WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine life forms

  1. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  2. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  3. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  4. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  5. Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hacker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phrase ‘Lebensform’ (form of life had a long and varied history prior to Wittgenstein’s use of it on a mere three occasions in the Philosophical Investigations. It is not a pivotal concept in Wittgenstein’s philosophy. But it is a minor signpost of a major reorientation of philosophy, philosophy of language and logic, and philosophy of mathematics that Wittgenstein instigated. For Wittgenstein sought to replace the conception of a language as a meaning calculus (Frege, Russell, the Tractatus by an anthropological or ethnological conception. A language is not a class of sentences that can be formed from a set of axioms (definitions, formation and transformation rules and the meanings of which is given by their truth-conditions, but an open-ended series of interlocking language-games constituting a form of life or way of living (a culture. Wittgenstein’s uses of ‘Lebensform’ and its cognates, both in the Investigations and in his Nachlass are severally analysed, and various exegetical misinterpretations are clarified.

  6. Forms of Life, Forms of Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio Donatelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores aspects of the notion of forms of life in the Wittgensteinian tradition especially following Iris Murdoch’s lead. On the one hand, the notion signals the hardness and inexhaustible character of reality, as the background needed in order to make sense of our lives in various ways. On the other, the hardness of reality is the object of a moral work of apprehension and deepening to the point at which its distinctive character dissolves into the family of connections we have gained for ourselves. The two movements of thought are connected and necessary.

  7. Voice as Form of Life and Life Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Laugier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the concept of form of life as central to ordinary language philosophy (as understood in Wittgenstein’s, Austin’s and Stanley Cavell’s work: philosophy of our language as spoken; pronounced by a human voice within a form of life. Such an approach to Wittgenstein’s later philosophy shifts the question of the common use of language – central to Wittgenstein’s Investigations – to the definition of the subject as voice, and to the reinvention of subjectivity in language. The voice is both a subjective and common expression: it is what makes it possible for my individual voice, or claim, to become shared and for our forms of life to be intertwined with a lifeform.

  8. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  9. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Vermeulen

    Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  10. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.

  11. Mathematics and Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Schroeder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world (in which objects unaccountably vanish or appear or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they applied could not be called false. Rather, our criticism could only be to dismiss such a practice as foolish and to dismiss their norms as too different from ours to be called ‘mathematics’.

  12. Urban Form and City Life

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Valdivia, J. (José)

    2011-01-01

    The compact city is often presented as an answer to sustainable urban development, the paper tries to stress the influence of urban form of the compact city itself in the kind of civic life La ciudad compacta se presenta con frecuencia como una respuesta al desarrollo urbano sostenible; el paper trata de identificar la influencia la forma urbana propia de la ciudad compacta en el tipo de vida ciudadana

  13. Biomimetic microsensors inspired by marine life

    CERN Document Server

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomenon that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial manmade technology, we could find innovative solutions to critical problems.

  14. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  15. Life in the "plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Erik R; Mincer, Tracy J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2013-07-02

    Plastics are the most abundant form of marine debris, with global production rising and documented impacts in some marine environments, but the influence of plastic on open ocean ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly for microbial communities. Plastic marine debris (PMD) collected at multiple locations in the North Atlantic was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and next-generation sequencing to characterize the attached microbial communities. We unveiled a diverse microbial community of heterotrophs, autotrophs, predators, and symbionts, a community we refer to as the "Plastisphere". Pits visualized in the PMD surface conformed to bacterial shapes suggesting active hydrolysis of the hydrocarbon polymer. Small-subunit rRNA gene surveys identified several hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, supporting the possibility that microbes play a role in degrading PMD. Some Plastisphere members may be opportunistic pathogens (the authors, unpublished data) such as specific members of the genus Vibrio that dominated one of our plastic samples. Plastisphere communities are distinct from surrounding surface water, implying that plastic serves as a novel ecological habitat in the open ocean. Plastic has a longer half-life than most natural floating marine substrates, and a hydrophobic surface that promotes microbial colonization and biofilm formation, differing from autochthonous substrates in the upper layers of the ocean.

  16. Detection of Life Forms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  17. The smallest form of life yet?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ously unsuspected form of life (Uwins et al 1998). Because it is so much ... Curiously, though, most living creatures appear to be microbes; and among microbes, prokaryotes (in- cluding both the ... Haldane J B S 1927 On being the right size; in Possible Worlds and Other Essays (London: Chatto and. Windus). Raup D M ...

  18. Disability and Bureaucratic Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abrams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a hybrid actor-network theory/phenomenological approach to a frequent bother in the lives of disabled persons: bureaucratic forms. I argue that these forms are key sites where disabled personhood emerges, something I examine through the lens of what philosopher Annemarie Mol calls ‘ontological politics’. To be disabled is to be entered into the bureaucratic form of life. These forms translate human existence into a categorize-able, transportable and combinable object, to be administered through ‘centers of calculation’. Combining Heidegger’s fundamental ontology with Latour’s theory of paperwork, I suggest that these forms represent disability in terms of ‘objective presence’, as a mere pre-existing thing, rather than a human way of being. I conclude with suggestions for further phenomenological research that takes embodied difference as its point of departure.

  19. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  20. Effects of thermal pollution on marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    After a short review of the conditions and importance of the releases of heated water from fossil- or nuclear- fueled power plants, the two-fold consequences of thermal pollution are stated: consequences from the transit damaging, by thermal stress and/or mechanical effects, planctonic organisms attracted in the stream, and consequences from heating of the receiving environment. Other related effect on marine populations should not be neglected: effects of antifouling (chlorine mostly) and anticorrosion products; synergic action of raised temperature and chemical pollutants. In the present state of knowledge, the hazards of thermal pollution in the marine environment should not be overestimated so far as effluent dilution and diffusion are sufficient, which implies that the site be selected in an area where coastal circulation is strong enough and the disposal procedures be improved [fr

  1. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  2. Conspicuous veils formed by vibrioid bacteria on sulfidic marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thar, Roland Matthias; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    , but the bacteria have so far not been isolated in pure culture, and a detailed characterization of their metabolism is still lacking. The bacteria are colorless, gram-negative, and vibrioid-shaped (1.3- to 2.5- by 4- to 10-µm) cells that multiply by binary division and contain several spherical inclusions of poly......We describe the morphology and behavior of a hitherto unknown bacterial species that forms conspicuous veils (typical dimensions, 30 by 30 mm) on sulfidic marine sediment. The new bacteria were enriched on complex sulfidic medium within a benthic gradient chamber in oxygen-sulfide countergradients......, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria attached to the veil kept rotating and adapted their stalk lengths dynamically to changing oxygen concentrations. The joint action of rotating bacteria on the veil induced a homogeneous water flow from the oxic water region toward...

  3. Bioaccumulation and effect of sediment-associated silver in different forms in two marine deposit feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Banta, Gary Thomas; Syberg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Due to wide spread applications of nanoparticles, including Ag, in our daily life, these novel particles are receiving increasing attention by risk assessors. Many studies have been performed to test the toxicity of nanoparticles at the subcellular level. Despite these findings, there is still...... limited information at the whole organism level as to whether metallo-nanoparticles differ in toxicity from the same metals added to the environment in ionic or bulk form. In the present study, two organisms (i.e., a marine polychaete, Capitella teleta and a marine bivalve, Macoma balthica) were exposed...... to sediment amended with Ag in various forms (ionic Ag(I), nano-sized Ag and micron-sized Ag), and toxic endpoints were assessed at the whole organism level. After exposure for several weeks, no significant toxic effects were detected (i.e., mortality, growth rate and condition index) at the whole organism...

  4. Equity and career-life balance in marine mammal science?

    OpenAIRE

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Simmons, Samantha E.; Stimpert, Alison K.; McDonald, Birgitte I.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that family and care-giving responsibilities are driving women away from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Marine mammal science often incurs heavy fieldwork and travel obligations, which make it a challenging career in which to find work-life balance. This opinion piece explores gender equality, equity (the principles of fairness that lead to equality), and work-life balance in science generally and in this field in particular. We aim ...

  5. Applying Movement Ecology to Marine Animals with Complex Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Metaxas, Anna; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.

    2018-01-01

    Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline. This review applies the framework to movement among life-history stages in marine animals with complex life cycles to consolidate marine movement research and offer insights for scientists working in aquatic and terrestrial realms. Irrespective of data collection or simulation strategy, breaking each life-history stage down into the fundamental units of movement allows each unit to be studied independently or interactively with other units. Understanding these underlying mechanisms of movement within each life-history stage can then be used to construct lifetime movement paths. These paths can allow further investigation of the relative contributions and interdependencies of steps and phases across a lifetime and how these paths influence larger research topics, such as population-level movements.

  6. Development of underwater robot for taking off marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Harumi; Wakamatsu, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Ryohei; Edahiro, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Shunichi.

    1983-01-01

    Fouling by marine life growths in the cooling water system at seaside power generating stations is a major problem in the maintenance of a safe and efficient operation. Ingress of released growths into the condensers and coolers often jeopardizes their tube life and performance by clogging and/or tube corrosion. Many stations are obliged to remove periodically the growths manually after drying-out the system or by divers at considerable expenditure in time and money. A new remote-controlled underwater robot is developed for brushing marine life off cooling water intake channels of thermal and nuclear power generation plants. This robot consists of an underwater working unit, a power supply system, hydraulic hose take-up unit and controlling equipment. The full hydraulically powered robot, which can be used for both open and closed conduits, permits cleaning under water intake servicing condition. It drastically reduces both time and cost. (author)

  7. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  8. Towards a unified fatigue life prediction method for marine structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weicheng; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to apply the damage tolerance design philosophy to design marine structures, accurate prediction of fatigue crack growth under service conditions is required. Now, more and more people have realized that only a fatigue life prediction method based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory has the potential to explain various fatigue phenomena observed. In this book, the issues leading towards the development of a unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method based on FCP theory are addressed. Based on the philosophy of the UFLP method, the current inconsistency between fatigue design and inspection of marine structures could be resolved. This book presents the state-of-the-art and recent advances, including those by the authors, in fatigue studies. It is designed to lead the future directions and to provide a useful tool in many practical applications. It is intended to address to engineers, naval architects, research staff, professionals and graduates engaged in fatigue prevention design and survey ...

  9. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  10. Avalanches of sediment form deep-marine depositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Florian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34309424X

    2017-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest sedimentary system basin on the planet. It serves as the primary storage point for all terrestrially weathered sediment that makes it beyond the near-shore environment. These deep-marine offshore deposits have become a focus of attention in exploration due to the

  11. The Census of Marine Life: goals, scope and strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Yarincik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Census of Marine Life aims to assess and explain the changing diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine species from the past to the present, and to project future ocean life. It assembles known historical data back to 1500 in an online Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and has over 1000 scientists from 70 countries using advanced technologies to quantify and discover unknown life in under-explored ocean realms. Over 99% of the 6 million records now in OBIS are from the top 1000m of the water column, so the mid-waters and floor of the open ocean and the polar ice oceans are special targets. Even where the species are known, their distributions and abundance are largely speculative. This report outlines the strategies of COML projects to efficiently reveal the 95% of the biosphere beneath the waves, from microbes to whales. Open access to the OBIS data set will improve capacity to predict future impacts of climate and human activity. The baseline created by 2010 and the calibrated techniques developed will become important tools for monitoring and managing future ocean ecosystems to maintain their capacity to provide crucial services to our blue planet.

  12. Discrimination of Four Marine Biofilm-Forming Bacteria by LC-MS Metabolomics and Influence of Culture Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Laurie; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Greff, Stéphane; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P; Martin, Jean-Charles; Culioli, Gérald

    2017-05-05

    Most marine bacteria can form biofilms, and they are the main components of biofilms observed on marine surfaces. Biofilms constitute a widespread life strategy, as growing in such structures offers many important biological benefits. The molecular compounds expressed in biofilms and, more generally, the metabolomes of marine bacteria remain poorly studied. In this context, a nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach of marine biofilm-forming bacterial strains was developed. Four marine bacteria, Persicivirga (Nonlabens) mediterranea TC4 and TC7, Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica TC8, and Shewanella sp. TC11, were used as model organisms. The main objective was to search for some strain-specific bacterial metabolites and to determine how culture parameters (culture medium, growth phase, and mode of culture) may affect the cellular metabolism of each strain and thus the global interstrain metabolic discrimination. LC-MS profiling and statistical partial least-squares discriminant analyses showed that the four strains could be differentiated at the species level whatever the medium, the growth phase, or the mode of culture (planktonic vs biofilm). A MS/MS molecular network was subsequently built and allowed the identification of putative bacterial biomarkers. TC8 was discriminated by a series of ornithine lipids, while the P. mediterranea strains produced hydroxylated ornithine and glycine lipids. Among the P. mediterranea strains, TC7 extracts were distinguished by the occurrence of diamine derivatives, such as putrescine amides.

  13. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life

    KAUST Repository

    Godø , Olav R.; Samuelsen, Annette; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Patel, Ruben; Hjø llo, Solfrid Sæ tre; Horne, John; Kaartvedt, Stein; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.

  14. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav R Godø

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life.

  15. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life

    KAUST Repository

    Godø, Olav R.

    2012-01-17

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. 2012 God et al.

  16. When Is a Fish Not a Fish? Questions Raised by a Nage Life-Form Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Forth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speakers of a Central-Malayo-Polynesian language, the Nage inhabit the central region of the eastern Indonesian island of Flores. Their folk taxonomy of animals (ana wa contains three named life-form taxa, one of which is ika, fish. A review of component folk-generic taxa, however, reveals that Nage do not classify five kinds of freshwater fish as ‘fish’ (ika, even though they further apply ika to various marine fish (including sharks and rays as well as to marine mammals. The article considers this peculiarity of Nage folk zoological taxonomy, and how it might affect an understanding of ika as denoting a ‘fish’ life-form taxon. The main conclusion is that the five excluded categories—distinguished largely on morphological and behavioural grounds, and  conveniently designated as the ‘tebhu cluster’, after one of their members—are contrasted primarily with freshwater species which Nage do classify as ‘fish’ (ika. Specified by name as ika lowo (‘river fish’, these are further contrasted with another named folk-intermediate taxon of ‘marine fish’ (ika mesi. From this, it is argued that, as a life-form category, ika should be understood as implicitly including the five members of the ‘tebhu cluster’ as a third, albeit covert, folk-intermediate taxon.

  17. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE OF LEASING MARINE VESSEL OWNERS AND CHARTERERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Витальевна БОНДАРЬ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of the basic types of the bareboat charter, presented algorithms decision on the justification of the respective projects. It was found that the initiator of the project can be both owners who wants to pass the boat rental and the charterer, and also who is the owner, who wants to take a boat for rent. It is proved that the implementation of these specific operations requires careful preparation, and using of the project approach will greatly enhance their effectiveness. We describe the life of the project finance lease from the standpoint of the marine vessel, the ship-owner and charterer. It is established that such projects characterized by four-phase structure of the life cycle: preparation, let's call it as the principal decision on (from the chartering of the vessel, the investment - to select the optimal variant (from the charter and the conclusion of the bareboat charter, the phase of operation of the vessel and the fourth - the closure of the project at the end of term bareboat charter. Skill description of the content of each phase, which will continue for the main participants of the project to determine the value of each phase and the value of the whole project.

  18. Life forms of succulent representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gaidarzhy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life forms of succulent’s representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae of the tropical and subtropical plants from the collection of O.V. Fomin Botanical garden according to author classification are characterized.

  19. The effects of wind power on marine life - A Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Malm, Torleif; Ohlsson, Hans; Wahlberg, Magnus; Rosenberg, Rutger; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja

    2012-10-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and an additional 5500 MW are being planned for. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. The largest offshore wind farm in Sweden today is Lillgrund in Oeresund, with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities.

  20. Radioisotopes leakage of Fukushima may hit marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing; Liu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    So many radioisotopes were released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan. Although the isotopes will be vastly diluted and the contamination is unlikely to cause immediate harm to marine organisms, but long-lived isotopes are expected to accumulate in the food chain and may cause problems such as increased mortality in fish and marine-mammal populations. Viewpoints and recommendations for radioactivity pollution survey to the marine ecosystem by experts were reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  1. Natural goodness and the political form of human life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical Naturalism attempts to explain the objective normativity effective in human practices by reference to the relation between a living individual and the life-form it exhibits. This explanation falls short in the case of human beings (1 - not merely because of their essential rationality, but because the idea of normativity implicit in practice is dependent on the form of normativity’s being made explicit (2. I argue that this explicit form of normativity’s force and claim - the law in general - implies a tension between an explicit norm’s claim to absoluteness and the particularity of the situational case it is applied to. This tension may seem to produce an inherent violence corrupting the very idea of objective normativity inherent in the human form of life (3; in fact, it shows that the human form of life is essentially political. That the human form of life is essentially political does not contradict the idea of objective normativity - provided that this objectivity is not derived from a conception of “natural goodness”, but rather from the actuality of human practice and its principle, justice (4.

  2. A comparative life cycle assessment of marine power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-Chin, Janie; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Correlation among resources, emissions, key components and processes was attained. • Environmental benefits of innovative power systems were verified. • New-build system showed a great advantage over retrofit and conventional systems. • Relative contribution of significant components remained or became more profound. • Influence of fuel consumption quantity over the estimates varied with impact types. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in advanced marine power systems, knowledge gaps existed as it was uncertain which configuration would be more environmentally friendly. Using a conventional system as a reference, the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) study aimed to compare and verify the environmental benefits of advanced marine power systems i.e. retrofit and new-build systems which incorporated emerging technologies. To estimate the environmental impact attributable to each system, a bottom-up integrated system approach was applied, i.e. LCA models were developed for individual components using GaBi, optimised operational profiles and input data standardised from various sources. The LCA models were assessed using CML2001, ILCD and Eco-Indicator99 methodologies. The estimates for the advanced systems were compared to those of the reference system. The inventory analysis results showed that both retrofit and new-build systems consumed less fuels (8.28% and 29.7% respectively) and released less emissions (5.2–16.6% and 29.7–55.5% respectively) during operation whilst more resources were consumed during manufacture, dismantling and the end of life. For 14 impact categories relevant to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation and PM/respiratory inorganic health issues, reduction in LCIA results was achieved by retrofit (2.7–6.6%) and new-build systems (35.7–50.7%). The LCIA results of the retrofit system increased in ecotoxicity (1–8%), resource depletion (1–2%) and fossil fuel depletion

  3. Biodiversity research sets sail: showcasing the diversity of marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2009-04-23

    The World Congress on Marine Biodiversity was held in the City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, from 10 to 15 November 2008, showcasing research on all aspects of marine biodiversity from basic taxonomic exploration to innovative conservation strategies and methods to integrate research into environmental policy.

  4. A Moessbauer and Electrochemical Characterization of the Corrosion Products Formed from Marine and Marine-Antartic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. A.; Quagliata, E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria (Uruguay)

    2003-06-15

    Corrosion products formed on low alloy steel under two marine environments are characterised. Both environments are classified as C4 according to the ISO 9223 Standard. The corrosion products are identified and their relative proportion is determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy (transmission geometry). Free potentials of corrosion are measured to evaluate the activity of their surfaces. Structural characterisation by XRD were performed on selected samples. It is concluded that the principal phases are goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihidrite and maghemite. The relative amount of each of them changes with time and with the atmospheric dynamics of each environment.

  5. A Moessbauer and Electrochemical Characterization of the Corrosion Products Formed from Marine and Marine-Antartic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. A.; Quagliata, E.

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion products formed on low alloy steel under two marine environments are characterised. Both environments are classified as C4 according to the ISO 9223 Standard. The corrosion products are identified and their relative proportion is determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy (transmission geometry). Free potentials of corrosion are measured to evaluate the activity of their surfaces. Structural characterisation by XRD were performed on selected samples. It is concluded that the principal phases are goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihidrite and maghemite. The relative amount of each of them changes with time and with the atmospheric dynamics of each environment.

  6. 76 FR 52638 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Shipboard Observation Form for Floating Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and Constitution Avenue, NW... of this form is to be able to calculate the density of marine debris within an area of a known size... institutions. Estimated Number of Respondents: 60. Estimated Time per Response: 45 minutes. Estimated Total...

  7. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; van Andel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  8. Service life prediction for 50-year-old buildings in marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sánchez-Deza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel reinforcing bars are often coated with rusts formed during service in reinforced concrete (RC structures. Rust layers growing on steel rebars induce expansive stresses and cause cracking on cover concrete. This study uses steel corrosion rate results measured on reinforced concrete buildings of more than 50 years of age located in marine environments and considers the pressure generated by the volume expansion of corrosion product layers to calculate the service life of the RC structures using a numerical simulation, estimating the time to corrosion cracking of the concrete cover. Akaganeite, goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite and maghemite were identified by X-ray diffraction as crystalline phase constituents of the rust layers.

  9. A Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON): Understanding Marine Life and its Role in Maintaining Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Iken, K.; Miller, R. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Chavez, F.; Montes, E.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Federal government (NOAA, NASA, BOEM, and the Smithsonian Institution), academic researchers, and private partners are laying the foundation for a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). The goals of the network are to: 1) Observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats; 2) Define an efficient set of observations required for implementing a useful MBON; 3) Develop technology for biodiversity assessments including emerging environmental DNA (eDNA), remote sensing, and image analysis methods to coordinate with classical sampling; 4) Integrate and synthesize information in coordination with the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), the international Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network(GEO BON), and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) sponsored by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); and 5) Understand the linkages between marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and the social-economic context of a region. Pilot projects have been implemented within three NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries (Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, and Channel Islands), the wider Santa Barbara Channel, in the Chukchi Sea, and through the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON) at several sites in the U.S. and collaborating countries. Together, these MBON sites encompass a wide range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The present MBON partners are open to growth of the MBON through additional collaborations. Given these initiatives, GEO BON is proposing an MBON effort that spans from pole to pole, with a pathfinder effort among countries in the Americas. By specializing in coastal ecosystems—where marine biodiversity and people are concentrated and interact most—the MBON and TMON initiatives aim to provide policymakers with the science to

  10. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  11. Wittgenstein on Forms of Life, Patterns of Life, and Ways of Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Moyal-Sharrock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to distinguish Wittgenstein’s concept of ‘form of life’ from other concepts or expressions that have been confused or conflated with it, such as ‘language-game’, ‘certainty’, ‘patterns of life’, ‘ways of living’ and ‘facts of living’. Competing interpretations of Wittgenstein’s ‘form(s of life’ are reviewed (Baker & Hacker, Cavell, Conway, Garver, and it is concluded that Wittgenstein intended both a singular and a plural use of the concept; with, where the human is concerned, a single human form of life characterized by innumerable forms of human life.

  12. Global imprint of climate change on marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Sydeman, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Past meta-analyses of the response of marine organisms to climate change have examined a limited range of locations1,2, taxonomic groups2–4 and/or biological responses5,6. This has precluded a robust overview of the effect of climate change in the global ocean. Here, we synthesized all available ...

  13. Combining genetic and demographic data for the conservation of a Mediterranean marine habitat-forming species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Arizmendi-Mejía

    Full Text Available The integration of ecological and evolutionary data is highly valuable for conservation planning. However, it has been rarely used in the marine realm, where the adequate design of marine protected areas (MPAs is urgently needed. Here, we examined the interacting processes underlying the patterns of genetic structure and demographic strucuture of a highly vulnerable Mediterranean habitat-forming species (i.e. Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, with particular emphasis on the processes of contemporary dispersal, genetic drift, and colonization of a new population. Isolation by distance and genetic discontinuities were found, and three genetic clusters were detected; each submitted to variations in the relative impact of drift and gene flow. No founder effect was found in the new population. The interplay of ecology and evolution revealed that drift is strongly impacting the smallest, most isolated populations, where partial mortality of individuals was highest. Moreover, the eco-evolutionary analyses entailed important conservation implications for P. clavata. Our study supports the inclusion of habitat-forming organisms in the design of MPAs and highlights the need to account for genetic drift in the development of MPAs. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of integrating genetic and demographic data in marine conservation.

  14. Life form succession in plant communities on colliery waste tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, C G

    1973-01-01

    Five disused colliery waste tips in the Somerset Coalfield, 12, 15, 21, 55 and 98 years old, respectively, were examined to determine the life forms of the naturally-occurring vascular plant species. Hemicryptophytes comprised between 68 and 79% of the number of species on each tip. Rosette hemicryptophytes comprised 31.8% of the species on the 12-year tip, declining to 11.8% on the 98-year tip. It is suggested that artificial planting of rosette hemicryptophytes may be beneficial in reclamation schemes. 3 tables.

  15. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  16. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-04-25

    Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes.

  17. The promise and perils of Antarctic fishes: The remarkable life forms of the Southern Ocean have much to teach science about survival, but human activity is threatening their existence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Kristin M; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The waters around the Antarctic are a treasure trove of fauna specially adapted to extreme cold temperatures. However, as with many other marine ecosystems, its life forms are threatened by human actions.

  18. Monitoring and evaluation of wire mesh forming life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemuoh, Emmanuel U.; Zhao, Ping; Kadlec, Alec

    2018-03-01

    Forming tables are used with stainless steel wire mesh conveyor belts to produce variety of products. The forming tables will typically run continuously for several days, with some hours of scheduled downtime for maintenance, cleaning and part replacement after several weeks of operation. The wire mesh conveyor belts show large variation in their remaining life due to associated variations in their nominal thicknesses. Currently the industry is dependent on seasoned operators to determine the replacement time for the wire mesh formers. The drawback of this approach is inconsistency in judgements made by different operators and lack of data knowledge that can be used to develop decision making system that will be more consistent with wire mesh life prediction and replacement time. In this study, diagnostic measurements about the health of wire mesh former is investigated and developed. The wire mesh quality characteristics considered are thermal measurement, tension property, gage thickness, and wire mesh wear. The results show that real time thermal sensor and wear measurements would provide suitable data for the estimation of wire mesh failure, therefore, can be used as a diagnostic parameter for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) system for stainless steel wire mesh formers.

  19. Chitin Degradation Proteins Produced by the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Growing on Different Forms of Chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitil, A L; Chadhain, S; Moore, J A; Kirchman, D L

    1997-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the number, diversity, and function of chitinases produced by bacteria, even though chitin is one of the most abundant polymers in nature. Because of the importance of chitin, especially in marine environments, we examined chitin-degrading proteins in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. This bacterium had a higher growth rate and more chitinase activity when grown on (beta)-chitin (isolated from squid pen) than on (alpha)-chitin (isolated from snow crab), probably because of the more open structure of (beta)-chitin. When exposed to different types of chitin, V. harveyi excreted several chitin-degrading proteins into the culture media. Some chitinases were present with all of the tested chitins, while others were unique to a particular chitin. We cloned and identified six separate chitinase genes from V. harveyi. These chitinases appear to be unique based on DNA restriction patterns, immunological data, and enzyme activity. This marine bacterium and probably others appear to synthesize separate chitinases for efficient utilization of different forms of chitin and chitin by-products.

  20. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  1. Will life find a way? Evolution of marine species under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosi, Piero; De Wit, Pierre; Thor, Peter; Dupont, Sam

    2016-10-01

    Projections of marine biodiversity and implementation of effective actions for its maintenance in the face of current rapid global environmental change are constrained by our limited understanding of species' adaptive responses, including transgenerational plasticity, epigenetics and natural selection. This special issue presents 13 novel studies, which employ experimental and modelling approaches to (i) investigate plastic and evolutionary responses of marine species to major global change drivers; (ii) ask relevant broad eco-evolutionary questions, implementing multiple species and populations studies; (iii) show the advantages of using advanced experimental designs and tools; (iv) construct novel model organisms for marine evolution; (v) help identifying future challenges for the field; and (vi) highlight the importance of incorporating existing evolutionary theory into management solutions for the marine realm. What emerges is that at least some populations of marine species have the ability to adapt to future global change conditions. However, marine organisms' capacity for adaptation appears finite, due to evolutionary trade-offs and possible rapid losses in genetic diversity. This further corroborates the idea that acquiring an evolutionary perspective on how marine life will respond to the selective pressure of future global changes will guide us in better identifying which conservation efforts will be most needed and most effective.

  2. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  4. The life cycle of the free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda De Man 1890

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.R.

    The free-living marine nematode Innocuonema tentabunda was collected from the mangrove sediment of a mud-flat at Chorao Island, Goa, India, and reared in the laboratory to investigate its life cycle at 27 plus or minus 2 degrees C. The nematodes...

  5. GAY RELATIONSHIPS AS ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF FAMILY-MARRIAGE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Perlińska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available My research and deliberation made in this study show that homosexuality is only one of the signs of human diversity - one from innumerable number of personality features. Therefore, one cannot talk about "gay identity", "homosexual personality", because, as far as I am concerned, it doesn't exist. Artificially generted gay population is only a group of peple being much different from one another and having only one common feature - their sexual orientation. Besides they differ from one another as much as one man from another. Gay relationships take on countless forms, but all of them, as the results of my research indicate, fulfil the majority of family in traditional point of view functions. The deliberation points out at one more conclusion - one cannot examine gay relationships as a separate model of family-marriage life. It should be forgotten about their different psyhosexual orientation and treat their trlationships, together with other interpersonal relationships, equally. Only from such position one can discern in their specific alternative models of family-marriage life.

  6. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles.

  7. Forming Life: Aesthetic Awareness in Mental Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Berg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-disciplinary perspectives from artistic research, aesthetic theory, and mental health care, this article discusses qualities in sensuous surroundings in mental health facilities. Although the background for the article is in the increased awareness in aesthetic research concerning sensuous surroundings and their connection to health and well-being, this aesthetic research is only reflected to a small extent in research on mental health care surroundings. A further development of these perspectives is suggested in this article by introducing the concept of life forms from the art theorist Nicolas Bourriaud and the concepts of presentation and perception in theatrical communication from theatre researcher Willmar Sauter. These theories are discussed and exemplified on the basis of data from two mental health care wards: one from a psychogeriatric ward and the other from a polyclinic for eating disorders. Some essential qualities identified in the examples were that aesthetic environment and activity could be seen as formative to the “inner landscape”, and that different forms of sensuous activation and interaction could help patients escape communicative isolation. It is further demonstrated how participatory strategies can challenge artistic practice and that art can contribute to a health promoting and communicative space in mental health care. In the discussion section, it is argued that an activating, and possibly empowering, environment can be created through an increased awareness of the aesthetic strategies used in health care institutions. The study seeks to contribute to knowledge transfer in artistic practice and healthcare practice, as a part of a cross-disciplinary art didactic discourse, which intends to address specific societal challenges.

  8. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  9. Evaluation for probabilistic distributions of fatigue life of marine propeller materials by using a Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Yong; Zhang, Jian Wei

    2008-01-01

    Engineering materials have been studied and developed remarkably for a long time. But, few reports about marine propeller materials are presented. Recently, some researchers have studied the material strength of marine propellers. However, studies on parametric sensitivity and probabilistic distribution of fatigue life of propeller materials have not been made yet. In this study, a method to predict the probabilistic distributions of fatigue life of propeller materials is presented, and the influence of several parameters on the life distribution is discussed

  10. The biochemical diversity of life near and above 100°C in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M W

    1998-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic micro-organisms grow at temperatures above 90 °C with a current upper limit of 113 °C. They are a recent discovery in the microbial world and have been isolated mainly from marine geothermal environments, which include both shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. By 16S rRNA analyses they are the most slowly evolving of all extant life forms, and all but two of the nearly 20 known genera are classified as Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria). Almost all hyperthermophiles are strict anaerobes. They include species of methanogens, iron-oxidizers and sulphate reducers, but the majority are obligate heterotrophs that depend upon the reduction of elemental sulphur (S°) to hydrogen sulphide for significant growth. The heterotrophs utilize proteinaceous materials as carbon and energy sources, although a few species are also saccharolytic. A scheme for electron flow during the oxidation of carbohydrates and peptides and the reduction of S° has been proposed. Two S°-reducing enzymes have been purified from the cytoplasm of one hyperthermophile (T(opt) 100 °C) that is able to grow either with and without S°. However, the mechanisms by which S° reduction is coupled to energy conservation in this organism and in obligate S°-reducing hyperthermophiles is not known. In the heterotrophs, sugar fermentation is achieved by a novel glycolytic pathway involving unusual ADP-dependent kinases and ATP synthetases, and novel oxidoreductases that are ferredoxin- rather than NAD(P)-linked. Similarly, peptide fermentation involves several unusual ferredoxin-linked oxidoreductases not found in mesophilic organisms. Several of these oxido-reductases contain tungsten, an element that is rarely used in biological systems. Tungsten is present in exceedingly low concentrations in normal sea water, but hydrothermal systems contain much higher tungsten concentrations, more than sufficient to support hyperthermophilic life. 1998 Society of Applied Microbiology.

  11. Oxidative Stability of Marine Phospholipids in the Liposomal Form and Their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Timm-Heinrich, M.

    2011-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as they are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil) from the same...... source. Due to their tight intermolecular packing conformation at the sn-2 position and their synergism with α-tocopherol present in MPL extracts, they can form stable liposomes which are attractive ingredients for food or feed applications. However, MPL are still susceptible to oxidation as they contain...... large amounts polyunsaturated fatty acids and application of MPL in food and aquaculture industries is therefore a great challenge for researchers. Hence, knowledge on the oxidative stability of MPL and the behavior of MPL in food and feed systems is an important issue. For this reason, this review...

  12. Impact of dam-building on marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, T. J.

    1980-03-01

    Dam-building across naturally flowing rivers tends to decrease discharge of surplus water into the sea, reduce nutrient concentration in estuaries and coastal waters, and diminish plankton blooms as well as fish landings. Depletion of nutrients and organic matter along with reduced mud and silt deposition affect benthic life on the continental shelf. Reduced mud and silt deposition leads to coastal retreat. Dams, especially those constructed for hydro-electric purposes, hinder migration of fishes and decapods. Discharge from dams can create barriers at high or low flows, cause delays, disrupt normal behavioural routine and change the travel speed of migratory animals. Where all spawners of a given population are frequently kept away from the breeding site, the population faces extinction.

  13. Biological concentration mechanism of 137Cs in marine life (2008-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Shinichi; Hamano, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    From results of radionuclide analysis for tiger globefish cultivated on the surface of the sea around the Genkai nuclear power plant, it was confirmed that tiger globefish took 137 Cs into their bodies and this radionuclide mainly accumulated in their muscle and bone via seawater as a mediation route. Radionuclide analysis of 137 Cs as a tracer for marine life, is extremely useful as the basic data to understand behavior of the artificial radionuclides in the environment. (author)

  14. Plastic forming simulation analysis of marine engine crankshaft single-throw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Peipei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research object is for marine engine crankshaft single-throw.A 3D model of the crankshaft single-throw blank and die in forging process is established by SolidWorks software,then the 3D model is imported into metal plastic forming CAE software DEFROM-3D to carry on the plastic forming simulation,to verify the relationship between the internal flow stress and the external deformation conditions in the process of metal plastic deformation under different strain rate and temperature,and to carry on the scientific analysis based on the obtained data.The result shows that the preset temperature is higher,the stress-strain curve is relatively lower when the strain rate is constant.Sample internal flow stress will be greater and the resistance to fatigue strength will be poorer at a higher strain rate when the temperature of the blank is constant.The result also provides a theoretical basis for further optimization design.

  15. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  16. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  17. Developing the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Akdeniz Kudubes, Aslı; Ugur, Ozlem; Vergin, Canan; Demirag, Bengü

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to develop the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form. We used the child and parent information form, Visual Quality of Life Scale, and our own scale, the Scale for Quality of Life in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 13-18: Adolescent Form and Parent Form. We finalized the 35-item scale to determine the items, received opinions from 14 specialists on the scale, and pilot-tested the scale in 25 children and their parents. We used Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach α coefficient, factor analysis and receiver operating characteristics analysis to analyze the data. The total Cronbach α of the parent form was .97, the total factor load was .60-.97 and the total variance was 80.4%. The cutoff point of the parent form was 85.50. The total Cronbach α of the adolescent form was .98, the total factor load was .62-.96, and the total variance explained was 83.4%. The cutoff point of the adolescent form was 75.50. As a result of the parent form factor analysis, we determined the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient as .83, the Barlett test χ(2) as 12,615.92; the factor coefficients of all items of the parent form ranged from .63 to .98. The factor coefficients of all items of the adolescent form ranged from .34 to .99. As a result of the adolescent form factor analysis, we determined the KMO as .79, and the Barlett test χ(2) as 13,970.62. Conclusively, we found that the adolescent form and the parent form were valid and reliable in assessing the children's quality of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Effect of Bad Human Activities on Marine Life as Portrayed in Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage

    OpenAIRE

    LATHIFAH, ISNA NUR

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: ecocriticism, bad humans activities, marine life, Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage movie. The balance of marine life is often damaged by irresponsible humans who do not care about their environment. This problem has inspired some works to criticize humans' reckless behavior toward environment, especially ocean. Sammy's Adventure: the Secret Passage is one of the examples that have been created to criticize the bad human activities in the ocean. This research applies ecocritici...

  19. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Future warmer seas: increased stress and susceptibility to grazing in seedlings of a marine habitat-forming species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán, Gema; Ortega, María J; Gándara, Alberto M; Castejón, Inés; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Increases in seawater temperature are expected to have negative consequences for marine organisms. Beyond individual effects, species-specific differences in thermal tolerance are predicted to modify species interactions and increase the strength of top-down effects, particularly in plant-herbivore interactions. Shifts in trophic interactions will be especially important when affecting habitat-forming species such as seagrasses, as the consequences on their abundance will cascade throughout the food web. Seagrasses are a major component of coastal ecosystems offering important ecosystem services, but are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, including warming. The mechanistic understanding of seagrass responses to warming at multiple scales of organization remains largely unexplored, especially in early-life stages such as seedlings. Yet, these early-life stages are critical for seagrass expansion processes and adaptation to climate change. In this study, we determined the effects of a 3 month experimental exposure to present and predicted mean summer SST of the Mediterranean Sea (25°C, 27°C, and 29°C) on the photophysiology, size, and ecology (i.e., plant-herbivore interactions) of seedlings of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Warming resulted in increased mortality, leaf necrosis, and respiration as well as lower carbohydrate reserves in the seed, the main storage organ in seedlings. Aboveground biomass and root growth were also limited with warming, which could hamper seedling establishment success. Furthermore, warming increased the susceptibility to consumption by grazers, likely due to lower leaf fiber content and thickness. Our results indicate that warming will negatively affect seagrass seedlings through multiple direct and indirect pathways: increased stress, reduced establishment potential, lower storage of carbohydrate reserves, and increased susceptibly to consumption. This work provides a significant step forward in understanding the

  1. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  2. Virus-induced apoptosis and phosphorylation form of metacaspase in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Cai, Weicong; Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling

    2018-04-01

    Lytic viral infection and programmed cell death (PCD) are thought to represent two distinct death mechanisms in phytoplankton, unicellular photoautotrophs that drift with ocean currents. PCD (apoptosis) is mainly brought about by the activation of caspases, a protease family with unique substrate selectivity. Here, we demonstrated that virus infection induced apoptosis of marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi BOF92 involving activation of metacaspase. E. huxleyi cells exhibited cell death process akin to that of apoptosis when exposed to virus infection. We observed typical hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, associated nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblotting revealed that antibody against human active-caspase-3 shared epitopes with a protein of ≈ 23 kDa; whose pattern of expression correlated with the onset of cell death. Moreover, analysis on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that two spots of active caspase-3 co-migrated with the different isoelectric points. Phosphatase treatment of cytosolic extracts containing active caspases-3 showed a mobility shift, suggesting that phosphorylated form of this enzyme might be present in the extracts. Computational prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the amino acid sequence of E. huxleyi metacaspase showed multiple phosphorylated sites for serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. This is the first report showing that phosphorylation modification of metacaspase in E. huxleyi might be required for certain biochemical and morphological changes during virus induced apoptosis.

  3. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  4. Efficacy of a marine bacterial nuclease against biofilm forming microorganisms isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Shields

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent colonization of paranasal sinus mucosa by microbial biofilms is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. Control of microorganisms within biofilms is hampered by the presence of viscous extracellular polymers of host or microbial origin, including nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation by bacteria associated with CRS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obstructive mucin was collected from patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Examination of the mucous by transmission electron microscopy revealed an acellular matrix punctuated occasionally with host cells in varying states of degradation. Bacteria were observed in biofilms on mucosal biopsies, and between two and six different species were isolated from each of 20 different patient samples. In total, 16 different bacterial genera were isolated, of which the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and α-haemolytic streptococci. Twenty-four fresh clinical isolates were selected for investigation of biofilm formation in vitro using a microplate model system. Biofilms formed by 14 strains, including all 9 extracellular nuclease-producing bacteria, were significantly disrupted by treatment with a novel bacterial deoxyribonuclease, NucB, isolated from a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis. Extracellular biofilm matrix was observed in untreated samples but not in those treated with NucB and extracellular DNA was purified from in vitro biofilms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that bacteria associated with CRS form robust biofilms which can be reduced by treatment with matrix-degrading enzymes such as NucB. The dispersal of bacterial biofilms with NucB may offer an additional therapeutic target for CRS sufferers.

  5. Viviparity and K-selected life history in a Mesozoic marine plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, F R; Chiappe, L M

    2011-08-12

    Viviparity is known in several clades of Mesozoic aquatic reptiles, but evidence for it is lacking in the Plesiosauria. Here, we report a Late Cretaceous plesiosaur fossil consisting of a fetus preserved within an adult of the same taxon. We interpret this occurrence as a gravid female and unborn young and hence as definitive evidence for plesiosaur viviparity. Quantitative analysis indicates that plesiosaurs gave birth to large, probably single progeny. The combination of viviparity, large offspring size, and small brood number differs markedly from the pattern seen in other marine reptiles but does resemble the K-selected strategy of all extant marine mammals and a few extant lizards. Plesiosaurs may have shared other life history traits with these clades, such as sociality and maternal care.

  6. Hypoxia and acidification in ocean ecosystems: coupled dynamics and effects on marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; Baumann, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing recognition that low dissolved oxygen (DO) and low pH conditions co-occur in many coastal and open ocean environments. Within temperate ecosystems, these conditions not only develop seasonally as temperatures rise and metabolic rates accelerate, but can also display strong diurnal variability, especially in shallow systems where photosynthetic rates ameliorate hypoxia and acidification by day. Despite the widespread, global co-occurrence of low pH and low DO and the likelihood that these conditions may negatively impact marine life, very few studies have actually assessed the extent to which the combination of both stressors elicits additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects in marine organisms. We review the evidence from published factorial experiments that used static and/or fluctuating pH and DO levels to examine different traits (e.g. survival, growth, metabolism), life stages and species across a broad taxonomic spectrum. Additive negative effects of combined low pH and low DO appear to be most common; however, synergistic negative effects have also been observed. Neither the occurrence nor the strength of these synergistic impacts is currently predictable, and therefore, the true threat of concurrent acidification and hypoxia to marine food webs and fisheries is still not fully understood. Addressing this knowledge gap will require an expansion of multi-stressor approaches in experimental and field studies, and the development of a predictive framework. In consideration of marine policy, we note that DO criteria in coastal waters have been developed without consideration of concurrent pH levels. Given the persistence of concurrent low pH-low DO conditions in estuaries and the increased mortality experienced by fish and bivalves under concurrent acidification and hypoxia compared with hypoxia alone, we conclude that such DO criteria may leave coastal fisheries more vulnerable to population reductions than previously anticipated. © 2016

  7. [End of life decisions, the Dutch form through Spanish eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloc Rocasalbas, M; Girbes, A R J

    2011-03-01

    Abroad, but also in The Netherlands, there are many misunderstandings concerning end of life decisions and euthanasia. In general, euthanasia does not play any role in the intensive care units, simply because it does not fulfill the conditions to carry it out. However, there is still confusion, merely due to the assumption that the Dutch situation is different because of their legislation on euthanasia. The use of the unclear terminology such as "passive euthanasia", "voluntary euthanasia" or "involuntary euthanasia" contributes to the confusion of lay people and physicians, and should therefore be avoided. End of life decisions in intensive care patients are in fact a structural part of work of intensivists. Collecting all necessary information including the wishes and will of the patient, medical expertise and acknowledging limitations of medical treatment will help to determine futility of treatment goals. Once it is determined that surviving the intensive care unit with a quality of life acceptable for the patient is beyond reach, the goal of treatment should be improved and the dying process optimized. Stopping a treatment modality at the request of a will-competent patient or because of futility is not euthanasia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  9. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  10. 75 FR 30296 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... safety of life on navigable waters during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 5:30 a.m. to 2:30...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Maryland Swim for Life, Chester River, Chestertown, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing...

  11. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  12. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  13. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  14. From Caterpillar to Butterfly: A Window for Looking into Students' Ideas about Life Cycle and Life Forms of Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a qualitative analysis of high school students' ideas about life cycle and life forms of the butterfly. For this purpose, open-ended questions and drawing methods were applied to 194 high school students from the ninth to eleventh grades and 14 to 16 years of age in Erzurum, Turkey. Students' drawings were categorised…

  15. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  16. Insight into the product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Xuequn; Hou, Huaxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    The product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine environment was investigated in detail through outdoor exposure by using diverse surface analysis techniques combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning kelvin probe measurements. The results showed that the product film was mainly composed of nanophasic goethite in the inner layer and maghemite, akaganeite, and hematite in the outer layer. Moreover, the resistance to atmospheric corrosion gradually increased from the outermost product film to the innermost film. Ni was significantly enriched in the inner layer in the form of the spinel phase NiFe2O4, which transformed lepidocrocite to fine-grained goethite, withstood the invasion of chloridion, and improved the corrosion potential of the product film in a tropical marine atmosphere.

  17. Purpose in life and work-related stress in mariners. Mediating role of quality of marriage bonds and perceived anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplińska, Aleksandra; Jeżewska, Maria; Leszczyńska, Irena; Połomski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The specific character of mariners' work is connected with many factors conducive to stress, overload, fatigue and emotional tension, all of which can negatively influence subjective quality of life, including particularly the sense of life's purpose and meaning. However, over the course of entire life one plays many various roles and takes part in many areas of life which influence one another, both positively and negatively. Undoubtedly one of such areas, essential from the point of fulfilling individual's important needs, is one's family and marriage that can function as a crucial factor for neutralising on-the-job problems and tensions. The research presented here attempts to verify the relation between stress perceived by mariners and their sense of purpose in life along with the mediating role of marriage quality and anxiety levels. A total of 210 mariners working on deep-sea ships were examined. The following research tools were applied in the study: the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Questionnaire of Suitable Marriage (KDM). The results arrived at indicate that both marriage satisfaction and anxiety levels can indeed mediate the relation between stress and sense of purpose in life among mariners.

  18. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  19. Defining scenarios of future vectors of change in marine life and associated economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bosello, Francesco; Butenschön, Momme; Elliott, Mike; Peck, Myron A.; Pinnegar, John K.

    2018-02-01

    Addressing the multitude of challenges in marine policy requires an integrated approach that considers the multitude of drivers, pressures, and interests, from several disciplinary angles. Scenarios are needed to harmonise the analyses of different components of the marine system, and to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the societal and biogeophysical dynamics in the system. This study considers a set of socio-economic scenarios to (1) explore possible futures in relation to marine invasive species, outbreak forming species, and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity; and (2) harmonise the projection modelling performed within associated studies. The exercise demonstrates that developing interdisciplinary scenarios as developed in this study is particularly complicated due to (1) the wide variety in endogeneity or exogeneity of variables in the different analyses involved; (2) the dual role of policy decisions as variables in a scenario or decisions to be evaluated and compared to other decisions; and (3) the substantial difference in time scale between societal and physical drivers.

  20. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  1. Global distribution of radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment and implications for subsurface life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, J.; Flinders, A. F.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first global estimate of radiolytic H2production in marine sediment. Knowledge of microbial electron donor production rates is critical to understand the bioenergetics of Earth's subsurface ecosystems In marine sediment, radiolysis of water by radiation from naturally occurring radionuclides leads to production of reduced (H2) and oxidized (H2O2, O2) species. Water radiolysis is catalyzed by marine sediment. The magnitude of catalysis depends on sediment composition and radiation type. Deep-sea clay is especially effective at enhancing H2 yields, increasing yield by more than an order of magnitude relative to pure water. This previously unrecognized catalytic effect of geological materials on radiolytic H2 production is important for fueling microbial life in the subseafloor, especially in sediment with high catalytic power. Our estimate of radiolytic H2 production is based on spatially integrating a previously published model and uses (i) experimentally constrained radiolytic H2 yields for the principal marine sediment types, (ii) bulk sediment radioactive element content of sediment cores in three ocean basins (N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific), and global distributions of (iii) seafloor lithology, (iv) sediment porosity, and (v) sediment thickness. We calculate that global radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment is 1.6E+12 mol H2 yr-1. This production rate is small relative to the annual rate of photosynthetic organic-matter production in the surface ocean. The globally integrated ratio of radiolytic H2 production relative to photosynthetic primary production is 4.1E-4, based on electron equivalences. Although small relative to global photosynthetic biomass production, sediment-catalyzed production of radiolytic products is significant in the subseafloor. Our analysis of 9 sites in the N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific suggests that H2 is the primary microbial fuel in organic-poor sediment older than a few million years; at these sites, calculated

  2. Life history and viability of a long-lived marine invertebrate: the octocoral Paramuricea clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Cristina; Doak, Daniel F; Coma, Rafel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-04-01

    The red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata is a long-lived, slow-growing sessile invertebrate of ecological and conservation importance in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We develop a series of size-based matrix models for two Paramuricea clavata populations. These models were used to estimate basic life history traits for this species and to evaluate the viability of the red gorgonian populations we studied. As for many other slow-growing species, sensitivity and elasticity analysis demonstrate that gorgonian population growth is far more sensitive to changes in survival rates than to growth, shrinkage, or reproductive rates. The slow growth and low mortality of red gorgonians results in low damping ratios, indicating slow convergence to stable size structures (at least 50 years). The stable distributions predicted by the model did not differ from the observed ones. However, our simulations point out the fragility of this species, showing both populations in decline and high risk of extinction over moderate time horizons. These declines appear to be related to a recent increase in anthropogenic disturbances. Relative to their life span, the values of recruitment elasticity for Paramuricea clavata are lower than those reported for other marine organisms but are similar to those reported for some long-lived plants. These values and the delayed age of sexual maturity, in combination with the longevity of the species, show a clear fecundity/mortality trade-off. Full demographic studies of sessile marine species are quite scarce but can provide insight into population dynamics and life history patterns for these difficult and under-studied species. While our work shows clear results for the red gorgonian, the variability in some of our estimates suggest that future work should include data collection over longer temporal and spatial scales to better understand the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on red gorgonian populations.

  3. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C., E-mail: ben@ecology.su.s [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John; Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. - Tritium from tritiated glycine demonstrates greater accumulation and persistence in tissues and enhanced genotoxicity in haemocytes of marine mussels, compared to tritium from tritiated water.

  4. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The circular form of the linear superconducting machine for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakels, J. H.; Mahtani, J. L.; Rhodes, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting linear synchronous machine (LSM) is an efficient method of propulsion of advanced ground transport systems and can also be used in marine engineering for the propulsion of large commercial vessels, tankers, and military ships. It provides high torque at low shaft speeds and ease of reversibility; a circular LSM design is proposed as a drive motor. The equipment is compared with the superconducting homopolar motors, showing flexibility in design, built in redundancy features, and reliability.

  6. A new interpretation of forming process of marine pleistocene succession in the kanto tectonic basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Takao

    1996-01-01

    Relatively thick marine Pleistocene deposits, the Kazusa and the Shimosa Groups. are exposed in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan. It is generally said that the continuous tectonic subsidence of the Kanto Tectonic Basin causes such remarkable sedimentation. Especially the Shimosa Group consists of a succession of several formations controlled by glacio-eustasy. Besides, the Basin must have upheaved from deep sea during the Quaternary, because it is located on the wide uplift belt of the islan...

  7. Comparative copper sensitivity between life stages of common subantarctic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Jessica R; King, Catherine K; Davis, Andrew R

    2018-03-01

    The development of environmental guidelines in the Antarctic and subantarctic is essential, because expansion of research, tourism, and fishing is placing these regions at increasing risk of contamination. Data are currently insufficient to create the region-specific guidelines needed for the unique conditions in these areas. To develop the most appropriate environmental guidelines, data from the most sensitive life stages of a species should be included to ensure effective protection throughout its life cycle. It is generally accepted that early life stages are more sensitive to contaminants. We compared the toxicity of copper between juvenile and adult life stages of 4 subantarctic marine invertebrates using sublethal and lethal endpoints. For 2 of the species tested, juveniles were more sensitive than adults. (The 7-d median effect concentration [EC50] values for the gastropod Laevilittorina caliginosa were 79 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 125 μg/L at the adult; for the flatworm Obrimoposthia ohlini, values were 190 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 300 μg/L at the adult.) For the isopod Limnoria stephenseni, juveniles were either more sensitive or of equal sensitivity to adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 278 μg/L and adult 320 μg/L). In contrast, for the bivalve Gaimardia trapesina, adults appeared to be more sensitive than young adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 23 μg/L and adult life history stages was observed, the present study contributes important information for the development of water quality guidelines in polar regions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:807-815. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ≥4°C/ ≤pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over

  9. 26 CFR 1.821-3 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-3 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-3 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  10. 26 CFR 1.821-1 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance companies subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life or marine or fire insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 831. 1.821-1 Section 1... and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1.821-1 Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life or marine or fire insurance...

  11. Key genes involved in desiccation tolerance and dormancy across life forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, M.C.D.; Farrant, Jill M.; Oliver, Melvin J.; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, H.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT, the ability of certain organisms to survive severe dehydration) was a key trait in the evolution of life in terrestrial environments. Likely, the development of desiccation-tolerant life forms was accompanied by the acquisition of dormancy or a dormancy-like stage as a

  12. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  13. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  14. Wind power's impact on marine life; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa marint liv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    More than half of the 30 projects that have been financed by Vindval, are linked to offshore wind power. The research has studied the effects of wind farms on life on the ground, the impact on fish, such as the eel migration, and different types of foundation's impact on the benthic animals. Several studies have been made about Lillgrund wind farm in the Sound. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Several studies have been made about 'Lillgrund' wind farm in the 'Oeresund'. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Vindval studies show that local conditions have significant impact on how the marine life is affected. It is important with careful planning to avoid establishment of wind farm's in particularly sensitive areas or at certain times of year.

  15. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, B. A.; Childress, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2) suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen) to products (carbon dioxide) according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = -686 kcal mol-1), carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503), where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of -503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  16. The real limits to marine life: a further critique of the Respiration Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Seibel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed "Respiration Index" (RI = log PO2/PCO2 suggests that aerobic metabolism is limited by the ratio of reactants (oxygen to products (carbon dioxide according to the thermodynamics of cellular respiration. Here, we demonstrate further that, because of the large standard free energy change for organic carbon oxidation (ΔG° = −686 kcal mol−1, carbon dioxide can never reach concentrations that would limit the thermodynamics of this reaction. A PCO2 to PO2 ratio of 10503 would be required to reach equilibrium (equilibrium constant, Keq = 10503, where ΔG = 0. Thus, a Respiration Index of −503 would be the real thermodynamic limit to aerobic life. Such a Respiration Index is never reached, either in the cell or in the environment. Moreover, cellular respiration and oxygen provision are kinetically controlled such that, within limits, environmental oxygen and CO2 concentrations have little to do with intracellular concentrations. The RI is fundamentally different from the aragonite saturation state, a thermodynamic index used to quantify the potential effect of CO2 on calcification rates, because of its failure to incorporate the equilibrium constant of the reaction. Not only is the RI invalid, but its use leads to incorrect and misleading predictions of the threat of changing oxygen and carbon dioxide to marine life. We provide a physiological framework that identifies oxygen thresholds and allows for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and global warming.

  17. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The precipitation, growth and stability of mercury sulfide nanoparticles formed in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrui, Nashaat M; Seelen, Emily; King'ondu, Cecil K; Thota, Sravan; Awino, Joseph; Rouge, Jessica; Zhao, Jing; Mason, Robert P

    2018-04-25

    The methylation of mercury is known to depend on the chemical forms of mercury (Hg) present in the environment and the methylating bacterial activity. In sulfidic sediments, under conditions of supersaturation with respect to metacinnabar, recent research has shown that mercury precipitates as β-HgS(s) nanoparticles (β-HgS(s)nano). Few studies have examined the precipitation of β-HgS(s)nano in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this work, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) coupled with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation and fate of β-HgS(s)nano formed in association with marine DOM extracted from the east and west of Long Island Sound, and at the shelf break of the North Atlantic Ocean, as well as with low molecular weight thiols. We found that while the β-HgS(s)nano formed in the presence of oceanic DOM doubled in size after 5 weeks, those forming in solutions with coastal DOM did not grow over time. In addition, when the HgII : DOM ratio was varied, β-HgS(s)nano only rapidly aggregated at high ratios (>41 μmol HgII per mg C) where the concentration of thiol groups was determined to be substantially low relative to HgII. This suggests that functional groups other than thiols could be involved in the stabilization of β-HgS(s)nano. Furthermore, we showed that β-HgS(s)nano forming under anoxic conditions remained stable and could therefore persist in the environment sufficiently to impact the methylation potential. Exposure of β-HgS(s)nano to sunlit and oxic environments, however, caused rapid aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles, suggesting that photo-induced changes or oxidation of organic matter adsorbed on the surface of β-HgS(s)nano affected their stability in surface waters.

  19. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frid

    Full Text Available As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus, younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus and quillback rockfish (S. maliger. Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps. We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery

  20. Interspecific variation in life history relates to antipredator decisions by marine mesopredators on temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Alejandro; Marliave, Jeff; Heithaus, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    As upper-level predatory fishes become overfished, mesopredators rise to become the new 'top' predators of over-exploited marine communities. To gain insight into ensuing mechanisms that might alter indirect species interactions, we examined how behavioural responses to an upper-level predatory fish might differ between mesopredator species with different life histories. In rocky reefs of the northeast Pacific Ocean, adult lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) are upper-level predators that use a sit-and-wait hunting mode. Reef mesopredators that are prey to adult lingcod include kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus), younger lingcod, copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) and quillback rockfish (S. maliger). Across these mesopredators species, longevity and age at maturity increases and, consequently, the annual proportion of lifetime reproductive output decreases in the order just listed. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of risk taken to acquire resources would vary interspecifically in that same order. During field experiments we manipulated predation risk with a model adult lingcod and used fixed video cameras to quantify interactions between mesopredators and tethered prey (Pandalus shrimps). We predicted that the probabilities of inspecting and attacking tethered prey would rank from highest to lowest and the timing of these behaviours would rank from earliest to latest as follows: kelp greenling, lingcod, copper rockfish, and quillback rockfish. We also predicted that responses to the model lingcod, such as avoidance of interactions with tethered prey, would rank from weakest to strongest in the same order. Results were consistent with our predictions suggesting that, despite occupying similar trophic levels, longer-lived mesopredators with late maturity have stronger antipredator responses and therefore experience lower foraging rates in the presence of predators than mesopredators with faster life histories. The corollary is that the fishery removal of top

  1. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  2. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Prakash Somasekharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted.

  3. Displacement effects of heavy human use on coral reef predators within the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filous, Alexander; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Lammers, Marc; Wong, Adam; Stone, Kristy; Sparks, Russell T

    2017-08-15

    The impact of marine ecotourism on reef predators is poorly understood and there is growing concern that overcrowding in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) may disturb the species that these areas were established to protect. To improve our understanding of this issue, we used acoustic telemetry to examine the relationship between human activity at the Molokini Marine Life Conservation District (MLCD) and the habitat use of five reef-associated predators (Caranx melampygus, Caranx ignobilis, Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, and Aprion virscens). During peak hours of human use, there was a negative relationship (R 2 =0.77, P<0.001) between the presence of bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus) and vessels in subzone A. No other species showed strong evidence of this relationship. However, our results suggest that during this time, the natural ecosystem function that the reserve was established to protect may be compromised and overcrowding should be considered when managing MPAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Form to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Vania F S; Fukushima, Fernanda B; Rodrigues, Aniela M; Carvalho, Raissa P; Carvalho, Larissa P; Pinheiro, Leandro A F V; Polegato, Bertha F; Minicucci, Marcos F; Bassett, Rick; Moss, Alvin H; Steinberg, Karl E; Vidal, Edison I O

    2018-02-12

    The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) paradigm is considered one of the most important strategies to respect patients' values at the end of life in the United States. The cross-cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences. To report the methods and outcome of the cross-cultural adaptation of the POLST form to Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation study. Twenty physicians and 10 patients at a university hospital participated in the pilot tests. The cross-cultural adaptation process included choosing which existing POLST form(s) to use as a source, deciding the intended reading level, which healthcare professionals should be allowed to sign the form, and consultation with attorneys, bioethicists, and members of the National POLST Paradigm Task Force. Pilot tests occurred in two stages using different approaches. First, 20 physicians were trained about POLST and asked for any unclear aspects related to the form. Second, trained investigators completed POLST forms after engaging in advance care planning conversations with 10 hospitalized patients or patients' surrogates. This report provides a basis for future cross-cultural adaptations of POLST to other countries. The authors hope such new adaptations will broaden the possibilities of research using POLST and also may promote wider provision of care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences.

  5. Vector form Intrinsic Finite Element Method for the Two-Dimensional Analysis of Marine Risers with Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Guo, Xueli; Guo, Haiyan

    2018-06-01

    Robust numerical models that describe the complex behaviors of risers are needed because these constitute dynamically sensitive systems. This paper presents a simple and efficient algorithm for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of marine risers. The proposed approach uses the vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) method, which is based on vector mechanics theory and numerical calculation. In this method, the risers are described by a set of particles directly governed by Newton's second law and are connected by weightless elements that can only resist internal forces. The method does not require the integration of the stiffness matrix, nor does it need iterations to solve the governing equations. Due to these advantages, the method can easily increase or decrease the element and change the boundary conditions, thus representing an innovative concept of solving nonlinear behaviors, such as large deformation and large displacement. To prove the feasibility of the VFIFE method in the analysis of the risers, rigid and flexible risers belonging to two different categories of marine risers, which usually have differences in modeling and solving methods, are employed in the present study. In the analysis, the plane beam element is adopted in the simulation of interaction forces between the particles and the axial force, shear force, and bending moment are also considered. The results are compared with the conventional finite element method (FEM) and those reported in the related literature. The findings revealed that both the rigid and flexible risers could be modeled in a similar unified analysis model and that the VFIFE method is feasible for solving problems related to the complex behaviors of marine risers.

  6. CO2-driven compromises to marine life along the Chilean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, E.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Duarte, C. M.; Castilla, J. C.; Pelegrí, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    CO2-driven compromises to marine life were examined along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System, a particularly vulnerable hypoxic and upwelling area, applying the Respiration index (RI = log10 pO2) and the pH-dependent aragonite saturation (Ω) to delineate the water masses where aerobic and calcifying organisms are stressed. There was a remarkable negative relationship between oxygen concentration and pH or pCO2 in the studied area, with the subsurface hypoxic Equatorial Subsurface Waters extending from 100 m to about 300 m depth and supporting elevated pCO2 values. The RI reached a minimum at about 200 m depth and decreased towards the Equator. Increased pCO2 in the hypoxic water layer reduced the RI values by as much as 0.59 RI units, with the upper water layer that presents conditions suitable for aerobic life (RI>0.7) declining by half between 42° S and 28° S. The intermediate waters hardly reached those stations closer to the equator so that the increased pCO2 lowered pH and the saturation of aragonite. A significant fraction of the water column along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System suffers from CO2-driven compromises to biota, including waters corrosive to calcifying organisms, stress to aerobic organisms or both. The habitat free of CO2-driven stresses was restricted to the upper mixed layer and to small water parcels at about 1000 m depth. pCO2 acts as a hinge connecting respiratory and calcification challenges expected to increase in the future, resulting in a spread of the challenges to aerobic organisms.

  7. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  8. Toxicity of TiO2, in nanoparticle or bulk form to freshwater and marine microalgae under visible light and UV-A radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; Yeste, M P; Gatica, J M; Blasco, J

    2017-08-01

    Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) has become a part of our daily life and the high environmental concentrations predicted to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems are cause for concern. Although TiO 2 has only limited reactivity, at the nanoscale level its physico-chemical properties and toxicity are different compared with bulk material. Phytoplankton is a key trophic level in fresh and marine ecosystems, and the toxicity provoked by these nanoparticles can affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Two microalgae species, one freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and the other marine (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), have been selected for testing the toxicity of TiO 2 in NP and conventional bulk form and, given its photo-catalytic properties, the effect of UV-A was also checked. Growth inhibition, quantum yield reduction, increase of intracellular ROS production, membrane cell damage and production of exo-polymeric substances (EPS) were selected as variables to measure. TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 show a relationship between the size of agglomerates and time in freshwater and saltwater, but not in ultrapure water. Under two treatments, UV-A (6 h per day) and no UV-A exposure, NPs triggered stronger cytotoxic responses than bulk material. TiO 2 NPs were also associated with greater production of reactive oxygen species and damage to membrane. However, microalgae exposed to TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 under UV-A were found to be more sensitive than in the visible light condition. The marine species (P. tricornutum) was more sensitive than the freshwater species, and higher Ti internalization was measured. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) were released from microalgae in the culture media, in the presence of TiO 2 in both forms. This may be a possible defense mechanism by these cells, which would enhance processes of homoagglomeration and settling, and thus reduce bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority

  10. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  11. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  12. What Possible Life Forms Could Exist on Other Planets: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author’s suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  13. What possible life forms could exist on other planets: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author's suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  14. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  15. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  16. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by

  17. Land use, macroalgae, and a tumor-forming disease in marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S Van Houtan

    Full Text Available Wildlife diseases are an increasing concern for endangered species conservation, but their occurrence, causes, and human influences are often unknown. We analyzed 3,939 records of stranded Hawaiian green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas over 28 years to understand fibropapillomatosis, a tumor-forming disease linked to a herpesvirus. Turtle size is a consistent risk factor and size-standardized models revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability. The disease peaked in some areas in the 1990s, in some regions rates remained constant, and elsewhere rates increased. Land use, onshore of where the turtles feed, may play a role. Elevated disease rates were clustered in watersheds with high nitrogen-footprints; an index of natural and anthropogenic factors that affect coastal eutrophication. Further analysis shows strong epidemiological links between disease rates, nitrogen-footprints, and invasive macroalgae and points to foraging ecology. These turtles now forage on invasive macroalgae, which can dominate nutrient rich waters and sequester environmental N in the amino acid arginine. Arginine is known to regulate immune activity, promote herpesviruses, and contribute to tumor formation. Our results have implications for understanding diseases in aquatic organisms, eutrophication, herpesviruses, and tumor formation.

  18. Trace element seasonality in marine macroalgae of different functional-form groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Chatziapostolou, Anastasia; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2015-02-01

    Novel information on the seasonality of element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Seasonal patterns of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn concentrations in macroalgae belonging to different functional-form groups (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Codium fragile, Gracilaria gracilis) from the Thessaloniki Gulf, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni- and multivariate data analyses were applied. Element concentrations generally decreased during spring and/or summer, probably due to the growth effect, but a reverse trend, particularly in Ulva species, was also observed. Most elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr) in Ulva species displayed a comparatively low monthly variability, indicating that the extent of seasonal variation is closely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. In particular, these data suggest that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr contents in fast-growing, sheet-like macroalgae are less influenced by the season, compared to their contents in coarsely-branched and thick-leathery macroalgae; therefore, sheet-like macroalgae may be more appropriate to be used in biomonitoring of coastal waters. The data presented could be utilized in the development of biomonitoring programmes for the protection of coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research and Application of Marine Microbial Enzymes: Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force, which has led to evolution. The evolution prompted the marine microorganisms to generate multifarious enzyme systems to adapt to the complicated marine environments. Therefore, marine microbial enzymes can offer novel biocatalysts with extraordinary properties. This review deals with the research and development work investigating the occurrence and bioprocessing of marine microbial enzymes. PMID:20631875

  20. The Political Economy of Longevity: Developing New Forms of Solidarity for Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Aging populations now exert influence on all aspects of social life. This article examines changes to major social and economic institutions linked with old age, taking the period from the mid-20th century to the opening decades of the 21st century. These developments are set within the context of the influence of globalization as well as the impact of the 2008 financial crisis, these restructuring debates around the longevity revolution. The article examines how the basis for a new framework for accommodating longevity can be built, outlining ways of securing new forms of solidarity in later life. PMID:25678722

  1. Predictive Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Underwater Impulsive Sources on Marine Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazauski, Colin J

    2007-01-01

    A method is provided to predict the biological consequences to marine animals from exposure to multiple underwater impulsive sources by simulating underwater explosions over a defined period of time...

  2. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  3. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION..., 0625-0237, and 0625-0238. These collections include all client intake, events/activities and export... Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Information Services Order Forms, are...

  4. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  5. Reakcii rastenij raznyh zhiznennyh form na izmenenija prirodnoj sredy [The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  6. Making Marine Noise Pollution Impacts Heard: The Case of Cetaceans in the North Sea within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oceans represent more than 95% of the world’s biosphere and are among the richest sources of biodiversity on Earth. However, human activities such as shipping and construction of marine infrastructure pose a threat to the quality of marine ecosystems. Due to the dependence of most marine animals on sound for their communication, foraging, protection, and ultimately their survival, the effects of noise pollution from human activities are of growing concern. Life cycle assessment (LCA can play a role in the understanding of how potential environmental impacts are related to industrial processes. However, noise pollution impacts on marine ecosystems have not yet been taken into account. This paper presents a first approach for the integration of noise impacts on marine ecosystems into the LCA framework by developing characterization factors (CF for the North Sea. Noise pollution triggers a large variety of impact pathways, but as a starting point and proof-of-concept we assessed impacts on the avoidance behaviour of cetaceans due to pile-driving during the construction of offshore windfarms in the North Sea. Our approach regards the impact of avoidance behaviour as a temporary loss of habitat, and assumes a temporary loss of all individuals within that habitat from the total regional population. This was verified with an existing model that assessed the population-level effect of noise pollution on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea. We expanded our CF to also include other cetacean species and tested it in a case study of the construction of an offshore windfarm (Prinses Amalia wind park. The total impact of noise pollution was in the same order of magnitude as impacts on other ecosystems from freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial acidification, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Although there are still many improvements to be made to this approach, it provides a basis for the implementation of noise

  7. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  8. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  9. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  10. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  11. Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsenas, Gabriel [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Dalgleish, Fraser [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Ouyang, Bing [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Final Report for project DE-EE0006787: Multi-static Serial LiDAR for Surveillance and Identification of Marine Life at MHK Installations. This project developed and tested an optical monitoring system prototype that will be suitable for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) full project lifecycle observation (baseline, commissioning, and decommissioning), with automated real-time classification of marine animals. This system can be deployed to collect pre-installation baseline species observations at a proposed deployment site with minimal post-processing overhead. To satisfy deployed MHK project species of concern (e.g. Endangered Species Act-listed) monitoring requirements, the system provides automated tracking and notification of the presence of managed animals within established perimeters of MHK equipment and provides high resolution imagery of their behavior through a wide range of conditions. During a project’s decommissioning stage, the system can remain installed to provide resource managers with post-installation data. Our technology, known as an Unobtrusive Multi-static Serial LiDAR Imager (UMSLI), is a technology transfer of underwater distributed LiDAR imaging technology that preserves the advantages of traditional optical and acoustic solutions while overcoming associated disadvantages for MHK environmental monitoring applications. This new approach is a purposefully-designed, reconfigurable adaptation of an existing technology that can be easily mounted on or around different classes of MHK equipment. The system uses low average power red (638nm) laser illumination to be invisible and eye-safe to marine animals and is compact and cost effective. The equipment is designed for long term, maintenance-free operations, to inherently generate a sparse primary dataset that only includes detected anomalies (animal presence information), and to allow robust real-time automated animal classification/identification with a low data bandwidth requirement. Advantages

  12. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterisation of rust surfaces formed on mild steel exposed to marine atmospheres using XRD and SEM/Micro-Raman techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, D. de la; Alcántara, J.; Chico, B.; Díaz, I.; Jiménez, J.A.; Morcillo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SEM/Micro-Raman is very useful for characterizing rust phases morphologies. • SEM/Micro-Raman enables unequivocal rust phases identification. • γ-FeOOH basically presents two types of morphologies: globular and laminar. • Fe 3 O 4 presents two morphologies: flat patches and black doughnut-type formations. • β-FeOOH presents highly porous morphologies comprised by fine prismatic crystals. - Abstract: The exposure of mild steel to marine atmospheres gives rise to the formation of various corrosion products, mainly lepidocrocite, goethite, magnetite and akaganeite. In this study, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Micro-X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman are used to characterise rust layer surfaces and to identify the principal component rust phases and their morphology. The main conclusion reached is that lepidocrocite is preferentially located on the outermost surface while magnetite and akaganeite form mostly close to base steel. The Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman technique has been very useful for characterising (identifying) the wide variety of morphologies presented by the rust phases.

  14. Conserving marine biodiversity: insights from life-history trait candidate genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Meldrup, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments have facilitated an increased focus on identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive trait variation in natural populations, and it has been advocated that this information should be important for designating population units for conservation. In marine fishes...... are under selection in natural populations of Atlantic cod. Furthermore, we find that patterns of variation in outlier markers do not align with those observed at selectively neutral markers, and that outlier markers identify conservation units on finer geographical scales than those revealed when analysing...... only neutral markers. Accordingly, results also suggest that information about adaptive genetic variation will be useful for targeted conservation and management in this and other marine species...

  15. Astrobiological neurosystems rise and fall of intelligent life forms in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cranford, Jerry L

    2015-01-01

    This book explains why scientists believe that life may be more common in the Universe than previously considered possible. It presents the tools and strategies astronomers and astrobiologists are using in their formal search for habitable exoplanets as well as more advanced forms of life in other parts of our galaxy. The author then summarizes what is currently known about how and where organic molecules critical to our form of carbon-based life are manufactured. The core of the book explains (and presents educated guesses) how nervous systems evolved on Earth, how they work, and how they might work on other worlds. Combining his knowledge of neuroscience, computers, and astrobiology the author jumps into the discussion whether biological nervous systems are just the first step in the rise of intelligence in the Universe. The book ends with a description from both the psychologist’s and the neuroscientist’s viewpoints, exactly what it is about the fields of astrobiology and astronomy that “boggles...

  16. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusch Thorsten BH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  17. Back to the sea twice : identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissler, Lothar; Codoner, Francisco M.; Gu, Jenny; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2011-01-01

    Background: Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean

  18. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, Lothar; Codoñer, Francisco M; Gu, Jenny; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Olsen, Jeanine L; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2011-01-12

    Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica) and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  19. Precarity in late life: Understanding new forms of risk and insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Phillipson, Chris; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Hatzifilalithis, Stephanie; Kobayashi, Karen; Marier, Patrik

    2017-12-01

    Population aging and longevity in the context of declining social commitments, raises concerns about disadvantage and widening inequality in late life. This paper explores the concept of precarity as a means to understand new and sustained forms of risk and insecurity that affect late life. The article begins with a review of the definition and uses of precarity in a range of scholarly fields including social gerontology. It then draws on illustrations from three locations of experience including older women, aging with a disability, and the foreign-born, to outline how precarity renders visible the disadvantages carried into late life, and new insecurities that emerge at the moment of needing care in the context of austerity. The argument being put forward is that precarity can be used to illustrate how risks and insecurities, experienced over time, in longevity, and the context of austerity, can deepen disadvantage. This lens thus holds the potential to challenge individual interpretations of risk, and situate experiences of disadvantage in the economic and political context. We conclude that contemporary conditions of austerity and longevity intersect to produce and sustain risk and disadvantage into late life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of benthonic marine flora monitoring in the liquid effluent discharge form Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, G.C.; Araujo Costa, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant use sea water to condenser the steam of the secondary circuit. This water capted from Itaorna bay is chlorined and discharged more heater in Piraquara de Fora small bay. The temperature, chlorinade concentration, marine flora and fauna are monitored frequently with the intend of value the impact caused by this discharge to marine environment. The macroscopic marines algae is very sensible to environment temperature variations, constitutes on of the main rink in the food chain and stay every time attach at the bottom. Because of this facts they are considered an important bio indicators. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Reliability testing of the Danish version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Heaf, James; Prescott, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Translation into Danish and back-translation into English were performed. Pilot, field and internal consistency reliability tests were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the internal reliability test ranged from 0.77 to 0.93 for the eight generic scales. In a test......OBJECTIVE: The questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF) is valuable for assessing the health-related quality of life in patients treated with chronic dialysis. The aim of this study was to translate and test the reliability of the KDQOL-SF for use in Denmark...... involving all patients, two of the disease-specific scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of test of the scores...

  2. Tool-life prediction under multi-cycle loading during metal forming: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the friction and wear behaviour of a hard coating were studied by using ball-on-disc tests to simulate the wear process of the coated tools for sheet metal forming process. The evolution of the friction coefficient followed a typical dual-plateau pattern, i.e. at the initial stage of sliding, the friction coefficient was relatively low, followed by a sharp increase due to the breakdown of the coatings after a certain number of cyclic dynamic loadings. This phenomenon was caused by the interactive response between the friction and wear from a coating tribo-system, which is often neglected by metal forming researchers, and constant friction coefficient values are normally used in the finite element (FE simulations to represent the complex tribological nature at the contact interfaces. Meanwhile, most of the current FE simulations consider single-cycle loading processes, whereas many metal-forming operations are conducted in a form of multi-cycle loading. Therefore, a novel friction/wear interactive friction model was developed to, simultaneously, characterise the evolutions of friction coefficient and the remaining thickness of the coating layer, to enable the wear life of coated tooling to be predicted. The friction model was then implemented into the FE simulation of a sheet metal forming process for feasibility study.

  3. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  4. Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Schütz, Martin; Nguyen, Huong; Risch, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life forms (forbs, legumes, grasses, sedges) correlated with their dominance. We experimented in two subalpine grassland types with different land-use histories: (1) heavily grazed, nutrient-rich, short-grass vegetation and (2) lightly grazed, lower nutrient tall-grass vegetation. We found differences in leaf traits between treatments where either all herbivores were excluded or all herbivores were present, showing the importance of considering the impacts of both vertebrates and invertebrates on the leaf traits of plant species. Life forms responses to the progressive exclusion of herbivores were captured by six possible combinations: (1) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency (leaf area/nutrients) where lower nutrient levels are invested in leaf construction, but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, forbs in both vegetation types, (2) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency, for example, legumes in short grass, (3) increased leaf size but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, legumes in the tall grass, (4) increased number of leaves produced and increased resource use efficiency, for example, grasses in the short grass, (5) increased resource use efficiency of leaves only, for example, grasses and sedges in the tall grass, and (6) no response in terms of leaf construction or dominance, for example, sedges in the short grass. Although we found multiple

  5. Application of freezing and radiation technology on shelf-life of formed minced pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Kustudic, M.

    1994-01-01

    The microflora of frozen, minced, formed pork was investigated with the aim to estimate the shelf-life of this product. The isolated microflora from frozen meat was identified by classical and up-to-date methods. The API 50 CHB system was applied for the Bacillus strains, whereas API 20A and enzymatic quick method API RAPID ID 32A was used for the Clostridium strains. Biochemical capabilities reading-out and identifications were performed on ATB instruments on the computer charts. The flavourings (pepper) were pretreated by radiation technology in the preventive purposes

  6. Characterization of waterborne nitrogen emissions for marine eutrophication modelling in life cycle impact assessment at the damage level and global scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods lack a consistent and globally applicable characterization model relating nitrogen (N, as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN) enrichment of coastal waters to the marine eutrophication impacts at the endpoint level. This paper introduces a method...... to calculate spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) at endpoint and damage to ecosystems levels, for waterborne nitrogen emissions, reflecting their hypoxia-related marine eutrophication impacts, modelled for 5772 river basins of the world....

  7. Older adults and the arts: the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in a randomly selected Swedish population age 65 to 89. Data were based on semi-structured interviews with 166 participants. Results revealed dance, music, literature, and pictures were important for this group of elderly individuals in promoting successful aging, and the connection to their everyday life was apparent. Participants considered viewing natural scenes and looking in a photo album as important aesthetic activities. The aesthetic forms of expression contributed to physical and intellectual activities, as well as to interaction with other individuals. Aesthetic experiences were related to feelings of timelessness and spacelessness, and served as sources of gratification.

  8. Life history of a free-living marine nematode Daptonema normandicum reared in laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    in many temperate water studies (Boyd et al., 2000). However, in tropical and subtropical waters, information on free-living marine nematode communities is very scarce. Most of the researchers suggested (Mohmoudi et al., 2005; Hedfi et al., 2007... stage. After 8 hr, gastrulation begins (Fig. 3g) and in additional 9 hr, the embryo was observed with constant movement (Fig. 3h). This stage can be recognized easily by the active movements of embryo. Embryo was seen to acquire different positions...

  9. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  10. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap 'Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study-which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey--examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  11. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap `Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study—which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey—examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  12. Growing up in the Ocean: Complex Life Cycles of Common Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katie; Hiebert, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    Most people are familiar with the concept that animals come in all shapes and sizes and that the body plan of some animals can completely transform during their lifetime. Well-known examples of such complex life cycles of terrestrial animals include butterflies and frogs. Many people are unaware, however, that complex life cycles are exceedingly…

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  14. Citizen scientists reveal: Marine litter pollutes Arctic beaches and affects wild life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Melanie; Lutz, Birgit; Tekman, Mine B; Gutow, Lars

    2017-12-15

    Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm -2 and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries. Photographs provided by citizens show deleterious effects of beach litter on Arctic wildlife, which is already under strong pressure from global climate change. Our study highlights the potential of citizen scientists to provide scientifically valuable data on the pollution of sensitive remote ecosystems. The results stress once more that current legislative frameworks are insufficient to tackle the pollution of Arctic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A short form of the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Hoey, H.; McGee, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to test the construct validity of the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth (DQOLY) questionnaire in a large representative sample of young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The 52-item DQOLY questionnaire was completed by 2,077 adolescent...... of a revised questionnaire, two with four factors and one with six factors, with all models indicating the presence of one satisfaction scale, but with many of the impact and worry scale items either double loading or not loading on any factors. Subsequent confirmatory analysis indicated that compared...... with the original DQOLY scales, the six-factor solution was the best-fitting model. Conclusions/interpretation: The DQOLY factor structure does not show construct validity in a large, diverse representative sample of young people with type 1 diabetes. However, a revised (short-form) version of the DQOLY is proposed...

  16. Pedagogical terms of forming of healthy method of life of modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarchenko V.I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of conditioning forming of healthy method of life of pupils of general educational educational establishments are probed. In an experiment 156 pupils took part in age from 6 to 17 years. It is set that the characteristic feature of bodily condition of health of pupils is a result of the protracted unfavorable influence of socio-economic, ecological and pedagogical factors. An idea speaks out, that search of the new going near organization of an educational educate process at school it is necessary to send educations to humanizing. It will provide creation of optimum terms for spiritual growth of personality, valuable realization of psychophysical possibilities, maintainance and strengthening of health. It is well-proven that realization of the personality oriented approach taking into account basic valeological principles positively influences on the process of education of responsible attitude toward an own health as to the greatest individual and public value.

  17. Life-forms and seasonal patterns in the pteridophytes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kornaś

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 146 species of pteridophytes occurring in Zambia were classified into Raunkiaer's life-form classes. The hemicryptophytes are dominant and include the most widely distributed species. The phanerophytes (tree-ferns and lianas and the epiphytes are rather scarce and limited to or concentrated in the higher-rainfall areas in the northern part of the country. Simplified diagrams of periodicity were constructed for all Zambian pteridophyte species. Three major types of seasonal pattern of growth and dormancy were distinguished: the evergreen type, the poikilohydrous type, and the "summer-green" type. The first of them is connected with the local conditions of continuously wet non-zonal sites, while the two others clearly reflect the peculiarities of the zonal climate of Zambia.

  18. Interpreting Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scores: Cross-Walk with the Short Form-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lindsay; Marsden-Loftus, Isaac; Koskinen, Sanna; Bakx, Wilbert; Bullinger, Monika; Formisano, Rita; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Sasse, Nadine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; von Wild, Klaus; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments are traumatic brain injury (TBI)-specific assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with established validity and reliability. The purpose of the study is to help improve the interpretability of the two QOLIBRI summary scores (the QOLIBRI Total score and the QOLBRI Overall Scale [OS] score). An analysis was conducted of 761 patients with TBI who took part in the QOLIBRI validation studies. A cross-walk between QOLIBRI scores and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary norm-based scoring system was performed using geometric mean regression analysis. The exercise supports a previous suggestion that QOLIBRI Total scores GOSE), as a measure of global function, are presented in the form of means and standard deviations that allow comparison with other studies, and data on age and sex are presented for the QOLIBRI-OS. While bearing in mind the potential imprecision of the comparison, the findings provide a framework for evaluating QOLIBRI summary scores in relation to generic HRQoL that improves their interpretability.

  19. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  20. The complex early life history of a marine estuarine-opportunist fish species, Solea turbynei (Soleidae from temperate South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Strydom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The early life history stages and ecology of Solea turbynei, a marine estuarine-opportunist species, is described from nursery areas in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Early life history stages were collected over multiple years from known nursery habitats using plankton, fyke and larval seine nets. The larvae are described using morphometric measurements, meristic counts and pigmentation based on 29 individuals. Solea turbynei is differentiated from other Soleidae by the small size at flexion (3-4 mm, low myomere count and presence of two characteristic blotches of pigment on the dorsal fin. This species has a unique early life history strategy in that the larvae progressively span nearshore, surf zone and estuarine habitats with ontogeny. Abundance of preflexion stages peaks in summer in nearshore waters, indicative of peak spawning period but preflexion larvae are present throughout the year, indicating protracted spawning by adults. At flexion stage, larvae utilize surf zones where metamorphosis and settlement takes place. Early juveniles migrate into the sandy lower reaches of estuaries, after which fish take up residency to adulthood. Warm water is important for larval growth and survival in the nearshore, while turbidity shows a positive relationship with recruitment into estuarine nurseries.

  1. A Hot Spring Origin of Life and Early Adaptive Pathway from Woese Progenotes to Marine Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, R.; Damer, B. F.; Deamer, D. W.

    2017-07-01

    An origin of life on land is visualized as: organic compounds accumulating in hydrothermal pools, wet-dry cycling of protocells encapsulating synthesized polymers, arising of a Woese progenote and its evolution into living microbial communities.

  2. The life forms of lichens on different substrates in Yelanetsko-Ingulskiy region (Mikolayivska and Kirovogradska oblast, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana O. Boiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issue of distribution of lichens life forms on different substrates, which are present in the Yelanetsko- Ingulskiy region. The largest number of life forms of the lichens is characteristic for granite outcrops, and the lowest – for gneisses. This fact is associated with features of substrate morphostructure and density, microclimatic conditions of different ecotopes in which lichens grow.

  3. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (S-FAQLQ-AF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolin-Amerigo, D.; Cerecedo Carballo, [Unknown; Muriel, A.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Dieguez Pastor, M.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.; Dubois, A.; De la Hoz Caballer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Specific food allergy quality of life questionnaires have been developed within the context of the EuroPrevall project. We aimed to adapt and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) in the Spanish language. Methods: The original English

  4. Online version of the food allergy quality of life questionnaire-adult form: validity, feasibility and cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, N. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Weiss, C. C.; Furlong, T. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Food-allergic reactions occur in 3-4% of the adult population in Western countries. It has been shown that food allergy may impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food allergy quality of life questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). These

  5. Online version of the food allergy quality of life questionnaire-adult form : validity, feasibility and cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, N. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Weiss, C. C.; Furlong, T. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background Food-allergic reactions occur in 3-4% of the adult population in Western countries. It has been shown that food allergy may impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food allergy quality of life questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form

  6. Progress in the Use of Rapid Molecular Techniques to Detect Life Forms in Soil: Implications for Interplanetary Astrobiology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, D.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Fox, G. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of two promising technologies, we have applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as well as probes that target the 16S rRNA molecule to search for life in terrestrial soil samples, known to contain numerous life forms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. 29 CFR 784.108 - Operations not included in named operations on forms of aquatic “life.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject matter of the exemptions is concerned with “aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life,” the..., novelties, liquid glue, isinglass, pearl essence, and fortified or refined fish oil is not within these... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations not included in named operations on forms of...

  8. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  9. Selection for life-history traits to maximize population growth in an invasive marine species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Marty, Lise; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Species establishing outside their natural range, negatively impacting local ecosystems, are of increasing global concern. They often display life-history features characteristic for r-selected populations with fast growth and high reproduction rates to achieve positive population growth rates (r...

  10. Egg size as a life history character of marine invertebrates: Is it all it's cracked up to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Amy L; McAlister, Justin S

    2009-06-01

    Egg size is one of the most important aspects of the life history of free-spawning marine organisms, and it is correlated with larval developmental mode and many other life-history characters. Egg size is simple to measure and data are available for a wide range of taxa, but we have a limited understanding of how large and small eggs differ in composition; size is not always the best measure of the characters under selection. Large eggs are generally considered to reflect increased maternal investment, but egg size alone can be a poor predictor of energetic content within and among taxa. We review techniques that have been used to measure the energetic content and biochemical makeup of invertebrate eggs and point out the strengths and difficulties associated with each. We also suggest a number of comparative and descriptive approaches to biochemical constituent analysis that would strengthen our understanding of how natural selection shapes oogenic strategies. Finally, we highlight recent empirical research on the intrinsic factors that drive intraspecific variation in egg size. We also highlight the relative paucity of these data in the literature and provide some suggestions for future research directions.

  11. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace...... their parents on a one-for-one basis in the long run. Otherwise the population would either increase exponentially or become extinct. Combining data on growth and specific fecundity in a size-based fish community model of the North Sea and using the requirement of a one-for-one replacement provides...... the information necessary to estimate the scaling of natural mortality with size and asymptotic size. The estimated scaling is compared with output from multispecies fish stock models, with the empirical scaling of the maximum number of recruits per unit of spawning stock biomass with body size...

  12. Marine Microbial Mats and the Search for Evidence of Life in Deep Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats in extensive seawater evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, have been excellent subjects for microbial ecology research. The studies reviewed here have documented the steep and rapidly changing environmental gradients experienced by mat microorganisms and the very high rates of biogeochemical processes that they maintained. Recent genetic studies have revealed an enormous diversity of bacteria as well as the spatial distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. These findings, together with emerging insights into the intimate interactions between these diverse populations, have contributed substantially to our understanding of the origins, environmental impacts, and biosignatures of photosynthetic microbial mats. The biosignatures (preservable cells, sedimentary fabrics, organic compounds, minerals, stable isotope patterns, etc.) potentially can serve as indicators of past life on early Earth. They also can inform our search for evidence of any life on Mars. Mars exploration has revealed evidence of evaporite deposits and thermal spring deposits; similar deposits on Earth once hosted ancient microbial mat ecosystems.

  13. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  14. Evaluation of Service Life of Polystyrene in Tropical Marine Environment by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the service life of polystyrene (PS under an aggressive environment, the nondimensional expression Z was established from a data set of multiple properties of PS by principal component analysis (PCA. In this study, PS specimens were exposed to the tropical environment on Xisha Islands in China for two years. Chromatic aberration, gloss, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength were tested to evaluate the aging behavior of PS. Based on different needs of industries, each of the multiple properties could be used to evaluate the service life of PS. However, selecting a single performance variation will inevitably hide some information about the entire aging process. Therefore, finding a comprehensive measure representing the overall aging performance of PS can be highly significant. Herein, PCA was applied to obtain a specific property (Z which can represent all properties of PS. Z of PS degradation showed a slight decrease for the initial two months of exposure after which it increased rapidly in the next eight months. Subsequently, a slower increase of Z value was observed. From the three different stages shown as Z value increases, three stages have been identified for PS service life.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis study of elemental concentrations in some species of marine algae form different regions of Libyan coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I. O.; Al-Dalem, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an ideal marine species to study responses to different environmental factors free complication inherent in research with more complex higher plants. One of the advantages of environmental study using algae is the possibility to achieve and observe many generations during relative short time period. Algae materials have been used as ecological and environmental indicators to monitor and control in many fields of study such as freshwater and marine ecosystems, soil fertility, industrial applications, etc. It also has been shown that algae assemblages could be used as indicators of clean or polluted water. Previous studies proved high sensitivity of the most algae towards changing of environmental conditions, especially as consequences of water pollution. Algae respond rapidly and predictably to a wide range of pollutants and potentially use full early warning signals of deteriorating conditions and possible causes. Because of their nutritional needs and their position at the base of aquatic food web, algae indicators provide relativity unique information concerning ecosystem conditions compared with commonly used animal indicators. In most cases ecologically relevant signals of ecosystem changes are being provided that can be used to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable environmental conditions. Algae indicators are also a cost-effective monitoring tool as well. (Author)

  17. The development of the temporal macrostructure of life narratives across adolescence: beginnings, linear narrative form, and endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle

    2009-04-01

    The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding.

  18. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  19. Wind power's effects on marine life. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa marint liv. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena (Aquatic Resources, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Oeregrund (Sweden)); Kautsky, Lena (Dept. on Botany, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Stockholm Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Malm, Torleif; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja (Stockholms Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Ohlsson, Hans (wpd Offshore Stockholm AB (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Magnus (Fjord and Baelt (Denmark)); Rosenberg, Rutger (Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Marine Monitoring AB, Lysekil (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and additionally 5500 MW are being planned for in Sweden. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. Today Sweden's largest offshore wind farm is Lillgrund in Oeresund with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters, is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities

  20. New method for determining sensory shelf life using fuzzy logic: canned marinated artichoke hearts (Cynara scolymus L. case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory preference (sp and shelf life of sensory acceptability (SLSA of canned artichoke hearts were modeled using fuzzy logic (FL and accelerated testing. The artichoke hearts were marinated in oil of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, soybean (Glycine max and olive (Olea europea; and evaluated using a Ranking test with a semi-trained panel, to identify the best preference both for flavor (f and limpidity (l. We evaluated a global sp through intersection (AND and union (OR fuzzy operations of f and l, using functions of triangular membership with the Mamdani method for defuzzificacion through 25 linguistic rules. The intersection showed the best modeling performance, with the highest sp value at 3.30 for the treatment with sacha inchi (50%, olive (25% and soybean (25% (p << 0.05 oil, which was subjected to accelerated testing at 37 °C, 49 °C, 55 °C and evaluated according to their sensory acceptability (SA through an unstructured scale test in terms of f and l. The SLSA was determined using accelerated testing with FL through intersection fuzzy operation of f and l, triangular membership functions for f and l, and also 25 linguistic rules. A SLSA at 20 ºC was determined for a "high" SA of 296 days, and 569 days for a SA between "high and beginning of medium SA". Both values were lower than the 892 days’ time determined by accelerated testing when evaluating the peroxide index in canned products.

  1. SMART marine goals, targets and management - Is SDG 14 operational or aspirational, is 'Life Below Water' sinking or swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Roland; Elliott, Michael

    2017-10-15

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded - otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims. The discussion here shows that many of the targets adopted for SDG14, and especially a detailed analysis of Target 1, are aspirational rather than fully quantified. In order to move towards making the targets operational, we advocate merging the language of environmental management with that used by industry for linking risks to the environment, management performance and ensuing controls. By adopting an approach which uses Key Performance Indicators ('KPIs'), Key Risk Indicators ('KRIs') and Key Control Indicators ('KCIs'), we advocate that a degree of rigour leading to defendable actions can be brought to marine management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of CO2 injection in the sea on the marine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesen, T.

    1993-02-01

    In the literature it is shown that aquatic organisms are very sensitive to changes in the pH value. Exposure to a lower pH value than what is normal for the animals, may lead to distinct effects in the reproduction, growth and survival. Harmful effects may arise by a reduction of only 0.2 pH units. The effects increase by increasing the pH reduction, and by increasing the exposure time. It is pointed out in the report that the data basis is small, and that only a few long term and life cycle studies have been performed. The background material of the report shows that injection of CO 2 into the sea will create a bottom stream with pH values between 4.5 and 6.5. These values are much lower than the normal pH value of seawater, and much lower than the limit value for harmful effects. For this reason, harmful effects on the bottom fauna may be expected. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  4. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage. Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface

  5. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Evans, Flavia F; Schleheck, David; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Burke, Catherine; Penesyan, Anahit; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Saunders, Neil; Johnson, Justin; Ferriera, Steve; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2008-09-24

    Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community. We have also identified properties that could mediate interactions

  6. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  7. Acceptance of alternative forms of family life by students of the Bialskie region [Akceptacja alternatywnych form życia rodzinnego przez studentów powiatu bialskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena RUSZKOWSKA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the popularity of alternative forms of family life among young people living in urban and rural settings of the Bialski region. It contains a discussion of the results of a survey conducted at the turn of 2013/2014, and an attempt to answer the question whether and, if so how, informal relationships are an alternative to marriage and family, whether young people are aware of the legal consequences of staying in socalled free relationships, and whether they have an impact on a child if it results from such a relationship.

  8. The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N

    2006-04-01

    The nature of life on Earth provides a singular example of carbon-based, water-borne, photosynthesis-driven biology. Within our understanding of chemistry and the physical laws governing the universe, however, lies the possibility that alien life could be based on different chemistries, solvents, and energy sources from the one example provided by Terran biology. In this paper, we review some of these possibilities. Silanes may be used as functional analogs to carbon molecules in environments very different from Earth; solvents other than water may be compatible for life-supporting processes, especially in cold environments, and a variety of energy sources may be utilized, some of which have no Terran analog. We provide a detailed discussion of two possible habitats for alien life which are generally not considered as such: the lower cloud level of the Venusian atmosphere and Titan's surface environment.

  9. STRATEGIES OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE SURVIVAL AND SOME RULES OF ASSEMBLY. (R829368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed t...

  10. Development and preliminary validation of the food intolerance Quality of Life Questionnaire (FIQLQ): Adult Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Barnett, Julie; Begen, Fiona M; Ryan, Kathleen; Lucas, Jane S

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of children and adults avoid certain foods because of perceived food intolerance. Valid and reliable health-related quality of life instruments are needed to measure changes following clinical, therapeutic or policy interventions. However, there are no disease-specific quality of life instruments for adults with food intolerances. To develop the Food Intolerance Quality of Life Questionnaire FIQLQ. Then to conduct psychometric validation including reliability and construct validity. We adapted the existing Food Allergy Quality of Life questionnaire (FAQLQ) for interviews with 14 adults with food intolerance. For preliminary psychometric validation, 229 adults with food intolerances completed the online electronic version of FIQLQ. The resultant FIQLQ had 18 items which loaded onto 3 subscales-Emotional Impact, Social and Dietary Restrictions, Reactions and Avoidance. Each subscale had excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α 0.81-0.94). Content, convergent and construct validity was supported by significant correlations of FIQLQ subscale scores with hypothesised variables including age, numbers of symptoms and level of stress experienced due to intolerance. The FIQLQ has good reliability, construct validity and internal consistency. It is short and easy to use, providing a good tool for evaluating quality of life in the clinical research setting and to inform health and regulatory policies.

  11. Literatura chicana: Vida en busca de forma (Chicano Literature: Life in Search of Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Tomas

    The Chicano culture is searching for appropriate expression in art forms and literature. The Chicano novel and essay, often written in English, seem directed toward the North American public. The short story is the most varied in viewpoint and most versatile in form. Poetry captures the Chicano sensitivity. It is almost impossible to note the…

  12. Reflections on the discovery of toxic species of marine micro-algae known to form harmful blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    the differential in BP (note, allowances are ignored in this cal- culation). The post-retirement pensionary benefits which are a function of the last pay drawn at the time of retirement have not been factored in, and considering the current average life...-friendly Excel format. He also alerted me about the very long-term effects of post-retirement benefits. Gangan Prathap is in the Cochin Uni- versity of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, India. e-mail: gp@cusat.ac.in Reflections...

  13. Measuring health-related quality of life in children: The development of the TACQOL parent form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, T.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Fekkes, M.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Koopman, H.M.; Theunissen, N.C.M.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), conceptualized as patients' own evaluations of their health status, is an important criterion in evaluating health and health care and in the treatment of individual patients. Until now, few systematic attempts have been made to develop instruments to assess

  14. The Forms and Functions of Real-Life Moral Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Dennis L.; Denton, Kathy; Wark, Gillian

    1997-01-01

    Observes that the Kohlbergian model of morality does not give a good account of the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives. Argues that a functional model of moral judgment and moral behavior derived from evolutionary theory may supply a better account of real-life morality. (DSK)

  15. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  16. Improved protocol and data analysis for accelerated shelf-life estimation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Carella, Anthony J; Gumkowski, Michael J; Lukulay, Patrick; MacDonald, Bruce C; Roy, Michael C; Shamblin, Sheri L

    2007-04-01

    To propose and test a new accelerated aging protocol for solid-state, small molecule pharmaceuticals which provides faster predictions for drug substance and drug product shelf-life. The concept of an isoconversion paradigm, where times in different temperature and humidity-controlled stability chambers are set to provide a critical degradant level, is introduced for solid-state pharmaceuticals. Reliable estimates for temperature and relative humidity effects are handled using a humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation, where temperature and relative humidity are assumed to be orthogonal. Imprecision is incorporated into a Monte-Carlo simulation to propagate the variations inherent in the experiment. In early development phases, greater imprecision in predictions is tolerated to allow faster screening with reduced sampling. Early development data are then used to design appropriate test conditions for more reliable later stability estimations. Examples are reported showing that predicted shelf-life values for lower temperatures and different relative humidities are consistent with the measured shelf-life values at those conditions. The new protocols and analyses provide accurate and precise shelf-life estimations in a reduced time from current state of the art.

  17. Phenol Is the Initial Product Formed during Growth and Degradation of Bromobenzene by Tropical Marine Yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 via an Early Dehalogenation Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsal, Aakanksha A; Zinjarde, Smita S; RaviKumar, Ameeta

    2017-01-01

    Bromobenzene (BrB), a hydrophobic, recalcitrant organic compound, is listed by the environmental protection agencies as an environmental and marine pollutant having hepatotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. The tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 3589 was seen to grow aerobically on BrB and displayed a maximum growth rate (μ max ) of 0.04 h -1 . Furthermore, we also observed an increase in cell size and sedimentation velocity for the cells grown on BrB as compared to the glucose grown cells. The cells attached to the hydrophobic bromobenzene droplets through its hydrophobic and acid-base interactions. The BrB (0.5%, 47.6 mM) was utilized by the cells with the release of a corresponding amount of bromide (12.87 mM) and yielded a cell mass of 1.86 g/L after showing 34% degradation in 96 h. Maximum dehalogenase activity of 16.16 U/mL was seen in the cell free supernatant after 24 h of growth. Identification of metabolites formed as a result of BrB degradation, namely, phenol, catechol, cis, cis muconic acid, and carbon dioxide were determined by LC-MS and GC-MS. The initial attack on bromobenzene by Y. lipolytica cells lead to the transient accumulation of phenol as an early intermediate which is being reported for the first time. Degradation of phenol led to catechol which was degraded by the ortho- cleavage pathway forming cis, cis muconic acid and then to Krebs cycle intermediates eventually leading to CO 2 production. The study shows that dehalogenation via an extracellular dehalogenase occurs prior to ring cleavage with phenol as the preliminary degradative compound being produced. The yeast was also able to grow on the degradative products, i.e., phenol and catechol, to varying degrees which would be of potential relevance in the degradation and remediation of xenobiotic environmental bromoaromatic pollutants such as bromobenzene.

  18. Phenol Is the Initial Product Formed during Growth and Degradation of Bromobenzene by Tropical Marine Yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 via an Early Dehalogenation Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakanksha A. Vatsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromobenzene (BrB, a hydrophobic, recalcitrant organic compound, is listed by the environmental protection agencies as an environmental and marine pollutant having hepatotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects. The tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 3589 was seen to grow aerobically on BrB and displayed a maximum growth rate (μmax of 0.04 h-1. Furthermore, we also observed an increase in cell size and sedimentation velocity for the cells grown on BrB as compared to the glucose grown cells. The cells attached to the hydrophobic bromobenzene droplets through its hydrophobic and acid–base interactions. The BrB (0.5%, 47.6 mM was utilized by the cells with the release of a corresponding amount of bromide (12.87 mM and yielded a cell mass of 1.86 g/L after showing 34% degradation in 96 h. Maximum dehalogenase activity of 16.16 U/mL was seen in the cell free supernatant after 24 h of growth. Identification of metabolites formed as a result of BrB degradation, namely, phenol, catechol, cis, cis muconic acid, and carbon dioxide were determined by LC–MS and GC–MS. The initial attack on bromobenzene by Y. lipolytica cells lead to the transient accumulation of phenol as an early intermediate which is being reported for the first time. Degradation of phenol led to catechol which was degraded by the ortho- cleavage pathway forming cis, cis muconic acid and then to Krebs cycle intermediates eventually leading to CO2 production. The study shows that dehalogenation via an extracellular dehalogenase occurs prior to ring cleavage with phenol as the preliminary degradative compound being produced. The yeast was also able to grow on the degradative products, i.e., phenol and catechol, to varying degrees which would be of potential relevance in the degradation and remediation of xenobiotic environmental bromoaromatic pollutants such as bromobenzene.

  19. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... and be the result of the optimization of trade-offs that allow sufficient feeding and growth rates to balance mortality...

  20. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  2. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  3. Exploring marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    other benefits, fish oils containing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have anti-inflammatory and autoimmune properties. The researchers found that increasing dietary intake of the polyunsaturated fats found in fatty fish can..., there had been lack of multidisciplinary approach needed for isolating, screening and developing the product. Thirdly, the cost involved in the development of a new drug is very high. However, in recent years considerable attention has been paid...

  4. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, PH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    OpenAIRE

    Deni, Novia; Juliyarsi, Indri; Melia, S; Vermalida, W.A

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner) salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experim...

  5. Foliar stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in woody Mediterranean species with different life form and post-fire regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire is an important ecological disturbance factor in most Mediterranean ecosystems. In the Mediterranean Basin, most shrub species can regenerate after fire by resprouting or seeding. Here, we hypothesize that post-fire regenerative syndromes may potentially co-vary with traits directly related to functional properties involved in resource use. Thus, seeders with a shorter life span and smaller size would have lower water-use efficiency (WUE) than re-sprouting species and would take up nutrients such as nitrogen from more superficial parts of the soil. To test this hypothesis, we compared leaf (13)C and (15)N signatures from 29 co-existing species with different post-fire regeneration strategies. We also considered life form as an additional explanatory variable of the differences between post-fire regenerative groups. Our data support the hypothesis that seeder species (which mostly evolved in the Quaternary under a Mediterranean climate) have lower WUE and less stomatal control than non-seeders (many of which evolved under different climatic conditions in the Tertiary) and consequently greater consumption of water per unit biomass. This would be related to their smaller life forms, which tend to have lower WUE and shorter life and leaf lifespan. Differences in (15)N also support the hypothesis that resprouters have deeper root systems than non-resprouters. The study supports the hypothesis of an overlap between plant functional traits and plant attributes describing post-disturbance resilience.

  6. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  7. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  8. Improvements in FE-analysis of real-life sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetink, Han; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2000-01-01

    An overview will be presented of recent developments concerning the application and development of computer codes for numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes. In this paper attention is paid to some strategies which are followed to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computation

  9. Effects of bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenol F and S on life parameters, antioxidant system, and response of defensome in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Min-Chul; Yoon, Deok-Seo; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Moonkoo; Hwang, Un-Ki; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-06-01

    To understand the adverse outcome in response to bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenol F and S (BPA, BPF, and BPS), we examined acute toxicity, life parameter, and defensome in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus. Among the bisphenol analogs, BPA showed the highest acute toxicity and then BPF and BPS, accordingly in the view of descending magnitude of toxicity. In life parameters including life span and reproduction, BPA, BPF, and BPS were found to cause adverse effect. Both intracellular ROS level and GST activity were significantly increased (P bisphenol analogs exposures. In response to bisphenol analogs, defensomes of phase I, II, and III detoxification mechanism demonstrated inverse relationship between the lipophilicity of bisphenol analogs and the expression patterns of defensomes. BPA and BPF were found to have significant modulation (P bisphenol A and its analogs F and S demonstrated specific detoxification mechanism in rotifer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Phylogenomic Census of Molecular Functions Identifies Modern Thermophilic Archaea as the Most Ancient Form of Cellular Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshan Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  11. A phylogenomic census of molecular functions identifies modern thermophilic archaea as the most ancient form of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  12. Revisiting the Classic Moby Dick: The Environmental Significance of the Narrative in the Light of International Environmental Law on the Preservation of the Whaling Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Alves de Paula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the environmental significance of Moby Dick, narrative that, in the mid-nineteenth century, warned, indirectly, on the need to preserve nature against the excesses of whaling. For this, we analyzed the main regulations that composes the environmental protection regime for whaling marine life, one of which allowed exceptions to the prohibition of hunting, based both on alleged scientific research needs as the claim of cultural practices, and the decision of the ICJ in the case brought by Australia in face of Japan.

  13. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis.

  14. [The evaluation of the quality of life in the patients presenting with various forms of chronic otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyakov, S Ya; Minavnina, Yu V; Gunenkov, A V

    Chronic otitis media (COM) is a widespread pathological condition that affects up to 2% of the general population. Certain forms of this disease markedly deteriorate the quality of life of the patients which makes them overestimate the severity of harm to their health status and can be a cause of inflated expectations as regards the results of the planned surgical treatment. The linking element between the patient's expectations and the outcomes of the surgical intervention may be the recently developed questionnaires for the evaluation of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). One of them, the COMQ-12 questionnaire, was devised to estimate the subjective reports by the patients concerning the deterioration of their quality of life attributable to chronic otitis media. The objective of the present study was to characterize the value of the 5-point Russian-language version of COMQ-12 for the evaluation of each of its 12 items concerning various aspects of health based on the personal opinions of the patients suffering from chronic otitis media The study included 108 patients 49 of whom were men and 59 women (45% and 55% respectively) at the age varying from 16 to 84 years. The COMQ-12 scores, according to the reports of individual patients, ranged from 4 to 43 of the 60 ones possible. The average score was 19.4 (SD=8.3). The overall median COMQ-12 score was 20, and the mode scored 14. The Cronbach-alpha index was equal to 0.860. The Russian-language version of the COMQ-12 questionnaire provides a reliable tool for the estimation of the quality of life in the patients presenting with various forms of chronic otitis media.

  15. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  16. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Goh, Khean-Lee; Thumboo, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was de...

  17. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Araghi, Mahmood Tavakoli; Shamsabadi, Fatemeh; Bayat, Mahdiye; Dabirkhani, Fatemeh; Moradpour, Farhad; Mansori, Kamyar; Moradi, Yousef; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients' quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (pmeasurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life.

  18. The phylogeny and life cycle of two species of Profilicollis (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in marine hosts off the Pacific coast of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S M; D'Elía, G; Valdivia, N

    2017-09-01

    Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P. altmani larvae infected exclusively molecrabs of the genus Emerita from fully marine habitats, P. antarcticus larvae infected the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from estuarine habitats. Moreover, P. altmani completed its life cycle in four seagulls, Chroicocephalus maculipennis, Leucopheus pipixcan, Larus modestus and L. dominicanus, while P. antarcticus, on the other hand, completed its life cycle in the kelp gull L. dominicanus. Accordingly, our results show that two congeneric parasites use different and spatially segregated species as intermediate hosts, and both are capable of infecting one species of definitive hosts. As such, our analyses allow us to shed light on a complex interaction network.

  19. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available , Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Marine Sedimentology and the newly formed Ocean Engineering programme. This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1987 and emphasizes important findings and conclusions...

  20. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaggan, Debra; Adjimatera, Noppadon; Sepcić, Kristina; Jaspars, Marcel; MacEwan, David J; Blagbrough, Ian S; Scott, Roderick H

    2006-01-16

    Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS), which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen)). DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12 degrees C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  1. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagbrough Ian S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS, which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen. DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Results Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12°C compared to 21°C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12°C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Conclusion Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  2. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  3. Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani

    2012-01-01

    The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  5. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  6. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the grasslands in the Hunting Zone of Djona (Benin)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahoudji, Myrese C.; Teka, Oscar; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addressed temporal changes in floristic composition, plant communities’ structures and productivity of grasslands. The study was conducted in the Hunting zone of Djona in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve of W (TBRW) Benin. Methodology and Results: For these purpose 30...... plots of 900m² were used and “phytosociological relevés” were done following ecological uniformity, floristic homogeneity and samples representativeness to established plants communities. Biomass was estimated in 30 plots of 100 m². Results showed that the greatest productivity value (8320 ± 0.21 kg DM...... with broad distribution. Conclusions and application of findings: The identified life forms and chorological types showed an evolution of the post farming pastures to woodlands and savannas vegetation, which explains the current floristic composition of the area. Moreover, it will be possible to model...

  7. Summary Report Panel 1: The Need for Protocols and Standards in Research on Underwater Noise Impacts on Marine Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Ainslie, Michael A; de Jong, Christ A F; Racca, Roberto; Stocker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As concern about anthropogenic noise and its impacts on marine fauna is increasing around the globe, data are being compared across populations, species, noise sources, geographic regions, and time. However, much of the raw and processed data are not comparable due to differences in measurement methodology, analysis and reporting, and a lack of metadata. Common protocols and more formal, international standards are needed to ensure the effectiveness of research, conservation, regulation and practice, and unambiguous communication of information and ideas. Developing standards takes time and effort, is largely driven by a few expert volunteers, and would benefit from stakeholders' contribution and support.

  8. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the korean version of the minneapolis-manchester quality of life instrument-adolescent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Yang, Hyung Kook; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, Yoon Yi; Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Nam, Byung Ho; Bhatia, Smita; Park, Byung Kiu; Ghim, Thad T; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-12-01

    We verified the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument-Adolescent Form (KMMQL-AF) among Korean childhood cancer survivors. A total of 107 childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and 98 childhood cancer survivors who completed cancer treatment were recruited. To assess the internal structure of the KMMQL-AF, we performed multi-trait scaling analyses and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, we compared each domains of the KMMQL-AF with those of the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Internal consistency of the KMMQL-AF was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha: 0.78-0.92). In multi-trait scaling analyses, the KMMQL-AF showed sufficient construct validity. The "physical functioning" domain showed moderate correlation with Karnofsky scores and the "psychological functioning" domain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the RCMAS. The KMMQL-AF discriminated between subgroups of different adolescent cancer survivors depending on treatment completion. The KMMQL-AF is a sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life among Korean childhood cancer survivors.

  10. Analyzing the Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire in Patients with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amer, Rashed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Alajlan, Safeyah Ali; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2018-03-14

    The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain. Demographic data were extracted. Principal component analysis was used to extract component factors. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity and fit. The Cronbach's alpha value of the extracted factors was used to determine the internal consistency reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 and IBM AMOS version 22.0. Most of the participants were female with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.24 kg/m 2 . A six-factor solution explaining 52.31% of variance was generated. The global fit parameter estimates indicated that the suggested model exhibited an acceptable-to-good fit. Overall, the internal consistency reliability estimate of the SF-36 questionnaire was greater than 0.70. The identified six-factor model of the SF-36 questionnaire is a valuable tool for the measurement of quality of life among patients with obesity in Bahrain.

  11. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). [41 FR...

  12. Estimation of the shelf life of canned marinated hearts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. and the content of omega 3 and omega 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas Padilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated shelf life of canned marinated hearts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. which had the major sensory preference in color and flavor evaluated by a semi trained panel conformed by 15 judges. Also omega 3 and omega 6 content was determined (28.69 g/100g y 43.26 g/100g of fat respectively which are within the limit approved by the World Health Organization. It was done the estimation of the shelf life by accelerated testing, the samples were incubated at 37ºC, 49ºC and 55ºC, evaluating the kinetic of deterioration of the fat in function of the peroxide index that followed a reaction of order zero. The temperature effect was evaluated with the equation of Arrhenius, and the activation energy was 96115.6 J/mol. At a storage temperature of 20 ºC, the estimation of shelf life was 892 days.

  13. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1......Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life......-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached...

  14. Design and analysis of FBG based sensor for detection of damage in oil and gas pipelines for safety of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Amna; Kothari, Vaishali; Kumar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The under laid gas and oil pipelines on the seafloor are prone to various disturbances like seismic movements of the sea bed, oceanic currents, tsunamis. These factors tend to damage such pipelines connecting different locations of the world dependent on these pipelines for their day-to-day use of oil and natural gas. If damaged, the oil spills in the water bodies cause grave loss to marine life along with serious economic issues. It is not feasible to monitor the undersea pipelines manually because of the huge seafloor depth. For timely detection of such damage, a new technique using optical Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and its installation has been given in this work. The idea of an FBG sensor for detecting damage in pipeline structure based on the acoustic emission has been worked out. The numerical calculation has been done based on the fundamental of strain measurement and the output has been simulated using MATLAB.

  15. Analysis of Reliability Estimations and Spares Protection Levels on Life Cycle Costs of the Marine Corps H-1 Upgrades Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, David

    2004-01-01

    .... This will be accomplished through the integration of factors impacting spare parts levels and Life Cycle Costs into a spreadsheet model that will establish the appropriate relationship between the factors...

  16. Warfare Ecology on an Underwater Demolition Range: Acoustic Observations of Marine Life and Shallow Water Detonations in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lee H.

    Most studies investigating the effects of military-associated anthropogenic noise concentrate on deep sea or open ocean propagation of sonar and its effect on marine mammals. In littoral waters, U.S. military special operations units regularly conduct shallow water explosives training, yet relatively little attention has been given to the potential impact on nearshore marine ecosystems from these underwater detonations. This dissertation research focused on the Pu'uloa Underwater Detonation Range off the coast of O`ahu, and examined multiple aspects of the surrounding marine ecosystem and the effects of detonations using acoustic monitoring techniques. The soundscape of a nearshore reef ecosystem adjacent to the UNDET range was characterized through analysis of passive acoustic recordings collected over the span of 6 years. Snapping shrimp were the predominant source of noise, and a diel pattern was present, with increased sound energy during the night hours. Results revealed a difference of up to 7dB between two Ecological Acoustic Recorder locations 2.5km apart along the 60ft isobath. Passive acoustic recording files were searched visually and aurally for odontocete whistles. Whistles were detected in only 0.6% of files analyzed, indicating this area is not frequently transited by coastal odontocete emitting social sounds. The study also opportunistically captured a humpback whale singing during a detonation event, during which the animal showed no obvious alteration of its singing behavior. Four separate underwater detonation events were recorded using a surface deployed F-42C transducer, and the resulting analysis showed no measurable drop in the biologically produced acoustic energy in reaction to the explosive events. Coral reef fishes were recorded visually and acoustically during detonation events at a known distance and bearing from a known explosive sound source. Individual fish behavioral responses to the explosion varied, and a sharp uptick in fish

  17. Neuritogenic activity-guided isolation of a free base form manzamine A from a marine sponge, Acanthostrongylophora aff. ingens (Thiele, 1899)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Miyamoto, T.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two manzamine-class alkaloids, manzamine A (1) and 8-hydroxymanzamine (2) were isolated from a Japanese marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora aff. ingens, together with three known alkaloids manzamine E (3), manzamine F (4), and manzamine X (5). The spectral features of 1 and 2 were different from the

  18. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  19. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (-1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggiatoa spp., being closely related (up...

  20. Flora, life form and chorology of plants of the Helali protected area in Khorasan-e Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sokhanvar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available “Helali protected area” has been officially announced as a no-hunting zone since 1997 and then, became a protected area in 2006. This area with ca. 63495 hectares, is located in the west of Gonabad and southeast of Bajestan, Khorasan-e Razavi province. The area includes mountains, plains and foothills and has a dry and desert climate with warm summers and cold winters based on De Martonne’s aridity index. In investigation of the flora, 318 vascular plant species belonging to 205 genera and 53 families were identified. The most dominant families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Brassicaceae with 53, 30, and 26 plant species, respectively. Chorological classification of the flora showed that the majority of the species (56.3% belonged to the Irano-Turanian region. Pluri-regional, cosmopolitan and sub-cosmopolitan elements made up 14.1% of the flora which reflected a disturbance history in the area. Therophytes (47.5% and hemicryptophytes (26.1% were the most important life forms according to Raunkiaer classification.

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chok Limsuwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT, and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS. Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31, asthma (n = 3, interstitial lung disease (n = 5, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2. The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1 was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value. There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001. The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02; the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.

  2. Online version of the food allergy quality of life questionnaire-adult form: validity, feasibility and cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, N J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Duiverman, E J; Weiss, C C; Furlong, T J; Dubois, A E J

    2011-04-01

    Food-allergic reactions occur in 3-4% of the adult population in Western countries. It has been shown that food allergy may impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food allergy quality of life questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). These questionnaires may be particularly useful for cross-cultural comparisons. The aims of this study were to translate the FAQLQ-AF from Dutch into English and validate an online version in the United States. Additionally, HRQL of American and Dutch food-allergic adults was compared. The Dutch FAQLQ-AF was translated into English as set out by the World Health Organization and converted to an electronic online format. Participants (food allergic American adults) were recruited through the 'Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network' website and completed the questionnaire online. Construct validity, internal consistency, discriminative ability and feasibility were analysed. A cross-cultural comparison was made using the Dutch FAQLQ-AF scores. Data from 180 American participants were analysed. The online FAQLQ-AF had a good construct validity (correlation with FAIM: ρ=0.72; P<0.001), internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.95) and was discriminative for 'anaphylaxis' vs. 'no anaphylaxis' and 'number of food allergies'. The most striking finding was a significantly greater impairment in HRQL in the American participants, as compared with their Dutch counterparts (the total FAQLQ-AF scores were 4.3 vs. 3.5, respectively; P<0.001, where 1 signifies no impairment and 7 signifies extreme impairment in HRQL). The online American FAQLQ-AF is a valid instrument to measure HRQL in food-allergic patients in the United States. Additionally, HRQL of American food-allergic adults may be more impaired than Dutch food-allergic adults. The FAQLQ-AF can now be used to determine the HRQL in American food-allergic adults and can assist clinicians in optimizing management strategies for food

  3. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  4. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  5. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  6. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  8. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  9. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy FY

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for h...

  10. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  11. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    Amax) had more even leaf distribution patterns than evergreen species (which had low LCP, LSP and Amax); shade-adapted evergreen species had more even leaf distribution patterns than sun-adapted evergreen species. We propose that the leaf distribution pattern (i.e., 'evenness' CV, which is an easily measured functional trait) can be used to distinguish among life-forms in communities similar to the one examined in this study.

  12. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Khean-Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ, examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English and 0.83 (Malay, while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay. In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity, although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6 between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia.

  13. Life-cycle and genome of OtV5, a large DNA virus of the pelagic marine unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Derelle

    Full Text Available Large DNA viruses are ubiquitous, infecting diverse organisms ranging from algae to man, and have probably evolved from an ancient common ancestor. In aquatic environments, such algal viruses control blooms and shape the evolution of biodiversity in phytoplankton, but little is known about their biological functions. We show that Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest known marine photosynthetic eukaryote, whose genome is completely characterized, is a host for large DNA viruses, and present an analysis of the life-cycle and 186,234 bp long linear genome of OtV5. OtV5 is a lytic phycodnavirus which unexpectedly does not degrade its host chromosomes before the host cell bursts. Analysis of its complete genome sequence confirmed that it lacks expected site-specific endonucleases, and revealed the presence of 16 genes whose predicted functions are novel to this group of viruses. OtV5 carries at least one predicted gene whose protein closely resembles its host counterpart and several other host-like sequences, suggesting that horizontal gene transfers between host and viral genomes may occur frequently on an evolutionary scale. Fifty seven percent of the 268 predicted proteins present no similarities with any known protein in Genbank, underlining the wealth of undiscovered biological diversity present in oceanic viruses, which are estimated to harbour 200Mt of carbon.

  14. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  15. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  16. 26 CFR 1.6052-2 - Statements to be furnished employees with respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such statement is the only employer paying the employee remuneration in the form of group-term life... director may grant an extension of time not exceeding 30 days in which to furnish such statements. The application shall be addressed to the district director with whom the income tax returns of the applicant are...

  17. An assessment of factorial structure and health-related quality of life in problem drug users using the Short Form 36 Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Angela; Krol, Anneke; Rist, Fred; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To confirm the factorial structure of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) in problem drug users and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with general Dutch population norms. METHOD: Data of 394 participants from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among drug users, who had

  18. Comparative cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of biogas production from marine algae and cattle manure biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giwa, Adewale

    2017-11-01

    The environmental impacts resulting from the cradle-to-grave life cycles of Enteromorpha prolifera macroalgae and cattle manure biorefineries are assessed and compared. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the response of the impacts to changes in biogas application by using Simapro 7.3.3. Three scenarios are considered in the biorefineries. In the first and second scenarios, the biogas produced is considered to be used for electricity production and transportation, respectively. In the third scenario, the biogas is considered to be recycled back to the systems. Process energy requirements and transportation of inputs contribute the largest share of the overall impacts. The cattle manure biorefinery is slightly more eco-friendly than the macroalgae biorefinery in Scenarios 1 and 2 because it requires more eco-friendly inputs. However, the macroalgae biorefinery becomes more eco-friendly than the cattle manure biorefinery in Scenario 3 because macroalgae require less energy and water for biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dosing quillaia saponin on waste water form marine products industries; Suisan kako danchi kara o haisui ni taisuru quillaia saponin no tenka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-20

    For waste water treatment facilities of S marine products industrial complex, a demonstrative test was carried out on a waste water treatment method in which addition of biological activity promoter `quillaia saponin` and the aerobic/anaerobic method are combined. In the S marine products industrial complex, there are more than 100 plants which deal mostly with salt-preserved and boiled-fish-paste products. The plant is operated by the activated sludge method with the pretreatment pressurized floatation. The capacity of the aeration tank and concentration tank for the experiment was 2600m{sup 3} and 110m{sup 3}, respectively. The amount of saponin added was approximately 3mg/L for the amount of influent (raw waste water). The measurement items were transparency, SS, COD, BOD, n-hexane extracts (oil content), MLSS, etc. As a result of the experiment, it was found that the equipment of flocculant addition and pressurized floatation as pretreatment facilities is not necessary; the activated sludge treatment of even the waste water in which n-hexane extracts are more than 100mg/L is possible without the pretreatment; and the n-hexane extracts in the treated water is less than 2mg/L. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. How do trees and the small life forms under the ground talk to each other and other outside things: Can they make our world hot (or cool) again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Trees use water and a bad stuff in air as food with the help of sun light and store the bad stuff in it's body parts (both the parts above the ground and under the ground). However, trees (both above and under ground parts) also return part of the same bad stuff stored in their food to air as it grows. After death, these trees become part of the dead things under the ground and a large part of the bad stuff can be locked under the ground for quite a long time. But, small life forms living under the ground, eat these dead things and return part of the bad stuff locked in these dead things under the ground to the air. The small life forms living under the ground can also make two other stuff (which are even more bad) while eating these dead things under the ground and return them to the air. All of these bad stuffs returned to the air make the air hot. Different things (like sun light, rain, water in the air and under the ground) could make it easier or harder in either storing or returning each of these bad stuffs by the trees or life forms living under the ground in different ways. We study how trees and the small life forms living under the ground talk to each other and to other things mentioned above, and decide how much of those bad stuffs to store and return. But, we do not know well how each of these things can change one another and how trees and small life forms living under the ground will respond to these changes. So, we are yet to understand how much the air will be hotter (if more bad stuff are returned to the air than stored in trees and under the ground) or cooler (if less bad stuffs are returned to the air than stored in trees and under the ground) in tomorrow's world.

  1. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  2. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  3. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  4. Developing inclusive later life learning environments: insights form intersectional analysis of ageing and lesbian, gay, transgendered and bisexual identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McAllister

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To date there has been minimal empirical inquiry on what may constitute inclusive learning environments for older (50+ years lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT adults. This paper draws upon a recent life-histories study with older LGBT adults in Scotland to consider how such environments can be developed. To do so, intersectional analysis is applied to interrogate how participants' lived realities and sense of self are enabled and constrained by the interactions between their diverse ageing, LGBT and other identities in the particular contexts of later life, post work. The paper argues that by adopting this approach to intersectional analysis, critical educational gerontology (CEG is equipped to more effectively realise inclusive, meaningful and potentially empowering learning environments for older LGBT adults. These will be more attuned to their later life realities, enabling them to reflect on the changing significance of being LGBT as they age, while allowing potential for personal growth and renewed sense of self.

  5. Testing a new form to document 'Goals-of-Care' discussions regarding plans for end-of-life care for patients in an Australian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Amber C; Levinson, Michele; Dunlop, William A; Cheong, Edward; Cowan, Timothy; Hanning, Jennifer; O'Callaghan, Erin; Walker, Katherine J

    2018-04-16

    There is limited literature to inform the content and format of Goals-of-Care forms, for use by doctors when they are undertaking these important conversations. This was a prospective, qualitative and quantitative study evaluating the utility of a new 'Goals-of-Care' form to doctors in a private, tertiary ED, used from December 2016 to February 2017 at Cabrini, Melbourne. A Goals-of-Care form was designed, incorporating medical aims of therapy and patient values and preferences. Doctors wishing to complete a Not-for-CPR form were also supplied with the trial Goals-of-Care form. Form use, content and patient progress were followed. Doctors completing a form were invited to interview. Forms were used in 3% of attendances, 120 forms were taken for use and 108 were analysed. The median patient age was 91, 81% were Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool (SPICT) positive and patients had a 48% 6-month mortality. A total of 34 doctors completed the forms, 16 were interviewed (two ED trainees, 11 senior ED doctors and three others). Theme saturation was only achieved for the senior doctors interviewed. Having a Goals-of-Care form was valued by 88% of doctors. The frequency of section use was: Aims-of-Care 91%; Quality-of-Life 75% (the term was polarising); Functional Impairments 35%; and Outcomes of Value 29%. Opinions regarding the ideal content and format varied. Some doctors liked free-text space and others tick-boxes. The median duration of the conversation and documentation was 10 min (interquartile range 6-20 min). Having a Goals-of-Care form in emergency medicine is supported; the ideal contents of the form was not determined. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Identification & Registration of Marine Animals (IRMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Verboom, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about habitats and behaviour of marine animals has become more important following an increased concern that acoustic sources may have an influence on marine life. Databases containing the habitats and behaviour are being filled all over the world. However, at present marine mammal

  7. Psychometric properties of the Spanish form of the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Balaguer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the SMiLE (Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation). The SMiLE is a respondent-generated instrument: respondents are first asked to list three to seven areas, which provide meaning to their lives, and then to rate their current satisfaction with the listed areas, as well as the individual importance of each one. Indices of total weighting (IoW), total satisfaction (IoS), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS) are calculated. Two hundred and fifty University students responded to the Spanish version of the SMiLE, as well as to instruments for measuring self-esteem, quality of life, depression, and anxiety. The Cronbach alphas (α = 0.61 for IoS and α = 0.41 for IoW) and test-retest correlations were comparable to those found in the initial validation of the instrument (IoS: r = 0.55; IoW: r = 0.61). The SMiLE showed positive correlations with self-esteem (r = 0.28, P life scale (r = 0.31, P depression (r = -0.23, P life.

  8. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  9. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Pagano, Tatiana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Ferreira, Elizabeth A G; Pereira, Carlos A B; Marques, Amélia P

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG) and Control Group (CG) (n=75 in each group). The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05) and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve--sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC). The significance level was 0.05. The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8 ± 8.1; FG: 47.0 ± 7.7 years). A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients, and we suggest that both should be used in parallel because they evaluate relevant and complementary aspects of quality of life.

  10. Quality of Life Through Gender Role Perspective in Candidate Renal Transplant Recipients: A Report From Başkent University Using the Short Form 36 Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz Özdemir, Aydan; Sayın, Cihat Burak; Erdal, Rengin; Özcan, Cihangir; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease through a "gender role perspective." Patients were on hemodialysis treatment and on a wait list for transplant. This study was conducted at the Başkent University Adana, Ankara, and Istanbul hemodialysis centers. Patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires voluntarily to evaluate quality of life. The questions were answered independently by patients while they were undergoing hemodialysis treatment. The mean age of participants was 54 ± 16.5 years. Quality of life was found to be higher in men (44.7 ± 19.2), and there was a negative correlation between quality of life and age in both sexes, as well as marriage age, number of pregnancies, and age of patient at the first live birth in women (P < .05). We found statistically significant differences between men and women regarding physical health and mental health dimensions. Quality of life scores increased with level of education (P < .001). In addition, patients in Ankara had the highest quality of life compared with Istanbul and Adana (P < .01). Average time on hemodialysis treatment, the number of weekly hemodialysis sessions, mean time of the disease, and mean duration of abandoning hemodialysis sessions were negatively associated with all components of quality of life (P < .05). We found that sex, education level, social status, and home city of patients had a high impact on quality of life. Thus, it is essential to educate both male and female patients regarding sex/gender and health issues before transplant to increase the recipient's physical and mental health dimensions.

  11. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R German

    Full Text Available The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010 helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but

  12. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher R; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Baker, Maria C; Tyler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010) helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N) showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N) are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i) continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii) increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii) concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but also the

  13. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  14. [[Method of forming a multiple attrition life table and its application to the study of nuptiality among women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    1987-01-01

    Trends in marital status among women in China for the period 1950-1970 and for 1981 are analyzed using the multiple decrement life table method. The results confirm those obtained with traditional methods of data analysis. It is found that over the past 30 years, Chinese women have experienced a high rate of marriage and a low divorce rate. The significant increase in age at marriage and the lowering of the death rate have affected marital status at all ages. The development of a marital status life table permits the author to estimate current numbers of women in the four marital statuses of unmarried, currently married, widowed, and divorced by age and their future likelihood of changing marital status.

  15. World Health Organization quality of life instrument-brief and Short Form-36 in patients with coronary artery disease: do they measure similar quality of life concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luciane Nascimento; Camey, Suzi Alves; Fleck, Marcelo Pio; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL)-brief and SF-36 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Considering that depression is known to be associated with bad outcomes in CAD and it is highly associated with poor Quality of Life (QOL), we tested the correlation between WHOQOL and SF-36 and an instrument to screen depressive symptoms. It is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 103 patients with documented CAD. QOL was measured through WHOQOL-brief and SF-36 and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). To evaluate convergent validity, the correlations between both QOL assessment instruments were examined; discriminant validity was assessed through BDI and QOL instruments correlations. Coefficient Cronbach's alpha was used to test reliability. Percentages of floor and ceiling effects were higher in SF-36 scores than the WHOQOL-brief ones. Although WHOQOL-brief showed a maximum of 1% of floor effect and 9% of ceiling effect, SF-36 presented 40 and 32%, respectively. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.85 for the WHOQOL-brief and 0.57 to 0.89 for the SF-36. Correlations between subscales of WHOQOL-brief and BDI ranged from -0.74 to -0.61 and correlations between subscales of SF-36 and BDI ranged from -0.68 to -0.26. SF-36 and WHOQOL-brief seem to be valid and consistent QOL measures in patients with CAD. Researchers should define the aims of their studies before choosing which instrument to use, because they appear to measure different constructs of QOL.

  16. Response of a Habitat-Forming Marine Plant to a Simulated Warming Event Is Delayed, Genotype Specific, and Varies with Phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reynolds

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that increasing global temperature causes population declines and latitudinal shifts in geographical distribution for plants living near their thermal limits. Yet, even populations living well within established thermal limits of a species may suffer as the frequency and intensity of warming events increase with climate change. Adaptive response to this stress at the population level depends on the presence of genetic variation in thermal tolerance in the populations in question, yet few data exist to evaluate this. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of a moderate warming event of 4.5°C lasting 5 weeks and the legacy effects after a 5 week recovery on different genotypes of the marine plant Zostera marina (eelgrass. We conducted the experiment in Bodega Bay, CA USA, where average summer water temperatures are 14-15°C, but extended warming periods of 17-18°C occur episodically. Experimental warming increased shoot production by 14% compared to controls held at ambient temperature. However, after returning temperature to ambient levels, we found strongly negative, delayed effects of warming on production: shoot production declined by 27% and total biomass decreased by 50% relative to individuals that had not been warmed. While all genotypes' production decreased in the recovery phase, genotypes that grew the most rapidly under benign thermal conditions (control were the most susceptible to the detrimental effects of warming. This suggests a potential tradeoff in relative performance at normal vs. elevated temperatures. Modest short-term increases in water temperature have potentially prolonged negative effects within the species' thermal envelope, but genetic variation within these populations may allow for population persistence and adaptation. Further, intraspecific variation in phenology can result in maintenance of population diversity and lead to enhanced production in diverse stands given sufficient

  17. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-19

    Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  18. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  19. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  20. Influences of humic acid on the bioavailability of phenanthrene and alkyl phenanthrenes to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangzhi; Yang, Chenghu; Cheng, Pakkin; He, Xiaojing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) on the environmental behavior and bioavailability of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl PAHs were investigated and compared using the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, O. melastigma). It was demonstrated that the binding affinity of parent phenanthrene (PHE) with HA was smaller than that of 3-methyl phenanthrene (3-MP) and 9-ethyl phenanthrene (9-EP). Furthermore, the bioaccumulation of the three PAHs and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were calculated to study the changes in bioavailability of PAHs in presence of HA. The results indicated that the addition of HA significantly decreased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of PAHs by decreasing free PAHs concentrations. The bioavailable fractions of HA-bound PAHs in bioaccumulation (α) and toxicity (β) were evaluated, indicating that the HA-bound 3-MP and 9-EP show higher bioavailability in bioaccumulation and lower bioavailability in toxicity relative to those of PHE. The β/α values were less than 1 for all PAH treatment groups containing HA, suggesting that the fraction of HA-bound PAHs contributing to bioaccumulation was higher than that of HA-bound PAHs inducing toxic effect. In addition, we proposed that the free PAHs generated by desorption from HA in the cell were toxic by showing that the β/α ratio values are correlated with the log K_O_W values (p = 0.007 and R"2 = 0.8355). Thus, oil spill risk assessments should consider both alkyl PAHs and the factors that influence the bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs in the natural aquatic environments. - Highlights: • Effects of HA on bioavailability of parent and alkyl PAHs were firstly compared. • Changes in the bioavailability due to HA depended on the alkylation of PAHs. • The bioavailable fractions of the HA-bound parent and alkyl PAHs were calculated. • The toxicity of HA-bound PAHs was related to the physicochemical properties of PAHs. - This study is the

  1. The Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of a Rare Piscivorous Life History Form in Brown Trout after Secondary Contact and Strong Introgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Jacobs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis underlying phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation is a longstanding problem in evolutionary biology. Genetic signals of adaptation and reproductive isolation are often confounded by a wide range of factors, such as variation in demographic history or genomic features. Brown trout (Salmo trutta in the Loch Maree catchment, Scotland, exhibit reproductively isolated divergent life history morphs, including a rare piscivorous (ferox life history form displaying larger body size, greater longevity and delayed maturation compared to sympatric benthivorous brown trout. Using a dataset of 16,066 SNPs, we analyzed the evolutionary history and genetic architecture underlying this divergence. We found that ferox trout and benthivorous brown trout most likely evolved after recent secondary contact of two distinct glacial lineages, and identified 33 genomic outlier windows across the genome, of which several have most likely formed through selection. We further identified twelve candidate genes and biological pathways related to growth, development and immune response potentially underpinning the observed phenotypic differences. The identification of clear genomic signals divergent between life history phenotypes and potentially linked to reproductive isolation, through size assortative mating, as well as the identification of the underlying demographic history, highlights the power of genomic studies of young species pairs for understanding the factors shaping genetic differentiation.

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  3. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  4. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  5. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  6. Contribution of waterborne nitrogen emissions to hypoxia-driven marine eutrophication: modelling of damage to ecosystems in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias

    Marine eutrophication refers to the ecosystem response to the loading of a growth limiting nutrient, typically nitrogen (N), to coastal waters, where it may cause several impacts. One of the possible impact pathways to these impacts involves the excessive depletion of dissolved oxygen hypoxia) in...... and atmospheric deposition as a consequence of fossil fuels combustion.......Marine eutrophication refers to the ecosystem response to the loading of a growth limiting nutrient, typically nitrogen (N), to coastal waters, where it may cause several impacts. One of the possible impact pathways to these impacts involves the excessive depletion of dissolved oxygen hypoxia......) in bottom waters. Hypoxia is identified as an important and widespread cause of disturbance to marine ecosystems and has been linked to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. This is driven by environmental emissions of reactive nitrogen, mainly from N-containing fertilizers used in agriculture...

  7. Plant life form based habitat monitoring in a European landscape framework for early warning of changes in land cover and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin; Bloch-Petersen, Margit

    and habitat composition and quality. The focus on essential features of the habitat that can be expressed easily and quantitatively for identification and mapping of small but significant changes at a landscape level has resulted in the reintroduction of Raunkiaers plant life form concept from 1907...... of agricultural land use, general land cover and tree and shrub cover of small biotopes), it has not been difficult to integrate the BioHab framework in the SBMP-monitoring system, thus permitting the monitoring system to deliver an additional important European perspective with only very limited extra resources...

  8. Flora, life form and chorology of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana habitats in forests of the Farim area of Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Soleymanipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to present floristic-physiognomic investigation of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana of the Farim area of Sari. All of species in the area were recorded by two methods field-walk and 60 releves with an area of 400 m2 in a systematic-selective design in two elevation classes, more and less than 1200 m above sea level implemented. Our results showed that the flora of this region includes 47 families, 67 genera, and 77 species. Phanerophytes (37.7%, Cryptophytes (32.5% and Hemicryptophytes (24.7% were the most important structure groups of the local biological spectrum according to Raunkiaer method, and also with increasing elevation, portions of Hemicryptophytes and Cryptophytes increased and decreased, respectively. Chorological studies showed that chorotype form Euro-Sibria was the most important phytochorion in two habitats. The correlation of environment variables with two first axes of DCA showed that elevation of sea level and dominance average (canopy percentage of Box trees had decisive role on the vegetation composition and mean richness of species (Hill N0 index. Also, Jackknife estimation results confirmed that species richness in habitats with elevation more than 1200 m (75.8 species had a higher level compared to habitats with elevation less than 1200 m (58.6 species because of decreasing box trees dominance. Totally, the results of the present study not only confirmed the ecological capacity of Box trees in developing up to 1700 m in mountain forests of north Iran, but also the association of box trees with some plants of high regions with steep slope of north Hyrcanian forests such as: Acer mazandaranicum, Carpinus schuschaensis and Taxus baccata, can be introduced as two new syntaxa including Taxus baccata- Buxus hyrcana and Carpinus schuschaensis- Buxus hyrcana in Hyrcanian forests.

  9. Geostatistical modelling of the spatial life history of post-larval deepwater hake Merluccius paradoxus in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, T; Kristensen, K; Fairweather, T. P.

    2017-01-01

    paradoxus are not reflected in the current assessment and management practices for the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. In this study, we compiled data from multiple demersal trawl surveys from the entire distribution area and applied state-of the-art geostatistical population modelling (Geo...

  10. Life cycles, molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the ‘pygmaeus’ microphallids (Digenea: Microphallidae): widespread parasites of marine and coastal birds in the Holarctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galaktionov, K.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Olson, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2012), s. 1346-1360 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : marine parasites * trematode * Microphallus * parasite speciation * parasite transmission * host-parasite co-evolution * host switching * host-parasite assemblages Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  14. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  16. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  18. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  20. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Filipino version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form (KDQOL-SF version 1.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataclan, Rommel P; Dial, Ma Antonietta D

    2009-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is the 10th leading cause of death among Filipinos. Those with chronic kidney disease are exposed to stressors which effect their daily lives. Therefore, assessment of health-related quality of life is important in these patients. The objective of the present study was to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) into Filipino and measure its validity and reliability. Translation and cultural adaptation began with two translations into Filipino, with reconciliation of the forward translators. Pretesting with 10 renal patients, review by experts (nephrologist, translator and dialysis nurse) and back-translation was also done. The final questionnaire was administered to 80 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing haemodialysis for at least 3 months, who could understand Filipino, and were without life-threatening or terminal conditions at the time of the test. A convenience sample of 30 patients from the group had a repeat test 10-14 days after to determine test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency reliability was measured by determining the Cronbach's alpha value. Validity was measured using Pearson's correlation between the overall health rating scale and the items from the questionnaire. All of the items showed good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.40), ranging from 0.58 (social interaction) to 0.98 (role--emotional). Internal consistency reliability values were acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.60 (cognitive function) to 0.80 (physical functioning and role--physical). Regarding construct validity, overall health rating in kidney disease-targeted scales was significantly correlated with symptoms/problems, effects of kidney disease and burden of kidney disease. All items in the SF 36 scales had significant correlation with overall health rating (P < 0.05) except

  1. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  2. LINKS to NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MARINE FORECAST OFFICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Organization Search Search Landlubber's forecast: "City, St" or zip code (Pan/Zoom for Marine) Search SERVICE MARINE FORECAST OFFICES (Click on the NWS Forecast Center/Office of interest to link to that Marine Forecasts in text form ) Coastal NWS Forecast Offices have regionally focused marine webpages

  3. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; Rohul, Amin A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Filho, Gilberto M A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  4. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  5. Early-life supplementation of vitamins A and D, in water-soluble form or in peanut oil, and allergic diseases during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Inger; Bergström, Anna; Melén, Erik; Lilja, Gunnar; van Hage, Marianne; Pershagen, Göran; Wickman, Magnus

    2006-12-01

    Early vitamin supplementation is given routinely to infants in many countries, but it is unclear whether this affects the risk of allergic diseases. We sought to study the association between early-life supplementation of vitamins A and D in water-soluble form or in peanut oil and allergic diseases up to 4 years of age. A prospective birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for 4 years using parental questionnaires repeatedly to collect information on exposure and health. At 4 years, the response rate was 90%, and allergen-specific IgE levels to food and airborne allergens were measured in 2614 of the participating children. Vitamins A and D were given to 98% of the children in infancy, and vitamins based in peanut oil dominated (90%). Children supplemented with vitamins A and D in water-soluble form during the first year of life had an almost 2-fold increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OD], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.45-3.28), food hypersensitivity (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.33-2.65), and sensitization to common food and airborne allergens (adjusted OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.34-2.64) at age 4 years compared with those receiving vitamins in peanut oil. No increased risk of IgE antibodies to peanut was seen in children receiving vitamins in peanut oil. Supplementation of vitamins A and D in water-soluble form seems to increase the risk of allergic disease up to the age of 4 years compared with supplementation with the same vitamins given in peanut oil. Vitamins A and D in oil does not seem to increase the risk of allergic disease during childhood.

  6. Multi-field coupling finite element analysis for determining the influence of temperature field on die service life during precision-forming process of steel synchronizer ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Luo, Shan-Ming; Li, Feng-Qiang; Xu, Chen-Bing [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China)

    2017-07-15

    Failure analysis shows that increased die temperature caused by severe plastic deformation of material and heat conduction between hot billet and cavity significantly affects the distortion of gear cavity in steel synchronizer ring forging process. The forging process of steel synchronizer ring and die temperature distribution under different forging conditions are analyzed through finite element method. Simulation results show that severe plastic deformation occurs in the gear cavity. The improvement of lubrication condition results in decreased die temperature. When the initial billet temperature is high, the die temperature is also high. Increasing forging speed in a certain range facilitates the die temperature decrease. The distribution of die temperature in synthetic forming technology is more reasonable than that of one step forging. The synthetic forming technology is adopted in production to reduce the effects of severe plastic deformation caused by die temperature. The ejection mechanism and control system of the double disc friction press are improved to reduce the contact time between the hot billet and cavity. Experimental results show that synthetic forming technology is reasonable, and that the die service life is prolonged.

  7. Multi-field coupling finite element analysis for determining the influence of temperature field on die service life during precision-forming process of steel synchronizer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun; Luo, Shan-Ming; Li, Feng-Qiang; Xu, Chen-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Failure analysis shows that increased die temperature caused by severe plastic deformation of material and heat conduction between hot billet and cavity significantly affects the distortion of gear cavity in steel synchronizer ring forging process. The forging process of steel synchronizer ring and die temperature distribution under different forging conditions are analyzed through finite element method. Simulation results show that severe plastic deformation occurs in the gear cavity. The improvement of lubrication condition results in decreased die temperature. When the initial billet temperature is high, the die temperature is also high. Increasing forging speed in a certain range facilitates the die temperature decrease. The distribution of die temperature in synthetic forming technology is more reasonable than that of one step forging. The synthetic forming technology is adopted in production to reduce the effects of severe plastic deformation caused by die temperature. The ejection mechanism and control system of the double disc friction press are improved to reduce the contact time between the hot billet and cavity. Experimental results show that synthetic forming technology is reasonable, and that the die service life is prolonged.

  8. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rey; Cyril Dégletagne; Claude Duchamp

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, ?Transcriptome analysis in non-model s...

  9. Safety performance monitoring of autonomous marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Christoph A.; Utne, Ingrid B.

    2017-01-01

    The marine environment is vast, harsh, and challenging. Unanticipated faults and events might lead to loss of vessels, transported goods, collected scientific data, and business reputation. Hence, systems have to be in place that monitor the safety performance of operation and indicate if it drifts into an intolerable safety level. This article proposes a process for developing safety indicators for the operation of autonomous marine systems (AMS). The condition of safety barriers and resilience engineering form the basis for the development of safety indicators, synthesizing and further adjusting the dual assurance and the resilience based early warning indicator (REWI) approaches. The article locates the process for developing safety indicators in the system life cycle emphasizing a timely implementation of the safety indicators. The resulting safety indicators reflect safety in AMS operation and can assist in planning of operations, in daily operational decision-making, and identification of improvements. Operation of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) exemplifies the process for developing safety indicators and their implementation. The case study shows that the proposed process leads to a comprehensive set of safety indicators. It is expected that application of the resulting safety indicators consequently will contribute to safer operation of current and future AMS. - Highlights: • Process for developing safety indicators for autonomous marine systems. • Safety indicators based on safety barriers and resilience thinking. • Location of the development process in the system lifecycle. • Case study on AUV demonstrating applicability of the process.

  10. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making...... could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts....

  11. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Sega Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin, two offshore (autochthonous origin, and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin. The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L, of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively, and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations, whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an

  12. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs) and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Adalto; Smith, Scott; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Diamond, Rachael L.; Wood, Chris M.

    2017-01-01

    Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin). The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L), of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively), and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations), whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an important factor in

  13. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire...... be summarized into an 11 factor structure that jointly accounted for 79.81% of the variance. CONCLUSION: The Iranian version of the KDQOL-SF questionnaire is both highly reliable and valid for use with Iranian patients on haemodialysis....

  14. Integration of European habitat monitoring based on plant life form composition as an indicator of environmental change and change in biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch-Petersen, Margit; Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

      During the last 25 years a number of European countries have developed general landscape monitoring systems. In the agricultural landscapes of Denmark the Small Biotope Monitoring Program (SBMP), which focuses on the dynamics of small biotopes and their relation to changes in agricultural...... led to the re-introduction of Raunkiaer's plant life form concept. This approach enables the indication of changes in biodiversity based on alterations in general habitat composition and quality. Although the objectives of the SBMP and the BioHab projects have been somewhat different......, the methodologies have much in common. In this paper the background and perspectives of the two approaches are discussed, and a test of the BioHab field methodology in an area previously monitored by the SBMP is presented. It was found not to be difficult to integrate the BioHab field recording methodology...

  15. A factor analytic study of the Italian National Institute of Health Quality of Life – Core Evaluation Form (ISSQoL-CEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lauriola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available M Lauriola1, R Murri3, M Massella4, M Mirra4, S Donnini4, V Fragola4, J Ivanovic5, M Pavoni6, G Mancini2, R Bucciardini41Department of Social and Developmental Psychology, 2Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Catholic University of “Sacro Cuore”, Rome, Italy; 4Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 5National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy; 6Ospedale Civile Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, ItalyObjectives: The Italian National Institute of Health Quality of Life – Core Evaluation Form (ISSQoL-CEF is a specific questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life for human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The main goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of this questionnaire by confirmation of its hypothesized dimensional structure.Methods: Baseline quality of life data from four clinical studies were collected and a confirmatory factor analysis of the ISSQoL-CEF items was carried out. Both first-order and secondorder factor models were tested: Model 1 with nine correlated first-order factors; Model 2 with three correlated second-order factors (Physical, Mental, and Social Health; Model 3 with two correlated second-order factors (Physical and Mental/Social Health; Model 4 with only one second-order factor (General Health.Results: A total of 261 patients were surveyed. Model 1 had a good fit to the data. Model 2 had an acceptable fit to the data and it was the best of all hierarchical models. However, Model 2 fitted the data worse than Model 1.Conclusions: The findings of in this study, consistent with the results of previous study, pointed out the construct validity of the ISSQoL-CEF.Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, HRQoL, patient-reported outcomes

  16. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  17. Factor structure of the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form-50 and predictors of health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Speechley, Kathy N

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the higher-order summary factor structure of the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form-50 (CHQ) in a sample of children with new-onset epilepsy. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQL) 24 months post-diagnosis. Data came from the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 374), a multi-site study documenting HRQL among children with epilepsy from diagnosis through 24 months. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine goodness of fit between the original structure of the CHQ and HERQULES data. Multiple regression was used to identify risk factors at diagnosis for HRQL at 24 months. The models demonstrated good fit: baseline: CFI = 0.945; TLI = 0.941; WRMR = 1.461; RMSEA = 0.058; 24 months: CFI = 0.957; TLI = 0.954; WRMR = 1.393; RMSEA = 0.055. Factor loadings were high and no cross-loadings observed (first order: λ = 0.27-0.99, 0.24-0.98; second order: λ = 0.69-0.86, 0.54-0.92; p children with new-onset epilepsy, and child and family risk factors at diagnosis were found to predict HRQL 24 months post-diagnosis. These findings suggest it is possible to identify at-risk children early in the illness process and provide impetus for adopting family-centered care practices.

  18. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  19. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  20. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes in marine animals: variation and zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Welch, David Mark; Ellis, Julie C; Sogin, Mitchell L; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Giardia intestinalis is a microbial eukaryotic parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. The negative effect on quality of life and economics caused by G. intestinalis may be increased by its potential status as a zoonosis, or a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The zoonotic potential of G. intestinalis has been implied for over 2 decades, with human-infecting genotypes (belonging to the 2 major subgroups, Assemblages A and B) occurring in wildlife and domesticated animals. There are recent reports of G. intestinalis in shellfish, seals, sea lions and whales, suggesting that marine animals are also potential reservoirs of human disease. However, the prevalence, genetic diversity and effect of G. intestinalis in marine environments and the role that marine animals play in transmission of this parasite to humans are relatively unexplored. Here, we provide the first thorough molecular characterization of G. intestinalis in marine vertebrates. Using a multi-locus sequencing approach, we identify human-infecting G. intestinalis haplotypes of both Assemblages A and B in the fecal material of dolphins, porpoises, seals, herring gulls Larus argentatus, common eiders Somateria mollissima and a thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. Our results indicate that G. intestinalis is prevalent in marine ecosystems, and a wide range of marine hosts capable of harboring zoonotic forms of this parasite exist. The presence of G. intestinalis in marine ecosystems raises concerns about how this disease might be transmitted among different host species.

  1. Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale and Its Short Form in Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis from the UCLA Scleroderma Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Merz, Erin L; Clements, Philip J; Kafaja, Suzanne; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-09-01

    Changes in appearance are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can significantly affect well-being. The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) measures body image dissatisfaction in persons with visible disfigurement; the Brief-Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (Brief-SWAP) is its short form. The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of SWAP and Brief-SWAP scores in SSc. A sample of 207 patients with SSc participating in the University of California, Los Angeles Scleroderma Quality of Life Study completed the SWAP. Brief-SWAP scores were derived from the SWAP. The structural validity of both measures was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability of total and subscale scores was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Convergent and divergent validity was evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire. SWAP and Brief-SWAP total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The 4-factor structure of the SWAP fit well descriptively; the 2-factor structure of the Brief-SWAP fit well descriptively and statistically. Internal consistencies for total and subscale scores were good, and results supported convergent and divergent validity. Both versions are suitable for use in patients with SSc. The Brief-SWAP is most efficient; the full SWAP yields additional subscales that may be informative in understanding body image issues in patients with SSc.

  2. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  3. Validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy Fy

    2010-12-20

    In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education

  4. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  5. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Akkerman, I.; Koulman, A.; Kamermans, P.; Reith, H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sipkema, D.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  6. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  7. Is Shared Decision Making for End-of-Life Decisions Associated With Better Outcomes as Compared to Other Forms of Decision Making? A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Hajizadeh MD, MPH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether shared decision making (SDM has been evaluated for end-of-life (EOL decisions as compared to other forms of decision making has not been studied. Purpose: To summarize the evidence on SDM being associated with better outcomes for EOL decision making, as compared to other forms of decision making. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched through April 2014. Study Selection: Studies were selected that evaluated SDM, compared to any other decision making style, for an EOL decision. Data Extraction: Components of SDM tested, comparators to SDM, EOL decision being assessed, and outcomes measured. Data Synthesis: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria (three experimental and four observational studies. Results were analyzed using narrative synthesis. All three experimental studies compared SDM interventions to usual care. The four observational studies compared SDM to doctor-controlled decision making, or reported the correlation between level of SDM and outcomes. Components of SDM specified in each study differed widely, but the component most frequently included was presenting information on the risks/benefits of treatment choices (five of seven studies. The outcome most frequently measured was communication, although with different measurement tools. Other outcomes included decisional conflict, trust, satisfaction, and “quality of dying.” Limitations: We could not analyze the strength of evidence for a given outcome due to heterogeneity in the outcomes reported and measurement tools. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence supporting SDM being associated with improved outcomes for EOL decisions as opposed to other forms of decision making. Future studies should describe which components of SDM are being tested, outline the comparator decision making style, and use validated tools to measure outcomes.

  8. Structural validity of a 16-item abridged version of the Cervantes Health-Related Quality of Life scale for menopause: the Cervantes Short-Form Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Borrego, Rafael Sánchez; Palacios, Santiago; Ruiz, Miguel A; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The Cervantes Scale is a specific health-related quality of life questionnaire that was originally developed in Spanish to be used in Spain for women through and beyond menopause. It contains 31 items and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to produce an abridged version with the same dimensional structure and with similar psychometric properties. A representative sample of 516 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 57 [4.31] y) seen in outpatient gynecology clinics and extracted from an observational cross-sectional study was used. Item analysis, internal consistency reliability, item-total and item-dimension correlations, and item correlation with the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Version 2.0 were studied. Dimensional and full-model confirmatory factor analyses were used to check structure stability. A threefold cross-validation method was used to obtain stable estimates by means of multigroup analysis. The scale was reduced to a 16-item version, the Cervantes Short-Form Scale, containing four main dimensions (Menopause and Health, Psychological, Sexuality, and Couple Relations), with the first dimension composed of three subdimensions (Vasomotor Symptoms, Health, and Aging). Goodness-of-fit statistics were better than those of the extended version (χ(2)/df = 2.493; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.802; parsimony comparative fit index, 0.749; root mean standard error of approximation, 0.054). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.880). Correlations between the extended and the reduced dimensions were high and significant in all cases (P < 0.001; r values ranged from 0.90 for Sexuality to 0.969 for Vasomotor Symptoms). The Cervantes Scale can be reduced to a 16-item abridged version (Cervantes Short-Form Scale) that maintains the original dimensional structure and psychometric properties. At 51% of the original length, this version can be administered faster, making it especially suitable for routine medical practice.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  10. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  16. Dilution-to-extinction culturing of SAR11 members and other marine bacteria from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Roslinda B.

    2013-12-01

    Life in oceans originated about 3.5 billion years ago where microbes were the only life form for two thirds of the planet’s existence. Apart from being abundant and diverse, marine microbes are involved in nearly all biogeochemical processes and are vital to sustain all life forms. With the overgrowing number of data arising from culture-independent studies, it became necessary to improve culturing techniques in order to obtain pure cultures of the environmentally significant bacteria to back up the findings and test hypotheses. Particularly in the ultra-oligotrophic Red Sea, the ubiquitous SAR11 bacteria has been reported to account for more than half of the surface bacterioplankton community. It is therefore highly likely that SAR11, and other microbial life that exists have developed special adaptations that enabled them to thrive successfully. Advances in conventional culturing have made it possible for abundant, unculturable marine bacteria to be grown in the lab. In this study, we analyzed the effectiveness of the media LNHM and AMS1 in isolating marine bacteria from the Red Sea, particularly members of the SAR11 clade. SAR11 strains obtained from this study AMS1, and belonged to subgroup 1a and phylotype 1a.3. We also obtained other interesting strains which should be followed up with in the future. In the long run, results from this study will enhance our knowledge of the pelagic ecosystem and allow the impacts of rising temperatures on marine life to be understood.

  17. Internet vis-a-vis marine biology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.

    Internet is an amalgum of networks which reaches to more than 100 million people across the globe. The satellite-telecommunication based computer network web hosts information on every aspect of life. Marine biology related information too is being...

  18. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, has applied in due form for a permit to import marine... the dietary preferences and feeding ecology of Antarctic marine mammals by analyzing seal and whale...

  19. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElHafeez Samar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4 patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α TM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance. Conclusion The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

  20. A structural framework for a near-minimal form of life: mass and compositional analysis of the helical mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum BC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Trachtenberg

    Full Text Available Spiroplasma melliferum is a wall-less bacterium with dynamic helical geometry. This organism is geometrically well defined and internally well ordered, and has an exceedingly small genome. Individual cells are chemotactic, polar, and swim actively. Their dynamic helicity can be traced at the molecular level to a highly ordered linear motor (composed essentially of the proteins fib and MreB that is positioned on a defined helical line along the internal face of the cell's membrane. Using an array of complementary, informationally overlapping approaches, we have taken advantage of this uniquely simple, near-minimal life-form and its helical geometry to analyze the copy numbers of Spiroplasma's essential parts, as well as to elucidate how these components are spatially organized to subserve the whole living cell. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM was used to measure the mass-per-length and mass-per-area of whole cells, membrane fractions, intact cytoskeletons and cytoskeletal components. These local data were fit into whole-cell geometric parameters determined by a variety of light microscopy modalities. Hydrodynamic data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation allowed computation of the hydration state of whole living cells, for which the relative amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, DNA, and RNA were also estimated analytically. Finally, ribosome and RNA content, genome size and gene expression were also estimated (using stereology, spectroscopy and 2D-gel analysis, respectively. Taken together, the results provide a general framework for a minimal inventory and arrangement of the major cellular components needed to support life.

  1. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, John D; Bentler, Peter M; Klicko, Kristi; Hays, Ron D

    2018-04-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require that dialysis patients' health-related quality of life be assessed annually. The primary instrument used for this purpose is the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36), which includes the SF-12 as its generic core and 3 kidney disease-targeted scales: Burden of Kidney Disease, Symptoms and Problems of Kidney Disease, and Effects of Kidney Disease. Despite its broad use, there has been limited evaluation of KDQOL-36's psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of data collected by the Medical Education Institute to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the KDQOL-36 scales. KDQOL-36 responses from 70,786 dialysis patients in 1,381 US dialysis facilities that permitted data analysis were collected from June 1, 2015, through May 31, 2016, as part of routine clinical assessment. We assessed the KDQOL-36 scales' internal consistency reliability and dialysis facility-level reliability using coefficient alpha and 1-way analysis of variance. We evaluated the KDQOL-36's factor structure using item-to-total scale correlations and confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was examined using correlations between SF-12 and KDQOL-36 scales and "known groups" analyses. Each of the KDQOL-36's kidney disease-targeted scales had acceptable internal consistency reliability (α=0.83-0.85) and facility-level reliability (r=0.75-0.83). Item-scale correlations and a confirmatory factor analysis model evidenced the KDQOL-36's original factor structure. Construct validity was supported by large correlations between the SF-12 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary (r=0.40-0.52) and the KDQOL-36 scale scores, as well as significant differences on the scale scores between patients receiving different types of dialysis, diabetic and nondiabetic patients, and patients who were employed full-time versus not. Use of secondary data from a clinical registry. The study provides

  3. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  4. Life cycle and hydrologic modeling of rainwater harvesting in urban neighborhoods: Implications of urban form and water demand patterns in the US and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Boix, Anna; Devkota, Jay; Phillips, Robert; Vargas-Parra, María Violeta; Josa, Alejandro; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Apul, Defne

    2018-04-15

    Water management plays a major role in any city, but applying alternative strategies might be more or less feasible depending on the urban form and water demand. This paper aims to compare the environmental performance of implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in American and European cities. To do so, two neighborhoods with a water-stressed Mediterranean climate were selected in contrasting cities, i.e., Calafell (Catalonia, Spain) and Ukiah (California, US). Calafell is a high-density, tourist city, whereas Ukiah is a typical sprawled area. We studied the life cycle impacts of RWH in urban contexts by using runoff modeling before (i.e. business as usual) and after the implementation of this system. In general, cisterns were able to supply >75% of the rainwater demand for laundry and toilet flushing. The exception were multi-story buildings with roofs smaller than 200m 2 , where the catchment area was insufficient to meet demand. The implementation of RWH was environmentally beneficial with respect to the business-as-usual scenario, especially because of reduced runoff treatment needs. Along with soil features, roof area and water demand were major parameters that affected this reduction. RWH systems are more attractive in Calafell, which had 60% lower impacts than in Ukiah. Therefore, high-density areas can potentially benefit more from RWH than sprawled cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Saúde e trabalho docente: a escola como produtora de novas formas de vida Teaching and health: the school as producer of new forms of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabeth Barros

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como tema as articulações saúde-trabalho docente. Apresenta uma experiência vivida numa escola municipal da rede de ensino da cidade de Vitória, no Espírito Santo. Pauta-se nas abordagens de G. Canguilhem, na ergonomia de linhagem francesa e na ergologia para realizar o processo de pesquisa-intervenção. Parte do princípio de que o vivido na escola afirma a perspectiva segundo a qual saúde é possibilidade de produzir novas normas, ou seja, novas formas de vida. Nessa direção de análise, buscou criar espaços de diálogo e tensionamento na escola para que outros modos de trabalhar, favorecedores de saúde, pudessem se instituir.This article focuses on the relationship between teaching and health. It presents an experience in a public school in Vitória, Espírito Santo. The intervention research was based on the ideas of G. Canguilhem, on French ergonomics, and on ergology. Its basic premise is that experience at school confirms the concept that health is the possibility of producing new norms, that is, new forms of life. In this sense, the research sought to produce dialogue and tension at school so that other health-promoting modes of work could be implemented.

  6. Investigation of the flora, life forms and chorotypes of the plants in the Meymand Protected Area, Kohkilouyeh va Boyer Ahmad provice, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Naghipour Borj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Floristic studies have great importance as it represent the existence and the status of all plant species in an area. This study aimed to investigate the flora of Meymand Protected Area, located in central Zagros and in Kohkilouyeh va Boyer Ahmad provice with an elevation range of 1806 to 2730 meters from sea level. Plant families, genera and species were identified using taxonomic methods and available resources. According to the results, the flora of this area included 279 plant species belonging to 198 genera from 48 families. The richest families were Asteraceae with 50 species (17.9%, Poaceae, Lamiaceae with each 23 species (8.2% and Fabaceae with 22 species (7.8%. The dominance of hemicryptophytes and therophytes (totally, 82% life forms in the flora, were the characteristics of mountainous regions in central part of Iran. The high proportion of hemicryptophytes plants in the flora also indicated the dominance of a cold and montinious climates in the study area. The chorotypes of plants species showed that 57 percent (160 species of the plant species belonged to Irano-Touranian zone but other remaining species (119 speciecs grew in other geobotanical zones too. There were 5 vulnerable, 24 lower risks and 1 data deficient species in this protected area.

  7. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  8. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  9. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  11. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  12. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ: Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Andre-Michael

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ. In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years were included in this study. Most of the patients (62% suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S. The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Listiawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exploring the effectiveness of the program of theempowerment provided in the form life skills. Three problems are formulated in this research.They are (1 how effective the implementation of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area of Ampenan District was?; (2 what factors contributed to theeffectiveness of the empowerment program of the women residing at the coastal area?; (3 whatwere the effects and meanings of the effectiveness of the empowerment program of the womenresiding at the coastal area? The theories employed to answer the problems formulated above arethe theory of post feminism by Ann Brooks, the theory of social practice by Bourdieu and thetheory of power/knowledge by Foucault. The theories were eclectically applied. The qualitativemethod was employed in this study and the data needed were collected by the techniques ofobservation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (hereon abbreviated to FGD,documentation and library research.The results of the study show that (1 the program of the empowerment of the womenliving in the coastal area was ineffective; (2 the factors which contributed to the effectivenessof the empowerment of the women living along the coastal area are economic capital, culturalcapital, socio culture and symbolic culture; (3 the effects of the effectiveness of theempowerment program were on the skills acquired, the income earned, the independenceacquired, the environment where they live and their pattern

  14. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus before and after acclimatization to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, “Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays” (Dégletagne et al., 2010 [1]. We focused on genes involved in multiple antioxidant pathways. For better clarity, these differentially expressed genes were clustered into six functional groups according to their role in controlling redox homeostasis. The data are related to a comprehensive research study on the ontogeny of antioxidant functions in king penguins, “Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus” (Rey et al., 2016 [2]. The raw microarray dataset supporting the present analyses has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accessions GEO: GSE17725 and GEO: GSE82344.

  16. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm , " Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays " (Dégletagne et al., 2010) [1] . We focused on genes involved in multiple antioxidant pathways. For better clarity, these differentially expressed genes were clustered into six functional groups according to their role in controlling redox homeostasis. The data are related to a comprehensive research study on the ontogeny of antioxidant functions in king penguins, "Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)" (Rey et al., 2016) [2] . The raw microarray dataset supporting the present analyses has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository under accessions GEO: GSE17725 and GEO: GSE82344.

  17. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  18. Characteristic sizes of life in the oceans - from bacteria to whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Berge, T.; Goncalves, R.

    2016-01-01

    -based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life...... in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size......-based rules and identify unanswered questions....

  19. Fertility outcome and information on fertility issues in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development: findings from the dsd-LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi; Reisch, Nicole; Bouvattier, Claire; Thyen, Ute; Cohen Kettenis, Peggy; Roehle, Robert; Köhler, Birgit; Nordenström, Anna

    2017-11-01

    To investigate fertility outcome in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development (DSD), if assisted reproductive technology (ART) was used, and the patients' satisfaction with the information they had received. A cross-sectional multicenter study, dsd-LIFE. Not applicable. A total of 1,040 patients aged ≥16 years with different DSD diagnoses participated. A web-based questionnaire was filled out by all participants. The participants could chose to take part in somatic investigations including ultrasonography. Information on partner, number of children, ART, adoption and step-children, general health, presence of gonads and uterus, current education and economic situation, received information on fertility issues, and satisfaction with the information, was collected. In the total cohort, mean age 32 years, 33% lived with a partner, but only 14% reported having at least one child including 7% with ART, 4% adopted. Only 3.5% of the total cohort had been able to reproduce without ART, most frequently women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and only 0.7% of participants with other diagnoses. Of the participants, 72% had received information on fertility, but 17% were not satisfied with the information. Fertility outcome is significantly reduced in all types of DSD; however, fertility potential should be assessed individually. The satisfaction with how fertility problems have been discussed can be improved. The care of patients with DSD is complex, should be individualized, and new treatment possibilities incorporated. A close collaboration in multidisciplinary teams is therefore essential to improve the situation for individuals with DSD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flora, life form characteristics, and plan for the promotion of biodiversity in South Korea's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System, the traditional Gudeuljang irrigated rice terraces in Cheongsando

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chul PARK; Choong Hyeon OH

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the biodiversity of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces in Cheongsando,South Korea's representative GIAHS (Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System) site,with reference to position and land-use features,and to develop a plan to promote agricultural biodiversity in the region.We confirmed approximately 54,000 m2 of Gudeuljang paddy fields by an on-site survey.Of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces confirmed by onsite inspection,our survey showed that approximately 24,000 m2 are currently being used as paddy fields,approximately 15,000 m2 are being used as dry fields,and approximately 14,000 m2 are fallow.In terms of other non-agricultural land use,there was grassland,including graveyards;artificial arboreal land,such as orchards,rivers and wetlands,and man-made facilities,such as roads and residences.We also confirmed that the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces had higher plant species diversity than conventional terraced rice paddies,and there was a difference in life form characteristics between the two types.Although the superficial topsoil structure is the same for the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces (TGIRTs) and conventional terraced rice paddies,it is thought that the differences in the subsurface structure of the TGIRTs contribute greatly to species and habitat diversity.However,the TGIRTs in Cheongsando are facing degeneration,due to damage and reduction in agricultural activity.The main cause is the reduction in the number of farming households due to an aging population in Cheongsando.In order to address this problem,we proposed a management plan,related to fallow paddy fields in South Korea,to initiate voluntary activities in the TGIRTs.

  1. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  2. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  3. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  4. Longitudinal validity and responsiveness of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form in children 0-12 years following positive and negative food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Cullinane, C.; Daly, D. A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.

    P>Background There are no published studies of longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments of food-allergic children using a disease-specific measure. Objective This study assessed the longitudinal measurement properties of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent

  5. 77 FR 32571 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Bruce R. Mate, Ph.D., Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals world-wide for the purposes of scientific research... identified species of marine mammals species world-wide. The purposes of the proposed research are to: (1...

  6. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK, has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  7. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., AK 99811, has applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U...

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USA/Norway. Jared BOSIRE. Kenya .... can interact resulting in different life stages of the same stocks suffering .... balance (to the nearest gram), while total length (TL) was taken using a ..... environment to implement the work. In particular we.

  9. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts.

  10. Marine Picoeukaryotes in Cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nikolaj

    Picoeukaryotes form an important part of marine ecosystems, both as primary producers, bacterial grazers and parasites. The Arctic is experiencing accelerated global warming and picoeukaryotes may thus be considered to be at the forefront of climate change. This PhD thesis sets out to investigate...

  11. Marine Geology Reports in the NGDC Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historic Marine Geologic data reports available are from academia, government, and non-U.S. sources. These reports were originally in paper or film form and were...

  12. As formas elementares da vida religiosa e as ciências sociais contemporâneas The elementary forms of the religious life and the contemporary social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da questão "como abordar a problemática das ciências sociais contemporâneas tendo como referência a obra específica de um autor?", o artigo examina As formas elementares da vida religiosa de Émile Durkheim. Recusa a alternativa de recuperar sua influência junto a uma série de intelectuais relevantes na área e segue outra direção - a saber, a de indagar o que o leitor contemporâneo pode retirar desse texto - na qual privilegia um olhar retrospectivo imerso no presente, pois, em relação ao momento da escritura daquela obra, a compreensão do funcionamento das sociedades humanas avançou. Mostra que a discussão sobre o sagrado não se confina à temática da religião, ao lembrar que, na conclusão do livro sob exame, Durkheim faz uma série de digressões acerca da problemática do simbólico. Esses símbolos, indispensáveis à criação e recriação das sociedades, são retomados no desenvolvimento deste texto.Beginning from the question "how to address the problems of the contemporary social sciences taking a specific work of an author as reference?", this article examines The elementary forms of religious life by Émile Durkheim. It refuses the alternative of regain his influence on relevant intellectuals in the area, and goes in another direction - namely, to inquire what the contemporary reader can obtain from that work - in which a retrospective look, immersed in the present, is privileged, because, in relation to the time in which this book was written, progressed the comprehension of how work the human societies. It shows that the discussion about the sacred is not confined to the topic of religion, to remember that, at the conclusion of the book under review, Durkheim makes a series of digressions about the problematic of symbolic. These symbols, which are necessary for the social creation and recreation, are incorporated on the development of this article.

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  14. Effect of phytoplackton-derived organic matter on the behavior of marine aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Green, D.

    2009-04-01

    The presence of significant concentrations of organic material in marine aerosols has been appreciated for several decades; however, only recently has significant progress been made towards demonstrating that this organic content is biogenically formed. Biogenic organics of placktonic life origin are incorporated in marine aerosol composition as a result of bubble bursting/breaking waves mechanisms that occur at the ocean surface. The presence of organic surfactants in the marine aerosol composition might have a significant impact on the properties of the generated aerosols by affecting the particles surface tension and solution balance properties. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain the role of such organics on the physical-chemical behavior of marine aerosols. In this work an experimental study was performed in order to determine the influence of biogenic marine organic compounds on the size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud-nucleating properties of marine aerosols. For the experimental study a laboratory water recirculation system (bubble tank), designed for the simulation of bubble-burst aerosol formation, was used as marine aerosol generator. The bubble spectra produced by such system was characterized by means of an optical bubble measuring device (BMS) and it was found to be consistent with oceanic bubble spectra properties. Seawater proxy solutions were prepared from laboratory biologically-synthesized exudates produced by oceanic representative algal species and introduced in the tank for the generation of marine aerosol by bubble bursting. Two experimental methods were employed for seawater proxies preparation: the formation of surface monolayers from the biogenic surfactants extracted by a solid phase extraction technique (monolayer method) and the mixing of the exudates in the sea salt water bulk (bulk mixing method). Particle size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei experiments for different monolayers, and exudate mixtures

  15. Explaining variation in life history timing across a species range: Effects of climate on spawning time in an exploited marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna; MacKenzie, Brian

    . Combined, these results shed light on the adaptive capacity of the species in the face of changing climate. We use our results to estimate expected spawning time under future climate regimes, and discuss the implications for codecology and management across the species’ range, and in the greater ecosystem......The capacity of a species to tolerate and/or adapt to environmental conditions will shape its response to future climate change including climate extremes. Of the many life-history processes affected by climate change, timing of reproduction greatly influences offspring success and resulting...... population production. Here we explore temporal and spatial changes in spawning time for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species’ range (4 to 80°N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree days, DD). First, we estimate...

  16. Ein Klassiker der Padagogik in Evolutionarer Perspektive: Eduard Sprangers "Lebensformen" im Lichte der Modernen Biologie (A Classic of Pedagogics from an Evolutionary Perspective: Edward Spranger's "Forms of Life" in the Light of Modern Biology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Interprets Edward Spranger's "Forms of Life" against the background of the findings of modern biology. Shows how far Spranger's diagnosis of different human types, which are not affected by external influences on characteristics, conform with research hypotheses of modern biological sciences. (CAJ)

  17. Biotechnological Applications of Marine Enzymes From Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parte, S; Sirisha, V L; D'Souza, J S

    Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients. Oceans occupy 75% of the earth's surface and harbor most ancient and diverse forms of organisms (algae, bacteria, fungi, sponges, etc.), serving as an excellent source of natural bioactive molecules, novel therapeutic compounds, and enzymes. In this chapter, we introduce enzyme technology, its current state of the art, unique enzyme properties, and the biocatalytic potential of marine algal, bacterial, fungal, and sponge enzymes that have indeed boosted the Marine Biotechnology Industry. Researchers began exploring marine enzymes, and today they are preferred over the chemical catalysts for biotechnological applications and functions, encompassing various sectors, namely, domestic, industrial, commercial, and healthcare. Next, we summarize the plausible pros and cons: the challenges encountered in the process of discovery of the potent compounds and bioactive metabolites such as biocatalysts/enzymes of biomedical, therapeutic, biotechnological, and industrial significance. The field of Marine Enzyme Technology has recently assumed importance, and if it receives further boost, it could successfully substitute other chemical sources of enzymes useful for industrial and commercial purposes and may prove as a beneficial and ecofriendly option. With appropriate directions and encouragement, marine enzyme technology can sustain the rising demand for enzyme production while maintaining the ecological balance, provided any undesired exploitation of the marine

  18. Phosphorus physiological ecology and molecular mechanisms in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie; Litaker, Richard Wayne; Sunda, William G

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and indeed all life forms. Current data show that P availability is growth-limiting in certain marine systems and can impact algal species composition. Available P occurs in marine waters as dissolved inorganic phosphate (primarily orthophosphate [Pi]) or as a myriad of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds. Despite numerous studies on P physiology and ecology and increasing research on genomics in marine phytoplankton, there have been few attempts to synthesize information from these different disciplines. This paper is aimed to integrate the physiological and molecular information on the acquisition, utilization, and storage of P in marine phytoplankton and the strategies used by these organisms to acclimate and adapt to variations in P availability. Where applicable, we attempt to identify gaps in our current knowledge that warrant further research and examine possible metabolic pathways that might occur in phytoplankton from well-studied bacterial models. Physical and chemical limitations governing cellular P uptake are explored along with physiological and molecular mechanisms to adapt and acclimate to temporally and spatially varying P nutrient regimes. Topics covered include cellular Pi uptake and feedback regulation of uptake systems, enzymatic utilization of DOP, P acquisition by phagotrophy, P-limitation of phytoplankton growth in oceanic and coastal waters, and the role of P-limitation in regulating cell size and toxin levels in phytoplankton. Finally, we examine the role of P and other nutrients in the transition of phytoplankton communities from early succession species (diatoms) to late succession ones (e.g., dinoflagellates and haptophytes). © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Genetic structure and effective population size through time: a tale on two coastal marine species with contrasting life-history patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martins Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species with dispersal mediated by planktonic larvae are expected to be more likely to show temporal genetic variation, due to differences in larval mortality and dispersal ability. The shanny Lipophrys pholis is a typical benthic rocky intertidal fish and its dispersion is limited to its long larval stage. In contrast, the sand-smelt Atherina presbyter has a very short planktonic life, small size and weak swimming capabilities, which translates into reduced dispersion potential. A total of 226 specimens of L. pholis (collected in 2003, 2013 and 2014 and 281 of A. presbyter (collected in 2005, 2012, 2013 and 2014 were screened for genetic variation using the mitochondrial control region. Only 12 (out of 171 and 25 (out of 155 haplotypes found were shared between sampling periods for the shanny and the sand smelt, respectively. For both species, haplotype networks showed a deep genealogy with multiple levels of diversification and no temporal structure. Interestingly, some of the previously inferred missing haplotypes were sampled in more recent years. The genetic diversity indices showed little variation among sampling periods and were generally high. For L. pholis significant genetic differentiation was detected between 2013 and 2014, while no significant differences were detected between sampling periods in A. presbyter. The shanny showed lower effective population size per generation when compared to the sand-smelt (which yielded lack of evidence for genetic drift for the first and second period of the study. These results highlight the fact that temporal changes in the gene pool composition need to be considered when evaluating population structure, especially for species with long pelagic larval dispersion, more vulnerable to fluctuations in the recruitment.

  20. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  1. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  2. International laboratory of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The director's report presents the overall aims and objectives of the laboratory, and some of the significant findings to date. Among these is the different behaviour in oceans of Pu and Am. Thus, fallout Pu, in contrast to Am, tends to remain in the soluble form. The vertical downward transport of Am is much quicker than for Pu. Since 1980, uptake and depuration studies of sup(95m)Tc have been carried out on key marine species. Marine environmental behaviour of Tc is being evaluated carefully in view of its being a significant constituent of nuclear wastes. Growing demands are being made on the laboratory for providing intercalibration and instrument maintenance services, and for providing training for scientists from developing countries. The body of the report is divided into 5 sections dealing with marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geochemistry/sedimentation, environmental studies, and engineering services, respectively. Appendices list laboratory staff, publications by staff members, papers and reports presented at meetings or conferences, consultants to the laboratory from 1967-1980, fellowships, trainees and membership of committees, task forces and working groups

  3. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL-REGULATION OF DEVELOPMENT, LIFE-HISTORY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF HELMINTHORA-STACKHOUSEI (RHODOPHYTA) BY DAYLENGTH AND TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CUNNINGHAM, EM; GUIRY, MD; BREEMAN, AM

    1993-01-01

    The marine red alga Helminthora stackhousei (Clemente) Cremades et Perez-Cirera [ = H. divaricata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh] from the west coast of Ireland has a heteromorphic life history in culture. Tetrasporangia are formed on uniseriate, filamentous tetrasporophytes, mainly under short-day

  5. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  6. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofa, Khan M.G.; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. -- Review of sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of key pollutants (contaminants, toxins, ship breaking, overfishing) in marine ecosystems

  7. Trans-Disciplinary Education for Sustainable Marine and Coastal Management: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of a trans-disciplinary design of curricula, deemed a powerful tool for teaching and research on complex environmental problems, with a goal to help solve the real problems that climate change has brought to the coastal environment in Taiwan. Three major real-life problems in southern Taiwan—declining mullet fisheries, flooding, and coral bleaching—were integrated into four courses. Adopting a qualitative case study method, the researchers investigated the student perceptions of the trans-disciplinary learning experiences, their attitudes toward marine and coastal environmental protection, and their capability of solving the problems related to marine and coastal environments. The researchers employed various methods to analyze the student reflection reports, student self-evaluation forms, and the tape-recorded class meetings. The findings suggest the following: the trans-disciplinary curriculum stands to be an innovative yet indispensable design for coastal management education; such a curriculum benefits students by equipping them with essential knowledge and skills to succeed in future marine conservation; action learning for marine and coastal sustainability serves as the final goal of trans-disciplinary learning project; a trans-disciplinary case study on the design of curricula provides effective knowledge integration of marine and coastal sustainability.

  8. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of elements in marine organisms was carried out to estimate the behavior of radionuclides in marine ecosystem or to clarify the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of octopus vulgaris showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The kidney granules of bivalve molluscs showed very high concentrations of Mn, Zn, 210 Pb, 210 Po etc. The XAFS study for the granules of Cyclosunetta menstrualis indicated that the chemical form of metals in the granules was phosphate (e. g. Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · 4H 2 O). (author)

  9. Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences Lab., Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Arsenic has a complex marine biogeochemistry that has important implications for its toxicity to marine organisms and their consumers. The average concentration of total arsenic in the ocean is about 1.7 {micro}g/L, about two orders of magnitude higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency`s human health criterion value of 0.0175 {micro}g/L. The dominant form of arsenic in oxygenated marine and brackish waters in arsenate (As V). The more toxic and potentially carcinogenic arsenite (As III) rarely accounts for more than 20% of total arsenic in seawater. Uncontaminated marine sediments contain from 5 to about 40 {micro}g/g dry weight total arsenic. Arsenate dominates in oxidized sediments and is associated primarily with iron oxyhydroxides. In reducing marine sediments, arsenate is reduced to arsenite and is associated primarily with sulfide minerals. Marine algae accumulate arsenate from seawater, reduce it to arsenite, and then oxidize the arsenite to a large number of organoarsenic compounds. The algae release arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid to seawater. Dissolved arsenite and arsenate are more toxic to marine phytoplankton than to marine invertebrates and fish. This may be due to the fact that marine animals have a limited ability to bioconcentrate inorganic arsenic from seawater but can bioaccumulate organoarsenic compounds from their food. Tissues of marine invertebrates and fish contain high concentrations of arsenic, usually in the range of about 1 to 100 {micro}g/g dry weight, most of it in the form of organoarsenic compounds, particularly arsenobetaine. Organoarsenic compounds are bioaccumulated by human consumers of seafood products, but the arsenic is excreted rapidly, mostly as organoarsenic compounds. Arsenobetaine, the most abundant organoarsenic compound in seafoods, is not toxic or carcinogenic to mammals. Little of the organoarsenic accumulated by humans from seafood is converted to toxic inorganic arsenite.

  10. Analysis of global marine environmental pollution and prevention and control of marine pollution : Proposal of sollutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Guo

    2017-01-01

    The ocean, the origin of life, the total area of about 360 million square kilometers, accounting for 71% of the Earth\\'s surface area. Ocean Freight has become the world\\'s most important import and export trade mode of transport. Our daily life is also closely linked with the ocean, the ocean food, marine-related products. It can be said that the ocean has become the most important part of people\\'s life around the world. However, the current situation of marine environment is not optimistic...

  11. Yugoslavia. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kečkeš, S.; Pučar, Z. [Laboratory of Marine Radiobiology and Laboratory for Electromigration, Institute ' ' Ruder Boskovic' ' , Rovinj and Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    Present research programme (long-term): Transport of various radiqnuclides in marine environment. Uptake, loss and accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota. Study of the physico-chemical forms of various radionuclides in sea water. Tracer experiments on the uptake and loss rate in biota. Electromigration techniques for the characterization of the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides.

  12. Plastic and marine turtles: a review and call for research

    OpenAIRE

    Nelms, SE; Duncan, EM; Broderick, AC; Galloway, TSG; Godfrey, MH; Hamann, M; Lindeque, PK; Godley, BJ

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is now ubiquitous in the marine environment affecting a wide range of taxa, from microscopic zooplankton to large vertebrates. Its persistence and dispersal throughout marine ecosystems has meant that sensitivity toward the scale of threat is growing, particularly for species of conservation concern, such as marine turtles. Their use of a variety of habitats, migratory behaviour, and complex life histories leave them subject to a host of anthropogenic stressors, including expos...

  13. DNA barcodes for marine fungal identification and discovery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Velmurugan, S.; Prasannakumar, C.; Manokaran, S.; AjithKumar, T.; Samkamaleson, A.; Palavesam, A.

    , Parangipettai 608502, India bDivision of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography, Panaji 403001, India cCentre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakamangalam 629502, India a r t i c l e i n f o Article... Mycological Society. All rights reserved. Introduction Fungi are an indispensable part of life in the biosphere as they have many functional roles in different ecosystems. Obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine...

  14. Fossils mollusc asemblage found at Zagarzazu, marine Pleistocene, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, A. . E mail: alejandra@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of the paleoecological analysis of the mollusc assemblage found at Zagarzazu, Colonia department. The fossils are well preserved, arranged in thin shell-beds with some specimens in life position. The assemblage is indicative of higher temperatures than present, and a strong marine influence. It is important to stress that new thermophilic molluscs for the marine Quaternary were found and that this locality represents a new Pleistocene marine record in Uruguay [es

  15. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  16. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  17. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. Marine radioecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  20. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  2. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  3. The marine and coastal environmental quality in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the problem is made, generated by the contamination in the sea and coasts of Colombia, an inventory and characterization of sources of contamination, state of the chemical and sanitary quality of the marine and coastal waters, effects of the contamination about the ecosystems and the life quality in the coastal and marine areas

  4. Detection and Classification of Marine mammals using an LFAS system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Beerend, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    World wide a concern is emerging about the influence of man-made sound in the sea on marine life, and particularly about high power active sonars systems. Most concern lies with marine mammals, which fully depend on sound in their natural behaviour (foraging, navigation and communication). One of

  5. Marine Activity Dynamics (M.A.D.). Unit S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Education Information Center.

    This curriculum guide describes an activity-oriented marine study program, designed for use with middle school children (grade 5). The content focuses primarily upon the life sciences, with some emphasis on chemistry and geology. Following the development of a rationale for the inclusion of marine sciences in the school curriculum, a middle…

  6. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  7. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  8. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  9. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  10. Pollution Effects on Oceans and Marine Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA helps its Member States use nuclear technologies to monitor pollution on land and in the sea. The IAEA Environment Laboratories use radioisotopes to track and trace the sources of pollutants and in that way help countries control their environmental impact. For example, the IAEA supported a study of the effects of trace amounts of cadmium (a toxic metal) on local fish and shellfish in Chile1. Experiments were designed to use the radiotracer cadmium-109 to measure how quickly the cadmium in mussels was released in order to understand the bioaccumulation of this hazardous metal

  11. Life forms employ different repair strategies of repair single- and double strand DNA breaks caused by different qualities of radiation: criticality of RecA mediated repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    Different qualities of radiation, either through direct or indirect pathway, induce qualitative different spectrum of damages in DNA, which are also different in in vitro and in vivo systems. The single- and double strand breaks of DNA are of special interest as they lead to serious biological consequences. The implications of such damage to DNA and their processing by various inherent repair pathways together decide the fate of the living form

  12. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario

  14. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkov V. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb in the form of chloride salts on the growth of axenic algae culture has been studied in the modelling experiments. The unicellular marine algae have a very short life cycle, therefore it is possible to use them in the experiments of studying the effect of anthropogenic factors at cellular and population levels on the test-object. With biomonitoring pollution of marine environment by heavy metals and others dangerous toxicants, the major indicators of algae community condition are the cellular cycle and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell. The subsequent lysis of cells under the influence of heavy metals leads to the excretion of secondary metabolites which can essentially affect the metal toxicity. The established scales of threshold and lethal concentration of heavy metals for algae of different taxon make it possible to use the ratio of sensitive and resistant species to heavy metals as biological markers when forecasting ecological consequences of pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals. Distinctions in the resistance of different taxon to heavy metals can result in implementing the strategy of selection of test-objects depending on the purposes of the research.

  15. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ’ – that the contemporary discursive pragmatics of more or less pharmaceutical life practices still include forms of transcendence – and by the wish to fertilize the field of bio-politics with the indexical inter-subjectivity of the concept of ideology, as derived from an antiessentialist reading of Hegelian......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  16. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  17. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  18. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies...

  19. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  20. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  1. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  2. War brought home: Post-traumatic stress disorder in the post-Vietnam America through the documentary form of Emily Mann‘s play still life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective moral dilemma that the United States society plunged into during the Vietnam War was intensified by the problem of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, which assumed undreamed- of proportions among returnees from the front. In her play Still Life, Emily Mann uses the example of a war veteran in order to examine PTSD not only in the context of war brutality which scars the warrior’s psyche, but also in the light of malign social circumstances which contribute to the development of the illness. The play suggests that the spread of PTSD was rooted not only in the technological advancement which enhanced the destructive potential of weaponry, but also in the state ideology which manifested itself in dehumanization of the enemy, shifting the burning issue of racism to the frontline, and enlistment policy based on class and racial discrimination. Traumatic experiences of the play‘s protagonists create an image of America in which boot camp for Vietnam was not limited to Parris Island, but pervaded the society through family and institutional dysfunction. Their confessions trace the war on its way back home, as a place from which it has sprung and is still being waged in, finding its victims both in veterans and people in their immediate surroundings. The playwright employs “Theatre of Testimony” in order to dramatize and simultaneously document her findings, which is why this paper deals in equal measure with her dramatic method and the way the content of the play interacts with the Vietnam heritage.

  3. Review on methodology for LCIA of marine eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    As part of the ongoing EU FP7 project LC-Impact (www.lc-impact.eu) new life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are going to be developed and tested on industry cases. Among the life cycle assessment (LCA) impact categories in focus are aquatic eutrophication. As related to especially the marine...... concentration and the potentially affected fraction of species in the marine ecosystem. This poster will present a review of the very limited existing attempts on how to include marine eutrophication in LCA and discuss alternative methodologies on how to model the environmental mechanism of this impact category....

  4. Modeling and Analysis in Marine Big Data: Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aware that big data has gathered tremendous attentions from academic research institutes, governments, and enterprises in all aspects of information sciences. With the development of diversity of marine data acquisition techniques, marine data grow exponentially in last decade, which forms marine big data. As an innovation, marine big data is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, there are many potential and highly useful values hidden in the huge volume of marine data, which is widely used in marine-related fields, such as tsunami and red-tide warning, prevention, and forecasting, disaster inversion, and visualization modeling after disasters. There is no doubt that the future competitions in marine sciences and technologies will surely converge into the marine data explorations. On the other hand, marine big data also brings about many new challenges in data management, such as the difficulties in data capture, storage, analysis, and applications, as well as data quality control and data security. To highlight theoretical methodologies and practical applications of marine big data, this paper illustrates a broad view about marine big data and its management, makes a survey on key methods and models, introduces an engineering instance that demonstrates the management architecture, and discusses the existing challenges.

  5. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  6. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  7. A persistência de formas da vida religiosa na modernidade (The persistence of forms of the religious life in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Martins Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de desenvolvimento da história (e demais ciências das religiões, com objeto e metodologia próprios, pode ser analisado por meio das discussões que aprofundaram as relações entre a defesa do caráter racionalista do homem ocidental e a persistência de formas religiosas de expressão no transcorrer dos séculos XIX e XX (bem como neste início de século XXI. Por meio do estudo da história da teologia e das religiões, são estabelecidos critérios para o julgamento das convergências entre movimentos religiosos, também de suas especificidades, aqui discutidos à luz de pressupostos subjacentes em obras de Émile Durkheim (1858-1917, Rudolf Otto (1869-1937 e Mircea Eliade (1907-1986. A escolha dos autores se justifica pelo fato de representarem, cada qual a seu modo, estágios teórico-analíticos no desenvolvimento das ciências das religiões que abarcam o conflito entre racionalismo ocidental e formas religiosas. Pelo que guardam de semelhança ou contradição, especialmente pela presença do sagrado em sua argumentação, os três autores vêm a confirmar uma suspeita (do religioso ou hipótese (do cientista: a religião persiste. Palavras-chave: Ciências da Religião. Teologia. Émile Durkheim. Rudolf Otto. Mircea Eliade. Abstract The process of the development of History (and other sciences of Religions, with its object and methodology, can be analyzed by the discussions that deepened the relations between the defense of the rationalist character of the western man and the persistence of religious forms of expression in the 19th and 20th centuries (as well as in the beginning of the 21th century. Studying the History of Theology and of Religions, the criteria for the judgment of the convergences within religious movements can be established, as well their specificities, discussed here under the subjacent ideas found in Émile Durkheim (1858-1917, Rudolf Otto (1869-1937 and Mircea Eliade (1907-1986. The selection of

  8. Monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The necessity of radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear power and its world-wide use in many different segments of economic and social life. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In this respect three major facts continue to prevail in Romania. The fallout, the presence of the Danube river and the expectations for future energy production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in the Romanian Marine Research Institute in close co-operation with the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, in vertebrates and fish off the Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of beta gross measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides as K-40, Cs-134, Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distributions coefficients and concentrations factors (CF), as well as experimentally-derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored for a national data base. (author) 3 tabs., 18 refs

  9. Marine debris removal: one year of effort by the Georgia Sea Turtle-Center-Marine Debris Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeannie Miller

    2013-09-15

    Once in the marine environment, debris poses a significant threat to marine life that can be prevented through the help of citizen science. Marine debris is any manufactured item that enters the ocean regardless of source, commonly plastics, metal, wood, glass, foam, cloth, or rubber. Citizen science is an effective way to engage volunteers in conservation initiatives and provide education and skill development. The Georgia Sea Turtle Center Marine Debris Initiative (GSTC-MDI) is a grant funded program developed to engage citizens in the removal of marine debris from the beaches of Jekyll Island, GA, USA and the surrounding areas. During the first year of effort, more than 200 volunteers donated over 460 h of service to the removal of marine debris. Of the debris removed, approximately 89% were plastics, with a significant portion being cigarette materials. Given the successful first year, the GSTC-MDI was funded again for a second year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion characteristics of DMR-1700 steel and comparison with different steels in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurrappa, I.; Malakondaiah, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a systematic corrosion study has been carried out on DMR-1700 steel to understand the protective nature of oxide scale that forms on its surface under marine environmental conditions. Further, the studies related to oxide scales as well as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of both stainless steels and widely used low alloy steel EN24 in marine environment have been studied for comparison purpose. The surface morphologies of corroded steels have been observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to understand the nature of corrosion. A high performance protective coating that has been developed for protection of low alloy steels DMR-1700 and EN24 against corrosion is presented after stressing the importance of surface engineering in enhancing the life of steels. Based on the studies with different techniques, DMR-1700 steel has been recommended for manufacture of components used in aerospace systems in association with appropriate protective coating for improving their efficiency

  11. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  12. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  13. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  14. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  15. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  16. Developmental Stages of some Tropical and Subtropical Planktonic Marine Copepods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnberg, Tagea K.S.

    1972-01-01

    Most planktonic marine copepods have nauplii which differ greatly from the copepodids so that it is difficult to relate them to the adult form. Rearing experiments are usually unsuccessful; only 8% of ca. 800 species of planktonic marine copepods have identified nauplii (see below cited list). To

  17. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... Jennifer Burns, University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form...

  18. Comparison of marine dispersion model predictions with environmental radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; McKay, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of marine dispersion model results with measurements is an essential part of model development and testing. The results from two residual flow models are compared with seawater concentrations, and in one case with concentrations measured in marine molluscs. For areas with short turnover times, seawater concentrations respond rapidly to variations in discharge rate and marine currents. These variations are difficult to model, and comparison with concentrations in marine animals provides an alternative and complementary technique for model validation with the advantages that the measurements reflect the mean conditions and frequently form a useful time series. (author)

  19. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  20. Ecological Genomics of Marine Picocyanobacteria†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, D. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Mazard, S.; Dufresne, A.; Garczarek, L.; Hess, W. R.; Post, A. F.; Hagemann, M.; Paulsen, I.; Partensky, F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Marine picocyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus numerically dominate the picophytoplankton of the world ocean, making a key contribution to global primary production. Prochlorococcus was isolated around 20 years ago and is probably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. The genus comprises specific ecotypes which are phylogenetically distinct and differ markedly in their photophysiology, allowing growth over a broad range of light and nutrient conditions within the 45°N to 40°S latitudinal belt that they occupy. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are closely related, together forming a discrete picophytoplankton clade, but are distinguishable by their possession of dissimilar light-harvesting apparatuses and differences in cell size and elemental composition. Synechococcus strains have a ubiquitous oceanic distribution compared to that of Prochlorococcus strains and are characterized by phylogenetically discrete lineages with a wide range of pigmentation. In this review, we put our current knowledge of marine picocyanobacterial genomics into an environmental context and present previously unpublished genomic information arising from extensive genomic comparisons in order to provide insights into the adaptations of these marine microbes to their environment and how they are reflected at the genomic level. PMID:19487728

  1. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  2. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  3. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hii, Y.S.; Law, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  5. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  6. Documentary form no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This first documentary form, edited by the national association of local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), briefly presents the radioactivity phenomenon, the ionising radiations, the characteristics of radiation sources (activity, half life, energy), and the dosimetry (absorbed, equivalent, efficient doses). (J.S.)

  7. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  8. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  9. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  10. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... the species or stock through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival.'' Section 101(a)(5)(D... one method to mitigate effects on marine life during nighttime A-S gunnery exercises when visibility..., the aircraft will relocate to another target area and repeat the clearance procedures. A typical...

  11. Marine Structures: consuming and producing energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. • The oceans receive 70 % of our primary sustainable energy source, i.e. the radiation from the sun; this thermal energy can be harvested in the form of thermal, wind, current or wave energy, salt gradients etc. To exploit these possibilities marine structures are required....

  12. Strategies of marine dinoflagellate survival and some rules of assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, Theodore J.; Reynolds, Colin S.

    2003-03-01

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed to govern bloom-species selection and community organisation within these habitats. Assembly is moulded around an abiotic template of light energy, nutrient supply and physical mixing in permutative combinations. Species selected will have one of three basic ( C-, S-, R-) strategies: colonist species ( C-) which predominate in chemically disturbed habitats; nutrient stress tolerant species ( S-), and species ( R-) tolerant of shear/stress forces in physically disturbed water masses. This organisational plan of three major habitat variables and three major adaptive strategies is termed the 3-3 plan. The bloom behaviour and habitat specialisation of dinoflagellates and diatoms are compared. Dinoflagellates behave as annual species, bloom soloists, are ecophysiologically diverse, and habitat specialists whose blooms tend to be monospecific. Diatoms behave as perennial species, guild members, are habitat cosmopolites, have a relatively uniform bloom strategy based on species-rich pools and exhibit limited habitat specialisation. Dinoflagellate bloom-species selection follows a taxonomic hierarchical pathway which progresses from phylogenetic to generic to species selection, and in that sequence. Each hierarchical taxonomic level has its own adaptive requirements subject to rules of assembly. Dinoflagellates would appear to be well suited to exploit marine habitats and to be competitive with other phylogenetic groups, yet fail to do so.

  13. In Brief: Ocean life census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    The Census of Marine Life, an international effort to assess the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life, issued a report on 23 September summarizing the decade­long project that the organization calls “the most comprehensive inventory of known marine life ever compiled.” The census has involved more than 2700 scientists and 670 participating institutions from more than 80 nations and territories. In addition, three books were released on 23 September that provide an overview of census insights and their implications, a summary of findings and discoveries by the 17 census projects, and portraits of about 100 species. “The Census of Marine Life is the book of oceans' nature,” census cofounder Jesse Ausubel wrote in a forward to one of the books. Ausubel is vice president of programs for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed $75 million to the $650 million census. “This book reports the known, unknown, and unknowable of the first Census of Marine Life. This book is about the richness of 3.5 billion years.” For more information, visit http://www.coml.org.

  14. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Responsible Party), has applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal... studies of population ecology, diet and nutrition, reproductive physiology, toxicology and health of...

  15. Behaviour and fate of artificial redionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment, effect of the physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides. Behavior of radionuclides in the physical and biological environments and general evaluation of transfers [fr

  16. Radioactivity Distribution in Malaysian Marine Environment. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    The marine radioactivity distribution mapping in malaysia was developed with the aim to illustrate the pattern of the distribution of both anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seawater and sediments. The data collected will form the basis for an anthropogenic radioactivity.

  17. A imanência, apresentação de um roteiro de estudo sobre Gilles Deleuze Immanence plan and forms of life presenting a study guide about Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Dias Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto pretende mostrar um tipo de abordagem e de entrada no texto deleuziano. A partir do problema do fato da não existência de consenso no mundo da vida sentiu-se a necessidade de começar a pensar e formular um conceito de formas de vida. Escolheu-se, para isto, a idéia de plano de imanência e o conceito de multiplicidade virtual de Deleuze. Apresentamos, então, uma espécie de roteiro desse percurso. É o conceito de formas de vida, articulado e pensado a partir de Deleuze, a resposta ao problema da pluralidade e da diferença.This text intends to show a kind of aprproach and introduction to Deleuze's work. Based on the problem of the non-existence of consensus in the world of life, we feel the need to start thinking and formulating the concept of virtual multiplicity. Then we present a kind of guide to do so. The solution to the problem of plurality and difference is the concept of forms of life formulated and thought in acordance with Deleuze.

  18. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  19. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  20. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  1. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  3. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Ming Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  4. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  5. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  6. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  7. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  8. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  9. European Community's program in marine resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-01-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed

  10. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  11. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The most vagile host as the main determinant of population connectivity in marine macroparasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feis, Marieke; Thieltges, David W.; Jensen, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    in the sea. Here, we tested whether a marine trematode parasite that utilises migratory birds exhibited weaker population genetic structure than those whose life cycle utilises marine fish as the vagile host. Part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene was sequenced from individual sporocysts...... that populations of parasites with only freshwater hosts are more structured than those with terrestrial or airborne hosts. Until now, the same has not been tested for marine systems, where, in theory, a fully marine life cycle might sustain high dispersal rates because of the absence of obvious physical barriers...

  13. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  14. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  15. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  16. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  17. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  18. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  19. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  20. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...