisce ai ricercatori che lavorano nel settore.

  6. Proceedings of the Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop: Assessing the Conservation Status of Mongolian Mammals and Fishes: I - Results and Outputs of the Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Clark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop was held at the National University of Mongolia and Hustai National Park from 1 st October to 4 th November, 2005. Participants assessed the conserva- tion status of all Mongolian mammals and fishes using the IUCN Categories and Criteria, and also met the other main objectives of the workshop, including: creating a Biodiversity Databank, revising species lists and maps for Mongolian mammals and fishes, and developing Summary Conservation Action Plans for a number of threatened or commercially important species. This article includes information about the IUCN Categories and Criteria used to assess Mongolian mammals and fish and these outputs. The Biodiversity Databank holds baseline data on the ecology, distribution, threats, conservation measures, and conservation status for all Mongolian mammals and fishes. Revised species lists have been agreed upon for the Biodiversity Databank project including 128 native species of mammals and 64 native spe- cies of fish. Digital maps have been produced for all mammals and fish, where data exists. Results of the workshop should provide baseline information for conservation of Mongolian biodiversity and provide resources for researchers.

  7. Assessing ecological correlates of marine bird declines to inform marine conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, L Ignacio; Johnson, Christine K; Evenson, Joseph R; Pearson, Scott F; Barry, Karen L; Davidson, Peter; Raphael, Martin G; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2015-01-01

    Identifying drivers of ecosystem change in large marine ecosystems is central for their effective management and conservation. This is a sizable challenge, particularly in ecosystems transcending international borders, where monitoring and conservation of long-range migratory species and their habitats are logistically and financially problematic. Here, using tools borrowed from epidemiology, we elucidated common drivers underlying species declines within a marine ecosystem, much in the way epidemiological analyses evaluate risk factors for negative health outcomes to better inform decisions. Thus, we identified ecological traits and dietary specializations associated with species declines in a community of marine predators that could be reflective of ecosystem change. To do so, we integrated count data from winter surveys collected in long-term marine bird monitoring programs conducted throughout the Salish Sea—a transboundary large marine ecosystem in North America's Pacific Northwest. We found that decadal declines in winter counts were most prevalent among pursuit divers such as alcids (Alcidae) and grebes (Podicipedidae) that have specialized diets based on forage fish, and that wide-ranging species without local breeding colonies were more prone to these declines. Although a combination of factors is most likely driving declines of diving forage fish specialists, we propose that changes in the availability of low-trophic prey may be forcing wintering range shifts of diving birds in the Salish Sea. Such a synthesis of long-term trends in a marine predator community not only provides unique insights into the types of species that are at risk of extirpation and why, but may also inform proactive conservation measures to counteract threats—information that is paramount for species-specific and ecosystem-wide conservation. Evaluación de las Correlaciones Ecológicas de las Declinaciones de Aves Marinas para Informar a la Conservación Marina Resumen La

  8. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Hermannsen

    Full Text Available Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3 at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration, and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  9. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  10. 77 FR 59211 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities; Proposed Incidental Harassment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). February 24-28, 1985, Los Angeles, CA. American Petroleum Institute... theoretically occur in mammals close to a strong sound source include stress, neurological effects, and other... CONTACT section. Government-to-Government Relations With Native American Tribal Governments In accordance...

  11. 76 FR 50457 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research Conducted Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... mammals incidental to Navy training, maintenance, and research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT... collected. Most photos were taken from the flying bridge or bow of the SETTE. Over 200 photos were taken... towed array was deployed throughout the cruise--collecting nearly continuous high-frequency clean...

  12. Development of marine renewable energies and biodiversity conservation - Renewable energies Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peguin, Marion; Le Visage, Christophe; Rolland, Guillemette; Moncorps, Sebastien

    2014-09-01

    After a presentation of the different challenges related to the development of marine renewable energies (energy challenges, conservation of the marine environment, regulatory context), this document proposes a presentation of the different marine renewable energy sectors (status of research, techniques, required conditions, and potential opportunities in France). It presents an assessment of impacts of these different sectors and some recommendations related to various opportunities and threats (noise and vibration, habitat modification, risks of collisions, residual impacts). After a synthesis, thematic sheets are proposed on biodiversity protocols, cumulative impacts, marine protected areas, connection issues, and dismantling issues

  13. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes...... are under selection in natural populations of Atlantic cod. Furthermore, we find that patterns of variation in outlier markers do not align with those observed at selectively neutral markers, and that outlier markers identify conservation units on finer geographical scales than those revealed when analysing...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species...

  14. [Identification of marine and coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan José; Herrera, Bernal; Corrales, Lenin; Asch, Jenny; Paaby, Pía

    2011-06-01

    Costa Rica is recognized as one of the most diverse countries in species and ecosystems, in their terrestrial realm as well as in the marine. Besides this relevance, the country presents a delay on conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity, with respect to terrestrial. For 2006, the marine protected surface was 5,208.8 km2, with 331.5 km of coastline, in 20 protected areas. The country has made progress on the conservation priority sites identification for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, with few efforts on marine planning. This research presents the analysis and results of the gap identification process, for marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the protected areas system of Costa Rica. The analysis was built with the spatial information available on the presence and distribution of coastal and marine biodiversity, the establishment of the conservation goals and a threat analysis over the ecological integrity of this biodiversity. The selection of high-priority sites was carried out using spatial optimization techniques and the superposition over the current shape of marine protected areas, in order to identify representation gaps. A total of 19,076 km2 of conservation gaps were indentified, with 1,323 km2 in the Caribbean and 17,753 km2 in the Pacific. Recommendations are aimed at planning and strengthening the marine protected areas system, using the gaps identified as a framework. It is expected that the results of this study would be the scientific base needed for planning and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in the country.

  15. The crowded sea: incorporating multiple marine activities in conservation plans can significantly alter spatial priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Mazor

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes. We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b the change in opportunity cost and c the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and

  16. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  17. Simple rules can guide whether land- or ocean-based conservation will best benefit marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan I; Bode, Michael; Atkinson, Scott; Klein, Carissa J; Metaxas, Anna; Beher, Jutta; Beger, Maria; Mills, Morena; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Tulloch, Vivitskaia; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-09-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems can be managed by actions undertaken both on the land and in the ocean. Quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of actions in both realms is therefore necessary for efficient management. Here, we quantify the link between terrestrial sediment runoff and a downstream coastal marine ecosystem and contrast the cost-effectiveness of marine- and land-based conservation actions. We use a dynamic land- and sea-scape model to determine whether limited funds should be directed to 1 of 4 alternative conservation actions-protection on land, protection in the ocean, restoration on land, or restoration in the ocean-to maximise the extent of light-dependent marine benthic habitats across decadal timescales. We apply the model to a case study for a seagrass meadow in Australia. We find that marine restoration is the most cost-effective action over decadal timescales in this system, based on a conservative estimate of the rate at which seagrass can expand into a new habitat. The optimal decision will vary in different social-ecological contexts, but some basic information can guide optimal investments to counteract land- and ocean-based stressors: (1) marine restoration should be prioritised if the rates of marine ecosystem decline and expansion are similar and low; (2) marine protection should take precedence if the rate of marine ecosystem decline is high or if the adjacent catchment is relatively intact and has a low rate of vegetation decline; (3) land-based actions are optimal when the ratio of marine ecosystem expansion to decline is greater than 1:1.4, with terrestrial restoration typically the most cost-effective action; and (4) land protection should be prioritised if the catchment is relatively intact but the rate of vegetation decline is high. These rules of thumb illustrate how cost-effective conservation outcomes for connected land-ocean systems can proceed without complex modelling.

  18. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  19. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  20. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway...) and surface- to-surface (from vessels to in-water targets) warfare training, including bombing.../education/southeast/ ). (6) Stranding Network Coordination: The USMC shall coordinate with the local NMFS...