WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine life resources

  1. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  2. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  3. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  4. European Community's program in marine resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-01-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed

  5. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  6. Culture fishery resources of the tropical marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    The exploited marine living resources, through capture fisheries, have their own limitations of resource potential, marine pollution and ever increasing operational cost. A plausible way to fulfil the increasing demand of seafood is through...

  7. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  8. Inventory of Canadian marine renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre; Tarbotton, M. [Triton Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The future development of marine renewable energy sources was discussed with reference to an inventory of both wave energy and tidal current resources in Canada. Canada is endowed with rich potential in wave energy resources which are spatially and temporally variable. The potential offshore resource is estimated at 37,000 MW in the Pacific and 145,000 MW in the Atlantic. The potential nearshore resource is estimated at 9,600 MW near the Queen Charlotte Islands, 9,400 MW near Vancouver Island, 1,000 MW near Sable Island, and 9,000 MW near southeast Newfoundland. It was noted that only a fraction of the potential wave energy resource is recoverable and further work is needed to delineate important local variations in energy potential close to shore. Canada also has rich potential in the tidal resource which is highly predictable and reliable. The resource is spatially and temporally variable, with 190 sites in Canada with an estimated 42,200 MW; 89 sites in British Columbia with an estimated 4,000 MW; and, 34 sites in Nunavut with an estimated 30,500 MW. It was also noted that only a fraction of the potential tidal resource is recoverable. It was suggested that the effects of energy extraction should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for both wave and tidal energy. This presentation provided a site-by site inventory as well as an analysis of buoy measurements and results from wind-wave hindcasts and tide models. Future efforts will focus on wave modelling to define nearshore resources; tidal modelling to fill gaps and refine initial estimates; assessing impacts of energy extraction at leading sites; and developing a web-enabled atlas of marine renewable energy resources. The factors not included in this analysis were environmental impacts, technological developments, climate related factors, site location versus power grid demand, hydrogen economy developments and economic factors. tabs., figs.

  9. The route to resource: marine energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.

    2005-01-01

    A case is made for the inclusion of marine-derived energy to be a part of the energy mix which will deliver clean secure energy in the future. But at present, in Europe, only the United Kingdom and Portugal are offering the necessary incentives to realise the marine renewable energy potential. The UK government's views were expressed in May 2005 in a paper called Wave and Tidal Energy Demonstration Scheme. The government's policy is to encourage a large number of small diverse projects rather than a small number of large projects. Details of the financial incentives on offer are given. It is concluded that in the UK at least, policymakers must guarantee a smooth path to resource for first arrays or risk losing what could be their last chance to build an indigenous energy industry for a significant international market

  10. Applying Movement Ecology to Marine Animals with Complex Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Metaxas, Anna; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.

    2018-01-01

    Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline. This review applies the framework to movement among life-history stages in marine animals with complex life cycles to consolidate marine movement research and offer insights for scientists working in aquatic and terrestrial realms. Irrespective of data collection or simulation strategy, breaking each life-history stage down into the fundamental units of movement allows each unit to be studied independently or interactively with other units. Understanding these underlying mechanisms of movement within each life-history stage can then be used to construct lifetime movement paths. These paths can allow further investigation of the relative contributions and interdependencies of steps and phases across a lifetime and how these paths influence larger research topics, such as population-level movements.

  11. Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Goun

    2009-10-01

    This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy.

  12. Malaysian traditional medicine: the usage of marine resources as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicate that some of the marine resources are used as a food as well as to treat heart disease. Finally, the findings of this study will help demystify traditional medical practices in Malaysia and assist academicians in understanding the Malaysian culture of traditional medicine. Keywords: Marine resources; heart disease; ...

  13. Biomimetic microsensors inspired by marine life

    CERN Document Server

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomenon that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial manmade technology, we could find innovative solutions to critical problems.

  14. Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Renewable Marine Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emilio; Quiles, Eduardo; Correcher, Antonio; Morant, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    In this paper we present a multi-sensor floating system designed to monitor marine energy parameters, in order to sample wind, wave, and marine current energy resources. For this purpose, a set of dedicated sensors to measure the height and period of the waves, wind, and marine current intensity and direction have been selected and installed in the system. The floating device incorporates wind and marine current turbines for renewable energy self-consumption and to carry out complementary studies on the stability of such a system. The feasibility, safety, sensor communications, and buoy stability of the floating device have been successfully checked in real operating conditions.

  15. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  16. Editorial: Globalization, roving bandits, and marine resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkes, F.; Hughes, T.P.; Steneck, R.S.; Wilson, J.A.; Bellwood, D.R.; Crona, B.; Folke, C.; Gunderson, L.H.; Leslie, H.M.; Norberg, J.; Nyström, M.; Olsson, P.; Osterblom, H.; Scheffer, M.; Worm, B.

    2006-01-01

    Overfishing is increasingly threatening the world's marine ecosystems (1, 2). The search for the social causes of this crisis has often focused on inappropriate approaches to governance and lack of incentives for conservation (3, 4). Little attention, however, has been paid to the critical impact of

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of marine renewable energy resources in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along

  18. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  19. Renewable marine energies, resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lidec, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The need for alternative sources of energy has never been more urgent than it is today. At the very time International Energy Agency estimates that demand will increase 30% by 2030, fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) are beginning to dwindle, as the need to counter global warming imposes limits on CO 2 emissions. In this context, DCNS has entered a new field of innovation and development: ocean energy. Having included marine renewable energy as an intrinsic part of its strategic growth plan, DCNS is the only industrial company in the world to invest in all four key technologies in this sector: - the tidal energy generated using underwater turbines known as 'tidal turbines',' which convert the energy of marine tidal streams into electricity; - the ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology that exploits the difference of temperature between the warm surface water of tropical oceans and the cold water found in the ocean depths to generate electrical power 24 hours a day, 35 days a year; - the offshore wind energy generated by offshore floating wind turbines; - the wave energy technology which operates on the principle of recovering energy from the ocean swell. With 400 years of expertise in shipbuilding and its in-depth understanding of the marine environment, DCNS is committed to playing a major role in the development of this new ocean industry. (author)

  20. Prehistoric Marine Resource Use in the Indo-Pacific Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Rintaro; Morrison , Alex; Addison, David

    2013-01-01

    Although historic sources provide information on recent centuries, archaeology can contribute longer term understandings of pre-industrial marine exploitation in the Indo-Pacific region, providing valuable baseline data for evaluating contemporary ecological trends. This volume contains eleven papers which constitute a diverse but coherent collection on past and present marine resource use in the Indo-Pacific region, within a human-ecological perspective. The geographical focus extends from E...

  1. Valuation of the marine and coastal resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark Umbreit, Federico; Santos Acevedo, Marisol

    2002-01-01

    The paper it is about the current state of the marine and coastal resources, a diagnostic is done in fisheries and aquaculture and on the cultivation of bivalve in the Colombian Caribbean; the authors mention that the use conflicts have been given by ignorance of the structure and the natural operation of highly dynamic and complex ecological systems as the marine and coastal areas, which has propitiated the accumulative environmental deterioration, incorporating elements of ecological risk permanently in the ecosystems

  2. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty...

  3. Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power

    OpenAIRE

    Carpman, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Producing electricity from marine renewable resources is a research area that develops continuously. The field of tidal energy is on the edge to progress from the prototype stage to the commercial stage. However, tidal resource characterization, and the effect of tidal turbines on the flow, is still an ongoing research area in which this thesis aims to contribute. In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been invest...

  4. Marine recreational fishing: resource usage, management and research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Elst, R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains papers presented at a symposium on marine recreational fishing: resource usage, management and research held on 22 and 23 May 1989 in the East London Museum under the auspices of the South African Deep Sea Angling Association...

  5. An integrated approach to national marine resources development

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1984-01-01

    A review is presented of the various marine resources and their potential, concerning fishing, aquaculture, transportation, pollution, hydrocarbons and solid minerals, renewable energy and ocean thermal energy conversion. Administrative problems confronting their rational management in Sri Lanka are examined, considering coastal area management and development, management issues, and alternatives.

  6. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Vermeulen

    Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  7. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  8. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  9. Towards a treaty instrument on marine genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrli Judith; Cottier Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Marine genetic resources other than fish and mammals are of increasing commercial interest and importance in genetic engineering but fail being properly addressed in the law of the sea and in international economic law. The paper analyses the implication of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea the Convention on Biodiversity the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and related instruments under the auspices of WIPO. The paper argues that the tri...

  10. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  11. Effects of thermal pollution on marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    After a short review of the conditions and importance of the releases of heated water from fossil- or nuclear- fueled power plants, the two-fold consequences of thermal pollution are stated: consequences from the transit damaging, by thermal stress and/or mechanical effects, planctonic organisms attracted in the stream, and consequences from heating of the receiving environment. Other related effect on marine populations should not be neglected: effects of antifouling (chlorine mostly) and anticorrosion products; synergic action of raised temperature and chemical pollutants. In the present state of knowledge, the hazards of thermal pollution in the marine environment should not be overestimated so far as effluent dilution and diffusion are sufficient, which implies that the site be selected in an area where coastal circulation is strong enough and the disposal procedures be improved [fr

  12. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  13. A Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON): Understanding Marine Life and its Role in Maintaining Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Iken, K.; Miller, R. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Chavez, F.; Montes, E.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Federal government (NOAA, NASA, BOEM, and the Smithsonian Institution), academic researchers, and private partners are laying the foundation for a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). The goals of the network are to: 1) Observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats; 2) Define an efficient set of observations required for implementing a useful MBON; 3) Develop technology for biodiversity assessments including emerging environmental DNA (eDNA), remote sensing, and image analysis methods to coordinate with classical sampling; 4) Integrate and synthesize information in coordination with the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), the international Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network(GEO BON), and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) sponsored by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); and 5) Understand the linkages between marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and the social-economic context of a region. Pilot projects have been implemented within three NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries (Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, and Channel Islands), the wider Santa Barbara Channel, in the Chukchi Sea, and through the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON) at several sites in the U.S. and collaborating countries. Together, these MBON sites encompass a wide range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The present MBON partners are open to growth of the MBON through additional collaborations. Given these initiatives, GEO BON is proposing an MBON effort that spans from pole to pole, with a pathfinder effort among countries in the Americas. By specializing in coastal ecosystems—where marine biodiversity and people are concentrated and interact most—the MBON and TMON initiatives aim to provide policymakers with the science to

  14. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and inter-annual trend of heavy metals in marine resources from the Lagos lagoon marine ecosystem. Studies were carried out annually in the month of. July between ...

  15. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative life cycle assessment of marine power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-Chin, Janie; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Correlation among resources, emissions, key components and processes was attained. • Environmental benefits of innovative power systems were verified. • New-build system showed a great advantage over retrofit and conventional systems. • Relative contribution of significant components remained or became more profound. • Influence of fuel consumption quantity over the estimates varied with impact types. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in advanced marine power systems, knowledge gaps existed as it was uncertain which configuration would be more environmentally friendly. Using a conventional system as a reference, the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) study aimed to compare and verify the environmental benefits of advanced marine power systems i.e. retrofit and new-build systems which incorporated emerging technologies. To estimate the environmental impact attributable to each system, a bottom-up integrated system approach was applied, i.e. LCA models were developed for individual components using GaBi, optimised operational profiles and input data standardised from various sources. The LCA models were assessed using CML2001, ILCD and Eco-Indicator99 methodologies. The estimates for the advanced systems were compared to those of the reference system. The inventory analysis results showed that both retrofit and new-build systems consumed less fuels (8.28% and 29.7% respectively) and released less emissions (5.2–16.6% and 29.7–55.5% respectively) during operation whilst more resources were consumed during manufacture, dismantling and the end of life. For 14 impact categories relevant to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation and PM/respiratory inorganic health issues, reduction in LCIA results was achieved by retrofit (2.7–6.6%) and new-build systems (35.7–50.7%). The LCIA results of the retrofit system increased in ecotoxicity (1–8%), resource depletion (1–2%) and fossil fuel depletion

  17. Equity and career-life balance in marine mammal science?

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Simmons, Samantha E.; Stimpert, Alison K.; McDonald, Birgitte I.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that family and care-giving responsibilities are driving women away from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Marine mammal science often incurs heavy fieldwork and travel obligations, which make it a challenging career in which to find work-life balance. This opinion piece explores gender equality, equity (the principles of fairness that lead to equality), and work-life balance in science generally and in this field in particular. We aim ...

  18. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-03

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  19. A Review of the Marine Fish Resources Research in Kenya and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of the Marine Fish Resources Research in Kenya and influence on Management. ... Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... This is a fisheries research and management review paper, and analyzes the research work on fish resources and its usefulness to management of fish resources in Kenya.

  20. Text mining resources for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Text mining resources for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable—those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. PMID:27888231

  2. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  3. Development of underwater robot for taking off marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Harumi; Wakamatsu, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Ryohei; Edahiro, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Shunichi.

    1983-01-01

    Fouling by marine life growths in the cooling water system at seaside power generating stations is a major problem in the maintenance of a safe and efficient operation. Ingress of released growths into the condensers and coolers often jeopardizes their tube life and performance by clogging and/or tube corrosion. Many stations are obliged to remove periodically the growths manually after drying-out the system or by divers at considerable expenditure in time and money. A new remote-controlled underwater robot is developed for brushing marine life off cooling water intake channels of thermal and nuclear power generation plants. This robot consists of an underwater working unit, a power supply system, hydraulic hose take-up unit and controlling equipment. The full hydraulically powered robot, which can be used for both open and closed conduits, permits cleaning under water intake servicing condition. It drastically reduces both time and cost. (author)

  4. Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

    2008-01-01

    Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage).

  5. Towards a unified fatigue life prediction method for marine structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weicheng; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to apply the damage tolerance design philosophy to design marine structures, accurate prediction of fatigue crack growth under service conditions is required. Now, more and more people have realized that only a fatigue life prediction method based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory has the potential to explain various fatigue phenomena observed. In this book, the issues leading towards the development of a unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method based on FCP theory are addressed. Based on the philosophy of the UFLP method, the current inconsistency between fatigue design and inspection of marine structures could be resolved. This book presents the state-of-the-art and recent advances, including those by the authors, in fatigue studies. It is designed to lead the future directions and to provide a useful tool in many practical applications. It is intended to address to engineers, naval architects, research staff, professionals and graduates engaged in fatigue prevention design and survey ...

  6. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  7. Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-annual trends of heavy metals in marine resources from the Nigerian territorial waters. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Abstract. In an attempt to monitor and assess the pollution status of marine resources in the Nigerian territorial waters, this study was carried out to reveal the levels and ...

  8. Life in the "plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Erik R; Mincer, Tracy J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2013-07-02

    Plastics are the most abundant form of marine debris, with global production rising and documented impacts in some marine environments, but the influence of plastic on open ocean ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly for microbial communities. Plastic marine debris (PMD) collected at multiple locations in the North Atlantic was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and next-generation sequencing to characterize the attached microbial communities. We unveiled a diverse microbial community of heterotrophs, autotrophs, predators, and symbionts, a community we refer to as the "Plastisphere". Pits visualized in the PMD surface conformed to bacterial shapes suggesting active hydrolysis of the hydrocarbon polymer. Small-subunit rRNA gene surveys identified several hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, supporting the possibility that microbes play a role in degrading PMD. Some Plastisphere members may be opportunistic pathogens (the authors, unpublished data) such as specific members of the genus Vibrio that dominated one of our plastic samples. Plastisphere communities are distinct from surrounding surface water, implying that plastic serves as a novel ecological habitat in the open ocean. Plastic has a longer half-life than most natural floating marine substrates, and a hydrophobic surface that promotes microbial colonization and biofilm formation, differing from autochthonous substrates in the upper layers of the ocean.

  9. Marine Resource Survey in waters surrounding Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (SE1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of the cruise were to collect a variety of data to assess the status of marine resources in waters surrounding Guam and CNMI. Marine resource habitats were...

  10. Deepwater Habitat and Fish Resources Associated With A Marine Ecological Reserve: Implications For Fisheries Management, 1996 - 2001 (NODC Accession 0000765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Marine Resources Protection Act (MRPA) authorized approximately $1 million for research on marine resource enhancement and management to be conducted...

  11. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  12. Earliest Known Use of Marine Resources by Neanderthals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Sánchez, Miguel; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Simón-Vallejo, María D.; Lozano-Francisco, María C.; Vera-Peláez, José L.; Finlayson, Clive; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Martínez-Aguirre, M. Aranzazu; Pascual-Granged, Arturo J.; Bergadà-Zapata, M. Mercè; Gibaja-Bao, Juan F.; Riquelme-Cantal, José A.; López-Sáez, J. Antonio; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Sakai, Saburo; Sugisaki, Saiko; Finlayson, Geraldine; Fa, Darren A.; Bicho, Nuno F.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies along the northern Mediterranean borderland have documented the use of shellfish by Neanderthals but none of these finds are prior to Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3). In this paper we present evidence that gathering and consumption of mollusks can now be traced back to the lowest level of the archaeological sequence at Bajondillo Cave (Málaga, Spain), dated during the MIS 6. The paper describes the taxonomical and taphonomical features of the mollusk assemblages from this level Bj19 and briefly touches upon those retrieved in levels Bj18 (MIS 5) and Bj17 (MIS 4), evidencing a continuity of the shellfishing activity that reaches to MIS 3. This evidence is substantiated on 29 datings through radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and U series methods. Obtained dates and paleoenvironmental records from the cave include isotopic, pollen, lithostratigraphic and sedimentological analyses and they are fully coherent with paleoclimate conditions expected for the different stages. We conclude that described use of shellfish resources by Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis) in Southern Spain started ∼150 ka and were almost contemporaneous to Pinnacle Point (South Africa), when shellfishing is first documented in archaic modern humans. PMID:21935371

  13. The Census of Marine Life: goals, scope and strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Yarincik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Census of Marine Life aims to assess and explain the changing diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine species from the past to the present, and to project future ocean life. It assembles known historical data back to 1500 in an online Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and has over 1000 scientists from 70 countries using advanced technologies to quantify and discover unknown life in under-explored ocean realms. Over 99% of the 6 million records now in OBIS are from the top 1000m of the water column, so the mid-waters and floor of the open ocean and the polar ice oceans are special targets. Even where the species are known, their distributions and abundance are largely speculative. This report outlines the strategies of COML projects to efficiently reveal the 95% of the biosphere beneath the waves, from microbes to whales. Open access to the OBIS data set will improve capacity to predict future impacts of climate and human activity. The baseline created by 2010 and the calibrated techniques developed will become important tools for monitoring and managing future ocean ecosystems to maintain their capacity to provide crucial services to our blue planet.

  14. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

  15. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life

    KAUST Repository

    Godø , Olav R.; Samuelsen, Annette; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Patel, Ruben; Hjø llo, Solfrid Sæ tre; Horne, John; Kaartvedt, Stein; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.

  16. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav R Godø

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life.

  17. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life

    KAUST Repository

    Godø, Olav R.

    2012-01-17

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.

  18. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Mid-Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the Mid-Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  19. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Southeast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1991) Southeast regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  20. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: West Coast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0161540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the West Coast regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  1. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: North Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the North Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  2. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  3. Life Online: Resources for Students with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kerri

    2001-01-01

    Two Australian agencies planned, developed, piloted, and evaluated an online resource for teaching independent living skills to adult students with a mild intellectual disability using technology and the Internet. The resource, called Life Online, is a package of support resource materials tested in regional classrooms in Victoria, Australia.…

  4. Towards Arctic Resource Governance of Marine Invasive Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and policy-oriented publications highlighting the magnitude of uncertainty in the changing Arctic and the possibilities for effective regional governance are proliferating, yet it remains a challenging task to examine Arctic marine biodiversity. Limited scientific data are currently...... available. Through analysis of marine invasions in the Arctic, we work to identify and assess patterns in the knowledge gaps regarding invasive species in the Arctic that affect the ability to generate improved governance outcomes. These patterns are expected to depend on multiple aspects of scientific...... research into invasive species threats in the Arctic, including the ways in which known marine invasions are related to different stakeholder groups and existing disparate national and international experiences with invasive species. Stakeholdergroups include dominant industries (fishing, shipping, tourism...

  5. Life story resources in dementia care: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Jacqueline; Burrow, Simon; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John David

    2014-01-01

    Life story work has a relatively long tradition in the caring sciences and is recognised as an important component of dementia care and practice. However, to date, there has not been a review of accessible life story resources. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Following a systematic approach to identification and inclusion, 11 life story resources were reviewed to ascertain areas of commonality and divergence between the materials. The authors were able to group the analysis under eight areas and at the end of this process, it was uncertain if life story work is a formal staff intervention or an informal activity that people with dementia and their families could engage in. Resources also varied in terms of whether the life story information was organised in a chronological way, or with topics of interest/discussion or with a combination of both. Life story evaluation and its impact on the life of the person with dementia is in need of development. Across the resources the authors identified four reasons to do life story work which the authors have named as: emotional connections; interactional connections; building new connections and practical care connections. There was limited guidance aimed at helping people with dementia to develop and compile their own life story. This paper provides new insights into the usefulness, future directions and content of life story resources in dementia care. It will be of interest to those in health and social care as well as people living with dementia.

  6. Resource tracking in marine parasites: going with the flow?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.M.; Poulin, R.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how diversity interacts with energy supply is of broad ecological interest. Most studies to date have investigated patterns within trophic levels, reflecting a lack of food webs which include information on energy flow. We added parasites to a published marine energy-flow food web, to

  7. Ocean robotics: 21st century sustainable science & marine resource management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swart, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available marine robots? Swart et al., 2012 The CSIR Glider Fleet 14 GLIDERS: 5 PROFILING & 4 SURFACE GLIDERS = Glider deployment & ship CTD station = ship based underway measurements September 2012 – March 2013 Gough&Is. STF SAF APF G o u g h / T r i...

  8. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelcich, S.; Hughes, T.P.; Olsson, P.; Folke, C.; Defeo, O.; Fernandez, M.; Foale, S.; Gunderson, L.H.; Rodriguez-Sickert, C.; Scheffer, M.; Steneck, R.S.; Castilla, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal

  9. Understanding the Consequences of Property Rights Mismatches: a Case Study of New Zealand's Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Yandle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within fisheries and natural resource management literature, there is considerable discussion about the key roles that property rights can play in building biologically and socially sustainable resource management regimes. A key point of agreement is that secure long-term property rights provide an incentive for resource users to manage the resource sustainably. However, property rights mismatches create ambiguity and conflict in resource use. Though the term mismatches is usually associated with problems in matching temporal and spatial resource characteristics with institutional characteristics, I expand it here to include problems that can arise when property rights are incompletely defined or incompletely distributed. Property rights mismatches are particularly likely to occur over marine resources, for which multiple types of resource and resource user can be engaged and managed under a variety of regulatory regimes. I used New Zealand's marine resources to examine the causes and consequences of these property rights mismatches. New Zealand is particularly interesting because its property-rights-based commercial fishing regime, in the form of individual transferable quotas, has attracted considerable positive attention. However, my review of the marine natural resource management regime from a broader property rights perspective highlights a series of problems caused by property rights mismatches, including competition for resources among commercial, customary, and recreational fishers; spatial conflict among many marine resource users; and conflicting incentives and objectives for the management of resources over time. The use of a property rights perspective also highlights some potential solutions such as the layering of institutional arrangements and the improvement of how property rights are defined to encourage long-term sustainability.

  10. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE OF LEASING MARINE VESSEL OWNERS AND CHARTERERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Витальевна БОНДАРЬ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of the basic types of the bareboat charter, presented algorithms decision on the justification of the respective projects. It was found that the initiator of the project can be both owners who wants to pass the boat rental and the charterer, and also who is the owner, who wants to take a boat for rent. It is proved that the implementation of these specific operations requires careful preparation, and using of the project approach will greatly enhance their effectiveness. We describe the life of the project finance lease from the standpoint of the marine vessel, the ship-owner and charterer. It is established that such projects characterized by four-phase structure of the life cycle: preparation, let's call it as the principal decision on (from the chartering of the vessel, the investment - to select the optimal variant (from the charter and the conclusion of the bareboat charter, the phase of operation of the vessel and the fourth - the closure of the project at the end of term bareboat charter. Skill description of the content of each phase, which will continue for the main participants of the project to determine the value of each phase and the value of the whole project.

  11. Systems pharmacology-based drug discovery for marine resources: an example using sea cucumber (Holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Ding, Yan; Xu, Feifei; Liu, Baoyue; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei; Zhu, Jingbo

    2015-05-13

    Sea cucumber, a kind of marine animal, have long been utilized as tonic and traditional remedies in the Middle East and Asia because of its effectiveness against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence, and constipation. In this study, an overall study performed on sea cucumber was used as an example to show drug discovery from marine resource by using systems pharmacology model. The value of marine natural resources has been extensively considered because these resources can be potentially used to treat and prevent human diseases. However, the discovery of drugs from oceans is difficult, because of complex environments in terms of composition and active mechanisms. Thus, a comprehensive systems approach which could discover active constituents and their targets from marine resource, understand the biological basis for their pharmacological properties is necessary. In this study, a feasible pharmacological model based on systems pharmacology was established to investigate marine medicine by incorporating active compound screening, target identification, and network and pathway analysis. As a result, 106 candidate components of sea cucumber and 26 potential targets were identified. Furthermore, the functions of sea cucumber in health improvement and disease treatment were elucidated in a holistic way based on the established compound-target and target-disease networks, and incorporated pathways. This study established a novel strategy that could be used to explore specific active mechanisms and discover new drugs from marine sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Resources: Solving Work and Life Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Sharon Jeffcoat

    2003-01-01

    Work-life issues are those problems employees have that impact their ability to perform their work and may lead to increasing levels of stress. Stress over time can lead to low employee morale, lower productivity, decreased job satisfaction and eventually to sickness and absenteeism. In extreme cases, stress can result in substance abuse or…

  13. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only list resource providers in your plan that have been arranged by contract or other approved means. (b) You must...

  14. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Work-Life Resources for Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Layne, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Work-life balance means something different for each faculty member, but the overarching goal is to create a welcoming and supportive environment for all faculty members so they can succeed and are not required to make unacceptable choices between family and career. Retention of a talented faculty workforce is not just a matter of good start-up packages and opportunities for professional development, but also programs and policies that allow faculty members the flexibility to manage family an...

  16. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Perceptions for Community-Based Marine Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Beyerl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every community-based marine resource management (CBMRM inherently takes place in a highly complex social-ecological environment, and stakeholder perceptions related to various aspects of the natural and social environment guide behavior in every stage of the management process. This paper provides an introduction to the psychology of perception with regard to marine resource management. In particular, it offers a typology of CBMRM relevant perceptions along with an analysis of psychological, societal, and physical factors that modulate them. Based on this analysis, we propose the introduction of specially trained local Perception Experts (PE’s, whose role will be to recognize and reflect individual perceptions of involved stakeholders, and to communicate them at community meetings where decisions are made. This empirically testable addition to current CBMRM schemes could help to increase participation, develop management measures that fit the capacities of the involved stakeholders more accurately, and hence, contribute to a faster rehabilitation of marine resources.

  18. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  19. The effects of wind power on marine life - A Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Ohlsson, Hans; Wahlberg, Magnus; Rosenberg, Rutger; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja

    2012-10-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and an additional 5500 MW are being planned for. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. The largest offshore wind farm in Sweden today is Lillgrund in Oeresund, with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities.

  20. Radioisotopes leakage of Fukushima may hit marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing; Liu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    So many radioisotopes were released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan. Although the isotopes will be vastly diluted and the contamination is unlikely to cause immediate harm to marine organisms, but long-lived isotopes are expected to accumulate in the food chain and may cause problems such as increased mortality in fish and marine-mammal populations. Viewpoints and recommendations for radioactivity pollution survey to the marine ecosystem by experts were reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  1. Biodiversity research sets sail: showcasing the diversity of marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2009-04-23

    The World Congress on Marine Biodiversity was held in the City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, from 10 to 15 November 2008, showcasing research on all aspects of marine biodiversity from basic taxonomic exploration to innovative conservation strategies and methods to integrate research into environmental policy.

  2. An overview of the living marine resources of Namibia | Boyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of major environmental anomalies on the distribution and abundance of the resources in recent years is discussed. The most dramatic anomaly in recent years was the wide-scale advection of low-oxygen water into the northern Benguela from the Angola Dome in 1994, and the subsequent Benguela Niño of 1995 ...

  3. From Farming to Fishing: Marine Resource Conservation and a New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the arrival of a new group of fishermen on the Kenyan coast and what this has meant for the state of fishery resources. It reviews four subject areas: access and the number of fishermen; the fishermen's identity; the choice of fishing gear; and the fishing grounds selected. Data were collected from a small ...

  4. The Marine Living Resources Act was promulgated in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    best used to create micro- and small-scale commercial enterprises that can serve to uplift poor fishers. Low- value resources ..... Ocean View was selected for the purpose; Swartkops .... SA 1998; 2 × 2 contingency analysis, χ2 = 2.1; df = 1;.

  5. Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: The role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Desiree; Stock, Charles A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Methot, Rick; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Eveson, J. Paige; Holsman, Kirstin; Miller, Timothy J.; Gaichas, Sarah; Gehlen, Marion; Pershing, Andrew; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom; Eakin, C. Mark; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Séférian, Roland; Spillman, Claire M.; Hartog, Jason R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Muhling, Barbara; Asch, Rebecca G.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Saba, Vincent S.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Gaitan, Carlos F.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Alexander, Michael A.; Xue, Yan; Pegion, Kathleen V.; Lynch, Patrick; Payne, Mark R.; Kristiansen, Trond; Lehodey, Patrick; Werner, Francisco E.

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in global dynamical climate prediction systems have allowed for skillful predictions of climate variables relevant to living marine resources (LMRs) at a scale useful to understanding and managing LMRs. Such predictions present opportunities for improved LMR management and industry operations, as well as new research avenues in fisheries science. LMRs respond to climate variability via changes in physiology and behavior. For species and systems where climate-fisheries links are well established, forecasted LMR responses can lead to anticipatory and more effective decisions, benefitting both managers and stakeholders. Here, we provide an overview of climate prediction systems and advances in seasonal to decadal prediction of marine-resource relevant environmental variables. We then describe a range of climate-sensitive LMR decisions that can be taken at lead-times of months to decades, before highlighting a range of pioneering case studies using climate predictions to inform LMR decisions. The success of these case studies suggests that many additional applications are possible. Progress, however, is limited by observational and modeling challenges. Priority developments include strengthening of the mechanistic linkages between climate and marine resource responses, development of LMR models able to explicitly represent such responses, integration of climate driven LMR dynamics in the multi-driver context within which marine resources exist, and improved prediction of ecosystem-relevant variables at the fine regional scales at which most marine resource decisions are made. While there are fundamental limits to predictability, continued advances in these areas have considerable potential to make LMR managers and industry decision more resilient to climate variability and help sustain valuable resources. Concerted dialog between scientists, LMR managers and industry is essential to realizing this potential.

  6. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-Trolet, Morgan; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.

    2018-02-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of single life stages or the whole life cycle of species, 3) food web models, and 4) end-to-end models. Single pressures are rare and, in the future, models must be able to examine multiple factors affecting living marine resources such as interactions between: i) climate-driven changes in temperature regimes and acidification, ii) reductions in water quality due to eutrophication, iii) the introduction of alien invasive species, and/or iv) (over-)exploitation by fisheries. Statistical (correlative) approaches can be used to detect historical patterns which may not be relevant in the future. Advancing predictive capacity of changes in distribution and productivity of living marine resources requires explicit modelling of biological and physical mechanisms. New formulations are needed which (depending on the question) will need to strive for more realism in ecophysiology and behaviour of individuals, life history strategies of species, as well as trophodynamic interactions occurring at different spatial scales. Coupling existing models (e.g. physical, biological, economic) is one avenue that has proven successful. However, fundamental advancements are needed to address key issues such as the adaptive capacity of species/groups and ecosystems. The continued development of end-to-end models (e.g., physics to fish to human sectors) will be critical if we hope to assess how multiple pressures may interact to cause changes in living marine resources including the ecological and economic costs and trade-offs of different spatial management strategies. Given the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of models reviewed here, confidence in projections of changes in the

  7. A resource guide to nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Klein, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    Forecasting the useful economic life of a nuclear unit and addressing the complementary issue of license renewal, both key elements of life cycle management, are complex undertakings. This guide is a resource document emphasizing the technical elements of life cycle management (LCM) with focus on the determination of adequate maintenance programs and the identification of data and records necessary to support them. Information on other life cycle management issues, such as license renewal regulation, is also provided. Because of the volume of information required for LCM evaluations and the need for periodic updating, this Guide is presented as an updatable ''electronic book.''

  8. Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

  9. Surviving in a marine desert: The sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga , R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  10. Surviving in a marine desert: the sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goei, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga, R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goei, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  11. Spatial isses in Arctic marine resource governance workshop summary and comment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Bakanev, Sergey; Bertelsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystems face new challenges and opportunities that are increasing and shifting governance needs in the region. A group of economists, ecologists, biologists, political scientists and resource managers met in Stockholm, SE, Sept 4–6, 2014 to discuss the govern...

  12. Surviving in a Marine Desert: The Sponge Loop Retains Resources Within Coral Reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga, R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  13. Marine Metagenome as A Resource for Novel Enzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Alma’abadi, Amani D.

    2015-11-10

    More than 99% of identified prokaryotes, including many from the marine environment, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. This lack of capability restricts our knowledge of microbial genetics and community ecology. Metagenomics, the culture-independent cloning of environmental DNAs that are isolated directly from an environmental sample, has already provided a wealth of information about the uncultured microbial world. It has also facilitated the discovery of novel biocatalysts by allowing researchers to probe directly into a huge diversity of enzymes within natural microbial communities. Recent advances in these studies have led to great interest in recruiting microbial enzymes for the development of environmentally-friendly industry. Although the metagenomics approach has many limitations, it is expected to provide not only scientific insights but also economic benefits, especially in industry. This review highlights the importance of metagenomics in mining microbial lipases, as an example, by using high-throughput techniques. In addition, we discuss challenges in the metagenomics as an important part of bioinformatics analysis in big data.

  14. Marine Metagenome as A Resource for Novel Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani D. Alma’abadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 99% of identified prokaryotes, including many from the marine environment, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. This lack of capability restricts our knowledge of microbial genetics and community ecology. Metagenomics, the culture-independent cloning of environmental DNAs that are isolated directly from an environmental sample, has already provided a wealth of information about the uncultured microbial world. It has also facilitated the discovery of novel biocatalysts by allowing researchers to probe directly into a huge diversity of enzymes within natural microbial communities. Recent advances in these studies have led to a great interest in recruiting microbial enzymes for the development of environmentally-friendly industry. Although the metagenomics approach has many limitations, it is expected to provide not only scientific insights but also economic benefits, especially in industry. This review highlights the importance of metagenomics in mining microbial lipases, as an example, by using high-throughput techniques. In addition, we discuss challenges in the metagenomics as an important part of bioinformatics analysis in big data.

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  16. Life stressors and social resources: an integrated assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G

    1988-01-01

    The Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES) is described. The inventory provides an integrated assessment of an individual's life context. It taps both relatively stable and new aspects of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time from groups of depressed patients, alcoholic patients, arthritic patients, and healthy adults. The indices are internally consistent, moderately intercorrelated, and relatively stable over time. In addition, they are predictably related to changes in respondents' functioning. Although more developmental work is needed, the LISRES has some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of stress and coping.

  17. Global imprint of climate change on marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Sydeman, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Past meta-analyses of the response of marine organisms to climate change have examined a limited range of locations1,2, taxonomic groups2–4 and/or biological responses5,6. This has precluded a robust overview of the effect of climate change in the global ocean. Here, we synthesized all available ...

  18. Assessing life stressors and social resources: applications to alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G; Moos, B S

    A growing body of evidence points to the importance of life stressors and social resources in the development and course of alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders. This article describes the Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES), which provides an integrated assessment of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time 18 months apart from four demographically comparable groups: alcoholic patients, depressed patients, arthritic patients, and non-problem-drinking adults. As expected, alcoholic patients reported more acute and chronic stressors and fewer social resources than did non-problem-drinking adults. More important, the indices were predictively related to changes in alcohol consumption, drinking problems, depression, and self-confidence. Procedures such as the LISRES have some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of recovery and relapse in substance abuse disorders.

  19. Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: the role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommasi, Desiree; Stock, Charles A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2017-01-01

    and industry operations, as well as new research avenues in fisheries science. LMRs respond to climate variability via changes in physiology and behavior. For species and systems where climate-fisheries links are well established, forecasted LMR responses can lead to anticipatory and more effective decisions......Recent developments in global dynamical climate prediction systems have allowed for skillful predictions of climate variables relevant to living marine resources (LMRs) at a scale useful to understanding and managing LMRs. Such predictions present opportunities for improved LMR management......, benefitting both managers and stakeholders. Here, we provide an overview of climate prediction systems and advances in seasonal to decadal prediction of marine-resource relevant environmental variables. We then describe a range of climate-sensitive LMR decisions that can be taken at lead-times of months...

  20. Constructing Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Searching the Marine Realms Information Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Guthrie A.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2009-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a digital library that provides access to free online scientific information about the oceans and coastal regions. To search its collection, MRIB uses a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program, which allows automated search requests using Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). This document provides an overview of how to construct URLs to execute MRIB queries. The parameters listed allow detailed control of which records are retrieved, how they are returned, and how their display is formatted.

  1. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frid

    Full Text Available As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus, younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus and quillback rockfish (S. maliger. Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps. We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery

  2. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Alejandro; Marliave, Jeff; Heithaus, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus), younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) and quillback rockfish (S. maliger). Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps). We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery removal of top

  3. Phase I Marine and Terrestrial Cultural Resources Survey of 13 Project Items Located on Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, William

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of two marine and 11 terrestrial project items on and near Marsh Island in Iberia Parish, Louisiana...

  4. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  5. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-04-25

    Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes.

  6. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  7. Will life find a way? Evolution of marine species under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosi, Piero; De Wit, Pierre; Thor, Peter; Dupont, Sam

    2016-10-01

    Projections of marine biodiversity and implementation of effective actions for its maintenance in the face of current rapid global environmental change are constrained by our limited understanding of species' adaptive responses, including transgenerational plasticity, epigenetics and natural selection. This special issue presents 13 novel studies, which employ experimental and modelling approaches to (i) investigate plastic and evolutionary responses of marine species to major global change drivers; (ii) ask relevant broad eco-evolutionary questions, implementing multiple species and populations studies; (iii) show the advantages of using advanced experimental designs and tools; (iv) construct novel model organisms for marine evolution; (v) help identifying future challenges for the field; and (vi) highlight the importance of incorporating existing evolutionary theory into management solutions for the marine realm. What emerges is that at least some populations of marine species have the ability to adapt to future global change conditions. However, marine organisms' capacity for adaptation appears finite, due to evolutionary trade-offs and possible rapid losses in genetic diversity. This further corroborates the idea that acquiring an evolutionary perspective on how marine life will respond to the selective pressure of future global changes will guide us in better identifying which conservation efforts will be most needed and most effective.

  8. De la connaissance des milieux marins à la gestion raisonnée des ressources From the knowledge of marine environments to the management of marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Augier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de cet article introductif au dossier thématique sur les ressources marines, les auteurs rappellent les enjeux liés aux usages et types de consommation, à leurs modalités de protection et systèmes de gouvernance. Ils rappellent leur importance environnementale, sociale mais aussi économique pour bon nombre de pays et de communautés côtières. Ils mettent l’accent sur les actions déjà mises en œuvre et sur la nécessité d’approfondir les connaissances dans ce domaine.In this introductory article of the issue paper on marine resources, the authors review the issues with usage and consumption patterns, in terms of protection and governance systems. They stress their environmental significance, social but also economic for many country and coastal communities. They focus on the actions already implemented and the need to deepen knowledge in this field.

  9. The ANTOSTRAT legacy: Science collaboration and international transparency in potential marine mineral resource exploitation of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Barker, Peter; Barrett, Peter; Behrendt, John; Brancolini, Giuliano; Childs, Jonathan R.; Escutia, Carlota; Jokat, Wilfried; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Leitchenkov, German; Stagg, Howard; Tanahashi, Manabu; Wardell, Nigel; Webb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy project (ANTOSTRAT; 1989–2002) was an extremely successful collaboration in international marine geological science that also lifted the perceived “veil of secrecy” from studies of potential exploitation of Antarctic marine mineral resources. The project laid the groundwork for circum-Antarctic seismic, drilling, and rock coring programs designed to decipher Antarctica’s tectonic, stratigraphic, and climate histories. In 2002, ANTOSTRAT evolved into the equally successful and currently active Antarctic Climate Evolution research program. The need for, and evolution of, ANTOSTRAT was based on two simple tenets within SCAR and the Antarctic Treaty: international science collaboration and open access to data. The ANTOSTRAT project may be a helpful analog for other regions of strong international science and geopolitical interests, such as the Arctic. This is the ANTOSTRAT story.

  10. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  11. From science to policy; A road map for a sustainable resource management in Turkey's marine EEZs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazihan, A.; Salihoglu, B.; Akoglu, E.; Oguz, T.

    2016-02-01

    This study provides a scientific base for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) decisions for Turkey's exclusive economic zones in the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. For this aim, an interdisciplinary holistic approach is employed to explore the linkages and feedbacks between changing national societal and economic needs, managerial decisions, environmental pressures and the health of regional marine ecosystems through derived socioeconomic and ecological indicators from statistical and field data as well as Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model results. Results quantified the level of human induced pressures driven by increasing societal and economic demands due to human population increase, national economic crises and corresponded governmental subsidies. Cumulative effects of these pressures together with changing climatic conditions deteriorated the marine resources and, as a consequence, limited the socio-economic services provided by ecosystems (e.g. nation-wide decreases in weight (-47%) and value (-37%) of landings, economic profitability (-61%) and per capita fish consumption (-29%) over the last decade). Even though the pressures increased correspondingly in all the marine regions, their consequences in the regional marine ecosystems realized differently. Observed trends in socioeconomic and ecologic indicators and past and future model scenario simulations done by Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model provided region-specific optimum EBFM options. Research results were synthesized specific to each responsible stakeholder groups and communicated by means of regional stakeholder meetings, project web-side, social and national media and scientific platforms. Present study is expected to increase the stakeholders' awareness for sustainable, responsible resource co-management and will be integrated into decision-making processes and serve as a model case study. This is a contribution funded by TUBITAK (113Y040 DEKOYON Project).

  12. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  13. The life cycle of the free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda De Man 1890

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.R.

    The free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda was collected from the mangrove sediment of a mud-flat at Chorao Island, Goa, India, and reared in the laboratory to investigate its life cycle at 27 plus or minus 2 degrees C. The nematodes...

  14. Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsenas, Gabriel [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Dalgleish, Fraser [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Ouyang, Bing [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Final Report for project DE-EE0006787: Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. This project developed and tested an optical monitoring system prototype that will be suitable for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) full project lifecycle observation (baseline, commissioning, and decommissioning), with automated real-time classification of marine animals. This system can be deployed to collect pre-installation baseline species observations at a proposed deployment site with minimal post-processing overhead. To satisfy deployed MHK project species of concern (e.g. Endangered Species Act-listed) monitoring requirements, the system provides automated tracking and notification of the presence of managed animals within established perimeters of MHK equipment and provides high resolution imagery of their behavior through a wide range of conditions. During a project’s decommissioning stage, the system can remain installed to provide resource managers with post-installation data. Our technology, known as an Unobtrusive Multi-static Serial LiDAR Imager (UMSLI), is a technology transfer of underwater distributed LiDAR imaging technology that preserves the advantages of traditional optical and acoustic solutions while overcoming associated disadvantages for MHK environmental monitoring applications. This new approach is a purposefully-designed, reconfigurable adaptation of an existing technology that can be easily mounted on or around different classes of MHK equipment. The system uses low average power red (638nm) laser illumination to be invisible and eye-safe to marine animals and is compact and cost effective. The equipment is designed for long term, maintenance-free operations, to inherently generate a sparse primary dataset that only includes detected anomalies (animal presence information), and to allow robust real-time automated animal classification/identification with a low data bandwidth requirement. Advantages

  15. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles.

  16. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  17. An examination of the Marine Operating and Support Information System (MOSIS) as a mechanism for linking resources to readiness for Marine Operating Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Cucinotta, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Continued downsizing efforts have imposed increasingly stringent restrictions on Department of Defense budgetary resources. Program and activity managers are expected to justify their budgets based on well defined quantitative measures of performance, activity level and readiness. This thesis examines the resources to readiness issues in DoD, specifically focusing on Marine Corps Operating Forces. Additionally, this thesis evaluates th...

  18. The EC Maritime Industries Forum 1992: Marine resources and research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenisch, U.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Maritime Industries Forum (MIF) of the European Community has prepared a comprehensive report covering all the EC maritime industries. The report, published on October 29, 1992, addresses maritime activities such as shipbuilding, shipping, fishing, energy, marine resources and environmental protection. Focal points are research and development measures and strategies. A major objective is to strengthen the competitiveness of the maritime industries via a global and horizontal approach. This paper briefly analyses the M.I.F. Report and concentrates on the EC interests in the field of marine resources such as oil and gas, potable water, aquaculture and fishing, minerals, OTEC/DOWA as well as the environmentally sound technology that is required to allow for a future oriented and sustainable exploitation. Export opportunities for such new technologies and cooperation with third states are an important objective. The proposals of the M.I.F. Report are of a positive, future-oriented nature, appropriate to replace many of the hitherto defensive policies in the maritime area. The industries recognize the responsibility for the revitalization of their industrial sectors. The method of this broad sectoral approach for a new industrial policy in Europe is innovative and a model in itself. With the installation of three specialized new industrial panels in January 1993 the work continues

  19. Evaluation for probabilistic distributions of fatigue life of marine propeller materials by using a Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Yong; Zhang, Jian Wei

    2008-01-01

    Engineering materials have been studied and developed remarkably for a long time. But, few reports about marine propeller materials are presented. Recently, some researchers have studied the material strength of marine propellers. However, studies on parametric sensitivity and probabilistic distribution of fatigue life of propeller materials have not been made yet. In this study, a method to predict the probabilistic distributions of fatigue life of propeller materials is presented, and the influence of several parameters on the life distribution is discussed

  20. Impact of dam-building on marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, T. J.

    1980-03-01

    Dam-building across naturally flowing rivers tends to decrease discharge of surplus water into the sea, reduce nutrient concentration in estuaries and coastal waters, and diminish plankton blooms as well as fish landings. Depletion of nutrients and organic matter along with reduced mud and silt deposition affect benthic life on the continental shelf. Reduced mud and silt deposition leads to coastal retreat. Dams, especially those constructed for hydro-electric purposes, hinder migration of fishes and decapods. Discharge from dams can create barriers at high or low flows, cause delays, disrupt normal behavioural routine and change the travel speed of migratory animals. Where all spawners of a given population are frequently kept away from the breeding site, the population faces extinction.

  1. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  2. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  3. Marine resource reliance in the human populations of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile - A view from prehistory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charlotte L.; Millard, Andrew R.; Gröcke, Darren R.; Standen, Vivien G.; Arriaza, Bernardo T.; Halcrow, Siân E.

    2018-02-01

    The Atacama Desert is one of the most inhospitable terrestrial environments on Earth, yet the upwelling of the Humboldt Current off the coast has resulted in the presence of a rich marine biota. It is this marine environment which first enabled the human settlement of the northern Atacama Desert, and continues to form the basis of regional economies today. In this paper we explore how the desert has shaped human dietary choices throughout prehistory, using carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of human bone collagen (n = 80) to reconstruct the diets of the inhabitants of the Arica region of the northern Atacama. This area is one of the driest parts of the desert, but has been generally understudied in terms of dietary adaptation. Statistical analysis using FRUITS has allowed deconvolution of isotopic signals to create dietary reconstructions and highlight the continued importance of marine resources throughout the archaeological sequence. Location also appears to have played a role in dietary choices, with inland sites having 10-20% less calories from marine foods than coastal sites. We also highlight evidence for the increasing importance of maize consumption, coinciding with contact with highland polities. In all periods apart from the earliest Archaic, however, there is significant variability between individuals in terms of dietary resource use. We conclude that marine resource use, and broad-spectrum economies persisted throughout prehistory. We interpret these results as reflecting a deliberate choice to retain dietary diversity as a buffer against resource instability.

  4. Biological concentration mechanism of 137Cs in marine life (2008-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Shinichi; Hamano, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    From results of radionuclide analysis for tiger globefish cultivated on the surface of the sea around the Genkai nuclear power plant, it was confirmed that tiger globefish took 137 Cs into their bodies and this radionuclide mainly accumulated in their muscle and bone via seawater as a mediation route. Radionuclide analysis of 137 Cs as a tracer for marine life, is extremely useful as the basic data to understand behavior of the artificial radionuclides in the environment. (author)

  5. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  6. A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reduan Atan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against available measured data within Irish waters. 12-year model outputs from the high resolution model were analysed to determine mean and maximum conditions and operational, high and extreme event conditions for significant wave height, energy period and power. Annual and seasonal analyses are presented. The 12-year annual mean P were 68 kW/m at Berth A (BA and 57 kW/m at Berth B (BB. The resource shows strong seasonal and annual variations and the winter mean power levels were found to be strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

  7. Marine Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment for Domestic Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robi J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-24

    NREL/DOE undertook a study for the US Army, Coast Guard and Air Force to investigate the potential for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to meet the energy load at coastal bases in the future as MHK technology evolves. A wide range of data from tidal and wave, environmental, shipping, etc. databases were used to screen the DOD bases. A series of scoring algorithms were developed to facilitate site review to lead to eventual down select for more detailed, site specific bathymetric tidal resource evaluation. The Army's Camp Edwards, MA and the Coast Guard's Training Center Cape May, NJ (TRACEN Cape May) were selected and the Georgia Institute of Technology performed the analyses. An NREL/DOE MHK team visited the bases to further discuss with the base personnel MHK technology's potential for providing power to the bases in the future and frame the potential impact to existing power systems.

  8. Foraging strategy switch of a top marine predator according to seasonal resource differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Daniel O'Toole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability in marine resources influences the foraging behaviour and success of top marine predators. However, little is known about the links between these animals and ocean productivity, specifically, how plankton density influences their foraging behaviour. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina have two annual at-sea foraging trips: a two month post-breeding foraging trip (Nov – Jan that coincides with elevated summer productivity; and an eight month post-moulting foraging trip (Feb – Oct over winter, when productivity is low. Physical parameters are often used to describe seal habitat, whereas information about important biological parameters is lacking. We used electronic tags deployed on elephant seals during both trips to determine their movement and foraging behaviour. The tags also recorded light, which measured the bio-optical properties of the water column, the bulk of which is presumably influenced by phytoplankton. We investigated the relationship between plankton density and seal foraging behaviour; comparing trends between summer and winter trips. We found a positive relationship between plankton density and foraging behaviour, which did not vary seasonally. We propose that profitable concentrations of seal prey are more likely to coincide with planktonic aggregations, but we also acknowledge that trophic dynamics may shift in response to seasonal trends in productivity. Seal prey (mid-trophic level and plankton (lower-trophic level are expected to overlap in space and time during summer trips when peak phytoplankton blooms occur. In contrast, aggregated patches of lower trophic levels are likely to be more dispersed during winter trips when plankton density is considerably lower and heterogeneous. These results show that southern elephant seals are able to exploit prey resources in different ways throughout the year as demonstrated by the variation observed between seal foraging behaviour and trophic

  9. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  10. The Effect of Bad Human Activities on Marine Life as Portrayed in Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage

    OpenAIRE

    LATHIFAH, ISNA NUR

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: ecocriticism, bad humans activities, marine life, Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage movie. The balance of marine life is often damaged by irresponsible humans who do not care about their environment. This problem has inspired some works to criticize humans' reckless behavior toward environment, especially ocean. Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage is one of the examples that have been created to criticize the bad human activities in the ocean. This research applies ecocritici...

  11. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; New, Leslie F; Thomas, Len; Costa, Daniel P; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R; Robinson, Patrick W; Simmons, Samantha E; Thums, Michele; Harwood, John; Clark, James S

    2013-01-01

    Body condition plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes at a variety of scales and across a broad range of animal taxa. An understanding of how body condition changes at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of interaction with the environment provides necessary information about how animals acquire resources. However, comparatively little is known about intra- and interindividual variation of condition in marine systems. Where condition has been studied, changes typically are recorded at relatively coarse time-scales. By quantifying how fine-scale interaction with the environment influences condition, we can broaden our understanding of how animals acquire resources and allocate them to body stores. Here we used a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to estimate the body condition as measured by the size of an animal's lipid store in two closely related species of marine predator that occupy different hemispheres: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The observation model linked drift dives to lipid stores. The process model quantified daily changes in lipid stores as a function of the physiological condition of the seal (lipid:lean tissue ratio, departure lipid and departure mass), its foraging location, two measures of behaviour and environmental covariates. We found that physiological condition significantly impacted lipid gain at two time-scales – daily and at departure from the colony – that foraging location was significantly associated with lipid gain in both species of elephant seals and that long-term behavioural phase was associated with positive lipid gain in northern and southern elephant seals. In northern elephant seals, the occurrence of short-term behavioural states assumed to represent foraging were correlated with lipid gain. Lipid gain was a function of covariates in both species. Southern elephant seals performed fewer drift dives than

  12. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Marine resources, biophysical processes, and environmental management of a tropical shelf seaway: Torres Strait, Australia Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. T.; Butler, A. J.; Coles, R. G.

    2008-09-01

    This special issue of Continental Shelf Research contains 20 papers giving research results produced as part of Australia's Torres Strait Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) Program, which was funded over a three-year period during 2003-2006. Marine biophysical, fisheries, socioeconomic-cultural and extension research in the Torres Strait region of northeastern Australia was carried out to meet three aims: 1) support the sustainable development of marine resources and minimize impacts of resource use in Torres Strait; 2) enhance the conservation of the marine environment and the social, cultural and economic well being of all stakeholders, particularly the Torres Strait peoples; and 3) contribute to effective policy formulation and management decision making. Subjects covered, including commercial and traditional fisheries management, impacts of anthropogenic sediment inputs on seagrass meadows and communication of science results to local communities, have broad applications to other similar environments.

  14. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley shelf, northwest Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Gordon, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years a number of oilfields have been developed in tropical waters of the Rowley Shelf, north-west Australia. Along with Bass Strait and the Timor Sea, this region is the focus for Australia's current oil exploration and production. It supports major coral and mangrove habitats and fishing grounds sensitive to the effects of oil pollution. This paper provides a synthesis of the Rowley Shelf marine environment and reviews procedures protecting the marine resources of the region from the effects of oil spills. Recent government and industry initiatives for improving the protection of the environment are outlined and discussed on the basis of the improved understanding of the marine resources and experience being gained in oil spill contingency planning. The tropical habitats of the Rowley Shelf occur within the Indo-Pacific Zoogeographic Region, therefore experience gained in Western Australia is applicable to similar environments in the South East Asian region

  15. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  16. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  17. Reuse of wastewater sludge with marine clay as a new resource of construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Lee, D J; Hong, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of sludge from wastewater treatment presents highly complex problems to any municipality. Most of the sludge disposal methods have varying degrees of environmental impact. Hence, it is necessary to explore potential areas of reuse in order to alleviate sludge disposal problems and to conserve natural resources. Industrial sludge and marine clay are two forms of high-volume wastes. Using these wastes as a resource of raw materials to produce construction aggregates would enable large-scale sludge reuse. The aggregates were produced at various sludge-clay combinations containing 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% clay contents, respectively. The pelletized aggregates displayed lower particle densities ranged between 1.48 and 2.25 g/cm3, compared to the density of granite at 2.56 g/cm3. Good 28-day concrete compressive strength of 38.5 N/mm2 achieved by the 100% sludge aggregate was comparable to the value of 38.0 N/mm2 achieved of the granite control specimens. The leachate contamination levels from the aggregates after 150 days were found acceptable when used in concrete, indicating insignificant environmental contamination. The heat flow study showed increases in heat flow at the temperatures of 480 degrees C and between 660 degrees C and 900 degrees C, indicating a need for the extension of heating time around these temperatures.

  18. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  19. Viviparity and K-selected life history in a Mesozoic marine plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, F R; Chiappe, L M

    2011-08-12

    Viviparity is known in several clades of Mesozoic aquatic reptiles, but evidence for it is lacking in the Plesiosauria. Here, we report a Late Cretaceous plesiosaur fossil consisting of a fetus preserved within an adult of the same taxon. We interpret this occurrence as a gravid female and unborn young and hence as definitive evidence for plesiosaur viviparity. Quantitative analysis indicates that plesiosaurs gave birth to large, probably single progeny. The combination of viviparity, large offspring size, and small brood number differs markedly from the pattern seen in other marine reptiles but does resemble the K-selected strategy of all extant marine mammals and a few extant lizards. Plesiosaurs may have shared other life history traits with these clades, such as sociality and maternal care.

  20. Hypoxia and acidification in ocean ecosystems: coupled dynamics and effects on marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that low dissolved oxygen (DO) and low pH conditions co-occur in many coastal and open ocean environments. Within temperate ecosystems, these conditions not only develop seasonally as temperatures rise and metabolic rates accelerate, but can also display strong diurnal variability, especially in shallow systems where photosynthetic rates ameliorate hypoxia and acidification by day. Despite the widespread, global co-occurrence of low pH and low DO and the likelihood that these conditions may negatively impact marine life, very few studies have actually assessed the extent to which the combination of both stressors elicits additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects in marine organisms. We review the evidence from published factorial experiments that used static and/or fluctuating pH and DO levels to examine different traits (e.g. survival, growth, metabolism), life stages and species across a broad taxonomic spectrum. Additive negative effects of combined low pH and low DO appear to be most common; however, synergistic negative effects have also been observed. Neither the occurrence nor the strength of these synergistic impacts is currently predictable, and therefore, the true threat of concurrent acidification and hypoxia to marine food webs and fisheries is still not fully understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will require an expansion of multi-stressor approaches in experimental and field studies, and the development of a predictive framework. In consideration of marine policy, we note that DO criteria in coastal waters have been developed without consideration of concurrent pH levels. Given the persistence of concurrent low pH-low DO conditions in estuaries and the increased mortality experienced by fish and bivalves under concurrent acidification and hypoxia compared with hypoxia alone, we conclude that such DO criteria may leave coastal fisheries more vulnerable to population reductions than previously anticipated. © 2016

  1. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  2. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  3. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... safety of life on navigable waters during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 5:30 a.m. to 2:30...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing...

  4. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  5. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry, and later (COLTO linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR. The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  6. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  7. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  8. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  9. Examination of Preventive Resources, Life Events, and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Beard, Michelle; Canipe, Kara

    The Preventive Coping Resources Inventory (PRI) was developed to assess specific coping resources most useful for stress prevention and also applicable to education settings. Undergraduates (N=501) at a large, southwestern university completed the inventory and other measures of adjustment and coping. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five…

  10. Purpose in life and work-related stress in mariners. Mediating role of quality of marriage bonds and perceived anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplińska, Aleksandra; Jeżewska, Maria; Leszczyńska, Irena; Połomski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The specific character of mariners' work is connected with many factors conducive to stress, overload, fatigue and emotional tension, all of which can negatively influence subjective quality of life, including particularly the sense of life's purpose and meaning. However, over the course of entire life one plays many various roles and takes part in many areas of life which influence one another, both positively and negatively. Undoubtedly one of such areas, essential from the point of fulfilling individual's important needs, is one's family and marriage that can function as a crucial factor for neutralising on-the-job problems and tensions. The research presented here attempts to verify the relation between stress perceived by mariners and their sense of purpose in life along with the mediating role of marriage quality and anxiety levels. A total of 210 mariners working on deep-sea ships were examined. The following research tools were applied in the study: the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Questionnaire of Suitable Marriage (KDM). The results arrived at indicate that both marriage satisfaction and anxiety levels can indeed mediate the relation between stress and sense of purpose in life among mariners.

  11. Management strategies of marine food resources under multiple stressors with particular reference of the Yellow Sea large marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng TANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study two main management strategies are discussed: one is to develop resource conservation-based capture fisheries, and the other is to develop environmentally friendly aquaculture. During the resource recovery period, the development of environmentally friendly aquaculture should be encouraged, especially in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, which is adaptive, efficient and sustainable. For future development and better understanding the ecosystem, it is necessary to further strengthen basic research.

  12. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending theexisting model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, weevaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling

  13. Global distribution of radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment and implications for subsurface life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, J.; Flinders, A. F.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first global estimate of radiolytic H2production in marine sediment. Knowledge of microbial electron donor production rates is critical to understand the bioenergetics of Earth's subsurface ecosystems In marine sediment, radiolysis of water by radiation from naturally occurring radionuclides leads to production of reduced (H2) and oxidized (H2O2, O2) species. Water radiolysis is catalyzed by marine sediment. The magnitude of catalysis depends on sediment composition and radiation type. Deep-sea clay is especially effective at enhancing H2 yields, increasing yield by more than an order of magnitude relative to pure water. This previously unrecognized catalytic effect of geological materials on radiolytic H2 production is important for fueling microbial life in the subseafloor, especially in sediment with high catalytic power. Our estimate of radiolytic H2 production is based on spatially integrating a previously published model and uses (i) experimentally constrained radiolytic H2 yields for the principal marine sediment types, (ii) bulk sediment radioactive element content of sediment cores in three ocean basins (N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific), and global distributions of (iii) seafloor lithology, (iv) sediment porosity, and (v) sediment thickness. We calculate that global radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment is 1.6E+12 mol H2 yr-1. This production rate is small relative to the annual rate of photosynthetic organic-matter production in the surface ocean. The globally integrated ratio of radiolytic H2 production relative to photosynthetic primary production is 4.1E-4, based on electron equivalences. Although small relative to global photosynthetic biomass production, sediment-catalyzed production of radiolytic products is significant in the subseafloor. Our analysis of 9 sites in the N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific suggests that H2 is the primary microbial fuel in organic-poor sediment older than a few million years; at these sites, calculated

  14. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background: Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. TheCaring Decisionshandbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. Aim: We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. Design: A targeted...

  15. Life history and viability of a long-lived marine invertebrate: the octocoral Paramuricea clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Cristina; Doak, Daniel F; Coma, Rafel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-04-01

    The red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata is a long-lived, slow-growing sessile invertebrate of ecological and conservation importance in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We develop a series of size-based matrix models for two Paramuricea clavata populations. These models were used to estimate basic life history traits for this species and to evaluate the viability of the red gorgonian populations we studied. As for many other slow-growing species, sensitivity and elasticity analysis demonstrate that gorgonian population growth is far more sensitive to changes in survival rates than to growth, shrinkage, or reproductive rates. The slow growth and low mortality of red gorgonians results in low damping ratios, indicating slow convergence to stable size structures (at least 50 years). The stable distributions predicted by the model did not differ from the observed ones. However, our simulations point out the fragility of this species, showing both populations in decline and high risk of extinction over moderate time horizons. These declines appear to be related to a recent increase in anthropogenic disturbances. Relative to their life span, the values of recruitment elasticity for Paramuricea clavata are lower than those reported for other marine organisms but are similar to those reported for some long-lived plants. These values and the delayed age of sexual maturity, in combination with the longevity of the species, show a clear fecundity/mortality trade-off. Full demographic studies of sessile marine species are quite scarce but can provide insight into population dynamics and life history patterns for these difficult and under-studied species. While our work shows clear results for the red gorgonian, the variability in some of our estimates suggest that future work should include data collection over longer temporal and spatial scales to better understand the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on red gorgonian populations.

  16. Multiple Drivers of Local (Non- Compliance in Community-Based Marine Resource Management: Case Studies from the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne R. Rohe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of

  17. Marine Resource Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: The Traditional Hawaiian System in Relation to the Western Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Jokiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important component of the system. Over the past two centuries a “Western system” gradually replaced much of the traditional Hawaiian system. There are major differences between the two systems in the areas of management practices, management focus, knowledge base, dissemination of information, resource monitoring, legal authority, access rights, stewardship and enforcement. However, there is a recent shift toward incorporating elements of the traditional scheme using methods and terminology acceptable and appropriate to present day realities. This trend is exemplified by the management plan for the newly formed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This is one of the largest protected areas in the world and is being managed with a focus on Native Hawaiian cultural values in relation to conservation, ecological, historical, scientific, and educational resource protection.

  18. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  19. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative copper sensitivity between life stages of common subantarctic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Jessica R; King, Catherine K; Davis, Andrew R

    2018-03-01

    The development of environmental guidelines in the Antarctic and subantarctic is essential, because expansion of research, tourism, and fishing is placing these regions at increasing risk of contamination. Data are currently insufficient to create the region-specific guidelines needed for the unique conditions in these areas. To develop the most appropriate environmental guidelines, data from the most sensitive life stages of a species should be included to ensure effective protection throughout its life cycle. It is generally accepted that early life stages are more sensitive to contaminants. We compared the toxicity of copper between juvenile and adult life stages of 4 subantarctic marine invertebrates using sublethal and lethal endpoints. For 2 of the species tested, juveniles were more sensitive than adults. (The 7-d median effect concentration [EC50] values for the gastropod Laevilittorina caliginosa were 79 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 125 μg/L at the adult; for the flatworm Obrimoposthia ohlini, values were 190 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 300 μg/L at the adult.) For the isopod Limnoria stephenseni, juveniles were either more sensitive or of equal sensitivity to adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 278 μg/L and adult 320 μg/L). In contrast, for the bivalve Gaimardia trapesina, adults appeared to be more sensitive than young adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 23 μg/L and adult life history stages was observed, the present study contributes important information for the development of water quality guidelines in polar regions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:807-815. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Service life prediction for 50-year-old buildings in marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sánchez-Deza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel reinforcing bars are often coated with rusts formed during service in reinforced concrete (RC structures. Rust layers growing on steel rebars induce expansive stresses and cause cracking on cover concrete. This study uses steel corrosion rate results measured on reinforced concrete buildings of more than 50 years of age located in marine environments and considers the pressure generated by the volume expansion of corrosion product layers to calculate the service life of the RC structures using a numerical simulation, estimating the time to corrosion cracking of the concrete cover. Akaganeite, goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite and maghemite were identified by X-ray diffraction as crystalline phase constituents of the rust layers.

  2. Salutogenic resources in relation to teachers' work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingemar

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers. To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis. Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related. This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.

  3. Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ≥4°C/ ≤pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over

  4. Period Life Tables: A Resource for Quantitative Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A period life table provides an estimate of the probability that a person will die at a particular age. Using data available online, we examine tables of expected years to live for males and females against age for three populations: the United States in 2007, the U.S. at the turn of the twentieth century, and the Roman Empire. Scatter plots of males and females for each population show how life expectancy increases with age (e.g., U.S. 2007: 50 year-old female > 40 year-old female > 45 year-old male. The three data sets allow historical comparisons (e.g., of gender disparity, larger now; of infant mortality, smaller now. Regression lines for the linear portion of the plots (ages 5 to 70 show the annual increase in the years to live (e.g., U.S. 2007: 0.11 years for men, 0.07 years for women. Residual plots show that, even though the coefficients of determination of the line exceed 0.99, a concave-up, decreasing function would be a better model. The residual plots also reveal a curious inflection for the males that is not evident for the females. Such examples from period life tables might be presented in a discussion of life expectancy; alternatively, one or more could add to an introduction to regression, particularly illustrating the value of residual plots in understanding a data set.

  5. Assessing the impact of deep sea disposal of low level radioactive waste on living marine resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is the final result of two Consultants' Meetings and a Technical Committee Meeting concerning: 1) Developing methods of estimating dose to marine organisms from sea dumping; and 2) reviewing the effects of radiation on marine organisms and the means by which the significance of these effects may be judged. Calculations of water concentrations in and near the dump site were made and these were used to estimate doses to ''typical'' marine species living at or near the sea floor at a depth of 4000 meters. These calculations show that there are radionuclides that can give rise to significant doses to these typical species and that future revisions of the Definition and Recommendations (IAEA Safety Series No. 78) will have to consider impacts on the marine ecosystem in setting limits for dumping. 235 refs, 10 figs, tabs

  6. A Review of the Marine Fish Resources Research in Kenya and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Analysis of the Water Resources Potential and Useful Life of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Length R ... Keywords: Shiroro dam reservoir, water resources potential, useful life, hydropower, ... Water balance analysis is a highly effective tool that .... from operation each time the reservoir capacity ..... validity of this research work. iii.

  8. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  9. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  10. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  11. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  12. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  13. Wind power's impact on marine life; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa marint liv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    More than half of the 30 projects that have been financed by Vindval, are linked to offshore wind power. The research has studied the effects of wind farms on life on the ground, the impact on fish, such as the eel migration, and different types of foundation's impact on the benthic animals. Several studies have been made about Lillgrund wind farm in the Sound. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Several studies have been made about 'Lillgrund' wind farm in the 'Oeresund'. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Vindval studies show that local conditions have significant impact on how the marine life is affected. It is important with careful planning to avoid establishment of wind farm's in particularly sensitive areas or at certain times of year.

  14. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen) to products (carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  15. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Seibel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2 suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen to products (carbon dioxide according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = −686 kcal mol−1, carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503, where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of −503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  16. Percieved resources as a predictor of satisfaction with food-related life among Chilean elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobos, G.; Schnettler, B.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785...... participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. Results: The results led to different considerations: First, older adults’ perceived levels of resources...... are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as ‘highly important’ to explain older adults’ satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity...

  17. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-11-01

    Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. The Caring Decisions handbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. A targeted literature review-to identify resources and factors that impact on parental EoL decision-making; development phase-guided by the literature and the researchers' expertise; consultation process-comprised a multi-disciplinary panel of experts and parents; pilot evaluation study-hard-copy handbook was distributed as part of routine care at an Australian Children's Hospital. Twelve experts and parents formed the consultation panel. Eight parents of children with life-limiting conditions and clinicians were interviewed in the pilot study. Numerous factors supporting/impeding EoL decisions were identified. Caring Decisions addressed issues identified in the literature and by the multidisciplinary research team. The consultation panel provided overwhelmingly positive feedback. Pilot study parents found the resources helpful and comforting. Most clinicians viewed the resources as very beneficial to parents and identified them as ideal for training purposes. The development of the resources addressed many of the gaps in existing resources. The consultation process and the pilot study suggest these resources could be of significant benefit to parents and clinicians.

  18. Curvilinear relationships between resource allocation and life domain-specific interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Jessica S; Erb, Kaitlyn R; Grawitch, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the inherent complexities of the work-life interface (WLI) by examining the relationship between resource allocation (i.e., time and energy dedicated to a particular domain) and perceived interference of individual life domains. Much of the research on the WLI is based on the assumption that a linear pattern best describes the relationship between resource allocation and the interference caused by various life domains; however, this study examined the possibility that curvilinear relationships may be a more appropriate representation. Results indicated that resource allocation is a meaningful predictor of interference, and for many life domains a curvilinear relationship accounts for more variance than a linear one; a breakdown of the sample also revealed this relationship varies by gender. Overall, findings suggest that the nature of the WLI is more individualized and complex than is currently conceptualized in the field. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Do parental resources mediate between social inequality and health-related quality of life of children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold-Kerri, S; Sperlich, S

    2010-02-01

    The present study examines the influence of socioeconomic position and the family's living conditions on children's self-reported quality of life. The aim is to analyse to what extent these relationships are mediated by maternal parenting resources (coping strategies, psychological health and maternal self-efficacy). We used data from 691 children (aged 8 - 12 years) and their mothers, collected in mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany. The children's quality of life was measured by the KID-KINDL (self-report). Maternal parenting resources were measured by the SVF-60 (coping strategies), the SCL-K-9 (psychological health) and the FKE-K (maternal self-efficacy). Analyses of variance were used for estimating the effects of social factors on children's self-reported quality of life and on parenting resources. The relationship between children's quality of life and maternal parenting resources was assessed by computing correlation measures. The mediating effects of parenting resources on relationships between social factors and children's quality of life were estimated by means of multiple regression. Overall girls and boys showed high quality of life levels. A social gradient was only found for girls. The most significant influence was shown by receiving social welfare (t-test, p=0.000), flat size (VA, p=0.011) and single motherhood (t-test, p=0.011). The influence depends on the type of indicator for family living conditions as well as on specific dimensions of quality of life. Overall the influence of living conditions on the quality of life was small. Probably this is due to the sample being drawn from a clinical population. A social gradient was also found for maternal parenting resources: Psychological health as well as maternal self-efficacy were significantly different depending on whether families received social welfare or not (t-test, p=0.000; p=0.001). Single mothers showed more negative coping strategies and lower psychological health and maternal

  20. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntyre, Johanna R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C J; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched.

  1. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm and high heavy REY (HREY complements (mean 49%, while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm, and very high HREY complements (mean 60%. The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  2. Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Guilio

    In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

  3. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  4. Displacement effects of heavy human use on coral reef predators within the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filous, Alexander; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Lammers, Marc; Wong, Adam; Stone, Kristy; Sparks, Russell T

    2017-08-15

    The impact of marine ecotourism on reef predators is poorly understood and there is growing concern that overcrowding in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) may disturb the species that these areas were established to protect. To improve our understanding of this issue, we used acoustic telemetry to examine the relationship between human activity at the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) and the habitat use of five reef-associated predators (Caranx melampygus, Caranx ignobilis, Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, and Aprion virscens). During peak hours of human use, there was a negative relationship (R 2 =0.77, P<0.001) between the presence of bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus) and vessels in subzone A. No other species showed strong evidence of this relationship. However, our results suggest that during this time, the natural ecosystem function that the reserve was established to protect may be compromised and overcrowding should be considered when managing MPAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CO2-driven compromises to marine life along the Chilean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, E.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Duarte, C. M.; Castilla, J. C.; Pelegrí, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    CO2-driven compromises to marine life were examined along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System, a particularly vulnerable hypoxic and upwelling area, applying the Respiration index (RI = log10 pO2) and the pH-dependent aragonite saturation (Ω) to delineate the water masses where aerobic and calcifying organisms are stressed. There was a remarkable negative relationship between oxygen concentration and pH or pCO2 in the studied area, with the subsurface hypoxic Equatorial Subsurface Waters extending from 100 m to about 300 m depth and supporting elevated pCO2 values. The RI reached a minimum at about 200 m depth and decreased towards the Equator. Increased pCO2 in the hypoxic water layer reduced the RI values by as much as 0.59 RI units, with the upper water layer that presents conditions suitable for aerobic life (RI>0.7) declining by half between 42° S and 28° S. The intermediate waters hardly reached those stations closer to the equator so that the increased pCO2 lowered pH and the saturation of aragonite. A significant fraction of the water column along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System suffers from CO2-driven compromises to biota, including waters corrosive to calcifying organisms, stress to aerobic organisms or both. The habitat free of CO2-driven stresses was restricted to the upper mixed layer and to small water parcels at about 1000 m depth. pCO2 acts as a hinge connecting respiratory and calcification challenges expected to increase in the future, resulting in a spread of the challenges to aerobic organisms.

  6. The biochemical diversity of life near and above 100°C in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M W

    1998-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic micro-organisms grow at temperatures above 90 °C with a current upper limit of 113 °C. They are a recent discovery in the microbial world and have been isolated mainly from marine geothermal environments, which include both shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. By 16S rRNA analyses they are the most slowly evolving of all extant life forms, and all but two of the nearly 20 known genera are classified as Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria). Almost all hyperthermophiles are strict anaerobes. They include species of methanogens, iron-oxidizers and sulphate reducers, but the majority are obligate heterotrophs that depend upon the reduction of elemental sulphur (S°) to hydrogen sulphide for significant growth. The heterotrophs utilize proteinaceous materials as carbon and energy sources, although a few species are also saccharolytic. A scheme for electron flow during the oxidation of carbohydrates and peptides and the reduction of S° has been proposed. Two S°-reducing enzymes have been purified from the cytoplasm of one hyperthermophile (T(opt) 100 °C) that is able to grow either with and without S°. However, the mechanisms by which S° reduction is coupled to energy conservation in this organism and in obligate S°-reducing hyperthermophiles is not known. In the heterotrophs, sugar fermentation is achieved by a novel glycolytic pathway involving unusual ADP-dependent kinases and ATP synthetases, and novel oxidoreductases that are ferredoxin- rather than NAD(P)-linked. Similarly, peptide fermentation involves several unusual ferredoxin-linked oxidoreductases not found in mesophilic organisms. Several of these oxido-reductases contain tungsten, an element that is rarely used in biological systems. Tungsten is present in exceedingly low concentrations in normal sea water, but hydrothermal systems contain much higher tungsten concentrations, more than sufficient to support hyperthermophilic life. 1998 Society of Applied Microbiology.

  7. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  8. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru Wijesekara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension.

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review.

  10. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority

  11. The marine side of a terrestrial carnivore: intra-population variation in use of allochthonous resources by arctic foxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tarroux

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds and temporal (cyclic lemmings fluctuations in resource abundance. First, we tested the hypothesis that generalist foraging habits, in association with temporal variation in prey accessibility, should induce temporal changes in isotopic niche width and diet. Second, we investigated whether within-population variation in the isotopic niche could be explained by individual characteristics (sex and breeding status and environmental factors (spatiotemporal variation in prey availability. We addressed these questions using isotopic analysis and bayesian mixing models in conjunction with linear mixed-effects models. We found that: i arctic fox populations can simultaneously undergo short-term (i.e., within a few months reduction in both isotopic niche width and inter-individual variability in isotopic ratios, ii individual isotopic ratios were higher and more representative of a marine-based diet for non-breeding than breeding foxes early in spring, and iii lemming population cycles did not appear to directly influence the diet of individual foxes after taking their breeding status into account. However, lemming abundance was correlated to proportion of breeding foxes, and could thus indirectly affect the diet at the population scale.

  12. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  13. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  14. Changing U.S. Ocean Policy Can Set a New Direction for Marine Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Rosenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A central concept in a new direction for ocean policy in the United States is ecosystem-based management, that is, implementation of management integrated across sectors of human activity to achieve the common goal of conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems to provide a full suite of ecosystem services. Fisheries are a critical sector of ocean activity that impacts these ecosystems, and fishery management is in urgent need of reform to perform better from a conservation perspective. Here, I suggest some specific changes in perspective for fishery management as part of an overall ecosystem-based approach.

  15. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.; Raats, Monique M.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own...... that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction......-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also...

  16. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  17. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  18. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, and porpoises for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  19. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  20. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  1. Social aggression and resource conflict across the female life-course in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucas, Stacey L; Gurven, Michael; Winking, Jeffrey; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-01-01

    This work explores sources of conflict among forager-horticulturalist women in Amazonian Bolivia, and applies life history theory as a tool for understanding competitive and cooperative social networking behaviors among women. In this study, 121 Tsimane women and girls were interviewed regarding current and past disagreements with others in their community to identify categories of contested resources that instigate interpersonal conflicts, often resulting in incidences of social aggression. Analysis of frequency data on quarrels (N = 334) reveals that women target several diverse categories of resources, with social types appearing as frequently as food and mates. It was also found that the focus of women's competition changes throughout the life-course, consistent with the notion that current vs. future reproduction and quantity-quality trade-offs might have different influences on competition and social conflict over resources within women's social networks across different age groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ecologically sustainable but unjust? Negotiating equity and authority in common-pool marine resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Klain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under appropriate conditions, community-based fisheries management can support sound resource stewardship, with positive social and environmental outcomes. Evaluating indigenous peoples' involvement in commercial sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, we found that the current social-ecological system configuration is relatively ecologically sustainable according to stock assessments. However, the current system also results in perceived inequities in decision-making processes, harvesting allocations, and socioeconomic benefits. As a result, local coastal resource managers envision a transformation of sea cucumber and geoduck fisheries governance and management institutions. We assessed the potential robustness of the proposed institutions using Elinor Ostrom's common-pool resource design principles. Grounded in the region's legal, political, and historical context, our analysis suggests that greater local involvement in these invertebrate fisheries and their management could provide more benefits to local communities than the status quo while maintaining an ecologically sustainable resource. Our research highlights the importance of explicitly addressing historical context and equity considerations in social-ecological system analyses and when renegotiating the institutions governing common-pool resources.

  3. Pottery use by early Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Korean peninsula closely linked with the exploitation of marine resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Shinya; Lucquin, Alexandre; Ahn, Jae-ho; Hwang, Chul-joo; Craig, Oliver E.

    2017-08-01

    The earliest pottery on the Korean peninsula dates to the early Holocene, notably later than other regions of East Asia, such as Japan, the Russian Far East and Southern China. To shed light on the function of such early Korean pottery and to understand the motivations for its adoption, organic residue analysis was conducted on pottery sherds and adhered surface deposit on the wall of pottery vessels (foodcrusts) excavated from the Sejuk shell midden (7.7-6.8ka calBP) on the southeastern coast and the Jukbyeon-ri site (7.9-6.9ka calBP) on the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula, that represents the earliest pottery assemblages with reliable radiocarbon dates. Through chemical and isotopic residue analysis, we conclude that the use of pottery at these sites was oriented towards marine resources, supported by lipid biomarkers typical of aquatic organisms and stable carbon isotope values that matched authentic marine reference fats. The findings contrast with other archaeological evidence, which shows that a wider range of available food resources were exploited. Therefore, we conclude pottery was used selectively for processing aquatic organisms perhaps including the rendering of aquatic oils for storage. Early pottery use in Korea is broadly similar to other prehistoric temperate hunter-gatherers, such as in Japan, northern Europe and northern America. However, it is also notable that elaborately decorated red burnished pottery excavated from isolated location at the Jukbyeon-ri site had a different usage pattern, which indicates that division of pottery use by vessel form was established even at this early stage.

  4. Predictive Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Underwater Impulsive Sources on Marine Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazauski, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    A method is provided to predict the biological consequences to marine animals from exposure to multiple underwater impulsive sources by simulating underwater explosions over a defined period of time...

  5. Evidence of the exploitation of marine resource by the terrestrial insect Scapteriscus didactylus through stable isotope analyzes of its cuticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelarge Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 4 × 105 eggs in more than 5000 marine turtle nests are deposited every year on a 3.6 km long beach in French Guiana (South America. The dry biomass of eggs is estimated to be 5 × 103 kg, yet only 25% of this organic matter will return to the ocean in the form of hatchlings. Such amounts of organic matter are supposed to drive the functioning of the beach ecosystem. Previous studies have shown that egg predators and detritivorous organisms dominate the trophic relationships and the dynamics of the system. The role of a terrestrial insect Scapteriscus didactylus (Latreille, which damages up to 40% of the eggs of the marine turtle (Dermochelys coriacea, was unexpected. However it was impossible from direct observations to prove that the mole cricket consumed a significant amount of these eggs. Therefore, the precise place of the mole cricket in the nitrogen and carbon cycles of the beach ecosystem could not be determined. In order to answer this question, we looked for a marine signature of carbon and nitrogen source metabolized by the mole cricket. Results This study estimated the individual variability of δ13C and δ15N in the cuticle of Scapteriscus didactylus. The isotopic signature was compared between individuals collected at two sites: a village where mole crickets fed on human food scraps and the nearby Awala-Yalimapo beach, where food availability depends seasonally on the nesting sea turtles. The mole crickets collected near the habitations garbage showed no significant variations in the stable isotopic signature, within-and between age groups. On the contrary, isotopic values shifted from a signature of a terrestrial herbivorous diet in the mole crickets during early developmental stages, to isotopic values in adults in accordance with the exploitation of marine animal resources. Conclusion The heterogeneity of individual signatures during the year is due to a selective exploitation of the food sources

  6. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  7. Making Marine Noise Pollution Impacts Heard: The Case of Cetaceans in the North Sea within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oceans represent more than 95% of the world’s biosphere and are among the richest sources of biodiversity on Earth. However, human activities such as shipping and construction of marine infrastructure pose a threat to the quality of marine ecosystems. Due to the dependence of most marine animals on sound for their communication, foraging, protection, and ultimately their survival, the effects of noise pollution from human activities are of growing concern. Life cycle assessment (LCA can play a role in the understanding of how potential environmental impacts are related to industrial processes. However, noise pollution impacts on marine ecosystems have not yet been taken into account. This paper presents a first approach for the integration of noise impacts on marine ecosystems into the LCA framework by developing characterization factors (CF for the North Sea. Noise pollution triggers a large variety of impact pathways, but as a starting point and proof-of-concept we assessed impacts on the avoidance behaviour of cetaceans due to pile-driving during the construction of offshore windfarms in the North Sea. Our approach regards the impact of avoidance behaviour as a temporary loss of habitat, and assumes a temporary loss of all individuals within that habitat from the total regional population. This was verified with an existing model that assessed the population-level effect of noise pollution on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea. We expanded our CF to also include other cetacean species and tested it in a case study of the construction of an offshore windfarm (Prinses Amalia wind park. The total impact of noise pollution was in the same order of magnitude as impacts on other ecosystems from freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial acidification, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Although there are still many improvements to be made to this approach, it provides a basis for the implementation of noise

  8. Estimation of uranium resources by life-cycle or discovery-rate models: a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-10-01

    This report was motivated primarily by M. A. Lieberman's ''United States Uranium Resources: An Analysis of Historical Data'' (Science, April 30). His conclusion that only 87,000 tons of U 3 O 8 resources recoverable at a forward cost of $8/lb remain to be discovered is criticized. It is shown that there is no theoretical basis for selecting the exponential or any other function for the discovery rate. Some of the economic (productivity, inflation) and data issues involved in the analysis of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 resources on discovery rates of $8 reserves are discussed. The problem of the ratio of undiscovered $30 resources to undiscovered $8 resources is considered. It is concluded that: all methods for the estimation of unknown resources must employ a model of some form of the endowment-exploration-production complex, but every model is a simplification of the real world, and every estimate is intrinsically uncertain. The life-cycle model is useless for the appraisal of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 , and the discovery rate model underestimates these resources

  9. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  10. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-trolet, Morgan; De Wolfshaar, Van Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of

  11. Mapping Marine Resources Utilization Based on Seascapes Area: A Study on Gender Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaulima, Simon; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Kahfi, Syahibul; M. K Teniwut, Roberto; Dewa Ayu Raka Susanti, Ida I.; Hungan, Marselus; Rahantoknam, Meyske; Hasyim, Cawalinya; Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Renjaan, M. R.; Ngabalin, Anna M.; Ngangun, Tati A.; Pentury, Frischila; Betaubun, K. D.; Ngamel, A. K.; Ohoiwutun, E. C.

    2017-10-01

    Each section of coastal area from village area to deep sea has particular fisheries and marine activities. Therefore requirements for knowledge, skill, and risk are distinct between each scape. Based on this notion we divided seascapes based on three different area, first is village area to mangrove and coconut trees before coast area, second is area from beach to shallow water and the third is deep sea. We conducted our data collection in Kei Islands, Indonesia, with purposive sampling to target fishermen and aquaculture farmers in the coastal area. Purposes of this research are to analyze the role and the contribution of male and female on each area to formulate the best way to improve and maintain the sustainability of microenterprises and coastal community welfare; we used logistic regression to analyze the data. The result demonstrated each fisheries activity in each seascape with based on gender on each area and activity. Recommendation of this study especially for the government as empirical guidance to improve the economic welfare of the coastal community in Kei Islands and small islands area in general.

  12. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  13. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes...... are under selection in natural populations of Atlantic cod. Furthermore, we find that patterns of variation in outlier markers do not align with those observed at selectively neutral markers, and that outlier markers identify conservation units on finer geographical scales than those revealed when analysing...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species...

  15. Estimating the value of the marine, coastal and ocean resources of Newfoundland and Labrador (for the period 1997 to 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    More than 90 per cent of Newfoundland and Labrador's population lives adjacent to, or just a few kilometres from the ocean. An increased use of coastal resources has prompted this study which estimated the economic value of the oceans sector to Newfoundland and Labrador's economy. The study included the reference period 1997 to 1999 with private sector industries as well as federal and provincial public sector oceans-related departments and agencies. Private sector industries included oil and gas, fishery, aquaculture, shipbuilding, marine tourism, marine transportation and ocean technologies. Estimating the economic value of the oceans sector is important for policy development and management decisions at the federal and provincial level and for better understanding the contributions of industry. The indicators used in the study included the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) impact, labour income impact, and employment impact. The economic impacts were separated into direct, indirect and induced impacts. The primary data was used to determine direct economic impact of the oceans sector. Then, the Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model and the Input-Output Model was used to determine the indirect and induced impacts of the oceans sector. The total GDP impact averaged about $2.59 billion, or 26.5 per cent of total economic activity. The most significant private sector industries, in terms of total GDP impact were offshore oil at 11.9 per cent of GDP, and the fishery at 8.2 per cent. The direct employment impact of ocean-related activity averaged about 12.7 per cent of total employment. Data tables and data sources were included in the appendices. refs., tabs., figs., appendices

  16. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  17. Stress and turnover intent in international organizations: social support and work life balance as resources

    OpenAIRE

    Giauque, David; Anderfuhren-Biget, Simon; Varone, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether work opportunities have an impact on stress and the related turnover intentions of employees working in intergovernmental international organizations. It contextualizes the job resources and demands model within international organizations’ specific work conditions. The empirical test is based on original data from a survey administered in four major organizations of the United Nations system. Results demonstrate that social work opportunities and work-life bal...

  18. Mathematical model of the competition life cycle under limited resources conditions: Problem statement for business community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Berg, D. B.; Lapshina, S. N.; Taubayev, A. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Savina, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Present study is devoted to the development of competition life cycle mathematical model in the closed business community with limited resources. Growth of each agent is determined by the balance of input and output resource flows: input (cash) flow W is covering the variable V and constant C costs and growth dA/dt of the agent's assets A. Value of V is proportional to assets A that allows us to write down a first order non-stationary differential equation of the agent growth. Model includes the number of such equations due to the number of agents. The amount of resources that is available for agents vary in time. The balances of their input and output flows are changing correspondingly to the different stages of the competition life cycle. According to the theory of systems, the most complete description of any object or process is the model of its life cycle. Such a model describes all stages of its development: from the appearance ("birth") through development ("growth") to extinction ("death"). The model of the evolution of an individual firm, not contradicting the economic meaning of events actually observed in the market, is the desired result from modern AVMs for applied use. With a correct description of the market, rules for participants' actions, restrictions, forecasts can be obtained, which modern mathematics and the economy can not give.

  19. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  20. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusch Thorsten BH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  1. Back to the sea twice : identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissler, Lothar; Codoner, Francisco M.; Gu, Jenny; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2011-01-01

    Background: Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean

  2. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, Lothar; Codoñer, Francisco M; Gu, Jenny; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Olsen, Jeanine L; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2011-01-12

    Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica) and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  3. The life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a Digital Humanities resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Henny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution tracks and analyzes the life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a digital project and a rather complex research resource. It gives an account of how the digital archive “Das altägyptische Totenbuch – Ein digitales Textzeugenarchiv” was constructed in the context of the digitization efforts of the Academy for Science of North Rhine-Westphalia. From the beginning, the design of the archive has factored in a life of the digital archive beyond its funding period and has sighted to create a sustainable information resource. The main issues to be discussed here are what experiences have been made with sustainability, use and reuse of the Book of the Dead archive since the official end of the project in December 2012, with a focus on conceptual, technical and organizational aspects. The lessons learned can be of interest for future undertakings in the creation of XML and web-based digital platforms in Digital Classics and beyond. In a nutshell, they are: (a the importance of wary technological choices in an initial phase cannot be underestimated, (b the application and presentation layers of a digital resource, if present, are an essential part of it, (c a certain degree of commitment from the research community and funding bodies alike is indispensable for maintaining a web-based complex Digital Humanities resource.

  4. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  5. Characterization of waterborne nitrogen emissions for marine eutrophication modelling in life cycle impact assessment at the damage level and global scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods lack a consistent and globally applicable characterization model relating nitrogen (N, as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN) enrichment of coastal waters to the marine eutrophication impacts at the endpoint level. This paper introduces a method...... to calculate spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) at endpoint and damage to ecosystems levels, for waterborne nitrogen emissions, reflecting their hypoxia-related marine eutrophication impacts, modelled for 5772 river basins of the world....

  6. Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    in many temperate water studies (Boyd et al., 2000). However, in tropical and subtropical waters, information on free-living marine nematode communities is very scarce. Most of the researchers suggested (Mohmoudi et al., 2005; Hedfi et al., 2007... stage. After 8 hr, gastrulation begins (Fig. 3g) and in additional 9 hr, the embryo was observed with constant movement (Fig. 3h). This stage can be recognized easily by the active movements of embryo. Embryo was seen to acquire different positions...

  7. Defining scenarios of future vectors of change in marine life and associated economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bosello, Francesco; Butenschön, Momme; Elliott, Mike; Peck, Myron A.; Pinnegar, John K.

    2018-02-01

    Addressing the multitude of challenges in marine policy requires an integrated approach that considers the multitude of drivers, pressures, and interests, from several disciplinary angles. Scenarios are needed to harmonise the analyses of different components of the marine system, and to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the societal and biogeophysical dynamics in the system. This study considers a set of socio-economic scenarios to (1) explore possible futures in relation to marine invasive species, outbreak forming species, and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity; and (2) harmonise the projection modelling performed within associated studies. The exercise demonstrates that developing interdisciplinary scenarios as developed in this study is particularly complicated due to (1) the wide variety in endogeneity or exogeneity of variables in the different analyses involved; (2) the dual role of policy decisions as variables in a scenario or decisions to be evaluated and compared to other decisions; and (3) the substantial difference in time scale between societal and physical drivers.

  8. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  9. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap 'Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study-which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey--examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  10. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap `Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study—which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey—examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  11. Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: (http://woodshole.er.usg s.gov/project-pages/aggregates/ and http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/usseabed/)

  12. The Effects of the MORE Wisdom Resources on Spousal Caregivers' Life Satisfaction: An Application of the Resilience Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Knight, Bob G

    2017-01-01

    Models of resilience suggest that psychosocial resources and their interactions facilitate resilience while experiencing life challenges of caregiving. The MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, Reflective attitude, and Emotion regulation) have been suggested as possible personal resources of resilience that predict positive health outcomes of caregivers. Applying a model of resilience, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of the three of the MORE wisdom resources (sense of Mastery, Openness to experience, and Emotion regulation) on caregiving spouses' life satisfaction and perceived physical health. Using data from the survey of Midlife in the United States, caregiving spouses (n = 114) and matched non-caregivers (n = 114) were included. We compared the direct and indirect effects of the wisdom resources on life satisfaction and physical health between the two groups. The simple mediation model proposed in 2008 by Preacher and Hayes revealed that openness to experience was directly associated with better life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Sense of mastery and emotion regulation had indirect effects on life satisfaction through spousal support. The effects the wisdom resources on caregiving spouses' perceived physical health were not found. This study demonstrated that the three of the MORE wisdom resources are possible personal resilience factors influencing life satisfaction among caregiving spouses. Moreover, the study showed how spousal support mediates the relationship between the wisdom resources and life satisfaction. Interventions aiming to increase life satisfaction among caregiving spouses should focus on increasing both personal and environmental resources and strengthening the relationship of the caregiver and care recipient.

  13. Growing up in the Ocean: Complex Life Cycles of Common Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katie; Hiebert, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    Most people are familiar with the concept that animals come in all shapes and sizes and that the body plan of some animals can completely transform during their lifetime. Well-known examples of such complex life cycles of terrestrial animals include butterflies and frogs. Many people are unaware, however, that complex life cycles are exceedingly…

  14. THE EFFECT OF LEISURE TIME ON TOURISTIC RESOURCES AND ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the "actors" on the tourist stage of Romania brings in the context of socioeconomic, cultural and educational life needs, wishes, proposals and suggestions for the improvement of tourism infrastructure and also for an increase in the diversity of leisure activities. The development of technique, technology and computer technology have contributed to the multiplication of tourism products and services which led to an improved quality of life. At the same time, identification of tourism decision-making elements to ensure sustainable economic growth, job creation and social cohesion represent an imperative of the current period. The presence of natural resources, growing tourism infrastructure and the increase in household income and leisure time have an increasingly higher importance in the development of tourism in Romania and in other countries as well.

  15. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  16. The Wellbeing of Italian Peacekeeper Military: Psychological Resources, Quality of Life and Internalizing Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yura Loscalzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Working as a peacekeeper is associated with the exposure to acute and/or catastrophic events and chronic stressors. Hence, the meager literature about peacekeepers’ wellbeing has mainly analyzed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This study aims to deep the analysis of the wellbeing of peacekeepers military. Based on the few studies on this population, we hypothesized that Italian peacekeeper military officers and enlisted men (n = 167; 103 males, 6 females, 58 missing exhibit lower levels of internalizing symptoms (i.e., PTSD, depression, general anxiety, obsessions, and somatization as compared to a control group (n = 60; 32 males, 28 females. Moreover, we hypothesized that peacekeepers have higher levels of psychological resources (i.e., self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support and quality of life (i.e., higher life satisfaction and lower general stress. We compared the groups by means of MANOVAs on the subscales of the Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI; Gori et al., 2015. We found that Italian peacekeepers have lower internalizing symptoms and higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem than the control group; however, no statistically significant differences were observed on perceived social support. Finally, peacekeepers have a higher quality of life: scores reflect higher life satisfaction and lower distress than the control group. This study is in line with previous literature supporting the claim that Italian peacekeeper military officers have sufficient psychological resources for coping with the stressful situations implied in peacekeeping missions. Future studies should deepen the analysis of the military’s psychological characteristics by comparing war veterans and peacekeeper military.

  17. Citizen scientists reveal: Marine litter pollutes Arctic beaches and affects wild life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Melanie; Lutz, Birgit; Tekman, Mine B; Gutow, Lars

    2017-12-15

    Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm -2 and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries. Photographs provided by citizens show deleterious effects of beach litter on Arctic wildlife, which is already under strong pressure from global climate change. Our study highlights the potential of citizen scientists to provide scientifically valuable data on the pollution of sensitive remote ecosystems. The results stress once more that current legislative frameworks are insufficient to tackle the pollution of Arctic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  19. The complex early life history of a marine estuarine-opportunist fish species, Solea turbynei (Soleidae from temperate South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Strydom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The early life history stages and ecology of Solea turbynei, a marine estuarine-opportunist species, is described from nursery areas in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Early life history stages were collected over multiple years from known nursery habitats using plankton, fyke and larval seine nets. The larvae are described using morphometric measurements, meristic counts and pigmentation based on 29 individuals. Solea turbynei is differentiated from other Soleidae by the small size at flexion (3-4 mm, low myomere count and presence of two characteristic blotches of pigment on the dorsal fin. This species has a unique early life history strategy in that the larvae progressively span nearshore, surf zone and estuarine habitats with ontogeny. Abundance of preflexion stages peaks in summer in nearshore waters, indicative of peak spawning period but preflexion larvae are present throughout the year, indicating protracted spawning by adults. At flexion stage, larvae utilize surf zones where metamorphosis and settlement takes place. Early juveniles migrate into the sandy lower reaches of estuaries, after which fish take up residency to adulthood. Warm water is important for larval growth and survival in the nearshore, while turbidity shows a positive relationship with recruitment into estuarine nurseries.

  20. A Hot Spring Origin of Life and Early Adaptive Pathway from Woese Progenotes to Marine Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, R.; Damer, B. F.; Deamer, D. W.

    2017-07-01

    An origin of life on land is visualized as: organic compounds accumulating in hydrothermal pools, wet-dry cycling of protocells encapsulating synthesized polymers, arising of a Woese progenote and its evolution into living microbial communities.

  1. Quality of life and use of health care resources among patients with chronic depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study estimates the health-related quality of life and the health care resource utilization of patients diagnosed with chronic depression (CD) in Spain. Patients and methods We used the Spanish National Health Survey 2011–2012, a cross-sectional survey representative at the national level, that selects people aged between 18 and 64 years (n=14,691). We estimated utility indices through the EuroQol five-dimensional descriptive system questionnaire included in the survey. We calculated percentage use of health care resources (medical visits, hospitalizations, emergency services, and drug consumption) and average number of resources used when available. A systematic comparison was made between people diagnosed with CD and other chronic conditions (OCCs). The chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used to determine the statistical significance of differences between comparison groups. Multivariate analyses (Poisson regression, logistic regression, and linear regression) were also carried out to assess the relationship between quality of life and consumption of health care resources. Results Approximately, 6.1% of the subjects aged between 18 and 64 years were diagnosed with CD (average age 48.3±11 years, 71.7% females). After controlling for age, sex, and total number of comorbidities, a diagnosis of CD reduced utility scores by 0.09 (P<0.05) vs OCCs, and increased the average number of hospitalizations by 15%, the average number of days at hospital by 51%, and the average number of visits to emergency services by 15% (P<0.05). CD also increased the average number of visits to secondary care by 14% and visits to general practitioners by 4%. People with CD had a higher probability of consuming drugs than people with OCCs (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24, P<0.05), but only 38.6% took antidepressants. Conclusion People with CD had significantly lower health-related quality of life than people with OCCs. CD was associated with

  2. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  3. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  4. 76 FR 10925 - Bio-Life Labs, Inc., BSI2000, Inc., Calais Resources, Inc., EGX Funds Transfer, Inc., Great...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Bio-Life Labs, Inc., BSI2000, Inc., Calais Resources, Inc., EGX Funds Transfer, Inc., Great Western Land Recreation, Inc. (a/k/a Great Western Land and... securities of Bio-Life Labs, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended March...

  5. La lutte internationale contre le réchauffement climatique comme étant une source de dégradation des ressources marines The international fight against global warming as a source of degradation of marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrine Ismaili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les ressources marines constituent une richesse économique d'une grande importance pour un grand nombre de pays de la planète. Du fait de l'action de l'homme, ces ressources subissent une fragilisation et une raréfaction dues entre autres à la pollution, à la surpêche, à l'urbanisation intensive...S'ajoute à cette liste, depuis quelques années, le réchauffement de la planète qui affecte d'une manière sensible la diversité biologique marine. Pourtant les réponses internationales face à cette dégradation, au delà du fait qu'elles soient timides, sont rares. Il faudra dès lors se rabattre sur les solutions de lutte globale contre le réchauffement de la planète entreprise par la communauté internationale afin de contrer cette dégradation.Marine resources are a wealth of great economic importance for many countries in the world. Due to the action of man, these resources undergo embrittlement and rarification among others to pollution, overfishing, urbanization, intensive ... Added to this list in recent years, the global warming that affects a significantly marine biodiversity. Yet the international response to this degradation, beyond the fact that they are shy, is rare. It will therefore fall back on solutions to the global fight against global warming taken by the international community to counter this degradation.

  6. Biological assessment of marine resources for the Republic of the Maldives, Indian Ocean, August, 2001 (NODC Accession 0000670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In August 2001, biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service were asked to conduct an assessment of the national...

  7. Utilized Resources of Hope, Orientation, and Inspiration in Life of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Association with Life Satisfaction, Adaptive Coping Strategies, and Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Anne-Gritli; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-08-01

    In a cross-sectional survey among 213 patients with multiple sclerosis, we intended to analyze their resources of hope, orientation, and inspiration in life, and how these resources are related to health-associated variables, adaptive coping strategies, and life satisfaction. Resources were categorized as Faith (10 %), Family (22 %), Other sources (16 %), and No answer (53 %). These non-respondents were predominantly neither religious nor spiritual (70 % R-S-). Although R-S- persons are a heterogeneous group with varying existential interest, they did not significantly differ from their spiritual/religious counterparts with respect to physical and mental health or life satisfaction, but for an adaptive Reappraisal strategy and Gratitude/Awe.

  8. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  9. Selection for life-history traits to maximize population growth in an invasive marine species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Marty, Lise; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Species establishing outside their natural range, negatively impacting local ecosystems, are of increasing global concern. They often display life-history features characteristic for r-selected populations with fast growth and high reproduction rates to achieve positive population growth rates (r...

  10. Egg size as a life history character of marine invertebrates: Is it all it's cracked up to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Amy L; McAlister, Justin S

    2009-06-01

    Egg size is one of the most important aspects of the life history of free-spawning marine organisms, and it is correlated with larval developmental mode and many other life-history characters. Egg size is simple to measure and data are available for a wide range of taxa, but we have a limited understanding of how large and small eggs differ in composition; size is not always the best measure of the characters under selection. Large eggs are generally considered to reflect increased maternal investment, but egg size alone can be a poor predictor of energetic content within and among taxa. We review techniques that have been used to measure the energetic content and biochemical makeup of invertebrate eggs and point out the strengths and difficulties associated with each. We also suggest a number of comparative and descriptive approaches to biochemical constituent analysis that would strengthen our understanding of how natural selection shapes oogenic strategies. Finally, we highlight recent empirical research on the intrinsic factors that drive intraspecific variation in egg size. We also highlight the relative paucity of these data in the literature and provide some suggestions for future research directions.

  11. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile’s central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs. PMID:27023451

  12. Potential Synergies between Nature-Based Tourism and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources: Insights from Dive Tourism in Territorial User Rights for Fisheries in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Gelcich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Novel solutions to conserve biodiversity whilst allowing for resource harvesting are urgently needed. In marine systems, Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) are promoted to enable sustainable use of resources. We investigate the potential for synergies between nature-based tourism and TURFs on Chile's central coast. Of 135 recreational divers surveyed, 77% indicated that the fish species they preferred sighting were declining and 80% indicated that they would dive more often in TURFs, which have higher abundance of favoured species. Regression analysis shows that respondents that perceive that TURFs fulfil a conservation function are more willing to pay to dive in a TURF. However, respondents who understand the bureaucratic functioning of a TURF are less willing to pay, and there is diversity in how divers feel payments should be made. A participatory approach is required to navigate these complexities to achieve synergies between nature-based tourism and resource harvesting in TURFs.

  13. Resource Loss and Gain, Life Satisfaction, and Health Among Retirees in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Jiménez, Irene; Valero, Encarna; Ovejero, Anastasio

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on retirement transition from the Conservation of Resources (COR) perspective to better understand how aged participants' perceptions of retirement losses and gains significantly explain retirement well-being. In this article, the mediation of social support in the losses-well-being relationship is explored. The study was conducted with a two-wave longitudinal design. Participants at T1 were aged Spanish workers (>64 years) and at T2 were retirees, with a final sample of 275, who had retired during the previous 6 months. Findings supported the assertion that losses better explain well-being than gains. In addition, specific losses revealed a higher explaining power of life satisfaction and health complaints depending on their content. Social support mediated between perceived losses and well-being. This study suggests that both perceived losses and gains associated with retirement and social support during retirement should be taken into account when addressing postretirement well-being.

  14. Purpose in life as a resource for increasing comfort with ethnic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Anthony L; Stanley, Maclen; Sumner, Rachel; Hill, Patrick L

    2014-11-01

    Emerging demographic trends signal that White Americans will soon relinquish their majority status. As Whites' acclimation to an increasingly diverse society is poised to figure prominently in their adjustment, identifying sources of greater comfort with diversity is important. Three studies (N = 519) revealed evidence that purpose in life bolsters comfort with ethnic diversity among White adults. Specifically, dispositional purpose was positively related to diversity attitudes and attenuated feelings of threat resulting from viewing demographic projections of greater diversity. In addition, when primed experimentally, purpose attenuated participants' preferences for living in an ethnically homogeneous-White city, relative to a more diverse city when shown maps displaying ethno-demographic information. These effects persisted after controlling for positive affect and perceived connections to ethnic out-groups, suggesting the robust influence of purpose. Potential benefits of situating purpose as a unique resource for navigating an increasingly diverse society are discussed. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment of biowaste to resource management systems - A Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    Waste to Energy combustion plants currently process most of the organic fraction of the household waste. This study presents an assessment of the environmental performance of an increased circular bioresource management system obtained by reallocating the organic fraction of the household waste...... from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fertilizer production (Alternative Scenario). The goals defined in the Danish National resource action plan for waste management, i.e. 33% reduction of organic fraction household waste dry weight, is taken as a case study. A comparative life cycle...... assessment of the diverting of the organic fraction of the household waste away from a Waste to Energy combustion plant towards sludge- and manure-based biogas plants in North Zealand (Denmark) shows a net increase in renewable electricity production of 39% at the expense of a reduction in heat production...

  16. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace...... their parents on a one-for-one basis in the long run. Otherwise the population would either increase exponentially or become extinct. Combining data on growth and specific fecundity in a size-based fish community model of the North Sea and using the requirement of a one-for-one replacement provides...... the information necessary to estimate the scaling of natural mortality with size and asymptotic size. The estimated scaling is compared with output from multispecies fish stock models, with the empirical scaling of the maximum number of recruits per unit of spawning stock biomass with body size...

  17. Marine Microbial Mats and the Search for Evidence of Life in Deep Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats in extensive seawater evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, have been excellent subjects for microbial ecology research. The studies reviewed here have documented the steep and rapidly changing environmental gradients experienced by mat microorganisms and the very high rates of biogeochemical processes that they maintained. Recent genetic studies have revealed an enormous diversity of bacteria as well as the spatial distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. These findings, together with emerging insights into the intimate interactions between these diverse populations, have contributed substantially to our understanding of the origins, environmental impacts, and biosignatures of photosynthetic microbial mats. The biosignatures (preservable cells, sedimentary fabrics, organic compounds, minerals, stable isotope patterns, etc.) potentially can serve as indicators of past life on early Earth. They also can inform our search for evidence of any life on Mars. Mars exploration has revealed evidence of evaporite deposits and thermal spring deposits; similar deposits on Earth once hosted ancient microbial mat ecosystems.

  18. Work-life balance of dual-earner couples: Do advantages and disadvantages of workplace demands and resources accumulate within partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Pausch, Stephanie; Reimann, Mareike; Abendroth, Anja; Diewald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complex interplay between couples’ work and private life spheres and disentangles how demands and resources affect partners’ satisfaction with their work-life balance. Next to the individual process of spillover of workplace demands and resources to the private life sphere we investigate processes of crossover of one spouse’s demands and resources to the other. We particularly argue that within partnerships an accumulation of individual demands and resources from b...

  19. Evaluation of Service Life of Polystyrene in Tropical Marine Environment by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the service life of polystyrene (PS under an aggressive environment, the nondimensional expression Z was established from a data set of multiple properties of PS by principal component analysis (PCA. In this study, PS specimens were exposed to the tropical environment on Xisha Islands in China for two years. Chromatic aberration, gloss, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength were tested to evaluate the aging behavior of PS. Based on different needs of industries, each of the multiple properties could be used to evaluate the service life of PS. However, selecting a single performance variation will inevitably hide some information about the entire aging process. Therefore, finding a comprehensive measure representing the overall aging performance of PS can be highly significant. Herein, PCA was applied to obtain a specific property (Z which can represent all properties of PS. Z of PS degradation showed a slight decrease for the initial two months of exposure after which it increased rapidly in the next eight months. Subsequently, a slower increase of Z value was observed. From the three different stages shown as Z value increases, three stages have been identified for PS service life.

  20. Quality of life from the perspective of the palliative care patient in a resource-poor community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen van Rensburg, Jacoba J M; Maree, Johanna E; van Belkum, Corrien

    2013-02-01

    Quality of life is an ill-defined term, as it means different things to different people. Quality of life has been well researched, especially with respect to people with cancer, but not necessarily from the perspective of the patient, and also, not in Third World, resource-poor countries. The objective of this study was to explore quality of life from the perspective of palliative care patients managed at a palliative care clinic serving a resource-poor community in Tshwane, South Africa. An exploratory, qualitative phenomenological study was conducted. The target population for this study was all patients managed at a palliative care clinic serving a resource-poor community in Tshwane. Self-report data were gathered by means of in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed using a template analysis style as well as content analysis using open coding. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering. Data saturation was reached after 10 interviews (n = 10). Three themes arose from the data: factors that had a positive influence on quality of life, factors that had a negative influence on quality of life, and experience of quality of life. Work played the most important role in quality of life whereas only one participant linked symptom control with quality of life. Experiencing symptoms, rejection, and stigmatization had a negative influence on quality of life. Friends and religion played a significant role and added to quality of life. Life was a daily struggle for survival. Poverty was so overwhelming that quality of life was primarily measured in terms of the ability to buy food and other basic commodities.

  1. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  2. Quality of life of adolescents with cancer: family risks and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmer Paige L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the relative contribution of treatment intensity, family sociodemographic risk, and family resources to health-related quality of life (QOL of 102 adolescents in treatment for cancer. Methods Adolescents and parents completed self-report measures of teen QOL, family functioning, and parent-child bonding. Based on parent report of family sociodemographic variables, an additive risk index was computed. A pediatric oncologist rated treatment intensity. Results Simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the significant contribution of roles in family functioning and quality of parent-child relationship to prediction of psychosocial QOL (parent and teen-reported as well as parent-reported teen physical QOL over and above the contribution of treatment intensity. Family sociodemographic risk did not contribute to QOL in these regression analyses. In additional analyses, specific diagnosis, types of treatment and individual sociodemographic risk variables were not associated with QOL. Parent and teen ratings of family functioning and quality of life were concordant. Conclusions Family functioning, including quality of parent-child relationship, are central and potentially modifiable resistance factors in teen QOL while under treatment for cancer. Even more important than relying on diagnosis or treatment, screening for roles and relationships early in treatment may be an important aspect of determining risk for poor QOL outcomes.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and resource analysis of all-solid-state batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, Stefanie; Schreiber, Andrea; Reppert, Thorsten; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Finsterbusch, Martin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Stenzel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory scale production of an all-solid-state battery cell is assessed using Life Cycle Assessment. • The foremost share of overall emissions results from electricity consumption on site. • Possible improvement potential when upscaling production processes is investigated. • LCA results prove: early research stage products are not comparable to competing technologies at commercial stage. • Additional resource analysis shows: lanthanum, lithium and zirconium are critical materials. - Abstract: In this investigation the environmental impacts of the manufacturing processes of a new all-solid-state battery (SSB) concept in a pouch bag housing were assessed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology for the first time. To do so, the different production steps were investigated in detail, based on actual laboratory scale production processes. All in- and outputs regarding material and energy flows were collected and assessed. As LCA investigations of products in an early state of research and development usually result in comparatively higher results than those of mature technologies in most impact categories, potential future improvements of production processes and efficiency were considered by adding two concepts to the investigation. Apart from the laboratory production which depicts the current workflow, an idealized laboratory production and a possible industrial production were portrayed as well. The results indicate that electricity consumption plays a big role due to a lot of high temperature production steps. It needs to be improved for future industrial production. Also enhanced battery performance can strongly influence the results. Overall the laboratory scale results indeed improve strongly when assuming a careful use of resources, which will likely be a predominant target for industrial production. These findings therefore highlight hotspots and give improvement targets for future developments. It can also be deducted

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  6. Forage fish interactions: A symposium on creating the tools for ecosystem-based management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, M.A.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Essington, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Forage fish (FF) have a unique position within marine foodwebs and the development of sustainable harvest strategies for FF will be a critical step in advancing and implementing the broader, ecosystem-based management of marine systems. In all, 70 scientists from 16 nations gathered for a symposium...... on 12–14 November 2012 that was designed to address three key questions regarding the effective management of FF and their ecosystems: (i) how do environmental factors and predator–prey interactions drive the productivity and distribution of FF stocks across ecosystems worldwide, (ii) what...

  7. Fish Habitat Utilization Patterns and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Marine Protected Areas in Hawaii: Integration of NOAA Digital Benthic Habitat Mapping and Coral Reef Ecological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Brown, Eric; Monaco, Mark E.; Clarke, Athline

    2006-01-01

    Over the past four decades, the state of Hawaii has developed a system of eleven Marine Life Conservation Districts (MLCDs) to conserve and replenish marine resources around the state. Initially established to provide opportunities for public interaction with the marine environment, these MLCDs vary in size, habitat quality, and management regimes, providing an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning marine protected area (MPA) design and function using multiple discreet sampling ...

  8. Workshop Summary Proceedings Document: G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceedings document summarizes prepared remarks, presentations and discussions from the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency.

  9. Wind power's effects on marine life. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa marint liv. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena (Aquatic Resources, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Oeregrund (Sweden)); Kautsky, Lena (Dept. on Botany, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Stockholm Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Malm, Torleif; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja (Stockholms Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Ohlsson, Hans (wpd Offshore Stockholm AB (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Magnus (Fjord and Baelt (Denmark)); Rosenberg, Rutger (Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Marine Monitoring AB, Lysekil (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and additionally 5500 MW are being planned for in Sweden. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. Today Sweden's largest offshore wind farm is Lillgrund in Oeresund with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters, is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities

  10. New method for determining sensory shelf life using fuzzy logic: canned marinated artichoke hearts (Cynara scolymus L. case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory preference (sp and shelf life of sensory acceptability (SLSA of canned artichoke hearts were modeled using fuzzy logic (FL and accelerated testing. The artichoke hearts were marinated in oil of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, soybean (Glycine max and olive (Olea europea; and evaluated using a Ranking test with a semi-trained panel, to identify the best preference both for flavor (f and limpidity (l. We evaluated a global sp through intersection (AND and union (OR fuzzy operations of f and l, using functions of triangular membership with the Mamdani method for defuzzificacion through 25 linguistic rules. The intersection showed the best modeling performance, with the highest sp value at 3.30 for the treatment with sacha inchi (50%, olive (25% and soybean (25% (p << 0.05 oil, which was subjected to accelerated testing at 37 °C, 49 °C, 55 °C and evaluated according to their sensory acceptability (SA through an unstructured scale test in terms of f and l. The SLSA was determined using accelerated testing with FL through intersection fuzzy operation of f and l, triangular membership functions for f and l, and also 25 linguistic rules. A SLSA at 20 ºC was determined for a "high" SA of 296 days, and 569 days for a SA between "high and beginning of medium SA". Both values were lower than the 892 days’ time determined by accelerated testing when evaluating the peroxide index in canned products.

  11. SMART marine goals, targets and management - Is SDG 14 operational or aspirational, is 'Life Below Water' sinking or swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Roland; Elliott, Michael

    2017-10-15

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded - otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims. The discussion here shows that many of the targets adopted for SDG14, and especially a detailed analysis of Target 1, are aspirational rather than fully quantified. In order to move towards making the targets operational, we advocate merging the language of environmental management with that used by industry for linking risks to the environment, management performance and ensuing controls. By adopting an approach which uses Key Performance Indicators ('KPIs'), Key Risk Indicators ('KRIs') and Key Control Indicators ('KCIs'), we advocate that a degree of rigour leading to defendable actions can be brought to marine management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Late-life depression in Rural China: do village infrastructure and availability of community resources matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Zhenmei; Xu, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to examine whether physical infrastructure and availability of three types of community resources (old-age income support, healthcare facilities, and elder activity centers) in rural villages are associated with depressive symptoms among older adults in rural China. Data were from the 2011 baseline survey of the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The sample included 3824 older adults aged 60 years or older residing in 301 rural villages across China. A score of 12 on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used as the cutoff for depressed versus not depressed. Village infrastructure was indicated by an index summing deficiency in six areas: drinking water, fuel, road, sewage, waste management, and toilet facilities. Three dichotomous variables indicated whether income support, healthcare facility, and elder activity center were available in the village. Respondents' demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), health status (chronic conditions and physical disability), and socioeconomic status (education, support from children, health insurance, household luxury items, and housing quality) were covariates. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted. Controlling for individuals' socioeconomic status, health status, and demographic characteristics, village infrastructure deficiency was positively associated with the odds of being depressed among rural older Chinese, whereas the provision of income support and healthcare facilities in rural villages was associated with lower odds. Village infrastructure and availability of community resources matter for depressive symptoms in rural older adults. Improving infrastructure, providing old-age income support, and establishing healthcare facilities in villages could be effective strategies to prevent late-life depression in rural China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The effect of CO2 injection in the sea on the marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesen, T.

    1993-02-01

    In the literature it is shown that aquatic organisms are very sensitive to changes in the pH value. Exposure to a lower pH value than what is normal for the animals, may lead to distinct effects in the reproduction, growth and survival. Harmful effects may arise by a reduction of only 0.2 pH units. The effects increase by increasing the pH reduction, and by increasing the exposure time. It is pointed out in the report that the data basis is small, and that only a few long term and life cycle studies have been performed. The background material of the report shows that injection of CO 2 into the sea will create a bottom stream with pH values between 4.5 and 6.5. These values are much lower than the normal pH value of seawater, and much lower than the limit value for harmful effects. For this reason, harmful effects on the bottom fauna may be expected. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Internal and External Resources as Determinants of Health and Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfriede Greimel

    Full Text Available The salutogenic model has been established as a health promoting resource that is related to a strong sense of coherence (SOC, positive subjective health and quality of life (QoL. The aim of the study was to compare internal and external resources, life style factors, perceived health and QoL in Japan and Austria and to determine associations among these factors.A survey was conducted in a Japanese (N = 460 and an Austrian (N = 421 student sample using the following self-report health questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, Social and Gender Role Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ, SF-12 Health Survey, and the Cross-cultural Health Survey. Analyses of data showed that age (ß -0.12, and stress (ß -0.21 were negatively related and SOC (ß 0.47, family support are (ß -0.35 positively related to mental QoL. Significant predictors for emotional strain, were female gender (ß -0.24, older age (ß-0.14, lower SOC (ß 0.28, less traditional gender and social role patterns (ß 0.10, more restrained eating (ß -0.20, more alcohol intake (ß -0.16, and more stress (ß -0.25 explaining 42% of the variance in Austrian students. In Japan stress (ß -0.38 was negatively related and SOC (ß 0.37 positively related to mental QoL. Older age (ß -0.20, lower SOC (ß 0.29 and more stress (ß -0.33 were identified as significant predictors explaining 35% of the variance in Japanese students.SOC and stress are strongly associated with QoL and perceived health in Austria as well as in Japan. SOC seems to be a crucial predictor for stress, and emotional health independent of the cultural context. A major challenge of cross-cultural research is to understand perceived health and QoL and the extent in which it is individually, socially, or culturally determined.

  15. Internal and External Resources as Determinants of Health and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Kato, Yoshiko; Müller-Gartner, Maria; Salchinger, Beate; Roth, Roswith; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The salutogenic model has been established as a health promoting resource that is related to a strong sense of coherence (SOC), positive subjective health and quality of life (QoL). The aim of the study was to compare internal and external resources, life style factors, perceived health and QoL in Japan and Austria and to determine associations among these factors. A survey was conducted in a Japanese (N = 460) and an Austrian (N = 421) student sample using the following self-report health questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13), Social and Gender Role Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), SF-12 Health Survey, and the Cross-cultural Health Survey. Analyses of data showed that age (ß -0.12), and stress (ß -0.21) were negatively related and SOC (ß 0.47), family support are (ß -0.35) positively related to mental QoL. Significant predictors for emotional strain, were female gender (ß -0.24), older age (ß-0.14), lower SOC (ß 0.28), less traditional gender and social role patterns (ß 0.10), more restrained eating (ß -0.20), more alcohol intake (ß -0.16), and more stress (ß -0.25) explaining 42% of the variance in Austrian students. In Japan stress (ß -0.38) was negatively related and SOC (ß 0.37) positively related to mental QoL. Older age (ß -0.20), lower SOC (ß 0.29) and more stress (ß -0.33) were identified as significant predictors explaining 35% of the variance in Japanese students. SOC and stress are strongly associated with QoL and perceived health in Austria as well as in Japan. SOC seems to be a crucial predictor for stress, and emotional health independent of the cultural context. A major challenge of cross-cultural research is to understand perceived health and QoL and the extent in which it is individually, socially, or culturally determined.

  16. Pain, health related quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Paul; Pérez Hernández, Concepción; Margarit Ferri, César; Ruiz Hidalgo, Domingo; Lubián López, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between the experience of pain, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and healthcare resource utilization in Spain. The analysis contrasts the contribution of pain severity and frequency of pain reported against respondents reporting no pain in the previous month. Data are from the 2010 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) for Spain. Single equation generalized linear regression models are used to evaluate the association of pain with the physical and mental component scores of the SF-12 questionnaire as well as health utilities generated from the SF-6D. In addition, the role of pain is assessed in its association with self-reported healthcare provider visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the previous 6 months. The results indicate that the experience of pain, notably severe and frequent pain, is substantial and is significantly associated with the SF-12 physical component scores, health utilities and all aspects of healthcare resource utilization, which far outweighs the role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, health risk factors (in particular body mass index) and the presence of comorbidities. In the case of severe daily pain, the marginal contribution of the SF-12 physical component score is a deficit of -17.86 compared to those reporting no pain (population average score 46.49), while persons who are morbidly obese report a deficit of only -6.63 compared to those who are normal weight. The corresponding association with health utilities is equally dramatic with a severe daily pain deficit of -0.186 compared to those reporting no pain (average population utility 0.71). The impact of pain on healthcare resource utilization is marked. Severe daily pain increases traditional provider visits by 208.8%, emergency room visits by 373.0% and hospitalizations by 348.5%. As an internet-based survey there is the possibility of bias towards those with internet access, although telephone

  17. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  18. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage. Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface

  19. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Evans, Flavia F; Schleheck, David; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Burke, Catherine; Penesyan, Anahit; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Saunders, Neil; Johnson, Justin; Ferriera, Steve; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2008-09-24

    Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community. We have also identified properties that could mediate interactions

  20. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  1. Genomic imprinting, growth control and the allocation of nutritional resources: consequences for postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Marika; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2007-02-01

    Genes subject to genomic imprinting are predominantly expressed from one of the two parental chromosomes, are often clustered in the genome, and their activity and repression are epigenetically regulated. The role of imprinted genes in growth control has been apparent since the discovery of imprinting in the early 1980s. Drawing from studies in the mouse, we propose three distinct classes of imprinted genes - those expressed, imprinted and acting predominantly within the placenta, those with no associated foetal growth effects that act postnatally to regulate metabolic processes, and those expressed in the embryo and placenta that programme the development of organs participating in metabolic processes. Members of this latter class may interact in functional networks regulating the interaction between the mother and the foetus, affecting generalized foetal well-being, growth and organ development; they may also coordinately regulate the development of particular organ systems. The mono-allelic behaviour and sensitivity to changes in regional epigenetic states renders imprinted genes adaptable and vulnerable; in all cases, their perturbed dosage can compromise prenatal and/or postnatal control of nutritional resources. This finding has implications for understanding the relationships between prenatal events and diseases later in life.

  2. Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

  3. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education. Using…

  4. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Person-Based Resources, Self-Perceptions, and Career and Life Satisfaction in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We tested the across-time relationships between the person-based resources of assimilation (or goal pursuit) and accommodation (or goal adjustment) and two well-being outcomes (satisfaction with career progress and life satisfaction), and assessed if these relationships were mediated by self-perceptions (perceived goal attainability and optimism).…

  5. Analysis of Perceived Stress, Coping Resources and Life Satisfaction among Students at a Newly Established Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhovozi, P.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to analyse perceived stress, coping resources and life satisfaction among university students at an institution of higher learning. Seventy-three students randomly selected from third year Social Sciences class participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the participants. The results showed…

  6. The dual impact of ecology and management on social incentives in marine common-pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E S; Barbier, M R; Watson, J R

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how and when cooperative human behaviour forms in common-pool resource systems is critical to illuminating social-ecological systems and designing governance institutions that promote sustainable resource use. Before assessing the full complexity of social dynamics, it is essential to understand, concretely and mechanistically, how resource dynamics and human actions interact to create incentives and pay-offs for social behaviours. Here, we investigated how such incentives for information sharing are affected by spatial dynamics and management in a common-pool resource system. Using interviews with fishermen to inform an agent-based model, we reveal generic mechanisms through which, for a given ecological setting characterized by the spatial dynamics of the resource, the two 'human factors' of information sharing and management may heterogeneously impact various members of a group for whom theory would otherwise predict the same strategy. When users can deplete the resource, these interactions are further affected by the management approach. Finally, we discuss the implications of alternative motivations, such as equity among fishermen and consistency of the fleet's output. Our results indicate that resource spatial dynamics, form of management and level of depletion can interact to alter the sociality of people in common-pool resource systems, providing necessary insight for future study of strategic decision processes.

  7. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...

  8. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  9. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  10. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  11. Exploring marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    other benefits, fish oils containing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have anti-inflammatory and autoimmune properties. The researchers found that increasing dietary intake of the polyunsaturated fats found in fatty fish can..., there had been lack of multidisciplinary approach needed for isolating, screening and developing the product. Thirdly, the cost involved in the development of a new drug is very high. However, in recent years considerable attention has been paid...

  12. Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.

  13. Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824

  14. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the MARINE EVANGELINE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1981-08-25 to 1981-08-26 (NODC Accession 8100678)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the MARINE EVANGELINE from 25 August 1981 to 26 August 1981. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  15. Effects of bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenol F and S on life parameters, antioxidant system, and response of defensome in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Min-Chul; Yoon, Deok-Seo; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Moonkoo; Hwang, Un-Ki; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-06-01

    To understand the adverse outcome in response to bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenol F and S (BPA, BPF, and BPS), we examined acute toxicity, life parameter, and defensome in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus. Among the bisphenol analogs, BPA showed the highest acute toxicity and then BPF and BPS, accordingly in the view of descending magnitude of toxicity. In life parameters including life span and reproduction, BPA, BPF, and BPS were found to cause adverse effect. Both intracellular ROS level and GST activity were significantly increased (P bisphenol analogs exposures. In response to bisphenol analogs, defensomes of phase I, II, and III detoxification mechanism demonstrated inverse relationship between the lipophilicity of bisphenol analogs and the expression patterns of defensomes. BPA and BPF were found to have significant modulation (P bisphenol A and its analogs F and S demonstrated specific detoxification mechanism in rotifer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards harmonizing natural resources as an area of protection in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    categories, nor do existing methods and models addressing different natural resource categories do so in a consistent way across categories. Exceptions are exergy and solar energy-related methods, which cover the widest range of resource categories. However, these methods do not link exergy consumption...

  17. From Good Work to Sustainable Development - Human Resources Consumption and Regeneration in the Post-Bureaucratic Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Kira, Mari

    2003-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the psychological consequences ofthe contemporary work. Two focal question of the thesis are,first, why do employees’psychological resources becomeconsumed in the contemporary working life? Second, how tocreate regenerative work enabling employees’developmentin the present situation? The latter question aims todistinguish the conditions for sustainable individual andcollective development at work. The empirical research consistsof two studies; the Empirical Study I ...

  18. In an Unpredictable and Changing Environment: Intrapreneurial Self-Capital As a Key Resource for Life Satisfaction and Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Di Fabio; Letizia Palazzeschi; Ornella Bucci

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century is characterized by an unpredictable and challenging work environment, and the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital (ISC) career and life construct can be seen as a core of individual intrapreneurial resources that enables people to cope with ongoing challenges, changes, and transitions founding innovative solutions when confronted with the constraints imposed by such an environment. The ISC is a challenging construct since it can enhance behavior and attitudes through specif...

  19. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  20. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  1. Development of Human Resources Using New Technologies in Long-Life Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Bogdan Ghilic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT offer new opportunities to reinvent the education and to make people and makes learning more fun and contemporary but poses many problems to educational institutions. Implementation of ICT determines major structural changes in the organizations and mental switch from bureaucratic mentality to customer-oriented one. In this paper I try to evaluate methods of developing the lifelong learning programs, impact to human resources training and development and the impact of this process on educational institutions. E-learning usage in training the human resources can make a new step in development of the education institutions, human resources and companies.

  2. Youth Science Ambassadors: Connecting Indigenous communities with Ocean Networks Canada tools to inspire future ocean scientists and marine resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Hale, C.; McLean, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation describes Ocean Networks Canada's (ONC) Youth Science Ambassador Program. The Youth Science Ambassadors are a growing network of youth in Canadian coastal communities whose role is to connect ocean science, ONC data, and Indigenous knowledge. By directly employing Indigenous youth in communities in which ONC operates monitoring equipment, ONC aims to encourage wider participation and interest in ocean science and exploration. Further, the Youth Science Ambassadors act as role models and mentors to other local youth by highlighting connections between Indigenous and local knowledge and current marine science efforts. Ocean Networks Canada, an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories as well as community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. Youth Science Ambassadors are part of the Learning and Engagement team whose role includes engaging Indigenous communities and schools in ocean science through ONC's K-12 Ocean Sense education program. All of the data collected by ONC are freely available over the Internet for non-profit use, including disaster planning, community-based decision making, and education. The Youth Science Ambassadors support collaboration with Indigenous communities and schools by facilitating educational programming, encouraging participation in ocean data collection and analysis, and fostering interest in ocean science. In addition, the Youth Science Ambassadors support community collaboration in decision-making for instrument deployment locations and identify ways in which ONC can help to address any areas of concern raised by the community. This

  3. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  4. Revisiting the Classic Moby Dick: The Environmental Significance of the Narrative in the Light of International Environmental Law on the Preservation of the Whaling Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Alves de Paula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the environmental significance of Moby Dick, narrative that, in the mid-nineteenth century, warned, indirectly, on the need to preserve nature against the excesses of whaling. For this, we analyzed the main regulations that composes the environmental protection regime for whaling marine life, one of which allowed exceptions to the prohibition of hunting, based both on alleged scientific research needs as the claim of cultural practices, and the decision of the ICJ in the case brought by Australia in face of Japan.

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Sea Water and Bittern in Indonesia: Quality Improvement and Potential Resources Utilization for Marine Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Apriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional salt production in Indonesia was investigated to report the preparation and processing of salt, determine the characteristics of sea water and bittern as well as explore the potential of bittern management with appropriate technology. Field study and comprehensive analysis were performed so as to better understand the salt making, providing valuable information for the proposal of targeted management strategies in salt quality improvement and wastewater recovery. The results show that Na^+,Cl^- and Ca^(2+ in East Java Province bittern were found greater than the majority of values found in the literature. The highest concentrations of Na^+,Cl^- and Ca^(2+ were measured in Camplong-Sampang District. The highest concentrations of Mg^(2+and trace metals were recorded in Panceng-Gresik District. The trace metals found in sea water and bittern need particular concern to be removed without disposing of sea water minerals. The potential number of bittern in Indonesia promoted the development of the bittern management for magnesium recovery and achieving marine environment sustainability. High purified material recovery can be achieved by using crystallization technology.

  6. An assessment of UK bioenergy production, resource availability, biomass gasification and life cycle impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Energy use and the environment are inextricably linked and form a key role in concerns over sustainability. All methods of energy production involve resource uncertainties and environmental impacts. A clear example of this is the use of fossil fuels which present three main problems, being: finite resources; significant contribution to environmental pollution; and reliance on imports. Hence there is a clear need to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy. Bioenergy has the potential to both...

  7. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  8. Poor health and loneliness in later life: the role of depressive symptoms, social resources, and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness.

  9. Quality of life outcomes' in early motherhood in Austria : The impact of internal and external resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mautner, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide results of two studies, which were conducted in Austria to examine the impact of internal and external factors on quality of life and depressive symptoms in early motherhood. In general early motherhood may be a critical life event for a woman and their partner and can lead to decreased well-being. Emotional aspects such as depression affects not only the quality of life of the mothers but also her new-born child, her other children, partner and relati...

  10. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  11. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis.

  12. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  13. Evaluation of Marine Resource Carrying Capacity in the Construction of Qingdao Blue Economy Zone%青岛市蓝色经济区建设的海洋资源承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京梅; 许玲

    2013-01-01

    From the standpoints of marine resources supply and marine industry demands ,this article built a comprehensive evaluation indicator system and measured marine resource carrying capacity in Qing-dao from 2001 to 2010 by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method .The results showed that the devel-opment of marine industry was beyond the marine resource carrying capacity in 2001 to 2006 and 2008 ,and was within the carrying capacity in the rest three years .The construction of the seaports has increased the supply ability of marine resources to some extent ,but the pollution caused by traditional marine industries is still huge ,and is a major cause for the bad performance of marine resource carrying capacity .It is sug-gested that traditional aquaculture should be reformed ,and environment friendly industries like recreation fishery and tourism should be developed in the process of constructing the blue economy zone .%从胶州湾海域资源环境供给和青岛市海洋产业增长需求的角度,构建了青岛市海洋资源承载力综合评价指标体系,利用模糊综合评价方法,对青岛市2001-2010年间海洋资源承载状况进行测度。结果表明,2001-2006年及2008年青岛市海洋资源承载力处于超载状态,其余年份处于适载状态。海岸带开发的港口建设在一定程度上提高了海洋资源的供给能力,但传统海洋产业的排污需求依然较大,是海洋资源承载力超载的重要原因。建议在蓝色经济区建设中,加快对传统养殖业的改造,大力发展休闲渔业、滨海旅游业等能耗低、排污少的产业。

  14. THE EFFECT OF LEISURE TIME ON TOURISTIC RESOURCES AND ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN; Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the "actors" on the tourist stage of Romania brings in the context of socioeconomic, cultural and educational life needs, wishes, proposals and suggestions for the improvement of tourism infrastructure and also for an increase in the diversity of leisure activities. The development of technique, technology and computer technology have contributed to the multiplication of tourism products and services which led to an improved quality of life. At the same time, identification of...

  15. Mechanisms of inorganic-carbon acquisition in marine phytoplankton and their implications for the use of other resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, J.A.; Johnston, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the marine phytoplankton species for which data are available are rate saturated for photosynthesis and probably for growth with inorganic C at normal seawater concentrations; 2 of the 17 species are not saturated. Photosynthesis in these two species can probably be explained by the 17 species not saturated. Photosynthesis in these two species can probably be explained by assuming that CO 2 reaches the site of its reaction with RUBISCO (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase) by passive diffusion. The kinetics of CO 2 fixation by intact cells are explicable by RUBISCO kinetics typical of algae, and a CO 2 -saturated in vivo RUBISCO activity not more than twice the in vivo light- and inorganic-C-saturated rate of photosynthesis. For the other species, the high affinity in vivo for inorganic C could be other species, the high affinity in vivo for inorganic C could be explained by postulating active influx of inorganic C yielding a higher concentration of CO 2 available to RUBISCO during steady state photosynthesis than in the medium. Although such a higher concentration of internal CO 2 in cells with high affinity for inorganic C is found at low levels of external inorganic C, the situation is more equivocal at normal seawater concentrations. In theory, the occurrence of a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism rather than passive CO 2 entry could reduce the photon, N, Fe, Mn, and Mo costs of growth, but increase the Zn and Se costs. Thus far, data on costs are available only for photons and N; these data generally agree with the predicted lower costs for cells with high affinity for inorganic C

  16. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  17. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  18. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  19. Correlations between satisfaction with life and selected personal resources among students of Universities of the Third Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify personal resources, including health-related resources, sense of self-efficacy, attitude to life (optimism/pessimism) and self-assessment, and to determine their relationship with satisfaction with life in members of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) in Poland. The impact of sociodemographic factors was analyzed. The study included 320 participants of U3As; their mean age was 67.5 years and the vast majority of them were women (92.5%). The study was a screening test based on a diagnostic survey using validated scales, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and a survey of own design. Men showed significantly higher mean SWLS scores than women. SWLS scores were found to correlate significantly with LOT-R ( r =0.411; P <0.001) and GSES scores ( r =0.451; P <0.001). The respondents' financial situation had a significant impact on their scores in all scales: SWLS ( P <0.001), LOT-R ( P <0.001) and GSES ( P <0.001). Educational attainment of the respondents showed a significant correlation with SWLS ( P =0.004) and GSES ( P =0.011). In the process of preparation for successful aging, particular emphasis should be placed on the continuous development of an individual, as it leads to the improvement of their socioeconomic status. Also, promoting positive personality traits and responsibility for one's own life, including health, is of vital importance. The study is particularly important for the early identification of individuals at risk of unsuccessful aging.

  20. The phylogeny and life cycle of two species of Profilicollis (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in marine hosts off the Pacific coast of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S M; D'Elía, G; Valdivia, N

    2017-09-01

    Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P. altmani larvae infected exclusively molecrabs of the genus Emerita from fully marine habitats, P. antarcticus larvae infected the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from estuarine habitats. Moreover, P. altmani completed its life cycle in four seagulls, Chroicocephalus maculipennis, Leucopheus pipixcan, Larus modestus and L. dominicanus, while P. antarcticus, on the other hand, completed its life cycle in the kelp gull L. dominicanus. Accordingly, our results show that two congeneric parasites use different and spatially segregated species as intermediate hosts, and both are capable of infecting one species of definitive hosts. As such, our analyses allow us to shed light on a complex interaction network.

  1. In an Unpredictable and Changing Environment: Intrapreneurial Self-Capital As a Key Resource for Life Satisfaction and Flourishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bucci, Ornella

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century is characterized by an unpredictable and challenging work environment, and the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital (ISC) career and life construct can be seen as a core of individual intrapreneurial resources that enables people to cope with ongoing challenges, changes, and transitions founding innovative solutions when confronted with the constraints imposed by such an environment. The ISC is a challenging construct since it can enhance behavior and attitudes through specific training, unlike personality traits, which are considered substantially stable in the literature. Against this background, the present study examined the relationship between ISC and well-being (hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being) controlling for the effects of personality traits. The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISCS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and the Flourishing Scale (FS) were administered to 258 Italian workers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that ISC explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond that explained by personality traits in relation to both life satisfaction and flourishing. These results indicate that ISC is a key resource for hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being and that it offers new research and intervention opportunities.

  2. In an Unpredictable and Changing Environment: Intrapreneurial Self-Capital As a Key Resource for Life Satisfaction and Flourishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The twenty-first century is characterized by an unpredictable and challenging work environment, and the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital (ISC career and life construct can be seen as a core of individual intrapreneurial resources that enables people to cope with ongoing challenges, changes, and transitions founding innovative solutions when confronted with the constraints imposed by such an environment. The ISC is a challenging construct since it can enhance behavior and attitudes through specific training, unlike personality traits, which are considered substantially stable in the literature. Against this background, the present study examined the relationship between ISC and well-being (hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being controlling for the effects of personality traits. The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISCS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Flourishing Scale (FS were administered to 258 Italian workers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that ISC explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond that explained by personality traits in relation to both life satisfaction and flourishing. These results indicate that ISC is a key resource for hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being and that it offers new research and intervention opportunities.

  3. Parental bereavement during mid-to-later life: pre- to postbereavement functioning and intrapersonal resources for coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Mailick Seltzer, Marsha; Greenberg, Jan S; Song, Jieun

    2013-06-01

    The death of a child when parents are in mid-to-late life is a traumatic event for aging parents. In order to evaluate adjustment, the impact of unanticipated versus anticipated deaths, and the effects of internal resources for coping with bereavement, we examined pre- and postbereavement functioning, using the 1992/94 and 2004/06 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, for parents (M age = 54 and 65 years, respectively) whose adult child died between these dates (n = 175). The results revealed a general pattern of adaptation in which most bereaved parents were functioning as well as a matched comparison group (n = 175), though more depression symptoms were present both before and after the death of the child for the mothers of children who died from long-term illnesses and the fathers of children who committed suicide, suggesting that conditions predating the death were chronic strains for these parents. Intrapersonal resources, including a sense of purpose in life and high levels of agreeableness, were associated with better functioning, particularly for bereaved parents whose children's deaths were not anticipated. The study places parental bereavement in the context of normative aging and the framework of chronic life strain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Building abstinent networks is an important resource in improving quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ashley Elizabeth; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    To investigate changes in social network and quality of life of a substance use disorder cohort as they progressed through treatment. Multi-site, prospective, observational study of 338 adults entering substance use disorder treatment. Patients at 21 facilities across Norway contributed baseline data when they initiated treatment, and follow-up data was collected from them one year later. The cohort was divided into those who completed, dropped out, and remained in treatment one year after treatment initiation. For each treatment status group, general linear models with repeated measures analyzed global and social quality of life with the generic QOL10 instrument over time. The between-group factor was a change in social network variable from the EuropASI. Those who gained an abstinent network reported the largest quality of life improvements. Improvements were smallest or negligible for the socially isolated and those who were no longer in contact with the treatment system. Developing an abstinent network is particularly important to improve the quality of life of those in substance use disorder treatment. Social isolation is a risk factor for impaired quality of life throughout the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. mySearch changed my life – a resource discovery journey

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Emma J.

    2013-01-01

    mySearch: the federated years mySearch: choosing a new platform mySearch: EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) Implementing a new system Technical challenges Has resource discovery enhanced experiences at BU? Ongoing challenges Implications for library management systems Implications for information literacy Questions

  6. Relationship between protean career orientation and work-life balance: A resource perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Direnzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Christy H.

    2015-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.1996 Despite the commonly held belief that a protean career orientation (PCO) enables employees to achieve more balance in their lives, little is known about the relationship between PCO and work-life balance. Using two waves of data collection separated by 2.5 years, this study examined the relationship between PCO and work-life balance among a sample of 367 college-educated employees in the Unite...

  7. Nurse-patient interaction is a resource for hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence in nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill

    2014-03-01

    Spiritual dimensions such as hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence have been found to be predictors of successful ageing, life satisfaction and well-being in older individuals. Connectedness and communicating with others have been seen to facilitate hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence among nursing home patients. This study aimed to investigate the associations between hope, meaning in life, self-transcendence and nurse-patient interaction in a nursing home population. A cross-sectional design was employed, collecting data in 44 different Norwegian nursing homes (NHs) from 250 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Approval by all regulatory institutions dealing with research issues in Norway and the Management Unit at the 44 NHs was obtained. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients responded to the Herth Hope Index, the Purpose in Life test, the Self-Transcendence Scale and the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale. A structural equation model (SEM) of the hypothesized relationships between the constructs was tested. The SEM model fit well with the present data. Significant direct relationships of nurse-patient interaction on hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence were displayed. Meaning and the interconnectedness dimension of hope appeared to be particularly dynamic resources, revealing significant influences on all the constructs in the SEM model tested. Nurse-patient interaction influences hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence in cognitively intact nursing home patients and might be an important resource in relation to patients' health and global well-being. Thus, care providers are above all fundamental for nursing home patients. Advancing caregivers' interacting and communicating skills might facilitate patients' health and global well-being and inspire professional caregivers as they perform their daily care practices. More research of the effectiveness of such strategies is greatly needed. The SEM model tested

  8. Home-based telecommuting and quality of life: further evidence on an employee-oriented human resource practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Building on previous research, further evidence for the potential of home-based telecommuting as an employee-oriented human resource practice is provided from a study in the German public administration. Survey data from 1,008 public employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Mean age of the sample was 43.6 yr. (SD = 8.8 yr.), and 27.5% (277) of the participants were women. Analysis supported the roles of higher Autonomy and lower Work-Family Conflict as psychological mediators between Telecommunication Intensity and both Job Satisfaction and Quality of Life. Implications for the design of flexible working arrangements are discussed.

  9. Impact of continuous glucose monitoring on quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and use of medical care resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Olsen, B; Battelino, T

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction (TS) medical resource use, and indirect costs in the SWITCH study. SWITCH was a multicentre, randomized, crossover study. Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 153) using...... longer during the sensor-On arm. Regarding indirect costs, children with >70 % sensor usage missed fewer school days, compared with the sensor-Off arm (P = 0.0046) but there was no significant difference in the adults days of work off. The addition of CGM to CSII resulted in better metabolic control...

  10. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  11. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  12. Cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts of redwood forest resource harvesting in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Richard D. Bergman; Ivan L. Eastin; Leonard R. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The first life cycle impact assessment for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forest management activities (i.e. a cradle-to-sawmill gate input) including the growing, harvesting, and hauling of redwood sawlogs to a sawmill was completed. In the stump-to-truck timber harvesting analysis, primary transport activities such as skidding and yarding consumed...

  13. Prolonging life and delaying death: The role of physicians in the context of limited intensive care resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagshaw Sean M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Critical care is in an emerging crisis of conflict between what individuals expect and the economic burden society and government are prepared to provide. The goal of critical care support is to prevent suffering and premature death by intensive therapy of reversible illnesses within a reasonable timeframe. Recently, it has become apparent that early support in an intensive care environment can improve patient outcomes. However, life support technology has advanced, allowing physicians to prolong life (and postpone death in circumstances that were not possible in the recent past. This has been recognized by not only the medical community, but also by society at large. One corollary may be that expectations for recovery from critical illness have also become extremely high. In addition, greater numbers of patients are dying in intensive care units after having receiving prolonged durations of life-sustaining therapy. Herein lies the emerging crisis – critical care therapy must be available in a timely fashion for those who require it urgently, yet its provision is largely dependent on a finite availability of both capital and human resources. Physicians are often placed in a troubling conflict of interest by pressures to use health resources prudently while also promoting the equitable and timely access to critical care therapy. In this commentary, these issues are broadly discussed from the perspective of the individual clinician as well as that of society as a whole. The intent is to generate dialogue on the dynamic between individual clinicians navigating the complexities of how and when to use critical care support in the context of end-of-life issues, the increasing demands placed on finite critical care capacity, and the reasonable expectations of society.

  14. Method of Data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Koteleva, N.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of technical and technological conditions for the emergence of emergency situations during the operation of electromechanical equipment of enterprises of the mineral and raw materials complex shows that when developing the basis for ensuring safe operation, it is necessary to take into account not only the technical condition, but also the non-stationary operation of the operating conditions of equipment, and the nonstationarity of operational operating parameters of technological processes. Violations of the operation of individual parts of the machine, not detected in time, can lead to severe accidents at work, as well as to unplanned downtime and loss of profits. That is why, the issues of obtaining and processing Big data obtained during the life cycle of electromechanical equipment, for assessing the current state of the electromechanical equipment used, timely diagnostics of emergency and pre-emergency modes of its operation, estimating the residual resource, as well as prediction the technical state on the basis of machine learning are very important. This article is dedicated to developing the special method of data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment. This method can be used in working with big data and can allow extracting the knowledge from different data types: the plants’ historical data and the factory historical data. The data of the plants contains the information about electromechanical equipment operation and the data of the factory contains the information about a production of electromechanical equipment.

  15. BBMRI-ERIC as a resource for pharmaceutical and life science industries: the development of biobank-based Expert Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Törnwall, Outi; Bréchot, Christian; Dagher, Georges; Galli, Joakim; Hveem, Kristian; Landegren, Ulf; Luchinat, Claudio; Metspalu, Andres; Nilsson, Cecilia; Solesvik, Ove V; Perola, Markus; Litton, Jan-Eric; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Biological resources (cells, tissues, bodily fluids or biomolecules) are considered essential raw material for the advancement of health-related biotechnology, for research and development in life sciences, and for ultimately improving human health. Stored in local biobanks, access to the human biological samples and related medical data for transnational research is often limited, in particular for the international life science industry. The recently established pan-European Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortium (BBMRI-ERIC) aims to improve accessibility and interoperability between academic and industrial parties to benefit personalized medicine, disease prevention to promote development of new diagnostics, devices and medicines. BBMRI-ERIC is developing the concept of Expert Centre as public-private partnerships in the precompetitive, not-for-profit field to provide a new structure to perform research projects that would face difficulties under currently established models of academic-industry collaboration. By definition, Expert Centres are key intermediaries between public and private sectors performing the analysis of biological samples under internationally standardized conditions. This paper presents the rationale behind the Expert Centres and illustrates the novel concept with model examples.

  16. Women with urinary incontinence in Spain: Health-related quality of life and the use of healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro; Jiménez, Margarita; Martínez, Lucía; Aracil, Javier

    2016-12-01

    To describe Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and healthcare resource utilization in women aged 60 and over in Spain. Descriptive analysis of primary data from the Spanish National Health Survey, 2012. Utility indices were obtained through the EQ5D5L questionnaire included in the survey, and utilization rates of consultations, hospitalizations, emergency services, and medication intake. HRQOL and utilization rates were systematically compared between women diagnosed with UI, women diagnosed with other chronic conditions (OCC) and healthy women of the same age. Utility indices were 0.47 in UI women versus 0.78 and 0.96 in women diagnosed with OCC and healthy women, respectively. Each year 351,675 Quality Adjusted Life Years are lost in Spain due to UI in the population of women aged 60 and over. Resource utilization of these women was significantly higher than that of other women. UI has a larger impact on both HRQOL and healthcare consumption in women who are aged 60 and over, than OCC. Appropriate treatment of UI might entail an important gain in terms of HRQOL and a significant reduction in healthcare consumption in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  18. Reading the Bible, Stressful Life Events, and Hope: Assessing an Overlooked Coping Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2018-03-28

    Many people rely on religion to deal with the stressors in their lives. The purpose of this study is to examine a religious coping resource that has received relatively little attention-reading the Bible. We evaluated three hypotheses: (1) reading the Bible moderates the relationship between stress and hope; (2) people who read the Bible more often are more likely to rely on benevolent religious reappraisal coping responses; and (3) individuals who rely on benevolent religious reappraisals will be more hopeful about the future. Support was found for all three hypotheses in our analyses.

  19. Summary Report Panel 1: The Need for Protocols and Standards in Research on Underwater Noise Impacts on Marine Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Ainslie, Michael A; de Jong, Christ A F; Racca, Roberto; Stocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As concern about anthropogenic noise and its impacts on marine fauna is increasing around the globe, data are being compared across populations, species, noise sources, geographic regions, and time. However, much of the raw and processed data are not comparable due to differences in measurement methodology, analysis and reporting, and a lack of metadata. Common protocols and more formal, international standards are needed to ensure the effectiveness of research, conservation, regulation and practice, and unambiguous communication of information and ideas. Developing standards takes time and effort, is largely driven by a few expert volunteers, and would benefit from stakeholders' contribution and support.

  20. Personal resources and satisfaction with life in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic pathology and in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Michał-Goran; Rzepa, Teresa; Gawrońska, Alicja; Kubaszewski, Przemysław; Putowski, Maciej; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Perek, Bartłomiej

    2018-03-01

    Whether or not the source of aortic pathology is Marfan syndrome (MFS) or other processes leading to development of abdominal aorta aneurysms (AAA), the awareness of pathology may lead to an emotional upset and low assessment of satisfaction with life. To assess, in regard to MFS patients with aortic pathology and to abdominal aortic aneurysm patients: 1) whether or not self-efficacy (SE) and health locus of control (HLoC) affect the patients' satisfaction with life; 2) whether the two groups of patients differ in terms of mental dispositions. The study population consisted of 16 MFS patients with aortic pathology and 16 AAA patients, 9 men and 7 women in each group. The mean age of the MFS patients was 28.5 ±8.214, and of the AAA patients 64.25 ±7.019. The following scales were applied: Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Abdominal aorta aneurysms patients compared to MFS patients gave a higher rating for SE ( MD = 33.94 and MD = 29.56), internal health locus of control ( MD = 25.00 and MD = 21.13), external personal HL o C ( MD = 24.50 and MD = 19.25), external impersonal HLoC ( MD = 23.06 and MD = 18.25), and satisfaction with life ( M = 22.06 and M = 20.13). Internal and external HL o C were significantly lower in MFS patients compared to AAA patients. In patients with aortic diseases, special attention must be paid to the state of personal resources (PR). Interactions made by medical professionals should focus on enhancing PR supporting the patients' self-knowledge on their SE. This will help to improve their satisfaction with life and form a positive attitude to the illness.

  1. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  2. Impact of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome on health-related quality of life and resource utilisation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Ricca, Giada; Nyanzi-Wakholi, Barbara; Medina-Lara, Antonieta

    2016-03-01

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively impacts patients' quality of life (QoL) and increases the burden on healthcare resources. To review published CACS data regarding health-related QOL (HRQoL) and its economic impact on the healthcare system. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and NHS EED databases. A total of 458 HRQoL and 189 healthcare resources utilisation abstracts were screened, and 42 and 2 full-text articles were included, respectively. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and FAACT instruments were most favoured for assessing HRQOL but none of the current tools cover all domains affected by CACS. Economic estimates for managing CACS are scarce, with studies lacking a breakdown of healthcare resource utilisation items. HRQoL instruments that can better assess and incorporate all the domains affected by CACS are required. Rigorous assessment of costs and benefits of treatment are needed to understand the magnitude of the impact of CACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  4. Fiscal 1998 intellectual infrastructure project utilizing civil sector functions. Development of systems for marine organism resources classification and utilization (Achievement report); 1998 nendo kaiyo seibutsu nado shigen no bunrui riyo system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Genetic resources and databases involving microbes and the like were conserved and amplified for the reinforcement of biotechnology industries. In the maintenance of marine microalga culture collection, 16S rDNA sequences were determined for 120 strains of Cyanophyceae isolated by Marine Biotechnology Institute Co., Ltd., and databases were prepared containing the results of molecule classification, history of each strain, and pictures obtained using optical microscopes. In the maintenance of marine bacterium culture collection, methods for identifying by molecule classification bacteria separated from the sea were simplified and unified, and genera were identified for 776 strains. In the development of systems for classifying and conserving subtropical microbial resources, base sequences were analyzed for 14 strains of six kinds of microbes such as Aspergillus awamori conserved at Institute of Applied Microbiology of University of Tokyo. Other efforts included the enrichment of marine microalga collections, construction of an embryo bank system, advanced classification of microbes, and development of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analyzing system. (NEDO)

  5. Violence and other stressful life events as triggers of depression and anxiety: what psychosocial resources protect African American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.

  6. Measures of symptoms and life quality to predict emergent use of institutional health care resources in chronic obstructive airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, G A

    1988-11-01

    Thirty subjects with severe chronic obstructive airways disease participated in a study to identify differences in symptoms and life quality between those with high and low emergent use of institutional health care resources. Emergent use was defined as care obtained through unscheduled, nonroutine methods of access to health care providers. There were 15 subjects in each group; the groups had similar sex distribution and were not significantly different for percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mean 29.8%), use of home oxygen (15 of 30 subjects), or prevalence of CO2 retention (nine of 30). Symptoms and life quality were measured by using three paper and pencil tests, the Bronchitis-Emphysema Symptom Checklist, the Sickness-Impact Profile, and the Katz Adjustment Scale for relatives. Findings demonstrated consistently more symptoms and impairment of life quality in the "high emergent" group. The differences reached statistical significance for irritability, anxiety, helplessness, nervousness, peripheral sensory complaints, alienation, social interaction, and emotional behavior. Discriminant analysis provided a prediction formula that yielded 80% correct prediction for the two groups.

  7. Age and life course location as interpretive resources for decisions regarding disclosure of HIV to parents and children: Findings from the HIV and later life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Ridge, Damien; Catalan, Jose; Delpech, Valerie

    2016-08-01

    Studies of disclosure amongst older people living with HIV (PLWH) are uninformed by critical social-gerontological approaches that can help us to appreciate how older PLWH see and treat age as relevant to disclosure of their HIV status. These approaches include an ethnomethodologically-informed social constructionism that explores how 'the' life course (a cultural framework depicting individuals' movement through predictable developmental stages from birth to death) is used as an interpretive resource for determining self and others' characteristics, capacities, and social circumstances: a process Rosenfeld and Gallagher (2002) termed 'lifecoursing'. Applying this approach to our analysis of 74 life-history interviews and three focus groups with older (aged 50+) people living with HIV in the United Kingdom, we uncover the central role that lifecoursing plays in participants' decision-making surrounding disclosure of their HIV to their children and/or older parents. Analysis of participants' accounts uncovered four criteria for disclosure: the relevance of their HIV to the other, the other's knowledge about HIV, the likelihood of the disclosure causing the other emotional distress, and the other's ability to keep the disclosed confidential. To determine if these criteria were met in relation to specific children and/or elders, participants engaged in lifecoursing, evaluating the other's knowledge of HIV, and capacity to appropriately manage the disclosure, by reference to their age. The use of assumptions about age and life-course location in decision-making regarding disclosure of HIV reflects a more nuanced engagement with age in the disclosure decision-making process than has been captured by previous research into HIV disclosure, including on the part of people aging with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation

  9. Estimation of the shelf life of canned marinated hearts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. and the content of omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas Padilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated shelf life of canned marinated hearts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. which had the major sensory preference in color and flavor evaluated by a semi trained panel conformed by 15 judges. Also omega 3 and omega 6 content was determined (28.69 g/100g y 43.26 g/100g of fat respectively which are within the limit approved by the World Health Organization. It was done the estimation of the shelf life by accelerated testing, the samples were incubated at 37ºC, 49ºC and 55ºC, evaluating the kinetic of deterioration of the fat in function of the peroxide index that followed a reaction of order zero. The temperature effect was evaluated with the equation of Arrhenius, and the activation energy was 96115.6 J/mol. At a storage temperature of 20 ºC, the estimation of shelf life was 892 days.

  10. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...

  11. Design and analysis of FBG based sensor for detection of damage in oil and gas pipelines for safety of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Amna; Kothari, Vaishali; Kumar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The under laid gas and oil pipelines on the seafloor are prone to various disturbances like seismic movements of the sea bed, oceanic currents, tsunamis. These factors tend to damage such pipelines connecting different locations of the world dependent on these pipelines for their day-to-day use of oil and natural gas. If damaged, the oil spills in the water bodies cause grave loss to marine life along with serious economic issues. It is not feasible to monitor the undersea pipelines manually because of the huge seafloor depth. For timely detection of such damage, a new technique using optical Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and its installation has been given in this work. The idea of an FBG sensor for detecting damage in pipeline structure based on the acoustic emission has been worked out. The numerical calculation has been done based on the fundamental of strain measurement and the output has been simulated using MATLAB.

  12. Perceived Resources as a Predictor of Satisfaction with Food-Related Life among Chilean Elderly: An Approach with Generalized Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, G; Schnettler, B; Grunert, K G; Adasme, C

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785 participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. The results led to different considerations: First, older adults' perceived levels of resources are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as 'highly important' to explain older adults' satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity of domestic household goods and a relative health indicator. Fourth, older adults who believe they have more resources compared to others are more satisfied with their food-related life. Finally, Poisson and binomial logistic models showed that the sum of perceived resources significantly increased the prediction of SWFL. The main conclusion is that perceived personal resources are a strong predictor of SWFL in Chilean older adults.

  13. Analysis of Reliability Estimations and Spares Protection Levels on Life Cycle Costs of the Marine Corps H-1 Upgrades Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, David

    2004-01-01

    .... This will be accomplished through the integration of factors impacting spare parts levels and Life Cycle Costs into a spreadsheet model that will establish the appropriate relationship between the factors...

  14. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  15. Transferencia de recursos alimentarios entre diferentes ambientes del ecosistema marino Transfer of food resources among different environments in the marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN R. RODRIGUEZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Por décadas los ecólogos han centrado sus estudios en interacciones que involucran elementos de un mismo sistema, poniendo poco énfasis en aquellas que involucran elementos de ambientes aledaños. Estudios desarrollados en los últimos años han vuelto a llamar la atención respecto de la frecuencia con la que ocurre transferencia de energía (en la forma de nutrientes o alimento entre sistemas, ambientes y/o hábitats ecológicos, y las consecuencias de estos aportes energéticos a nivel poblacional o comunitario a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales en los sistemas involucrados. En la presente revisión se describen las vías de transferencia de energía más comunes de observar en el ecosistema marino, poniendo especial énfasis en el flujo de recursos tróficos (i.e., algas a la deriva y detritus desde bosques de macroalgas pardas submareales hacia ambientes intermareales en los sistemas templadosFor decades ecologists have focused their studies in interactions among elements of the same system, putting low emphasis in those that involve elements of border environments. Studies carried out in the last years have called the attention respect the frequent ocurrence of energy transfer (as nutrients or food among ecological systems, environments and/or habitats, and the consequences of these energy contributions at population or community levels and at different spatial and temporal scales. In this review the ways of energy transfer more commonly observed in the marine ecosystem are described. The flow of trophic resources (i.e., drift algae and detritus from subtidal kelps to intertidal environments in template systems, are emphasized

  16. Incineration for resource recovery in a closed ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, R. S.; Wignarajah, K.; Wydeven, T.

    1993-01-01

    A functional schematic, including mass and energy balance, of a solid waste processing system for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) was developed using Aspen Plus, a commercial computer simulation program. The primary processor in this system is an incinerator for oxidizing organic wastes. The major products derived from the incinerator are carbon dioxide and water, which can be recycled to a crop growth chamber (CGC) for food production. The majority of soluble inorganics are extracted or leached from the inedible biomass before they reach the incinerator, so that they can be returned directly to the CGC and reused as nutrients. The heat derived from combustion of organic compounds in the incinerator was used for phase-change water purification. The waste streams treated by the incinerator system conceptualized in this work are inedible biomass from a CGC, human urine (including urinal flush water) and feces, humidity condensate, shower water, and trash. It is estimated that the theoretical minimum surface area required for the radiator to reject the unusable heat output from this system would be 0.72 sq m/person at 298 K.

  17. Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylvén, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina

    2012-06-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.

  18. Marine resources in the tropics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    for about 2000 km (4-22°S), has an offshore width of about 50 km, and occupies an area of I x lOS km 2 (Walsh, 1981). Estimates of primary production in this region vary widely, from 155 to about 1000 gC m-2 yr- I . Such wide variations result from...'s coral reefs cover an~stimated6 x lOS kIn 2 , or 0.17% of the ocean ~~.More than half (54%) lie in the Asiatic Mediterranean and Indian Ocean. Of the :'Wmaining, Pacific reefll account for 25%, Atlantic for 6%, Caribbean for 9%, Red Sea ftot1% and...

  19. Overexploitation of marine living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Workshop_Conserv_Biodiversity_Western_Ghat_1994_3.3_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Workshop_Conserv_Biodiversity_Western_Ghat_1994_3.3_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO...-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. For everything a season? A month-by-month analysis of social network resources in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upenieks, Laura; Settels, Jason; Schafer, Markus H

    2018-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that informal social ties provide older persons with many resources that serve to protect and improve their levels of health and well-being. Most studies on this topic, however, ignore the month or season of the year during which data was accumulated. This study proposes two hypotheses to explain seniors' social network resources over the calendar year: the "fluctuation hypothesis", which proposes that seasonal variation, in the form of weather fluctuations, institutional calendars, and holidays, might influence the social lives and resources of older persons, and the "network stability" perspective, which, informed by tenets of convoy theory and socioemotional selectivity theory, emphasizes the increasing importance of close network ties as individuals age and the stability of these ties. Using two waves (2005-2006 and 2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged 57-85 in the United States, we examine a diverse set of nine social connectedness outcomes. Results, overall, support the network stability perspective, as the only social connectedness outcome found to significantly vary by month of year was average closeness with network members. We conclude by suggesting some methodological considerations for survey research and by noting how these findings complement the growing literature on inter-year fluctuation in social networks and social support. Changes in older adults' networks, while frequently observable over the course of years, do not seem to be seasonally patterned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Coral life history and symbiosis: Functional genomic resources for two reef building Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmant Alina M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scleractinian corals are the foundation of reef ecosystems in tropical marine environments. Their great success is due to interactions with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp., with which they are obligately symbiotic. To develop a foundation for studying coral biology and coral symbiosis, we have constructed a set of cDNA libraries and generated and annotated ESTs from two species of corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata. Results We generated 14,588 (Ap and 3,854 (Mf high quality ESTs from five life history/symbiosis stages (spawned eggs, early-stage planula larvae, late-stage planula larvae either infected with symbionts or uninfected, and adult coral. The ESTs assembled into a set of primarily stage-specific clusters, producing 4,980 (Ap, and 1,732 (Mf unigenes. The egg stage library, relative to the other developmental stages, was enriched in genes functioning in cell division and proliferation, transcription, signal transduction, and regulation of protein function. Fifteen unigenes were identified as candidate symbiosis-related genes as they were expressed in all libraries constructed from the symbiotic stages and were absent from all of the non symbiotic stages. These include several DNA interacting proteins, and one highly expressed unigene (containing 17 cDNAs with no significant protein-coding region. A significant number of unigenes (25 encode potential pattern recognition receptors (lectins, scavenger receptors, and others, as well as genes that may function in signaling pathways involved in innate immune responses (toll-like signaling, NFkB p105, and MAP kinases. Comparison between the A. palmata and an A. millepora EST dataset identified ferritin as a highly expressed gene in both datasets that appears to be undergoing adaptive evolution. Five unigenes appear to be restricted to the Scleractinia, as they had no homology to any sequences in the nr databases nor to the non

  2. Coral life history and symbiosis: functional genomic resources for two reef building Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jodi A; Brokstein, Peter B; Voolstra, Christian; Terry, Astrid Y; Manohar, Chitra F; Miller, David J; Szmant, Alina M; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2008-02-25

    Scleractinian corals are the foundation of reef ecosystems in tropical marine environments. Their great success is due to interactions with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), with which they are obligately symbiotic. To develop a foundation for studying coral biology and coral symbiosis, we have constructed a set of cDNA libraries and generated and annotated ESTs from two species of corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata. We generated 14,588 (Ap) and 3,854 (Mf) high quality ESTs from five life history/symbiosis stages (spawned eggs, early-stage planula larvae, late-stage planula larvae either infected with symbionts or uninfected, and adult coral). The ESTs assembled into a set of primarily stage-specific clusters, producing 4,980 (Ap), and 1,732 (Mf) unigenes. The egg stage library, relative to the other developmental stages, was enriched in genes functioning in cell division and proliferation, transcription, signal transduction, and regulation of protein function. Fifteen unigenes were identified as candidate symbiosis-related genes as they were expressed in all libraries constructed from the symbiotic stages and were absent from all of the non symbiotic stages. These include several DNA interacting proteins, and one highly expressed unigene (containing 17 cDNAs) with no significant protein-coding region. A significant number of unigenes (25) encode potential pattern recognition receptors (lectins, scavenger receptors, and others), as well as genes that may function in signaling pathways involved in innate immune responses (toll-like signaling, NFkB p105, and MAP kinases). Comparison between the A. palmata and an A. millepora EST dataset identified ferritin as a highly expressed gene in both datasets that appears to be undergoing adaptive evolution. Five unigenes appear to be restricted to the Scleractinia, as they had no homology to any sequences in the nr databases nor to the non-scleractinian cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and

  3. The Development of Coastal and Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Widjojo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and development process of oastaland marine resources tends centralized and adopted top down policy, without any active participations from coastal and marine communities. In order to reach integrated and sustainable development in coastaland marine areas, people should have both complete and up to date information, so that planning and decision making for all aspect of the environment can be done easily. People should give a high attention of surveis, mappings, as well as science and technology of coastal and marine sectors, in order to change the paradigm of development from inland to coastal and marine. Moreover, people should give high attention of potential resources of coastal and marine areas.

  4. Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Marine Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA.

    The oceans covering two-thirds of the earth's surface constitute a resource for animal life, fishing industries, coastal economies, and recreation. This learning guide is a collection of 14 activities integrating art, language arts, mathematics, music, science, and social studies with the study of marine debris. A student survey is used to…

  5. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  6. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the OLEANDER as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1982-06-11 (NODC Accession 8200127)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER from 11 June 1982. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  7. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  8. [Effects of inpatient treatment on eating disorder symptoms, health-related quality of life and personal resources in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagay, Sefik; Düllmann, Sonja; Schlegl, Sandra; Nater-Mewes, Ricarda; Repic, Nevena; Hampke, Christian; Brähler, Elmar; Gerlach, Gabriele; Senf, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present prospective-naturalistic study was the evaluation of psychosomatic inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). 128 patients with eating disorders (n=59 AN and n=69 BN) were investigated on admission and discharge using the following standardized questionnaires: eating disorder symptoms (EDI), general psychopathology (BSI), quality of life (SF-12), and personal resources (SOC-13, SWE). Moderate to large effect sizes were achieved for the eating disorder symptoms; in addition, general psychopathology was substantially reduced at the end of treatment, and quality of life as well as personal resources were enhanced. Personal resources were found to be the strongest predictors for therapy outcome. Based on our data, important insights and recommendations may be gained for the inpatient treatment of eating disorders, especially with regard to the potential influence of personal resources. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The Moderating Role of Job Resourcefulness in the Impact of Work–Family and Family–Work Life Conflict on the Burnout Levels of Travel Agency Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Akgunduz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the moderating role of job resourcefulness under the influence of work–family and family–work life conflict on the burnout levels of employees. In this con-text, a questionnaire was created using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Work–Family Life Conflict, and Job Resourcefulness Scale. This survey was applied to travel agency employees in Izmir, Turkey, who were selected by using deliberate sampling method. At the end of the data collection period, 220 valid questionnaires were obtained. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses based on the reliability and validity of the scales. Analysis results indicate that resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In addition results also indicate that job resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of family-work conflict on depersonalization. The implications of these results for future research are also discussed.

  10. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  11. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  12. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  13. Buffering Effect of Job Resources in the Relationship between Job Demands and Work-to-Private-Life Interference: A Study among Health-Care Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aims at investigating whether and how (1) job demands and job resources are associated with work-to-private-life interference (WLI) and (2) job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and WLI. Methods: Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire from three hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 889 health-care workers. Results: All job demands (i.e., quantitative demands, disproportionate patient expectations, and verbal aggressi...

  14. The future of the oceans past: towards a global marine historical research initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the "History of Marine Animal Populations" project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists.

  15. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  16. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  17. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  18. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  19. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  20. Natural resources as an area of protection in LCA - outcomes of the discussion by the working group on resources within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, T.; Fantke, Peter; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    , water, land/soil, biotic resources like wild plants and animals). Definitions and categorizations of natural resources differ and there is no agreement on what methods should be considered midpoint or endpoint methods because there is no agreement (at midpoint and endpoint) on what impact should...

  1. The association between psoriasis and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and healthcare resource use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Carvalho, André Vicente Esteves de; Souza, Cacilda da Silva; Squiassi, Haline Bianca; Ferreira, Cristina Nunes

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated inflammatory condition that affects a significant amount of the global population. Yet geographic variability in the consequences of psoriasis warrants region-level analyses. The current study contributes to the psoriasis outcomes literature by offering a comprehensive assessment of the humanistic and economic burden in Brazil. The 2012 Brazil National Health and Wellness Survey (N=12,000) was used to assess health-related quality of life (Short Form-12, version 2), work productivity, and healthcare resource use associated with experiencing psoriasis vs. no psoriasis, along with varying levels of psoriasis severity. A total of 210 respondents reported diagnosis of psoriasis (N=157, 42, and 11 reporting mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis, respectively). Compared with controls, respondents with psoriasis reported diminished mental component summary scores and health utilities, as well as increased presenteeism, activity impairment, and physician visits over the past six months, adjusting for covariates. Among those with psoriasis, physical health decreased as psoriasis severity increased. Although work productivity and healthcare resource utilization did not differ with psoriasis severity, the high rates of productivity loss (e.g. 45.5% presenteeism in the severe psoriasis group) suggest an economic burden. Cost analyses were not performed, and cross-sectional patient-reported data limit causal conclusions and may reflect reporting biases. Nevertheless, these results suggest a significant burden to patients with psoriasis across both humanistic and economic outcomes. The association between psoriasis and mental health aspects and health utilities were particularly strong and exceeded what would be considered clinically meaningful.

  2. Facets of Work–Life Balance across Europe : How the interplay of institutional contexts, work arrangements and individual resources affect capabilities for having a family, and for being involved in family life

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to explore various dimensions of work–life balance in Europe. I examine the extent to which institutional factors, working conditions and individual resources influence individuals’ capabilities to have a family and engage in family life. The theoretical framework is inspired by Amartya Sen’s capability framework, a multi-dimensional approach that provides a deeper understanding of the relationship between institutional contexts and individual capabilities. Fou...

  3. Fiscal 2000 report on result of development project of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. Development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation (Model demonstrative research and basic study); 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu (model jissho kenkyu oyobi kiban kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper explains the development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. The conceptual system is designed to take a large amount of deep sea water of 100 thousand to 1 million tons a day, to utilize it from the viewpoint of energy conservation using its coldness and purity characteristics, to then discharge it to the area of the sea in minimizing the environmental effect as well as obtaining effect such as absorption of carbon dioxide gas through cultivation of phyto-plankton. In pump-up technology, a piping system attaching on sea bed or floating with one or multiple constraints is applicable at present to all sites of geographical and oceanographic conditions. In utilization technology, use of deep-sea water as cooling water at a steam power plant, for example, improves generation efficiency by one point or more. In discharge and environment-related technologies, the research revealed that the deep-sea water from 300 m below releases carbon dioxide gas at surface, while photosynthesis can absorb the gas in the process of using nutrition contained in the deep-sea water; therefore, comprehensive examination is necessary taking energy utilization effect into account. Candidate sites were selected in areas of 200 m depth and within 5 km off-shore, with the optimum system examined at each site. (NEDO)

  4. Marine ecosystems in alteration under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestrud, Paal

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly thought among fishermen, researchers and in the fishing industries that the administration and harvesting of the fish resources is more important for the stock of fish than are changes in the climate. However, many scientific investigations now link changes in temperature with changes in the spreading, survival and beginning of life processes. There is solid evidence that there are important changes in progress in the North Atlantic marine ecosystem caused by global warming. If the heating of the water masses continues, it will probably have a large impact on the ocean's productivity and consequently for the fishing industry

  5. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiversity of Pigmented Fungi Isolated from Marine Environment in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean: New Resources for Colored Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover about 70% of the planet surface and are still an underexploited source of useful metabolites. Among microbes, filamentous fungi are captivating organisms used for the production of many chemical classes of secondary metabolites bound to be used in various fields of industrial application. The present study was focused on the collection, isolation, screening and genotyping of pigmented filamentous fungi isolated from tropical marine environments around La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. About 150 micromycetes were revived and isolated from 14 marine samples (sediments, living corals, coral rubble, sea water and hard substrates collected in four different locations. Forty-two colored fungal isolates belonging to 16 families, 25 genera and 31 species were further studied depending on their ability to produce pigments and thus subjected to molecular identification. From gene sequence analysis, the most frequently identified colored fungi belong to the widespread Penicillium, Talaromyces and Aspergillus genera in the family Trichocomaceae (11 species, then followed by the family Hypocreaceae (three species. This study demonstrates that marine biotopes in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, from coral reefs to underwater slopes of this volcanic island, shelter numerous species of micromycetes, from common or uncommon genera. This unstudied biodiversity comes along with the ability for some fungal marine inhabitants, to produce a range of pigments and hues.

  7. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  8. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  9. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  10. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2006-07-01

    Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic data from 29 species inhabiting the low saline Baltic Sea, a geographically and ecologically marginal ecosystem. On average Baltic populations had lost genetic diversity compared to Atlantic populations: a pattern unrelated to dispersal capacity, generation time of species and taxonomic group of organism, but strongly related to type of genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA loci had lost c. 50% diversity, and nuclear loci 10%). Analyses of genetic isolation by geographic distance revealed clinal patterns of differentiation between Baltic and Atlantic regions. For a majority of species, clines were sigmoid with a sharp slope around the Baltic Sea entrance, indicating impeded gene flows between Baltic and Atlantic populations. Some species showed signs of allele frequencies being perturbed at the edge of their distribution inside the Baltic Sea. Despite the short geological history of the Baltic Sea (8000 years), populations inhabiting the Baltic have evolved substantially different from Atlantic populations, probably as a consequence of isolation and bottlenecks, as well as selection on adaptive traits. In addition, the Baltic Sea also acts a refuge for unique evolutionary lineages. This marginal ecosystem is thus vulnerable but also exceedingly valuable, housing unique genes, genotypes and populations that constitute an important genetic resource for management and conservation.

  11. Life-cycle and genome of OtV5, a large DNA virus of the pelagic marine unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Derelle

    Full Text Available Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon.

  12. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  13. Comparative cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of biogas production from marine algae and cattle manure biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giwa, Adewale

    2017-11-01

    The environmental impacts resulting from the cradle-to-grave life cycles of Enteromorpha prolifera macroalgae and cattle manure biorefineries are assessed and compared. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the response of the impacts to changes in biogas application by using Simapro 7.3.3. Three scenarios are considered in the biorefineries. In the first and second scenarios, the biogas produced is considered to be used for electricity production and transportation, respectively. In the third scenario, the biogas is considered to be recycled back to the systems. Process energy requirements and transportation of inputs contribute the largest share of the overall impacts. The cattle manure biorefinery is slightly more eco-friendly than the macroalgae biorefinery in Scenarios 1 and 2 because it requires more eco-friendly inputs. However, the macroalgae biorefinery becomes more eco-friendly than the cattle manure biorefinery in Scenario 3 because macroalgae require less energy and water for biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  15. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  16. Environmental impacts and resource use of milk production on the North China Plain, based on life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Ledgard, Stewart; Luo, Jiafa; Guo, Yongqin; Zhao, Zhanqin; Guo, Liang; Liu, Song; Zhang, Nannan; Duan, Xueqin; Ma, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Life cycle assessment methodology was used to quantify the environmental impacts and resource use of milk production on the North China Plain, the largest milk production area in China. Variation in environmental burden caused by cow productivity was evaluated, as well as scenario analysis of the effects of improvement practices. The results indicated that the average environmental impact potential and resource use for producing 1kg of fat and protein corrected milk was 1.34kgCO 2 eq., 9.27gPO 4 3- eq., 19.5gSO 2 eq., 4.91MJ, 1.83m 2 and 266L for global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP), non-renewable energy use (NREU), land use (LU) and blue water use (BWU; i.e. water withdrawal), respectively. Feed production was a significant determinant of GWP, NREU, LU and BWU, while AP and EP were mainly affected by manure management. Scenario analysis showed that reducing use of concentrates and substituting with alfalfa hay decreased GWP, EP, AP, NREU and LU (by 1.0%-5.5%), but caused a significant increase of BWU (by 17.2%). Using imported soybean instead of locally-grown soybean decreased LU by 2.6%, but significantly increased GWP and NREU by 20% and 6.9%, respectively. There was no single perfect manure management system, with variable effects from different management practices. The environmental burden shifting observed in this study illustrates the importance of assessing a wide range of impact categories instead of single or limited indicators for formulating environmental policies, and the necessity of combining multiple measures to decrease the environmental burden. For the North China Plain, improving milking cow productivity and herd structure (i.e. increased proportion of milking cows), combining various manure management systems, and encouraging dairy farmers to return manure to nearby crop lands are promising measures to decrease multiple environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  18. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  19. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  20. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  1. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... information for resource providers for each vessel with appropriate equipment and resources located in each... appropriate salvage and marine firefighting resources were identified and available for responding to...

  2. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  3. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  4. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal

  5. The Resource Benefits Evaluation Model on Remanufacturing Processes of End-of-Life Construction Machinery under the Uncertainty in Recycling Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-wang Deng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of end-of-life construction machinery remanufacturing, the existence of uncertainties in all aspects of the remanufacturing process increase the difficulty and complexity of resource benefits evaluation for them. To quantify the effects of those uncertainty factors, this paper makes a mathematical analysis of the recycling and remanufacturing processes, building a resource benefits evaluation model for the end-of-life construction machinery. The recycling price and the profits of remanufacturers can thereby be obtained with a maximum remanufacturing resource benefit. The study investigates the change regularity of the resource benefits, recycling price, and profits of remanufacturers when the recycling price, quality fluctuation coefficient, demand coefficient, and the reusing ratio of products or parts are varying. In the numerical experiment, we explore the effects of uncertainties on the remanufacturing decisions and the total expected costs. The simulated analysis shows when the quality fluctuation coefficient is approaching to 1, the values of the profits of remanufacturer, the maximal resource benefits and recycling price grade into constants.

  6. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aging, Disablement, and Dying: Using Time-as-Process and Time-as-Resources Metrics to Chart Late-Life Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis; Fauth, Elizabeth; Zarit, Steven; Malmberg, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Time is a vehicle that can be used to represent aging-related processes and to index the amount of aging-related resources or burdens individuals have accumulated. Using data on cognitive (memory) performance from two Swedish studies of the elderly (OCTO and OCTO-TWIN), we illustrate how time-as-process and time-as-resources/burdens time metrics can be articulated and incorporated within a growth curve modeling framework. Our results highlight the possibilities for representing the contributions of primary, secondary, and tertiary aspects of aging to late-life changes in cognitive and other domains of functioning.

  8. Long range inland-coastal networks during the Late Magdalenian: evidence for individual acquisition of marine resources at Andernach-Martinsberg, German Central Rhineland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michelle C; Street, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent re-examination of the osseous material assemblage from Andernach-Martinsberg, Central Rhineland, has resulted in the identification of an implement manufactured from cetacean bone (probably whale). Argued to be the proximal half of a foreshaft, this artefact is not only one of few such projectile elements to be identified in Magdalenian deposits in northern Europe, but also demonstrates that the exploitation of marine raw materials for use in manufacturing projectile elements is not restricted to southern France, instead extending to at least inland Germany. Additionally, in conjunction with the appearance of marine molluscs and engravings of seals at Andernach, it can now be forcefully argued that this region formed part of an inland-coastal network during the Late Magdalenian and allows us for the first time to suggest that we can identify the movements of individuals transporting valued marine sourced raw materials and their personal experiences across this vast region. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life satisfaction in 6 European countries: the relationship to health, self-esteem, and social and financial resources among people (Aged 65-89) with reduced functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Christel; Fagerström, Cecilia; Balducci, Cristian; Burholt, Vanessa; Ferring, Dieter; Weber, Germain; Wenger, Clare; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how overall health, participation in physical activities, self-esteem, and social and financial resources are related to life satisfaction among people aged 65 and older with reduced activities of daily living (ADL) capacity in 6 European countries. A subsample of the European Study of Adults' Well-Being (ESAW), consisting of 2,195 people with reduced ADL capacity from Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Italy, was included. The Older Americans' Resources Schedule (OARS), the Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used. In all national samples, overall health, self-esteem, and feeling worried, rather than ADL capacity, were significantly associated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of taking not only the reduction in functional capacity into account but also the individual's perception of health and self-esteem when outlining health care and nursing aimed at improving life satisfaction. The study thus suggests that personal rather than environmental factors are important for life satisfaction among people with reduced ADL capacity living in Europe.

  10. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R German

    Full Text Available The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010 helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but

  11. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher R; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Baker, Maria C; Tyler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010) helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N) showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N) are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i) continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii) increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii) concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but also the

  12. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  13. Retrospective studies of end-of-life resource utilization and costs in cancer care using health administrative data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M; Blanch, Bianca; Drew, Anna K; Haas, Marion; Ingham, Jane M; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2014-12-01

    There has been an increase in observational studies using health administrative data to examine the nature, quality, and costs of care at life's end, particularly in cancer care. To synthesize retrospective observational studies on resource utilization and/or costs at the end of life in cancer patients. We also examine the methods and outcomes of studies assessing the quality of end-of-life care. A systematic review according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) methodology. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and York Centre for Research and Dissemination (1990-2011). Independent reviewers screened abstracts of 14,424 articles, and 835 full-text manuscripts were further reviewed. Inclusion criteria were English-language; at least one resource utilization or cost outcome in adult cancer decedents with solid tumors; outcomes derived from health administrative data; and an exclusive end-of-life focus. We reviewed 78 studies examining end-of-life care in over 3.7 million cancer decedents; 33 were published since 2008. We observed exponential increases in service use and costs as death approached; hospital services being the main cost driver. Palliative services were relatively underutilized and associated with lower expenditures than hospital-based care. The 15 studies using quality indicators demonstrated that up to 38% of patients receive chemotherapy or life-sustaining treatments in the last month of life and up to 66% do not receive hospice/palliative services. Observational studies using health administrative data have the potential to drive evidence-based palliative care practice and policy. Further development of quality care markers will enhance benchmarking activities across health care jurisdictions, providers, and patient populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Measurement tools of resource use and quality of life in clinical trials for dementia or cognitive impairment interventions: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Dawes, Piers; Leroi, Iracema; Gannon, Brenda

    2017-01-26

    Dementia and cognitive impairment could severely impact patients' life and bring heavy burden to patients, caregivers and societies. Some interventions are suggested for the older patients with these conditions to help them live well, but economic evaluation is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Trial-based economic evaluation is an ideal method; however, little is known about the tools used to collect data of resource use and quality of life alongside the trials. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and describe the resource use and quality of life instruments in clinical trials of interventions for older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. We will perform a search in main electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science and Scopus) using the key terms or their synonyms: older, dementia, cognitive impairment, cost, quality of life, intervention and tools. After removing duplicates, two independent reviewers will screen each entry for eligibility, initially by title and abstract, then by full-text. A hand search of the references of included articles and general search, e.g. Google Scholar, will also be conducted to identify potential relevant studies. All disagreements will be resolved by discussion or consultation with a third reviewer if necessary. Data analysis will be completed and reported in a narrative review. This review will identify the instruments used in clinical trials to collect resource use and quality of life data for dementia or cognitive impairment interventions. This will help to guide the study design of future trial-based economic evaluation of these interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016038495.

  15. The potentials and challenges of algae based biofuels: a review of the techno-economic, life cycle, and resource assessment modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jason C; Davis, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae biofuel production has been extensively evaluated through resource, economic and life cycle assessments. Resource assessments consistently identify land as non-limiting and highlight the need to consider siting based on combined geographical constraints of land and other critical resources such as water and carbon dioxide. Economic assessments report a selling cost of fuel that ranges between $1.64 and over $30 gal(-1) consistent with large variability reported in the life cycle literature, -75 to 534 gCO2-eq MJ(-1). Large drivers behind such variability stem from differences in productivity assumptions, pathway technologies, and system boundaries. Productivity represents foundational units in these assessments with current assumed yields in various assessments varying by a factor of 60. A review of the literature in these areas highlights the need for harmonized assessments such that direct comparisons of alternative processing technologies can be made on the metrics of resource requirements, economic feasibility, and environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leisure resourcefulness as a predictor of level of affluence and life satisfaction: having more or doing with less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry L. Ricciardo

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the role of affluence in guiding lifestyle orientation in contemporary society. The term "affluenza" is used to denote a lifestyle of consumption and materialism to achieve life satisfaction. The counter to affluenza is quality of life as manifested in self-improvement, community centeredness, and environmental stewardship. Leisure...

  17. The influence of leisure resourcefulness and recreation specialization on life satisfaction among a sample of senior adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry L. Ricciardo

    2007-01-01

    The quest for quality of life and individual happiness is, in part, associated with the individual's ability to identify his/her own needs at a point in time along the life cycle continuum and having the ability to translate those needs into activity spheres or recreation activities. This research is an examination of recreational career participants among a...

  18. Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Resources for Educators, Students, the Public, and Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigness-Raposa, Kathleen J; Scowcroft, Gail; Miller, James H; Ketten, Darlene R; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of underwater sound on marine life. However, the science of sound is challenging. The Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web site ( http://www.dosits.org ) was designed to provide comprehensive scientific information on underwater sound for the public and educational and media professionals. It covers the physical science of underwater sound and its use by people and marine animals for a range of tasks. Celebrating 10 years of online resources, DOSITS continues to develop new material and improvements, providing the best resource for the most up-to-date information on underwater sound and its potential effects.

  19. Influences of humic acid on the bioavailability of phenanthrene and alkyl phenanthrenes to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangzhi; Yang, Chenghu; Cheng, Pakkin; He, Xiaojing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) on the environmental behavior and bioavailability of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl PAHs were investigated and compared using the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, O. melastigma). It was demonstrated that the binding affinity of parent phenanthrene (PHE) with HA was smaller than that of 3-methyl phenanthrene (3-MP) and 9-ethyl phenanthrene (9-EP). Furthermore, the bioaccumulation of the three PAHs and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were calculated to study the changes in bioavailability of PAHs in presence of HA. The results indicated that the addition of HA significantly decreased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of PAHs by decreasing free PAHs concentrations. The bioavailable fractions of HA-bound PAHs in bioaccumulation (α) and toxicity (β) were evaluated, indicating that the HA-bound 3-MP and 9-EP show higher bioavailability in bioaccumulation and lower bioavailability in toxicity relative to those of PHE. The β/α values were less than 1 for all PAH treatment groups containing HA, suggesting that the fraction of HA-bound PAHs contributing to bioaccumulation was higher than that of HA-bound PAHs inducing toxic effect. In addition, we proposed that the free PAHs generated by desorption from HA in the cell were toxic by showing that the β/α ratio values are correlated with the log K_O_W values (p = 0.007 and R"2 = 0.8355). Thus, oil spill risk assessments should consider both alkyl PAHs and the factors that influence the bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs in the natural aquatic environments. - Highlights: • Effects of HA on bioavailability of parent and alkyl PAHs were firstly compared. • Changes in the bioavailability due to HA depended on the alkylation of PAHs. • The bioavailable fractions of the HA-bound parent and alkyl PAHs were calculated. • The toxicity of HA-bound PAHs was related to the physicochemical properties of PAHs. - This study is the

  20. Impact of marine pollution on living resources - Case studies on the effect of mining activity and organic enrichment of benthic fauna

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Shirwaikar, P.

    Mine rejects, organic effluents and domestic sewage are the three main items discharged in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India. Their impact on the benthic life was studied. Benthic samples in this estuary were collected at monthly intervals using van...

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  2. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  3. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  4. 75 FR 53271 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15271

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ..., Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone (301)713-2289; fax (301)713-0376; Southwest Region, NMFS, 501 West Ocean... behaviors as marine mammals exploit prey resources; (3) determine types of acoustic behavior of marine...

  5. Natural marine sponges for bone tissue engineering: The state of art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2017-08-01

    Marine life and its rich biodiversity provide a plentiful resource of potential new products for the society. Remarkably, marine organisms still remain a largely unexploited resource for biotechnology applications. Among them, marine sponges are sessile animals from the phylum Porifera dated at least from 580 million years ago. It is known that molecules from marine sponges present a huge therapeutic potential in a wide range of applications mainly due to its antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic effects. In this context, this article reviews all the information available in the literature about the potential of the use of marine sponges for bone tissue engineering applications. First, one of the properties that make sponges interesting as bone substitutes is their structural characteristics. Most species have an efficient interconnected porous architecture, which allows them to process a significant amount of water and facilitates the flow of fluids, mimicking an ideal bone scaffold. Second, sponges have an organic component, the spongin, which is analogous to vertebral collagen, the most widely used natural polymer for tissue regeneration. Last, osteogenic properties of marine sponges is also highlighted by their mineral content, such as biosilica and other compounds, that are able to support cell growth and to stimulate bone formation and mineralization. This review focuses on recent studies concerning these interesting properties, as well as on some challenges to be overcome in the bone tissue engineering field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1717-1727, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Additive effect of calcium depletion and low resource quality on Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Marc; Coulaud, Romain; Danger, Michael; Sohm, Bénédicte; Flayac, Justine; Bec, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Felten, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G. fossarum. To investigate the effects of food resources quality, we experimentally manipulated the P content of sycamore leaves and also used diatoms because they contain high amounts of HUFAs. Three resource quality treatments were tested: low quality (LQ, unmanipulated leaves: low P content), high quality 1 (HQ1; P-manipulated leaves: high P content), and high quality 2 (unmanipulated leaves supplemented with a pellet containing diatoms: high P and HUFA content). Naturally, demineralised stream water was supplemented with CaSO 4 to obtain three Ca concentrations (2, 3.5, and 10.5 mg Ca L -1 ). For 21 days, pairs of G. fossarum were individually exposed to one of the nine treatments (3 [Ca] × 3 resource qualities). At the individual level, strong and significant delays in moult stage were observed in gammarids exposed to lower [Ca] and to lower resource quality, with additive effects lengthening the duration of the reproductive cycle. Effects at the molecular level were investigated by measuring expression of 12 genes involved in energy production, translation, or Ca or P homeostasis. Expression of ATP synthase beta (higher in HQ2), calcified cuticle protein (higher in HQ1 and HQ2), and tropomyosin (higher in HQ2 compared to HQ1) was significantly affected by resource quality, and significant additive effects on Ca transporting ATPase expression were induced by

  7. Contribution of waterborne nitrogen emissions to hypoxia-driven marine eutrophication: modelling of damage to ecosystems in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias

    Marine eutrophication refers to the ecosystem response to the loading of a growth limiting nutrient, typically nitrogen (N), to coastal waters, where it may cause several impacts. One of the possible impact pathways to these impacts involves the excessive depletion of dissolved oxygen hypoxia) in...... and atmospheric deposition as a consequence of fossil fuels combustion.......Marine eutrophication refers to the ecosystem response to the loading of a growth limiting nutrient, typically nitrogen (N), to coastal waters, where it may cause several impacts. One of the possible impact pathways to these impacts involves the excessive depletion of dissolved oxygen hypoxia......) in bottom waters. Hypoxia is identified as an important and widespread cause of disturbance to marine ecosystems and has been linked to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. This is driven by environmental emissions of reactive nitrogen, mainly from N-containing fertilizers used in agriculture...

  8. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  9. Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12 and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2 were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity (n=1292 had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp. than T2DM-alone respondents (n=349 (45.8 and 53.5, resp., P<0.0001. Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, P<0.0001, indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone (P=0.03. Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group.

  10. SAFRR tsunami scenario: Impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research.Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  11. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  12. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  13. Depression, quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopause and hot flashes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose; Whiteley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of depression on health-related quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. The study included data from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 41,184), a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. Among women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, women who reported experiencing depression in the last year (n = 1,165) were compared with women who did not report experiencing depression in the last year (n = 2,467), controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-8]), work productivity within the past 7 days, self-reported health care resource use within the past 6 months, and indirect and direct costs. Women experiencing depression were significantly more likely to be white, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, to currently smoke, to not exercise, and to be obese (all P women experiencing depression reported significantly lower mental (39.66 vs 50.85, P work (5.31% vs 2.80%, P work (25.00% vs 14.32%, P women experiencing depression. The numbers of physician visits (2.47 vs 1.77, P women experiencing depression. Per woman per year indirect and direct costs were $3,066 and $1,075 higher, respectively, for women experiencing depression compared with those not experiencing depression. Approximately one-third of women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, also reported experiencing depression. These women reported significantly worse quality of life and significantly greater work productivity loss, health care resource use, and costs. Given the prevalence and burden, these findings suggest that proper assessment and management of depressive symptoms among women with menopause may have an important humanistic and economic benefit.

  14. Geostatistical modelling of the spatial life history of post-larval deepwater hake Merluccius paradoxus in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, T; Kristensen, K; Fairweather, T. P.

    2017-01-01

    paradoxus are not reflected in the current assessment and management practices for the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. In this study, we compiled data from multiple demersal trawl surveys from the entire distribution area and applied state-of the-art geostatistical population modelling (Geo...

  15. Life cycles, molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the ‘pygmaeus’ microphallids (Digenea: Microphallidae): widespread parasites of marine and coastal birds in the Holarctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galaktionov, K.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Olson, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2012), s. 1346-1360 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : marine parasites * trematode * Microphallus * parasite speciation * parasite transmission * host-parasite co-evolution * host switching * host-parasite assemblages Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  16. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: The role of demands and resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Work–family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work–family

  17. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective : the role of demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Work–family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work–family

  18. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Research and development of comprehensive basic technology on marine resources; Kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu sogo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The deep-sea manganese nodule mining system in this report collects efficiently and continuously a large quantity of manganese nodules in existence in the 5,000m-deep sea floor. The aim of the project is to develop and build an experimental system for a real mining machine and to perform a comprehensive marine test to find out if such a real machine is technologically and economically feasible. The system under this project is divided into four systems, which are a nodule mining system, nodule lifting system, nodule handling system, and a measurement control system. The nodule mining system travels on the sea bottom efficiently collecting manganese nodules and forwarding them into the nodule lifting system. Only a few systems of this kind have so far been developed, however, and therefore much endeavor needs to be exerted for the development of technologies involved. The nodule lifting system is divided into a pump lift unit, air lift unit, and a nodule lifting pipe. The pump lift unit and air lift unit elevate manganese nodules supplied from the nodule collecting unit to the sea surface. The nodule lifting pipe provides a passage for nodules to run through upward. (NEDO)

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  2. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  4. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  7. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  9. The influence of heart disease on characteristics, quality of life, use of health resources, and costs of COPD in primary care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Barrera Valentín

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the influence of heart disease on clinical characteristics, quality of life, use of health resources, and costs of patients with COPD followed at primary care settings under common clinical practice conditions. Methods Epidemiologic, observational, and descriptive study (EPIDEPOC study. Patients ≥ 40 years of age with stable COPD attending primary care settings were included. Demographic, clinical characteristics, quality of life (SF-12, seriousness of the disease, and treatment data were collected. Results were compared between patients with or without associated heart disease. Results A total of 9,390 patients with COPD were examined of whom 1,770 (18.8% had heart disease and 78% were males. When comparing both patient groups, significant differences were found in the socio-demographic characteristics, health profile, comorbidities, and severity of the airway obstruction, which was greater in patients with heart disease. Differences were also found in both components of quality of life, physical and mental, with lower scores among those patients with heart disease. Higher frequency of primary care and pneumologist visits, emergency-room visits and number of hospital admissions were observed among patients with heart diseases. The annual total cost per patient was significantly higher in patients with heart disease; 2,937 ± 2,957 vs. 1,749 ± 2,120, p Conclusion Patients with COPD plus heart disease had greater disease severity and worse quality of life, used more healthcare resources and were associated with greater costs compared to COPD patients without known hearth disease.

  10. Filipino Personality Traits and Values for Social Support : FOW as human resources for work life balance in Japan (1)

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO, Isamu; IMAMURA, Taiko; MIYAGI, Mariko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help contribute to solving nursing care problems in Japan by studying the characteristics, personality traits and values of the Filipino people. Filipinos work as nurses and caregivers overseas,serving to be the largest supplier of human resources relating to socialsupport. Literary documents and books were analyzed to gather concrete examples of Filipino personality traits and values. Interview surveys were also conducted. The ten most depicted traits were the...

  11. Children enrolled in public pre-K: the relation of family life, neighborhood quality, and socioeconomic resources to early competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar; Bryant, Donna; McCandies, Terry; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane; Clifford, Richard; Pianta, Robert; Howes, Carollee

    2006-04-01

    This article presents data on the family and social environments of 501 children enrolled in public sponsored pre-K in 5 states and tests the relation of these resources to child competence. Structured interviews and questionnaires provide information from parents about the family's social and economic status. Direct assessments and teacher reports provide data on children's literacy, numeracy, and behavioral problems. A majority of the children served in public pre-K lived in poverty and showed decrements in language but not in other domains. A socioeconomic resource factor consisting of parental education, household income, and material need predicted all domains of children's functioning. Children from households high in socioeconomic resources entered pre-K with more well developed language and math skill but fewer behavioral problems than their disadvantaged peers. Neighborhood quality status was related to language competence and mother's marital status to math competence. Neighborhood quality and income level may have their impact on child competence through their relation to dyadic quality and the health and the psychological well-being of the parents. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  13. Resource recovery from end-of-life tyres in Greece: a field survey, state-of-art and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kasampalis, T

    2010-06-01

    Lack of consistent and available information for the entire tyre industry has often hindered adequate understanding of current and future issues that need to be addressed for improving the sustainable end-of-life tyre management. The aim of this paper is to review related best available technologies and techniques for Greece, ranging from simple mechanical processing, up to complex multistep, mechanochemical and/or thermal treatment. End-of-life tyre management guidelines in the form of a manual for supporting future entrepreneurs in this field are also discussed. Extensive data mining, classification and inventorying was performed, both in the field via questionnaires and in the literature, for the purpose of accurately determining Hellenic conditions, in order to pinpoint encountered problems, propose interventions and determine new entrepreneurship opportunities.

  14. When work and satisfaction with life do not go hand in hand: health barriers and personal resources in the participation of people with chronic physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Cretien; Cardol, Mieke

    2009-07-01

    People with chronic physical disabilities participate less in both paid and voluntary work and are less satisfied with their lives than people without health problems. Governments and scientists have suggested that participation in employment is the main road to well-being. We analysed national survey data on the participation in work and satisfaction with life, comparing people with a chronic illness and a physical disability (n=603) to people with a chronic illness but without a physical disability (n=1199) and the general population (n=6128) in the Netherlands. The results show that the relationship between happiness and work is different for people with a chronic illness and a physical disability, as compared to the other two populations. Fewer people with a chronic illness and disability were categorized as 'satisfied people with work' (i.e. participating in work and satisfied with their life), while most people belonged to a group of 'satisfied people without work' and, surprisingly, not to the expected group of 'dissatisfied people without work'. In order to explain this exceptional distribution we modelled satisfied participation in work as an outcome of a balance between personal resources and barriers. By means of discriminant regression analysis, we identified the severity of motor disability as the main barrier, and education level and age, as the main resource factors that distinguish between 'satisfied people with work' and others among the group of people with a chronic illness and a physical disability.

  15. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rey; Cyril Dégletagne; Claude Duchamp

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, ?Transcriptome analysis in non-model s...

  16. Characteristic sizes of life in the oceans - from bacteria to whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Berge, T.; Goncalves, R.

    2016-01-01

    -based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life...... in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size......-based rules and identify unanswered questions....

  17. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, Jenna N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martino, Louis E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  18. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Sega Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin, two offshore (autochthonous origin, and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin. The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L, of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively, and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations, whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an

  19. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs) and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Adalto; Smith, Scott; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Diamond, Rachael L.; Wood, Chris M.

    2017-01-01

    Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin). The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L), of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively), and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations), whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an important factor in

  20. Marine environmental monitoring programmes in South Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Verheye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa uniquely lies at the junction of two major currents, the Agulhas and the Benguela. The waters overlying the continental shelf exhibit exceptionally high short-, medium- and long-term (days to inter-decadal variability compared with most other shelf areas, and strongly contrasting oceanographic conditions are observed on the east and west coasts. South Africa is rich in fisheries resources and associated environmental data collected over more than a century. The South African marine scientific community has a history of multidisciplinary studies of marine foodwebs, from the driving forces such as wind, currents and solar heating, to the top predators, with the development of kelp bed, sub-tidal reefs and estuarine ecosystem studies in the 1970s; the Benguela Ecology Programme, which ran through four successive five-year stages, focused on the pelagic marine resources. Various approaches have been used to observe the continental shelf at different time and space scales, including: macroscale but frequent satellite imagery, mesoscale environmental and fishery surveys, dedicated crossshelf transects in key areas, measurements of dynamic processes, use of moored buoys and coastal weather stations, and integrated monitoring approaches, including modelling and simulation studies. Between 30 and 50 years of comprehensive marine data now exist, which are proving useful in the application of an ecosystem approach to fisheries monitoring and management, as decadal changes become discernible. These observations need to continue; even though the single-species stock assessment and operational management procedures have not yet formally used environmental factors for fisheries management advice, they help us to understand the factors affecting fish population fluctuations and early life histories and to identify large-scale regime shifts where marine trophic structure and functioning alter to a new state.

  1. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  2. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharide...

  3. Interplay Among Psychopathologic Variables, Personal Resources, Context-Related Factors, and Real-life Functioning in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Rucci, Paola; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Mucci, Armida; Gibertoni, Dino; Rocca, Paola; Rossi, Alessandro; Bertolino, Alessandro; Strauss, Gregory P; Aguglia, Eugenio; Bellomo, Antonello; Murri, Martino Belvederi; Bucci, Paola; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Comparelli, Anna; Cuomo, Alessandro; De Berardis, Domenico; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Di Fabio, Fabio; Gelao, Barbara; Marchesi, Carlo; Monteleone, Palmiero; Montemagni, Cristiana; Orsenigo, Giulia; Pacitti, Francesca; Roncone, Rita; Santonastaso, Paolo; Siracusano, Alberto; Vignapiano, Annarita; Vita, Antonio; Zeppegno, Patrizia; Maj, Mario

    2018-04-01

    Enhanced understanding of factors associated with symptomatic and functional recovery is instrumental to designing personalized treatment plans for people with schizophrenia. To date, this is the first study using network analysis to investigate the associations among cognitive, psychopathologic, and psychosocial variables in a large sample of community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. To assess the interplay among psychopathologic variables, cognitive dysfunctions, functional capacity, personal resources, perceived stigma, and real-life functioning in individuals with schizophrenia, using a data-driven approach. This multicenter, cross-sectional study involved 26 university psychiatric clinics and/or mental health departments. A total of 921 community-dwelling individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were stabilized on antipsychotic treatment were recruited from those consecutively presenting to the outpatient units of the sites between March 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013. Statistical analysis was conducted between July 1 and September 30, 2017. Measures covered psychopathologic variables, neurocognition, social cognition, functional capacity, real-life functioning, resilience, perceived stigma, incentives, and service engagement. Of 740 patients (221 women and 519 men; mean [SD] age, 40.0 [10.9] years) with complete data on the 27 study measures, 163 (22.0%) were remitted (with a score of mild or better on 8 core symptoms). The network analysis showed that functional capacity and everyday life skills were the most central and highly interconnected nodes in the network. Psychopathologic variables split in 2 domains, with positive symptoms being one of the most peripheral and least connected nodes. Functional capacity bridged cognition with everyday life skills; the everyday life skills node was connected to disorganization and expressive deficits. Interpersonal relationships and work skills were connected to avolition; the interpersonal

  4. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Liu

    Full Text Available China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1 a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2 the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3 coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4 mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5 a threatened seagrass field, and (6 an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007, the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction, particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are

  5. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  6. Seaweed: A valuable marine plant source

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweed, one of the components of seashore, is the most unique and important marine living resource. Its multi-ranged applications are of economic as well as ecological importance. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine...

  7. Exploring Subseafloor Life with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sobecky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep drilling of marine sediments and igneous crust offers a unique opportunity to explore how life persists and evolves in the Earth’s deepest subsurface ecosystems. Resource availability deep beneath the seafloor may impose constraints on microbial growth and dispersal patterns that differ greatly from those in the surface world. Processes that mediate microbial evolution and diversity may also be very different in these habitats, which approach and probably passthe extreme limits of life. Communities in parts of the deep subsurface may resemble primordial microbial ecosystems, and may serve as analogues of life on other planetary bodies, such as Mars or Europa, that have or once had water.

  8. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  9. VECTORS of change in the marine environment: Ecosystem and economic impacts and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, M. C.; Crowe, T. P.; Elliott, M.; Paterson, D. M.; Peck, M. A.; Piraino, S.

    2018-02-01

    Human use of the European marine environment is increasing and diversifying. This is creating new mechanisms for human induced-changes in marine life which need to be understood and quantified as well as the impact of these changes on ecosystems, their structures (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. productivity), and the social and economic consequences that arise. The current and emerging pressures are multiple and interacting, arising, for example, from transport, platforms for renewable and non-renewable energy, exploitation of living and non-living resources, agricultural and industrial discharges, together with wider environmental changes (including climate change). Anticipating the future consequences of these pressures and vectors of change for marine life and of adaptation and mitigation measures (such as the introduction of new technologies and structures, new ballast water practices, ocean and offshore wind energy devices and new fishing strategies) is a prerequisite to the development and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations to manage the marine environment, such as the IMO Convention on ballast water management and the EU Maritime Policy and Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  10. Sustainability Entrepreneurship in marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, S.R.; Bottema, Mariska; Midavaine, J.J.; Carter, E.

    2017-01-01

    So called ‘entrepreneurial marine protected areas’ are one way in which private actors are setting and enforcing control over spatially contiguous marine habitats. These entrepreneurs fulfil both environmental and social outcomes, providing a sustainable source of funding for conservation and restoration activities, as well as interacting with communities dependent on these resources. In doing so they contribute to the conservation of public resources. But unlike state-led management, the suc...

  11. Marine Corps Private Cloud Computing Environment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    leveraging economies of scale through the MCEITS PCCE, the Marine Corps will measure consumed IT resources more effectively, increase or decrease...flexible broad network access, resource pooling, elastic provisioning and measured services. By leveraging economies of scale the Marine Corps will be able...IaaS SaaS / IaaS 1 1 LCE I ACE Dets I I I I ------------------~ GIG / CJ Internet Security Boundary MCEN I DISN r :------------------ MCEN

  12. Collaboration or Contention? Decentralised marine Governance in Berau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumawati, R.; Visser, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of marine space is a new frontier in environmentalists’ involvement with resource governance in Indonesia. The coastal and marine area of Berau was established as a District Marine Conservation Area (MCA) based on District Head Regulation No. 31/2005. The total MCA of 1.27 million ha

  13. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all applicable...

  14. Poseidon: A marine environmental monitoring, forecasting and information system for the Greek seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. SOUKISSIAN

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work is twofold: i to discuss and analyze some principles, issues and problems related to the development and advancement of Operational Oceanography in Greece and ii to present a real-time monitoring and forecasting system for the Aegean Sea, which is currently under implementation. Operational Oceanography in Greece has become a necessity today, since it can provide aid to find solutions on problems related to societal, economic, environmental and scientific issues. Most of the Greek coastal regions are under pressure, susceptible to damages due to the increasing tendency of the population to move from the inland to the coast, marine environmental pollution, competitive development of the coastal market sector, etc. Moreover, the complex geomorphology of the coastal areas and the interdependence between natural processes and human activities causes significant alterations in this delicate environment. A rational treatment of these problems can be based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM. An absolutely necessary means for establishing ICZM is the operation of marine moni- toring systems. Such a system ("POSEIDON system" is under implementation by the National Centre for Marine Research. POSEIDON is a comprehensive marine monitoring and forecasting system, that aims to improve environmental surveillance and facilitate sea transport, rescue and safety of life at sea, fishing and aquaculture, protection of the marine ecosystem, etc. POSEIDON is expected to enhance considerably the capabilities to manage, protect and develop the marine resources of the Greek Seas and to promote Greek Operational Oceanography.

  15. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  16. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Akkerman, I.; Koulman, A.; Kamermans, P.; Reith, H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sipkema, D.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  17. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  18. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  19. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  20. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone... surveys to document seasonal distribution and abundance of marine mammals in western lower Cook Inlet... on the human environment in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of [[Page 72681...

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  2. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  8. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    The paper stresses the importance of training and education to the development and application of knowledge on the coastal marine environment and its resources. Present status of human resources training in India is discussed and changes...

  9. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internet vis-a-vis marine biology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.

    Internet is an amalgum of networks which reaches to more than 100 million people across the globe. The satellite-telecommunication based computer network web hosts information on every aspect of life. Marine biology related information too is being...

  11. Factors associated with positive adjustment in siblings of children with severe emotional disturbance: the role of family resources and community life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Ryan P; Cook, James R; Munsell, Eylin Palamaro; Salvador, Samantha Kane

    2010-10-01

    This study builds on the scant research involving siblings of children with severe emotional disturbances (SED) and examines: associations between adversity experiences and adjustment among 5- to 10-year-old siblings, and relations among family resources, community life, and sibling adjustment. Caregivers from 100 families completed standardized indicators of sibling adjustment and scales reflecting multiple contextual variables. Results document negative associations between stress exposure and sibling adjustment. Regression models also indicate positive associations between the caregiver-child relationship and broader family resources on sibling behavioral and emotional strengths, even after accounting for adversity experiences; adversity exposure was the prime correlate in regression models involving sibling oppositional behavior. Analyses also suggest that strain related to parenting a child with SED is associated with sibling adjustment. This work documents the needs of these siblings and their family systems and highlights the relevance of not only core proximal influences (e.g., child-caregiver relationship) but also elements of their broader contexts. Implications and recommendations are described, including the need to support plans of care that involve services, supports, or preventive strategies for these siblings. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  13. Midlatitude ice-rich ground on mars as a target in the search for evidence of life and for in situ resource utilization on human missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J L; Schurmeier, L; McKay, C; Davila, A; Stoker, C; Marinova, M; Wilhelm, M B

    2014-02-01

    Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars and is relevant for human exploration as a possible in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. In the present study, we review the evidence for midlatitude ground ice on Mars, discuss the possible explanations for its occurrence, and assess its potential habitability. During the course of study, we systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to determine whether a viable landing site exists in the northern midlatitudes to enable a robotic mission that conducts in situ characterization and searches for evidence of life in the ice. We classified each site according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. We found that a suitable landing site exists within Amazonis Planitia near ground ice that was recently excavated by a meteorite impact.

  14. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  15. Marine natural flavonoids: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Beatriz T; Correia da Silva, Marta; Pinto, Madalena; Cidade, Honorina; Kijjoa, Anake

    2018-05-04

    As more than 70% of the world's surface is covered by oceans, marine organisms offer a rich and unlimited resource of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. These organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that are, in majority of them, unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts due to the different surrounding ecological systems. Marine flavonoids have been extensively studied in the last decades due to a growing interest concerning their promising biological/pharmacological activities. The most common classes of marine flavonoids are flavones and flavonols, which are mostly isolated from marine plants. Although most of flavonoids are hydroxylated and methoxylated, some marine flavonoids possess an unusual substitution pattern, not commonly found in terrestrial organisms, namely the presence of sulphate, chlorine, and amino groups. This review presents, for the first time in a systematic way, the structure, natural occurrence, and biological activities of marine flavonoids.

  16. Research and Application of Marine Microbial Enzymes: Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force, which has led to evolution. The evolution prompted the marine microorganisms to generate multifarious enzyme systems to adapt to the complicated marine environments. Therefore, marine microbial enzymes can offer novel biocatalysts with extraordinary properties. This review deals with the research and development work investigating the occurrence and bioprocessing of marine microbial enzymes. PMID:20631875

  17. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  18. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Pacific Islands Regional Office — National Marine Fisheries Service -

    Science.gov (United States)

    ? Report Marine Animals State-Wide Hotline 888-256-9840 Report sea turtle, monk seal, dolphin and whales (ESA) Marine Mammal Response and Rescue Protected Resources Outreach and Education Volunteer PRGC Contacts Marine National Monument Program About the Marine National Monument Program Frequently