Sample records for marine interstitial tetraflagellate

  1. Interstitial solutions and diagenesis in deeply buried marine sediments: results from the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    Sayles, F.L.; Manheim, F. T.


    Through the Deep Sea Drilling Project samples of interstitial solutions of deeply buried marine sediments throughout the World Ocean have been obtained and analyzed. The studies have shown that in all but the most slowly deposited sediments pore fluids exhibit changes in composition upon burial. These changes can be grouped into a few consistent patterns that facilitate identification of the diagenetic reactions occurring in the sediments. Pelagic clays and slowly deposited (recrystallization of biogenic calcite and the substitution of Mg2+ for Ca2+ during this reaction. The Ca-Mg-carbonate formed is most likely a dolomitic phase. A related but more complex pattern is found in carbonate sediments deposited at somewhat greater rates. Ca2+ and Sr2+ enrichment is again characteristic, but Mg2+ losses exceed Ca2+ gains with the excess being balanced by SO4post staggered2- losses. The data indicate that the reactions are similar to those noted above, except that the Ca2+ released is not kept in solution but is precipitated by the HCO3post staggered- produced in SO4post staggered2- reduction. In both these types of pore waters Na+ is usually conservative, but K+ depletions are frequent. In several partly consolidated sediment sections approaching igneous basement contact, very marked interstitial calcium enrichment has been found (to 5.5 g/kg). These phenomena are marked by pronounced depletion in Na+, Si and CO2, and slight enhancement in Cl-. The changes are attributed to exchange of Na+ for Ca2+ in silicate minerals forming from submarine weathering of igneous rocks such as basalts. Water is also consumed in these reactions, accounting for minor increases in total interstitial salinity. Terrigenous, organic-rich sediments deposited rapidly along continental margins also exhibit significant evidences of alteration. Microbial reactions involving organic matter lead to complete removal of SO4post staggered2-, strong HCO3post staggered- enrichment, formation of NH4post

  2. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.


    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.


    Isolating and analyzing interstitial water (IW) during sediment toxicity tests enables researchers to relate concentrations of contaminants to responses of organisms, particularly when IW is a primary route of exposure to bioavailable contaminants by benthic dwelling organisms. W...

  4. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    . The results yielded new data on poorly understood groups of annelids, but also on some more general aspects of regarding colonization and speciation processes to submarine caves. From an annelid evolution perspective, we produced new phylogenetic studies for Protodrilidae (with the description of four new...... genera), Saccocirridae and Nerillidae, as well as novel results on the character evolution and diversity of these groups. From the more general prospective of the cave colonization, our results highlight the importance of shift of habitats is a crucial process to understand the morphological change...... observed in certain cave lineages. The most obvious case in represented by crevicular cave lineages with interstitial ancestors, convergently evolving into suspension feeding forms....

  5. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald


    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely dis

  6. The use of multiple endpoints to assess cellular responses to environmental contaminants in the interstitial marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    Gomiero, A; Sforzini, S; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A


    This paper presents the results of investigations on the suitability of Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, to be used as model organism in ecotoxicology and thereafter to evaluate the toxicity of estuarine and coastal sediments upon laboratory exposure. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have resulted in accumulation of metals and organic pollutants in the environment as well as in the food chain hence leading to serious ecological and human health problems. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial to discover toxicity tests that will identify adverse effects of sediment-associated chemicals on benthic organisms. Due to their nature as a eukaryotic cell/organism and their position in the food web, ciliated protozoa are suitable models for evaluating the effects of pollution on aquatic communities. Lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to inorganic and organic pollutants were tested on the cell mortality, replication rate, lysosomal membrane stability and endocytosis rate of E. crassus. Increasing nominal concentrations of individual and mixtures of mercury, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene were investigated in this study as they might be bioavailable in naturally occurring polluted sites. A significant decrease in the mean replication rate (pinorganic-organic and inorganic-inorganic additive and/or antagonist effects. Moreover, medium salinity was also varied to mimic estuarine-like environmental conditions linking biological response to ionic strengths. Under these conditions significant increases of both endocytosis rate and lysosomal membrane stability were observed and related to the increment of some Hg- and Cu-related toxic complexes. The studied biomarkers were always able to discriminate between the effects of organic and inorganic pollutants. Together with the short time and simplicity of the test procedures, results obtained in this study indicate that E. crassus is a promising and convenient bioindicator for

  7. Interstitial Cystitis

    ... the bladder is “leaky.” This may let urine irritate the bladder wall, causing interstitial cystitis.Other possible ... pickled foods, artificial sweeteners and acidic foods may irritate your bladder. That makes symptoms worse. Try removing ...

  8. Interstitial hyperthermia.

    Milligan, A J; Dobelbower, R R


    The effectiveness of hyperthermia as a treatment modality for cancer continues to gain popularity in the medical community. One of the disappointing findings has been the inability to deliver uniform thermal doses to tumor volumes. This inability to heat certain tumors is due to a variety of physical and physiologic phenomena. To increase the ability of heating tumors, local interstitial techniques have been developed that are proving to be safe and effective. These techniques employ implanted microwave or radiofrequency antennae for the delivery of local thermal doses. Recently, investigations into the placement of interstitially located ferromagnetic seeds for local hyperthermia have also been conducted. The seeds can be heated by delivery of a high-wattage RF magnetic field to the implanted volume by an external source after implantation. The tissue surrounding the ferromagnetic implant is heated by conduction of heat away from the implanted seeds. While these techniques have been effective, further development of the instrumentation for interstitial therapies is continuing. These developments will include the application of specific control circuitry for delivery of accurate thermal doses.

  9. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  10. Update on interstitial pneumonia.

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Lascola, Kara M


    Interstitial pneumonias encompass a wide variety of acute and chronic respiratory diseases and include the specific diseases equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress. These diseases have been diagnosed in all age groups of horses, and numerous agents have been identified as potential causes of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the varied causes, interstitial pneumonia is uniformly recognized by the severity of respiratory disease and often poor clinical outcome. This article reviews the causal agents that have been associated with the development of interstitial pneumonia in horses. Pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  12. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis

    Lanfranchi, Michael [Creighton University Medical School, Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Allbery, Sandra M.; Wheelock, Lisa [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Perry, Deborah [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Omaha, NE (United States)


    Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of interstitial lung disease in chronically intubated premature neonates, other interstitial lung disease in nonintubated infants is rare. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis that developed in a nonintubated, 31-week gestation infant in whom infectious etiologies had been excluded. The infant was well initially and then developed respiratory distress at 18 days of life. Radiographs at first day of life were normal, but CT and radiographic findings at 18 days of life showed severe interstitial lung disease, mimicking BPD. Lung biopsy showed pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. This entity is not well described in the pediatric radiology literature and is important to consider, as the condition is responsive to a course of corticosteroids. (orig.)

  13. Interstitial lung disease


    2008429 The predictive factors and unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. WANG Peizhen(王培珍), et al. Dept Rheumatol & Immunol, Changhai Hosp, Milit Med Univ, Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):417-420. Objective To analyze the predictive factors and the unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with polymyositis

  14. Interstitial lung disease


    930124 The effect of glycosaminoglycans inthe genesis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.LIBaoyu(李保玉),et al.Dept Pathol,Jilin MedColl,132001.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):204-205.The pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was causedby injecting Bleomycin into mouse trachea.Afterthe injection,the volume of glycosaminoglycans(GAG)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungtissues was increased.The observation underhistochemical stain and electron microscopeshowed that the distribution of GAG in lung tis-sues was varied at different time after the injec-tion,and related to the volume of collagen pro-teins and the formation of pulmonary interstitialfibrosis.

  15. Tumor interstitial fluid

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...

  16. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)


    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  17. Interstitial lung disease

    Vincent Cottin


    Full Text Available This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear.

  18. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

    Tiberiu Tebeica


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  19. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A. [Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Radiology, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P. [Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Montpellier (France)


    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  20. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B


    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  1. [Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias in 2016].

    Debray, M-P; Borie, R; Danel, C; Khalil, A; Majlath, M; Crestani, B


    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise 8 clinicopathological entities, most of them with a chronic course and various prognosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most frequent and most severe of these. Computed tomography has an important role for its diagnosis. It can identify the corresponding pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in about 50 percent of cases. It can suggest differential diagnosis in other cases, most frequently fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Imaging features should be integrated to clinical and available pathologic data during multidisciplinary team meetings involving physicians with a good knowledge of interstitial diseases. Some cases may be unclassifiable, but these could later be reclassified as new data may occur or imaging features may change. Surgical lung biopsy is being less frequently performed and an emerging less invasive technique, lung cryobiopsy, is under evaluation. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a distinct entity only recently described, with uncertain prevalence and prognosis that seems being quite often associated to another pattern of interstitial pneumonia.

  2. [Interstitial Pneumonia and Emphysema].

    Sawa, Teiji; Kato, Yuko; Ishii, Sachiyo


    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative diseases of restrictive pulmonary dysfunction and obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. In the preoperative anesthesia clinic, anesthesiologists are frequently asked to assess the anesthesia management of patients with these diseases. In respiratory function tests, IP is detected as a decrease in % vital capacity (< 80%), and COPD as a decrease in % FEV1.0 (< 70%). Other key factors which affect the assessment are; 1) severity assessment that affects the safety of anesthesia management, 2) prognostic evaluation including the acute exacerbation in the postoperative period, and 3) patient-related factors (age, life degree of autonomy, other comorbidities, surgery-related factors, and anesthesia method). In the patients in the disease stage I or II, anesthesia management is relatively safe. On the other hand, the patients in the disease stage IV have no surgical indication except life-saving emergent situation. In another words, anesthesiologists are required to make the judgment for the anesthesia management of the patient in the disease stage III, based on the assessment of patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and prognosis.

  3. The evolution of annelids reveals two adaptive routes to the interstitial realm.

    Struck, Torsten Hugo; Golombek, Anja; Weigert, Anne; Franke, Franziska Anni; Westheide, Wilfried; Purschke, Günter; Bleidorn, Christoph; Halanych, Kenneth Michael


    Many animals permanently inhabit the marine interstitium, the space between sand grains [1, 2]. Different evolutionary scenarios may explain the existence of interstitial animals [3, 4]. These scenarios include (1) that the interstitial realm is the ancestral habitat of bilaterians [5, 6], (2) that interstitial taxa evolved from larger ancestors by miniaturization, or (3) progenesis [3]. The first view mirrors the former hypothesis that interstitial annelids, called archiannelids, were at the base of the annelid radiation [7]. Based on morphological data, however, progenesis is generally favored for interstitial annelids today [3, 4, 8]. Herein, our phylogenomic approach revealed that interstitial archiannelids are robustly placed into two groups nested within the annelid tree. Evolution of the first group comprising among others Dinophilidae is best explained by progenesis. In contrast, the second group comprising Protodrilida and Polygordiidae appears to have evolved by stepwise miniaturization adapting from coarser to finer sediments. Thus, in addition to progenesis [3, 4], miniaturization, thought to be too slow for an adaptation to the interstitium [3], is an important second route allowing adaptation to interstitial environments. Both progenesis and miniaturization should be considered when investigating evolution of interstitial taxa [1, 3].

  4. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  5. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.


    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  6. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma.

    Schoenfeld, Sara R; Castelino, Flavia V


    Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multiorgan involvement. Interstitial lung disease is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease hinges on careful clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography. Effective therapeutic options are still limited. Several experimental therapies are currently in early-phase clinical trials and show promise.

  7. Pneumoproteins in interstitial lung diseases

    Janssen, Rob


    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD)s are a diverse group of pulmonary disorders that are classified together because of similar clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, or pathologic manifestations, compromising over 100 different members that have been broadly classified into several categories. T

  8. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    A. Laria


    Full Text Available According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US findings in the follow-up of a NSIP’s case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  9. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M


    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs.

  10. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases

    George A. Margaritopoulos


    Full Text Available For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs.

  11. Interstitial pneumonitis following intrapleural chemotherapy

    Humphries Gary N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucinous neoplasms within the abdomen may disseminate by direct extension through the diaphragm to involve the pleural space. Treatment of this condition is by parietal and visceral pleurectomy followed by hyperthermic intrapleural chemotherapy. Case presentation In this case report a patient developed persistent right upper lobe interstitial pneumonitis and progressive parenchymal fibrosis following intrapleural chemotherapy treatment with mitomycin C and doxrubicin. The condition persisted until death 28 months later. Death was from progressive intraabdominal disease with intestinal obstruction and sepsis associated with progressive pulmonary parenchymal disease. The right pleural space disease did not recur. Conclusion This manuscript is the first case report describing interstitial pneumonitis and lung fibrosis following intrapleural chemotherapy. Since pulmonary toxicity from chemotherapy is a dose-dependent phenomenon, dose reduction of intrapleural as compared to intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy may be necessary.

  12. Bacterial Interstitial Nephritis in Children

    Bobadilla Chang, Fernando; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Villanueva, Dolores; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnosis approach to urinary tract infections in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records from 103 children with diagnosis of interstitial bacterial nephritis were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was supported by the dramatic involvement of renal parenquima, which is not addressed as "urinary tract infection". RESULTS: From all 103 patients, 49 were 2-years-old or younger, 33 were between 2 and 5-years-old, and 21 were between 6 to 10. Clinical picture inc...

  13. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter


    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion.

  14. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    Ryan Burkhart


    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary.

  15. Phentermine induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    Shao, Emily Ximin; Wilson, Gregory John; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan


    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication. The patient underwent a renal biopsy that showed a predominantly lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate with a moderate number of eosinophils consistent with AIN. Phentermine is increasingly used for weight loss in obese patients. This is the first case implicating phentermine as the causative agent for drug-induced AIN. While rare, phentermine-induced AIN is a possible adverse reaction of phentermine. Physicians and patients need to be aware of this risk. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. [Interstitial lung diseases. The pattern is important].

    Fink, L


    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a number of rare entities with an estimated incidence of 10-25 per 100,000 inhabitants but the incidence greatly increases beyond the age of 65 years. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. The fibrotic disorders show a set of radiological and histopathological patterns that are distinct but not entirely specific. In the absence of a clear clinical picture and consistent high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, patients are advised to undergo surgical lung biopsies from two or three lung lobes (or transbronchial biopsies) to determine the histopathological pattern. The ILDs are differentiated into disorders of known causes (e.g. collagen vascular disease, drug-related), idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), granulomatous ILDs (e.g. sarcoidosis) and other forms of ILD (e.g. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis). The IIPs encompass idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), non-specific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, cryptogen organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia. Additionally, a category of unclassified interstitial pneumonia exists. The pathologist has to recognize and address the histopathological pattern. In a multidisciplinary discussion the disorder is allocated to a clinicopathological entity and the histopathological pattern plays a major role in the classification of the entity. Recognition of the underlying pattern and the respective histopathological differential diagnoses is important as the therapy varies depending on the cause and ranges from elimination of the stimulus (if possible) to antifibrotic drug therapy up to preparation for lung transplantation.

  17. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.


    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  18. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Hammad Shafqat


    Full Text Available Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

  19. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta


    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom.

  20. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP


    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  1. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    Kaushik Saha


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiologic findings provide the initial basis for prioritizing diagnostic possibilities for a patient with ILD. An accurate prognosis and optimal treatment strategy for patients with ILDs can only be after an accurate diagnosis. This review will assist pulmonary physicians and medicine specialist in recognition of ILD. Extensive literature search has been made through PubMed and also Book References has been used for writing this review.

  2. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi


    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  3. [Interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Froidevaux-Janin, Sylvie; Dudler, Jean; Nicod, Laurent P; Lazor, Romain


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is found in up to 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is clinically manifest in 5 to 10%, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent histopathological forms are usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Another recently described presentation is combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Similarly to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute exacerbation of ILD may occur in RA and is associated with severe prognosis. Smoking is a known risk factor of RA and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of RA-associated ILD, in combination with genetic and immunologic mechanisms. Several treatments of RA may also lead to drug-induced ILD.

  4. Interstitial leukocyte migration and immune function.

    Friedl, P.H.A.; Weigelin, B.


    The trafficking of leukocytes into and within lymphoid and peripheral tissues is central to immune cell development, immunosurveillance and effector function. Interstitial leukocyte trafficking is the result of amoeboid polarization and migration, guided by soluble or tissue-bound chemoattractant

  5. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Fatih Atuğ


    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder of unknown etiology characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and suprapubic pain. The syndrome presents differently in many patients, with the unifying factor being chronic pelvic pain and disruption of daily life activities.Although there are abundance of theories, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. This review focuses on recently published literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    Brown KK


    Full Text Available Joshua J Solomon, Kevin K BrownAutoimmune Lung Center and Interstitial Lung Disease Program, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, anti-CCP

  7. Interstitial twin pregnancy: A unique case presentation.

    Garretto, Diana; Lee, Lan Na; Budorick, Nancy E; Figueroa, Reinaldo


    Early recognition and timely treatment of an interstitial pregnancy is imperative to avoid the high morbidity and mortality of this type of ectopic pregnancy. We report a case of twin interstitial pregnancy that was initially missed on initial sonogram and was subsequently recognized at our institution by transvaginal sonography. The patient underwent open laparoscopic surgery with cornual wedge resection but suffered infundibulopelvic ligament hemorrhage and subsequently required ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She did well and was discharged home a day later.

  8. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D


    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy.

  9. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    Dong Yang; Yuanyan Xiong; Hyyeung Kim; Quanyuan He; Yumei Li; Rui Chen; Zhou Songyang


    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing wholegenome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription.

  10. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu


    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  11. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis secondary to soy.

    Dyson, Senait W; Hirsch, Ann; Jaworsky, Christine


    A healthy 58-year-old woman developed an asymptomatic papular eruption of the neck, cheek, abdomen, arms, and flexures. There was an 8-year history of the lesions, which had erupted when the patient started a strict vegetarian diet. Lesions lasted 3 to 5 days, cleared without scarring, and were associated with burning and increased tearing of the eyes. The biopsy specimen showed an interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without vascular injury, collagen alteration, or mononuclear atypia. The eruption cleared when the patient omitted soy products from her diet. It subsequently recurred with intake of even minimal amounts of soy. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histologic pattern of inflammation that generates a broad differential diagnosis. No previous reports of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis related to soy products are available in the literature.

  12. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)


    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup −1}, which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup −1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  13. Usual interstitial pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Kim, E J; Elicker, B M; Maldonado, F; Webb, W R; Ryu, J H; Van Uden, J H; Lee, J S; King, T E; Collard, H R


    Interstitial lung disease is a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis; however, little is known about factors that influence its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern found on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is of prognostic significance in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Patients with RA-ILD were identified retrospectively (n = 82). The relationship of a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT to survival was determined and compared to that in a cohort of patients with radiologically diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 51). A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern was seen in 20 (24%) out of 82 patients with RA-ILD. These patients showed worse survival than those without this pattern (median survival 3.2 versus 6.6 yrs), and a similar survival to those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. On multivariate analysis, a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT was associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.3). Analysis of specific HRCT features demonstrated that traction bronchiectasis and honeycomb fibrosis were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.6 and 2.1, respectively). Female sex (hazard ratio of 0.30) and a higher baseline diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (hazard ratio of 0.96) were associated with better survival. A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT has important prognostic implications in RA-ILD.

  14. Interstitial-type defects in implanted silicon

    Berezhnov, N.I.; Stel' makh, V.F.; Chelyadinskij, A.R.


    Boron-, lithium-, phosphorus- and silicon-implanted silicon layers were investigated using X-ray diffraction method for measuring the crystal lattice parameters. It was established that stable interstitial complexes in concentrations comparable with concentrations of vacancy type defects occur in silicon as a result of ion implantation. The interstitial complexes are annealed at the following stages: 1 - 140, 2 - 500 deg C in the case of silicon irradiation by light ions and 1 - 180, 2 - 560 deg C in crystals irradiated by medium mass ions.

  15. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E


    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  16. A tale of two compartments: interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring.

    Cengiz, Eda; Tamborlane, William V


    Self-monitoring of blood glucose was described as one of the most important advancements in diabetes management since the invention of insulin in 1920. Recent advances in glucose sensor technology for measuring interstitial glucose concentrations have challenged the dominance of glucose meters in diabetes management, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. This article will review the differences between interstitial and blood glucose and some of the challenges in measuring interstitial glucose levels accurately.

  17. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte;


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  18. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro


    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  19. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis mimicking interstitial lung disease.

    Braham, Emna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Smati, Belhassen; Ben Mrad, Sonia; Besbes, Mohammed; El Mezni, Faouzi


    Lymphoid granulomatosis is a rare form of pulmonary angiitis. This case report presents a patient with lymphoid granulomatosis in whom the clinical presentation, radiological features and the partial response to corticosteroid therapy mimicked interstitial lung disease. Lymphoid granulomatosis was only diagnosed at post-mortem examination. The range of reported clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and outcomes are described.

  20. Smoking-related interstitial lung disease.

    Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried


    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with major clinical significance. Reliable epidemiological data are not yet available. Review of pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. The available data on many aspects of SR-ILDs are sparse, but recent studies on the pathophysiology and targeted treatment of these conditions have revealed ways in which clinical outcomes can be improved. Highresolution computerized tomography should be used for differential diagnosis; lung biopsy is often unnecessary. Oncogenic mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (PLCH). In the future, cladribine and vemurafenib may be treatment options for PLCH. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) may be difficult to distinguish from respiratorybronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD); DIP is treated with steroids and sometimes with immune suppressants. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the antifibrotic drugs pirfenidone and nintedanib can delay disease progression. Smoking is also a risk factor for combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), rheumatoid-arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP), and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in Goodpasture syndrome. In smokers with exertional dyspnea and/or a nonproductive cough, SR-ILDs must be considered in the differential diagnosis. If an SR-ILD is suspected, the patient should be referred to a pulmonary specialist. Early treatment and smoking cessation can improve clinical outcomes, particularly in the acute and chronically progressive types of SR-ILD.

  1. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Lovrenski Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  2. Interstitial lung disease probably caused by imipramine.

    Deshpande, Prasanna R; Ravi, Ranjani; Gouda, Sinddalingana; Stanley, Weena; Hande, Manjunath H


    Drugs are rarely associated with causing interstitial lung disease (ILD). We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed ILD after exposure to imipramine. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare cases of ILD probably caused due to imipramine. There is need to report such rare adverse effects related to ILD and drugs for better management of ILD.

  3. Diffuse interstitial lung disease: overlaps and uncertainties

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)


    Histopathological analysis of lung biopsy material allows the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; however, the strength of this diagnosis is sometimes subverted by interobserver variation and sampling. The American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations of 2002 provide a framework for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and proposed an integrated clinical, radiological and histopathological approach. These recommendations represent a break with tradition by replacing the 'gold standard' of histopathology with the combined 'silver standards' of clinical, imaging and histopathological information. One of the pitfalls of a rigid classification system for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is its failure to accommodate the phenomenon of overlapping disease patterns. This article reviews the various ways that interstitial lung disease may be classified and discusses their applicability. In addition the issue of overlap disease patterns is considered in the context of histopathological interobserver variation and sampling error and how a pigeonhole approach to disease classification may overlook these hybrid entities. (orig.)

  4. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells in subserosa of human colon

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Hansen, Alastair;


    We studied the ultrastructure of interstitial cells in the subserosal/adventitial layer in human colon. An interstitial cell type with an ultrastructure intermediate between fibroblast-like cells (FLC) and interstitial cells of Cajal was identified (IC-SS). IC-SS had thin and flattened branching...

  5. Interstitial stromal progenitors during kidney development: here, there and everywhere.

    Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Vinci, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Dessì, Angelica; Eyken, Peter Van; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino


    In recent years, the renal interstitium has been identified as the site of multiple cell types, giving rise to multiple contiguous cellular networks with multiple fundamental structural and functional roles. Few studies have been carried out on the morphological and functional properties of the stromal/interstitial renal cells during the intrauterine life. This work was aimed at reviewing the peculiar features of renal interstitial stem/progenitor cells involved in kidney development. The origin of the renal interstitial progenitor cells remains unknown. During kidney development, besides the Six2 + cells of the cap mesenchyme, a self-renewing progenitor population, characterized by the expression of Foxd1, represents the first actor of the non-nephrogenic lineage. Foxd1 + interstitial progenitors originate the cortical and the renal medullary interstitial progenitors. Here, the most important stromal/interstitial compartments present in the developing human kidney will be analyzed: capsular stromal cells, cortical interstitial cells, medullary interstitial cells, the interstitium inside the renal stem cell niche, Hilar interstitial cells and Ureteric interstitial cells. Data reported here indicate that the different interstitial compartments of the developing kidney are formed by different cell types that characterize the different renal areas. Further studies are needed to better characterize the different pools of renal interstitial progenitors and their role in human nephrogenesis.

  6. Idiopathic airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: report of two cases

    YI Xiang-hua; CHU Hai-qing; CHENG Xiao-ming; LUO Ben-fang; LI Hui-ping


    @@ Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis (ACIF), a novel form of diffuse interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown cause, was recently presented.1 There is no final conclusion on its property and denomination, and it might be a new type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (ⅡP).

  7. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in a patient with trisomy 21.

    Morrison, A K; Patel, M; Johnson, S L; LeGallo, R; Teague, W G; Vergales, B


    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis is an interstitial lung disease of childhood that has been increasingly reported over the past decade. Here, we present a case of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis associated with trisomy 21, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and congenital heart disease in a 34 week premature infant.

  8. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V


    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  9. Marine Science

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  10. Marine Science

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an ... are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues.

  11. Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Biancani, Barbara; Lacave, Geraldine; Magi, Gian Enrico; Rossi, Giacomo


    A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E). The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The nuclei were uniformly small and round to oval. The supporting stroma contained thecal cells. The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor.

  12. Interstitial hyperthermia in combination with brachytherapy.

    Coughlin, C T; Douple, E B; Strohbehn, J W; Eaton, W L; Trembly, B S; Wong, T Z


    Flexible coaxial cables were modified to serve as microwave antennas operating at a frequency of 915 MHz. These antennas were inserted into nylon afterloading tubes that had been implanted in tumors using conventional interstitial implantation techniques for iridium-192 seed brachytherapy. The tumor volume was heated to 42-45 degrees C within 15 minutes and heating was continued for a total of 1 hour per treatment. Immediately following a conventional brachytherapy dose and removal of the iridium seeds the tumors were heated again in a second treatment. This interstitial technique for delivering local hyperthermia should be compatible with most brachytherapy methods. The technique has proved so far to be practical and without complications. Temperature distributions obtained in tissue phantoms and a patient are described.

  13. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.


    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  14. Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung diseases.

    Gong, H


    Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung disease, or pneumoconiosis, are being increasingly recognized and diagnosed. The fibrogenic potential of numerous types of respirable inorganic particles remains poorly understood but is significantly determined by lung deposition and clearance, the agent's size and solubility, host susceptibility, and other factors. Microanalytic techniques have improved the identification of uncommon or unusual biopersistent particles or elements in fibrotic lung tissue. Recent findings in workers exposed to manmade vitreous fibers, silicon carbide, talc, titanium, cerium, and polyvinyl chloride provide new clinical insights into not only their specific fibrogenic capabilities but also in the broader appreciation that many cases of unexplained interstitial lung disease may be caused by occupational exposures to one or more uncommon airborne substances.

  15. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review.

    Menovsky, T; Beek, J F; van Gemert, M J; Roux, F X; Bown, S G


    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e., computer-controlled power delivery, using a thermocouple that is positioned interstitially at the periphery of the tumour to maintain the desired temperature at that point, and MRI, to visualise the extent of the thermal lesions induced by ILTT. The results show that ILTT using a Nd: YAG laser is easy and relatively effective in the treatment of small deep-seated brain tumours with minimal risk and complications. This review is concluded with suggestions for further improvement of this treatment modality.

  16. Environmental injury to the kidney: Interstitial nephritis

    James C. Chan


    Full Text Available The First Emperor of China (Qin Shi Huang: 259–210 BCE would have been interested in interstitial nephritis. He might conceivably be fascinated to know that consumption of mercury elixir, instead of giving him immortality, might have shortened his life by giving him interstitial nephritis. In the Balkan region of Eastern Europe, clustering of a peculiar interstitial nephritis is prevalent. One environmental risk contributing to Balkan endemic nephritis is aristolochic acid contamination of cooking flour, drinking water, and herbal medicine. In addition, the popular use of nonprescription Chinese weight reduction herbs and public unawareness of the consequential aristolochic acid nephropathy has become a worldwide problem. Finally, the mighty Romans of antiquity lost their empire, arguably due to lead in their wine containers, lead water pipes, and lead cooking utensils. In modern times, lead paint has become universally banned, which has resulted in a reduction of lead-induced interstitial nephritis. In recent decades, bisphenol A (BPA has been identified as a new environmental risk. BPA is in the plastic coating of food and beverage containers to prevent corrosion. BPA is so ubiquitous that urinary BPA and proteinuria are present in a high percentage of the population. BPA-induced kidney injury and other health concerns have led certain countries to ban BPA. Now, BPA-free containers are being introduced with great fanfare by manufacturers, but safety issues on all plastic products remain. It begs the question whether “plastics” of today take the place of “lead” in ancient Rome. This is a challenging question without an answer at this point.

  17. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves


    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  18. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Fatih Atuğ; Naime Canoruç


    Interstitial cystitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder of unknown etiology characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and suprapubic pain. The syndrome presents differently in many patients, with the unifying factor being chronic pelvic pain and disruption of daily life activities.Although there are abundance of theories, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. This review focuses on recently published literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and ...

  19. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  20. A follow up study on interstitial alveolitis

    Kamat S


    Full Text Available Objective : To study the benefits of steroid therapy in interstitial alveolitis. Method and Materials : One hundred five adult clinic patients were studied with clinical evaluation, chest radiography, CT scan, bronchoscopic lavage, pulmonary function studies and a regular follow up. They were put on daily prednisolone (in 19 on intravenous methyl prednisolone, for several months. Results: Only a few had no cough or dypnoea; 91 cases had atleast gr. III exertional breathlessness; 61(58% had been given steroids earlier and 32(31% were on a prior antitubercular treatment. Only 16% had GERD symptoms. On radiography, interstitial deposits were seen in 102 cases. While 53 cases belonged to idiopathic variety, 41 were sarcoidosis. A majority had poor lung function with a restrictive disability; but 50% showed a significant response (10%+ to bronchodilators. On follow up in 92 cases, 14 died, 8 went in remission; 32 had a fluctuating course. At some stage 66 had showed improvement. Conclusion : A large majority of our interstitial alveolitis cases are very disabled. They show clinical, functional, and radiographic improvement to long term oral prednisolone. In nonresponsive cases, intravenous steroids show an objective response.

  1. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel


    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  2. Marine genomics

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew D.; Kupczok, Anne


    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...... evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics....

  3. Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.

    Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios


    Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease.

  4. Marine biology

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.


    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  5. Marine cosmeceuticals.

    Kim, Se-Kwon


    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin.

  6. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik


    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R


    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP.

  8. Defects involving interstitial boron in low-temperature irradiated silicon

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Sosnin, M. G.; Duvanskii, A. V.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.


    Interstitial boron-related defects in silicon subjected to irradiation with 5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K are investigated by Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. This study demonstrates the radiation-enhanced annealing of interstitial boron during irradiation. We have revealed the interaction, which occurs in the course of irradiation, of diffusing interstitial boron atoms with one another and with interstitial oxygen. The local vibrational modes associated with these defects are identified, and the thermal stability of the defects is determined.

  9. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Pantelidis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  10. Photothermal damage prediction of laser interstitial thermotherapy

    Xiaoxia Li; Shifu Fan; Youquan Zhao


    An improved scattering optical model was developed under cylindrical coordinate to simulate the thermaleffect of diffusing applicator in laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The thermal damage was calculatedby finite element method (FEM) using Pennes bio-heat transfer equation and Arrhenius injury integralformula. The numerical results showed that the scattering can considerably influence the evaluation of thelesion area, and the relationship between application powers or time and resulting tissue thermal damagewas nonlinear. Although usually applying relatively low power can avoid tissue charring, rather higherpower is recommended because it is indispensable to achieve necessary damage threshold and the therapytime can be shortened.

  11. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I


    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  12. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M


    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value.

  13. Marine Biology

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.


    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Paolo Bartoloni


    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  15. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.

    Wells, Athol U


    Based on international collaborative data, interstitial lung disease is now the most frequent cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), having supplanted renal crisis in that regard. Despite detailed explorations of candidate mediators, no primary pathway in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) has been definitively identified and, therefore, treatment with current agents is only partially successful. However, as immunomodulatory agents do, on average, retard progression of lung disease, early identification of SSc-ILD, using thoracic high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), is highly desirable. The decision whether to introduce therapy immediately is often difficult as the balance of risk and benefit favours a strategy of careful observation when lung disease is very limited, especially in long-standing SSc. The threshold for initiating treatment is substantially reduced when lung disease is severe, systemic disease is short in duration or ongoing progression is evident, based on pulmonary function tests and symptoms. This review summarises epidemiology, pathogenesis, difficult clinical problems and management issues in SSc-ILD.

  16. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.


    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  17. [Acute interstitial nephritis induced by loratadine].

    Alvarez Navascués, R; Bastardo, Z; Fernández Díaz, M; Guerediaga, J; Quiñones, L; Pinto, J


    Loratadine is a second generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist, that has high potency antiallergic properties and is associated with low adverse effects compared with other antihistamines. Acute interstitial nephritis is a cause of acute renal failure that is most often induced by drugs or, less frequently, infection or sarcoidosis. Although the number of drugs associated with acute intersticial nephritis is too large, the antihistaminic loratadine have never been reported before. We report a case of an interstitial nephritis with acute renal failure that suggesting hypersensitivity reaction in a 77 old man who had received loratadine (10 mg/day) during ten days before his assessment to our hospital by disseminated pruritic syndrome. The initial suspect was rapidly progressive glomerulonephitis and renal biopsy was practice and treatment with corticosteroids were initiated (prednisone bolus of 500 mg three days and 1 mg/kg/day/later). The loratadine therapy was cessation. He exhibiting a slow and progressive improvement on renal function and one month later, urea and creatinine levels was normal and hematuria and proteinuria had disappeared. The corticosteroids therapy were progressive decreased until withdrawal. We think that this is an interesting case, basing in its clinical presentation and that it had never been reported before.

  18. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gislason, H P; Johnston, K; Langouche, G; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G


    Isolated Fe-57 atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following implantation of Mn-57 decaying to Fe-57. Four Mossbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.


    Gagiya Ashok K


    Full Text Available Background: There are very few studies are done on interstitial lung diseases (ILD in India. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 30 patients of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT proven interstitial lung diseases in tertiary care centre. Results: Most common etiological causes of ILD were occupational (46.62%, Rheumatoid Arthritis (13.32%, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (33.33 %. Majority were in age group 40-49 years (mean age-45.23 years and 66.5% male patients. Common symptoms were breathlessness on exertion (100%, dry cough (43.29%, anorexia (50% and joint pain (16.65%. Clubbing and bilateral crepitations were present in 50% and 63.27% of patients respectively. X- ray chest showed reticulo-nodular pattern (60%. Restrictive pattern (96.57% was present in majority patients in spirometry. Conclusion: Availability of non-invasive investigations like HRCT chest has increased our early recognitions of ILDs. Association of ILD in patients with autoimmune diseases must be ruled out. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 2-4

  20. Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media

    Chin, Lee C. L.; Lloyd, Brendan; Whelan, William M.; Vitkin, I. Alex


    We present an optical technique, point radiance spectroscopy, to directly recover chromophore concentrations and the reduced optical scattering coefficient spectrum from continuous wave interstitial point radiance measurements at a single-source-detector separation in turbid, tissuelike media. The method employs a spectral algorithm to fit the relative radiance data, using the P3 approximation, at only two detection angles (0° and 90°). The spectral fitting algorithm is applied to simulated data of relative point fluence and relative point radiance data with added 1% noise and shows that even under realistic experimental conditions, only point radiance information is able to provide quantitative information regarding chromophore concentrations and scattering power at distances greater than two to three mean free paths from the source. Furthermore, experimental measurements in tissue-simulating phantoms demonstrate that dye concentrations and scattering parameters can be recovered to within ˜10%. The developed point radiance technique bridges a technological gap between local surface reflectance and spatially resolved interstitial fluence methods in optical assessment of random media such as biological tissue.

  1. Interstitial oxygen in germanium and silicon

    Artacho, E.; Yndurain, F. [Instituto Nicolas Cabrera and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-III Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pajot, B. [Groupe de Physique des Solides (Unite Associee au CNRS), Tour 23, Universite Denis Diderot, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ramirez, R.; Herrero, C.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Khirunenko, L.I. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, 252650 Kiev 22 (Ukraine); Itoh, K.M. [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223 (Japan); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    The microscopic structure of interstitial oxygen in germanium and its associated dynamics are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The infrared absorption spectrum is calculated with a dynamical matrix model based on first-principles total-energy calculations describing the potential energy for the nuclear motions. Spectral features and isotope shifts are calculated and compared with available experimental results. From new spectroscopic data on natural and on quasimonoisotopic germanium samples, new isotope shifts have been obtained and compared with the theoretical predictions. The low-energy spectrum is analyzed in terms of a hindered rotor model. A fair understanding of the center is achieved, which is then compared with interstitial oxygen in silicon. The oxygen atom is nontrivially quantum delocalized both in silicon and in germanium, but the physics is shown to be very different: while the Si-O-Si quasimolecule is essentially linear, the Ge-O-Ge structure is puckered. The delocalization in a highly anharmonic potential well of oxygen in silicon is addressed using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations, for comparison with the oxygen rotation in germanium. The understanding achieved with this new information allows us to explain the striking differences between both systems, in both the infrared and the far-infrared spectral regions, and the prediction of the existence of hidden vibrational modes, never directly observed experimentally, but soundly supported by the isotope-shift analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Interstitial oxygen in germanium and silicon

    Artacho, Emilio; Ynduráin, Félix; Pajot, Bernard; Ramírez, Rafael; Herrero, Carlos P.; Khirunenko, Ludmila I.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Haller, Eugene E.


    The microscopic structure of interstitial oxygen in germanium and its associated dynamics are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The infrared absorption spectrum is calculated with a dynamical matrix model based on first-principles total-energy calculations describing the potential energy for the nuclear motions. Spectral features and isotope shifts are calculated and compared with available experimental results. From new spectroscopic data on natural and on quasimonoisotopic germanium samples, new isotope shifts have been obtained and compared with the theoretical predictions. The low-energy spectrum is analyzed in terms of a hindered rotor model. A fair understanding of the center is achieved, which is then compared with interstitial oxygen in silicon. The oxygen atom is nontrivially quantum delocalized both in silicon and in germanium, but the physics is shown to be very different: while the Si-O-Si quasimolecule is essentially linear, the Ge-O-Ge structure is puckered. The delocalization in a highly anharmonic potential well of oxygen in silicon is addressed using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations, for comparison with the oxygen rotation in germanium. The understanding achieved with this new information allows us to explain the striking differences between both systems, in both the infrared and the far-infrared spectral regions, and the prediction of the existence of hidden vibrational modes, never directly observed experimentally, but soundly supported by the isotope-shift analysis.

  3. An essay to assess the age of the freshwater interstitial ostracods of Europe

    Danielopol, Dan L.


    The freshwater ostracods living exclusively in interstitial and/or interstitial and cavernous habitats belong to the Candoninae, Pseudolimnocytherinae, Timiriaseviinae, Kliellinae and Darwinulidae. An assessment of the antiquity of several interstitial ostracod groups has been attempted using direct

  4. Application of the cluster variation method to interstitial solid solutions

    Pekelharing, M.I.


    A thermodynamic model for interstitial alloys, based on the Cluster Variation Method (CVM), has been developed, capable of incorporating short range ordering (SRO), long range ordering (LRO), and the mutual interaction between the host and the interstitial sublattices. The obtained cluster-based

  5. Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in interstitial lung diseases

    H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk)


    textabstractInterstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of illnesses with different pathogeneses. In interstitial lung diseases there often is an increased influx of cells from the peripheral blood (PB) to the interstitium and alveoli. Besides the increase in total cell numbers, often marke

  6. Relapsing steroid-responsive idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

    Enriquez, R; Gonzalez, C; Cabezuelo, J B; Lacueva, J; Ruiz, J A; Tovar, J V; Niembro, E


    A 49-year-old woman developed acute renal failure secondary to interstitial nephritis. Her clinical history, complementary studies and two renal biopsies could not establish the etiology. She showed signs of incomplete Fanconi syndrome. Treatment with corticosteroids was very effective, though she tended to relapse. We comment briefly on some aspects of idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

  7. Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in interstitial lung diseases

    H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk)


    textabstractInterstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of illnesses with different pathogeneses. In interstitial lung diseases there often is an increased influx of cells from the peripheral blood (PB) to the interstitium and alveoli. Besides the increase in total cell numbers, often

  8. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B


    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...

  9. [Roentgenographic pattern of interstitial pneumonia and allergic alveolitis (author's transl)].

    Stender, H S


    Roentgenographic examination of the lungs permits diagnosis of inflammatory and allergic pulmonary disease with predominantly interstitial and less alveolar involvement in which pulmonary fibrosis may develop. Reaction of the sensitised lung to allergic exposure causes typical roentgenological patterns. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease can be prevented be early cortison therapy.

  10. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  11. Acute interstitial nephritis, a rare complication of Giardiasis

    Antonio De Pascalis


    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis is a relevant cause of acute renal failure. Drugs are the predominant cause, followed by infections and idiopathic lesions. Acute interstitial nephritis as a form of hypersensitivity reaction is an uncommon manifestation in the setting of human parasitic infections. We present a case of acute interstitial nephritis in association with Giardia infection in a 54-year-old woman who developed an impairment of renal function after a prolonged period of slight fever and diarrhea. After an attempt to recover renal impairment by vigorous rehydratation, because of the unclear origin of the persisting renal failure, a percutaneous renal biopsy was performed and a diagnosis of severe acute interstitial nephritis was made. Steroid therapy was started and after six weeks, renal function had completely recovered. In cases of unexplained renal failure in patients affected by parasitic infections, interstitial nephritis should be considered and it is our opinion that a renal biopsy should be always performed.

  12. 11.5.Interstitial lung disease


    930305 Immunoenzymatic labeling of mono-clonal antibodies for surface antigens of T—cellby using immune complexes of APAAP in pa-tients with interstitial lung disease.HOU Xian-ming(侯显明),et al.Respir Dis Res Instit,Chi-na Med Univ,Shenyang,110001.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(12):748—751.The use of unlabeled antibody bridging tech-nique with alkaline phosphatase moncional an-tialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) complexesmakes it possible to solve the problem of shortdurability of immunofluorescent staining and theproblem of nonspecific endogenous enzyme in-terference of blood cells with immunoperoxidasemethod.The technique of APAAP allows saris-

  13. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic


    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  14. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

    Naqibullah, Matiuallah; Shaker, Saher B; Bach, Karen S


    Rituximab (RTX), a mouse/human chimeric anti-CD20 IgG1 monoclonal antibody has been effectively used as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy regimen to treat lymphoma since 1997. In addition, it has been used to treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematous......, rheumatoid arthritis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Recently, RTX has also been suggested for the treatment of certain connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Rare but serious pulmonary adverse reactions are reported. To raise awareness about...... this serious side effect of RTX treatment, as the indication for its use increases with time, we report five cases of probable RTX-ILD and discuss the current literature on this potentially lethal association....

  15. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J


    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD.

  16. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    Zachreson, Cameron; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Toth, Milos


    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment, and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient {\\gamma}), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological ...

  17. Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy—A Focused Review

    Shafirstein, Gal; Bellnier, David; Oakley, Emily; Hamilton, Sasheen; Potasek, Mary; Beeson, Karl; Parilov, Evgueni


    Multiple clinical studies have shown that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) is a promising modality in the treatment of locally-advanced cancerous tumors. However, the utilization of I-PDT has been limited to several centers. The objective of this focused review is to highlight the different approaches employed to administer I-PDT with photosensitizers that are either approved or in clinical studies for the treatment of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, and brain cancer. Our review suggests that I-PDT is a promising treatment in patients with large-volume or thick tumors. Image-based treatment planning and real-time dosimetry are required to optimize and further advance the utilization of I-PDT. In addition, pre- and post-imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast may be utilized to assess the response. PMID:28125024

  18. Pemphigus vulgaris-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Bai, Yi-Xiu; Chu, Jin-Gang; Xiao, Ting; Chen, Hong-Duo


    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) is extremely rare. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an intraepidermal autoimmune blistering disease caused by circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein. To date, PV-associated ILD has rarely been reported in English literature. We report a rare association of PV and ILD. A 53-year-old Chinese female with PV for 8 months developed ILD after a relapse of PV for 2 months due to discontinuation of oral prednisone by herself. She was successfully treated by systemic methylprednisolone. Taken previously reported bullous pemphigoid-associated ILD and linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis-associated ILD together, in general, AIBDs-associated ILD occurs when AIBDs relapse or are not controlled, responds well to systemic corticosteroids, and has a relatively better prognosis when compared with rheumatoid arthritis- or dermatomyositis-associated ILD.

  19. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain.

    Persu, C; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, Irina; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P


    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems.

  20. Marine Science

    Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine ...... planning under future sea level predictions, coastal sci-.

  1. Marine Science

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), and the giant ...... Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of.

  2. Marine Science

    to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an original .... to altering the balance between the coral host and its ... ber of agents, namely, bacteria, viruses, protozoa or .... Normally, WP starts at the base of the.

  3. Marine Science

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal .... 48% maize flour, 3% cassava flour, 3% vitamins (Premix for broilers) ..... resulting in inappropriate dietary energy utiliza-.

  4. Marine Science

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a .... tion and damage.

  5. Marine Science

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition ... impact on recreational activities, natural resources ..... area affects dispersion of nutrients in the waters off .... Bell P (1992) Eutrophication and coral reefs: some exam-.

  6. Marine Science

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global .... scientific understanding for sustainable use and management of marine resources in a globally chang- .... (2005) Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and.

  7. Marine geology

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  8. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    Zhifang Li; Haiyu Chen; Feifan Zhou; Hui Li; Chen, Wei R


    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, ...

  9. Porcine mitral valve interstitial cells in culture.

    Lester, W; Rosenthal, A; Granton, B; Gotlieb, A I


    There are connective tissue cells present within the interstitium of the heart valves. This study was designed to isolate and characterize mitral valve interstitial cells from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Explants obtained from the distal part of the leaflet, having been scraped free of surface endocardial cells, were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells grew out of the explant after 3 to 5 days and by 3 weeks these cells were harvested and passaged. Passages 1 to 22 were characterized in several explant sets. The cells showed a growth pattern reminiscent of fibroblasts. Growth was dependent on serum concentration. Cytoskeletal localization of actin and myosin showed prominent stress fibers. Ultrastructural studies showed many elongated cells with prominent stress fibers and some gap junctions and few adherens junctions. There were as well cells with fewer stress fibers containing prominent Golgi complex and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In the multilayered superconfluent cultures, the former cells tended to be on the substratum of the dish or surface of the multilayered culture, whereas the latter was generally located within the layer of cells. Extracellular matrix was prominent in superconfluent cultures, often within the layers as well. Labeling of the cells with antibody HHF 35 (Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM: Am J Pathol 126:51, 1987), which recognizes smooth muscle cell actin, showed prominent staining of the elongated stress fiber-containing cells and much less in the secretory type cells. These studies show that interstitial mitral valve cells can be grown in culture and that either two different cell types or one cell type with two phenotypic expressions is present in culture.

  10. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.


    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  11. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    Zhifang Li


    Full Text Available Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment.

  12. Calcium Signaling in Interstitial Cells: Focus on Telocytes.

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai; Cretoiu, Dragos; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria


    In this review, we describe the current knowledge on calcium signaling pathways in interstitial cells with a special focus on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs), and telocytes. In detail, we present the generation of Ca(2+) oscillations, the inositol triphosphate (IP₃)/Ca(2+) signaling pathway and modulation exerted by cytokines and vasoactive agents on calcium signaling in interstitial cells. We discuss the physiology and alterations of calcium signaling in interstitial cells, and in particular in telocytes. We describe the physiological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the pacemaking activity (e.g., intestinal, urinary, uterine or vascular pacemaking activity) and to the reproductive function. We also present the pathological contribution of calcium signaling in interstitial cells to the aortic valve calcification or intestinal inflammation. Moreover, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by calcium signaling in telocytes in the uterine, cardiac and urinary physiology, and also in various pathologies, including immune response, uterine and cardiac pathologies.

  13. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics


    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  14. CT-based interstitial HDR brachytherapy

    Kolotas, C.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N. [Staedtische Kliniken Offenbach (Germany). Strahlenklinik


    Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT-based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT-based treatment planning has been developed and clinical evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT scans has been developed. An interface for the Nucletron PLATO BPS treatment planning system for optimization and calculation of dose distribution has been devised. The planning target volume(s) are defined as sets of points using contouring tools and are used for optimization of the 3D dose distribution. Dose-volume histogram based analysis of the dose distribution (COIN analysis) enables a clinically realistic evaluation of the brachytherapy application to be made. The CT-guided implantation of catheters and the CT-based treatment planning procedure has been performed for interstitial brachytherapy and for different tumor sites in 197 patients between 1996 and 1997. Results: The accuracy of the CT reconstruction was tested using first a quality assurance phantom and second, a simulated interstitial implant of 12 needles. These were compared with the results of reconstruction using radiographs. Both methods gave comparable results with regard to accuracy, but the CT based reconstruction was faster. Clinical feasibility was proved in pre-irradiated recurrences of brain tumors, in pretreated recurrences or metastatic disease, and in breast carcinomas. The tumor volumes treated were in the range 5.1 to 2,741 cm{sup 3}. Analysis of implant quality showed a slightly significant lower COIN value for the bone implants, but no differences with respect to the planning target volume. Conclusions: The Offenbach system, incorporating the PROMETHEUS software for interstitial HDR brachytherapy has proved to be extremely valuable

  15. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Adams, Quentin E., E-mail:; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Enger, Shirin A. [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Ave, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)


    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29

  16. Otters, Marine

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.


    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  17. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.


    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  18. Leflunomide-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Aygül Güzel


    Full Text Available Leflunomide (LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis is a very rare condition but potentially fatal. We report a case of LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis. A 63-year-old woman followed-up for 37 years with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated with LEF (20 mg/day since 5 months were admitted to our hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and dark sputum.Chest radiography represented bilateral alveolar consolidation. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated diffuse ground-glass appearance and interlobular septal thickening. Since the patient’s clinics and radiologic findings improved dramatically after the cessation of LEF and recieving oral steriod therapy, she was diagnosed as drug-induced interstitial lung disease. In conclusion, when nonspecific clinical signs such as respiratory distress, cough and fever seen during the use of LEF, drug-induced interstitial lung disease should be kept in mind for the differantial diagnosis.

  19. A new interstitial flatworm (Turbellaria: Promesostomidae) from the Indian Ocean

    Clerck, De G.G.


    Paraproboscifer alacerregis, representing a new genus and a new species of the interstitial typloplanoid flatworms is described from the Seychelles and Kenya. It is placed in the turbellarian family Promesostomidae, The type locality is on Mahé Island, Seychelles.

  20. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank;


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are well described in the bowel wall. They are c-kit positive and play a role as pacemaker cells. Similar c-kit-positive cells have recently been described in the human bladder. The aim of this study was to characterize interstitial cells of the bladder detrusor...... using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... and intermingling with individual muscle fasicles. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, they show no neurogenic, endothelial or mast cell differentiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of interstitial cells with a round-to-oval nucleus, sparse perinuclear cytoplasm and long...

  1. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.


    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  2. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank;


    and intermingling with individual muscle fasicles. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, they show no neurogenic, endothelial or mast cell differentiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of interstitial cells with a round-to-oval nucleus, sparse perinuclear cytoplasm and long...

  3. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    León, Andrea; Velásquez, E. A.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Mejía-López, J.; Florez, J. M.; Vargas, P.


    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration.

  4. Sensitivity of Interstitial combined Chemotherapy against Glioma

    WANG Ming-sheng; LIN Jian-ying; ZHOU Guo-sheng; ZHANG Xin-zhong


    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of combination chemotherapy of Carboplatin(CBP) ,Teniposide (Vm-26) ,Methasquin(MTX),and Nimodipine(NIM) on glioma,and to explore the sensitivity of glioma cells to different treatment regimens so as to provide some clues for clinical usage of interstitial combination chemotherapy. Methods MTT assay and 3H-TdR incorporation assay were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effects upon the proliferation of glioma cells,and to compare the sensitivity of glioma cells to administration of CBP,Vm-26, MTX, and NIM with that of the administration of CBP + NIM, Vm-26 + NIM, MTX + NIM, CBP + Vm-26 + MTX, or CBP + Vm-26 + MTX + NIM respectively. Results The inhibition rate of CBP + Vm-26 + MTX + NIM combination administration against glioma cells was 96.64%,which was higher than that of CBP + NIM (69.03%), Vm-26 + NIM (71.53%), MTX + NIM (52. 75% ), CBP + Vm-26 + MTX(78.59%)(P<0.01),and the dosage of CBP,Vm-26,and MTX was declined to 1/10 ~ 1/100 that of respective use of CBP,Vm-26,and MTX. Conclusions The curative effects of combination administration of CBP,Vm-26, MTX, and NIM was much better than that of respective administration,suggesting a higher inhibition rate and a lower dosage use.

  5. Technique of after-loading interstitial implants.

    Syed, A M; Feder, B H


    Interstitial implants are either removable or permanent (and occasionally a combination of both). Permanent implants are generally utilized where tumors are not accessible enough to permit easy removal of sources or where accurate source distribution is less critical. They are useful for cancers of the lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, lymph nodes, etc. Radon and gold-198 have been largely replaced by iodine-125. Our major interests are in the removable after-loading iridium-192 implant techniques. Template (steel guide) and non-template (plastic tube) techniques are utilized. Templates are preferred where the tumor volume can only be approached from one side and where accurate positioning of sources would otherwise be difficult. They are useful for cancers of the cervix, vagina, urethra, and rectum. Non-template (plastic tube) techniques are preferred where the tumor volume can be approached from at least two sides and where templates are either not feasible or not essential for accurate positioning of sources. The single needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of lip, nodes, and breast (plastic button) and for cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx (gold button). The paired needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of the gum, retromolar trigone, and base of tongue (loop technique) and for cancers of the palate (arch technique). Procedures for each technique are described in detail.

  6. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos


    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  7. Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.

    Goldberg, H S


    Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL.

  8. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic interstitial lung diseases

    Antonella Caminati


    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a common complication of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs, particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ILD associated with connective tissue disease. However, other lung diseases, such as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, may also include PH in their clinical manifestations. In all of these diseases, PH is associated with reduced exercise capacity and poor prognosis. The degree of PH in ILDs is typically mild-to-moderate. However, some of these patients may develop a disproportionate increase in PH that cannot be justified solely by hypoxia and parenchymal injury: this condition has been termed “out-of-proportion” PH. The pathogenesis of PH in these diseases is various, incompletely understood and may be multifactorial. The clinical suspicion (i.e. increased dyspnoea, low diffusion capacity and echocardiographic assessment are the first steps towards proper diagnosis of PH; however, right heart catheterisation remains the current gold standard for diagnosis of PH. At present, no specific therapies have been approved for the treatment of PH in patients with ILDs.

  9. Self-Interstitial Transport in Vanadium

    Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Rottler, J; Wirth, B D; Car, R; Srolovitz, D J


    We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and SIA clusters in vanadium via molecular dynamics simulations with an improved Finnis-Sinclair potential (fit to first-principles results for SIA structure and energetics). The present results demonstrate that single SIAs exist in a <111>-dumbbell configuration and migrate easily along <111> directions. Changes of direction through rotations into other <111> directions are infrequent at low temperatures, but become prominent at higher temperatures, thereby changing the migration path from predominantly one-dimensional to almost isotropically three-dimensional. SIA clusters (i.e., clusters of <111>-dumbbells) can be described as perfect prismatic dislocation loops with Burgers vector and habit planes of 1/2<111>{l_brace}220{r_brace} that migrate only along their glide cylinder. SIA clusters also migrate along <111>-directions, but do not rotate. Both single SIAs and their clusters exhibit a highly non-Arrhenius diffusivity, which originates from a combination of a temperature dependent correlation factor and the presence of very low migration barriers. At low temperature, the diffusion is approximately Arrhenius, while above room temperature, the diffusivity is a linear function of temperature. A simple model is proposed to describe these diffusion regimes and the transition between them.

  10. Clarithromycin-induced acute interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease

    Russell, Wendy; Smith, William


    Drug associated acute interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease has been well documented but the simultaneous presentation of both is rare and has not been reported with clarithromycin. We describe a case of simultaneous acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and minimal change disease induced by clarithromycin. The patient had acute kidney injury, nephrotic syndrome, eosinophilic pneumonitis and a maculopapular skin rash. The role of steroid therapy in acute interstitial nephritis is con...

  11. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis associated with hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride.

    Enríquez, R; Cabezuelo, J B; González, C; Lacueva, J; Teruel, A; Fernández, J; Arenas, M D


    A 74-year-old woman developed acute renal failure and granulomatous interstitial nephritis associated with hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride. On stopping the drug the renal function improved, but not significantly. Around 20 months after prednisone administration, the renal function had stabilized, with a moderate degree of renal insufficiency. The case is discussed, and some aspects of acute interstitial nephritis induced by diuretics are briefly reviewed.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Deborah Assayag


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  13. Empirical potential simulations of interstitial dislocation loops in uranium dioxide

    Le Prioux, Arno; Fossati, Paul; Maillard, Serge; Jourdan, Thomas; Maugis, Philippe


    Stoichiometric circular shaped interstitial dislocation loop energies are calculated in stoichiometric UO2 by empirical potential simulation. The Burgers vector directions studied are and . The main structural properties of each type of interstitial dislocation loop are determined, including stacking fault energy. Defect energies are compared and a maximum size for stable dislocation loops before transition to dislocation loops is given. A model of dislocation loop energy based on elasticity theory is then fitted on the basis of these simulation results.

  14. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)


    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  15. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin


    Abstract Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors an...

  16. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira


    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Interstitial and substitutional Zr in SrTiO3

    Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renee; Jiang, Weilin


    We investigate Zr in SrTi O3 (STO) as an electronic dopant and as a model for nuclear waste forms in which radioactive Sr decays to Y and then to stable Zr through beta emission. Density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model is used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native point defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a Zr Ti impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) Zr Sr is predicted to be a double electron donor, Zr Ti is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. Zr Sr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Form Campaign.

  18. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    Dahmen, U.


    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta/sub 64/C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta/sub 12/O and Ta/sub 2/H.

  19. A deficiency of interstitial cells of Cajal in Chagasic megacolon.

    Hagger, R; Finlayson, C; Kahn, F; De Oliveira, R; Chimelli, L; Kumar, D


    Disordered gut motor activity is a feature of patients with Chagas' disease: colonic involvement leads to the development of megacolon and symptoms of constipation. Interstitial cells of Cajal are thought to modulate gut motility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is an abnormality of the density of distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in Chagasic megacolon. Interstitial cells of Cajal were identified by immunohistochemistry using an anti-c-kit antibody. Six patients with Chagasic megacolon were compared with normal controls. The density of distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal was assessed in the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, and in the intermuscular plane of the Chagasic and normal colon. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. The interstitial cells of Cajal density in Chagasic megacolon was much reduced in comparison to normal colonic tissue in the longitudinal muscle layer (P=0.0084), intermuscular plane (P<0.0001), and circular muscle layer (P=0.0051). The lack of interstitial cells of Cajal may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease, leading to the development of megacolon and symptoms of constipation.

  20. An approach to interstitial lung disease in India

    J N Pande


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are common and have varied etiology, clinical presentation, clinical course and outcome. They pose a diagnostic challenge to physicians and pulmonologists. Patients present with dry cough, exertional dyspnoea, interstitial lesions on X-ray of the chest and restrictive ventilatory defect on spirometry. A sharp decline in oxygen saturation with exercise is characteristic. Careful evaluation of the history of the patient and physical examination help in narrowing down diagnostic probabilities. HRCT of the chest has emerged as an important tool in the evaluation of these disorders. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIP are a group of conditions which are classified into several types based on pathological features. Bronchoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosis of certain disorders but are of limited value in classification of IIP which requires surgical biopsy. Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP, also referred to as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, has a progressive course and an unfavourable outcome. Certain new drugs have recently become available for treatment of UIP. Our approach towards diagnosis and management of interstitial lung diseases based on personal experience over the past three decades is reported here. Key words: Usual interstitial pneumonia – sarcoidosis – pneumoconiosis – bronchoscopy – lung biopsy 

  1. Marine Science

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. .... Overall, the forest was composed of small trees (mean height 2.6 m; mean DBH 7.45 cm); height and DBH varied sig- nificantly when ... nerable to degradation, because the population density is high .... areas in the estuary included Xefina Grande and Xefina.

  2. Marine Science

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... tions at global (e.g. sea temperature, hurricanes) and ..... Jameson SC (1976) Early life history of the giant clams.

  3. Marine Science

    Sweden. Cover image: Relief model of the WIO surface that integrates land topography and ocean bathymetry. Amante and ... WIO Journal of Marine Science 14 (1 & 2) 2015 1-9 | L. J. Chauka et al. ... bar, from September 2008 to August 2010.

  4. Marine Science

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... dissemination of knowledge generated through research activities at the ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. .... C – growth anomaly; D – brown band; E - skeletal eroding band affecting A.

  5. Marine envenomations.

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew


    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  6. Marine Science

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  7. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Kim, Yonghyun [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Kirichenko, Taras A. [Freescale Semiconductor Inc., 3501 Ed Bluestein Blvd., Austin, TX 78721 (United States); Kong, Ning [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Larson, Larry [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive., Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States)], E-mail:


    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As{sub 2}I{sub 2}) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As{sub 2}I{sub 2} is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low (< 0.2 eV) under the same conditions, As{sub 2}I{sub 2} can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters.

  8. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S. [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Medicine; Wong, Y. [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Radiology


    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5{+-}13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively.

  9. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.


    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  10. [Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars].

    Rio, E; Bardet, E; Peuvrel, P; Martinet, L; Perrot, P; Baraer, F; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J-Y; Malard, O; Ferron, C; Dreno, B


    Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (LDR) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medicosurgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6h). The median dose was 20Gy (range, 15-40Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early - within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6cm (p=0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Early perioperative LDR brachytherapy delivering 20Gy at 5mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. 2009 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Gisela eChelimsky


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  12. Migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs

    Wright, A. F.; Modine, N. A.


    Thermal migration processes of the As interstitial in GaAs were investigated using density-functional theory and the local-density approximation for exchange and correlation. The lowest-energy processes were found to involve the -1, 0, and +1 charge states, and to produce migration along ⟨110⟩-type directions. In the -1 and 0 charge states, migration proceeds via hops between split-interstitial stable configurations at bulk As sites through bridging saddle-point configurations in which the interstitial atom is equidistant from two adjacent bulk As sites. In the +1 charge state, the roles of these two configurations are approximately reversed and migration proceeds via hops between bridging stable configurations through higher-energy split-interstitial stable configurations bounded by a pair of distorted split-interstitial saddle-point configurations. The predicted activation energies for migration in the 0 and +1 charge states agree well with measurements in semi-insulating and p-type material, respectively. Also consistent with experiments, the approximate reversal of the stable and saddle-point configurations between the 0 and +1 charge states is predicted to enable carrier-induced migration with a residual activation energy of 0.05 eV.

  13. Effect of elevated interstitial pressure on the renal cortical hemodynamics.

    Källskog, O; Wolgast, M


    The influence of renal interstitial pressure on the resistance pattern within the superficial cortical vasculature has been investigated from determinations of 1) the glomerular blood flow eith a modified microsphere technique and 2) the intravascular hydrostatic pressures. Interstitial pressure was monitored via a 50 mum PVC-catheter placed into the subcapsular interstitial space. Two conditions were analyzed viz. a) elevation of uretheral pressure to 20 mm Hg and b) venous stasis to 10-15 mm Hg. Both conditions produced an increase in the interstitial pressure from 1-2 mm Hg to about 5 mm Hg as well as an increased hilar lymph flow and protein flow of about the same size. The vascular reactions were different, however. Uretheral stasis (but not the stasis of a single nephron) produced a decreased resistance in the afferent arteriolae with a concomitant increae in the pressures in the glomerular capillaries, and the peritobular capillary network. In contrast, venous stasis produced only small changes in the parameters studied but for the obvious rise in the peritubular capillary pressure. The results suggest that factors other than the interstitial pressure are governing the afferent vascular tone; the tubular wall tension might be one of these factors.

  14. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)


    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    E. Picardo


    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  16. Interstitial Cystitis in Persistent Posthysterectomy Chronic Pelvic Pain


    Objectives: Hysterectomies may be performed unnecessarily in women with chronic pelvic pain if the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is not considered. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of interstitial cystitis in patients with posthysterectomy chronic pelvic pain and to evaluate the efficacy of various therapies for interstitial cystitis. Methods: A study was performed of 111 patients with chronic pelvic pain whose pain persisted after hysterectomy. Patients were screened with the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency symptom scale, and underwent Potassium Sensitivity Testing. Patients were treated with dietary changes alone or in combination with cystoscopic hydrodistention or oral pentosan polysulfate, or both of these, for 3 to 6 months. Results: Of the 111 patients enrolled, 79% (n=88) were diagnosed with bladder dysfunction consistent with interstitial cystitis. For patients treated with dietary modification alone (n=33), the mean score on the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency questionnaire improved 15.4%, from 13.18 at baseline to 11.15 at follow-up. For patients treated with pentosan polysulfate or cystoscopic hydrodistention, or both, plus diet changes (n=78), Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency scores improved 34.2%, from 15.01 to 9.87. Conclusion: In this study, nonsurgical treatment for interstitial cystitis resulted in a marked improvement in symptoms that had not improved with surgery. Without determining the origin of bladder pain, gynecologists should not proceed to hysterectomy in patients with chronic pelvic pain. PMID:15554275

  17. Detection of interstitial lung disease in PA chest radiographs

    Loog, Marco; van Ginneken, Bram; Nielsen, Mads


    A computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the detection of interstitial disease in standard digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs is presented. The detection technique is supervised-manually labelled data should be provided for training the algorithm-and fully automatic, and can be used as part of a computerized analysis scheme for X-ray lung images. Prior to the detection, a segmentation should be performed which delineates the lung field boundaries. Subsequently, a quadratic decision rule is employed for every pixel within the lung fields to associate with each pixel a probabilistic measure indicating interstitial disease. The locally obtained per-pixel probabilities are fused to a single global probability indicating to what extent there is interstitial disease present in the image. Finally, a threshold on this quantity classifies the image as containing interstitial disease or not. The probability combination scheme presented utilizes the quantiles of the local posterior probabilities to fuse the local probability into a global one. Using this nonparametric technique, reasonable results are obtained on the interstitial disease detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic equals 0.92 for the optimal setting.

  18. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    Brvar, Miran


    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  19. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    R Goli


    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  20. [TINU syndrome and lymphoid interstitial alveolitis: a new observation].

    Khammassi, Naziha; Mohsen, Dorsaf; Ounissi, Mondher; Tougourti, Mohamed Nejib; Hamza, Mohsen


    TINU syndrome is a rare entity known Dobrin disease, combining uveitis mostly bilateral and recurrent with acute tubulo interstitial nephritis (AIN) occurring in young adults. The etiology and pathogenesis of this syndrome remain unknown. To report a new case of TINU syndrome and to discuss its etiopathogenesis. This 33 year old women is hospitalized for exploration of acute renal failure, in a context of deterioration of general condition, associated with a unilateral anterior uveitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed lymphoid interstitial alveolitis with CD4 and the renal biopsy found lesions characteristic of AIN. Evolution under corticoïd treatment was favorable. Lymphoid interstitial alveolitis associated with TINU syndrome has been reported only twice before. The discovery of a TINU syndrome must practice bronchoalveolar lavage in search of sub clinical pulmonary involvement.

  1. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash


    The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the atomic interactions in transition metal-based interstitial alloys. The strain field is calculated in the discrete lattice model using Kanzaki method. The total energy and hence atomic forces between interstitial hydrogen and transition metal hosts are calculated using DFT. The norm-conserving pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. The dynamical matrices are evaluated considering interaction up to first nearest neighbors whereas impurity-induced forces are calculated with M32H shell (where M = Cu and Pd). The atomic displacements produced by interstitial hydrogen at the octahedral site in Cu and Pd show displacements of 7.36% and 4.3% of the first nearest neighbors respectively. Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and the obtained average lattice expansion / = 0.177 for Cu and 0.145 for Pd.

  2. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van


    Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition. Rec...... the world. In this review we hope to bring practicing healthcare providers up to date with the literature on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, and the implications for their patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7....... Recent findings The perspective from which we view bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is evolving, as is apparent in the literature this year. It is best perceived as one of many chronic pain syndromes, some of which may be related. International efforts aimed at consistent definition...

  3. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.


    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  4. Marine Biology


    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  5. Clarithromycin-induced acute interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease.

    Russell, Wendy; Smith, William


    Drug associated acute interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease has been well documented but the simultaneous presentation of both is rare and has not been reported with clarithromycin. We describe a case of simultaneous acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and minimal change disease induced by clarithromycin. The patient had acute kidney injury, nephrotic syndrome, eosinophilic pneumonitis and a maculopapular skin rash. The role of steroid therapy in acute interstitial nephritis is controversial but is accepted as beneficial in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Steroid therapy in our patient resulted in complete clinical resolution.

  6. Interstitial lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    Antin-Ozerkis, Danielle; Rubinowitz, Ami; Evans, Janine; Homer, Robert J; Matthay, Richard A


    The connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are inflammatory, immune-mediated disorders in which interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common and clinically important. Interstitial lung disease may be the first manifestation of a CTD in a previously healthy patient. CTD-associated ILD frequently presents with the gradual onset of cough and dyspnea, although rarely may present with fulminant respiratory failure. Infection and drug reaction should always be ruled out. A diagnosis of idiopathic ILD should never be made without a careful search for subtle evidence of underlying CTD. Treatment of CTD-ILD typically includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents.

  7. [Subclinical interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Bestaev, D V


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is its extra-articular manifestation. At the same time, ILD considerably worsens the prognosis of the disease. Mortality rates for interstitial pulmonary fibrosis are 6% of all-cause mortality in RA patients. ILD can be identified by clinical examination only in 2-6% of cases, by plain chest X-ray in 1-6%, and by high-resolution computed tomography in 50-60%. The paper deals with subclinical ILD and discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  8. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie


    Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  9. Interstitial water chemistry and nutrients fluxes from tropical intertidal sediment

    Ram, A.; Zingde, M.D.

    (Fig. 4) throughout the core lengths rules out the possibility of sulphate reduction that can also result in high alkalinity. The pH of the coastal seawater normally falls be- tween 7.8 and 8.3 and is controlled22 by the buffering action of HCO3... the surficial interstitial water and the overlying seawater (Fig. 4). The concentration of NO3-N in interstitial water of the surface sediment increased from 51 ?mol l-1 in core 1 to 140 ?mol l-1 in core 5 except for a marginal decrease (83 ?mol l-1) in core 4...

  10. Intraluminal crawling versus interstitial neutrophil migration during inflammation.

    Pick, Robert; Brechtefeld, Doris; Walzog, Barbara


    Site-directed trafficking of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to their target regions within the tissue is an important prerequisite for efficient host defense during the acute inflammatory response. This process requires intraluminal crawling of PMN on the activated endothelial cells to their extravasation sites. Upon transendothelial diapedesis, PMN migrate in the interstitial tissue to sites of inflammation. These crucial steps within the recruitment cascade are defined as intraluminal crawling and interstitial migration. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that control and fine-tune these migratory processes and discuss the role of adhesion molecules of the β2 integrin (CD11/CD18) family for these cellular functions.

  11. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy



    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  12. Low temperature diffusivity of self-interstitial defects in tungsten

    Swinburne, Thomas D.; Ma, Pui-Wai; Dudarev, Sergei L.


    The low temperature diffusivity of nanoscale crystal defects, where quantum mechanical fluctuations are known to play a crucial role, are essential to interpret observations of irradiated microstructures conducted at cryogenic temperatures. Using density functional theory calculations, quantum heat bath molecular dynamics and open quantum systems theory, we evaluate the low temperature diffusivity of self-interstitial atom clusters in tungsten valid down to temperatures of 1 K. Due to an exceptionally low defect migration barrier, our results show that interstitial defects exhibit very high diffusivity of order {10}3 μ {{{m}}}2 {{{s}}}-1 over the entire range of temperatures investigated.

  13. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in an automobile body shop worker

    Fischbein, A.; Rohl, A.N.; Suzuki, Y.; Bigman, O.


    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often of uncertain etiology and is therefore named idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Some occupational exposures, however, are known to cause interstitial fibrosis, asbestos and silica being well-known examples. The authors present clinical and pathological findings of a case with IPF and the results of microchemical analysis of inorganic particulate matter in the lung tissue. A very high lung burden of inorganic contaminants was found, including silica and metallic compounds. Emphasis is given to the importance of obtaining detailed occupational histories and conducting microchemical analysis of lung tissue in order to clarify etiological factors in cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Marine fungi: A critique

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  15. Active Marine Station Metadata

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  16. Marine Lubricants

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  17. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara


    BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known.

  18. Immunosuppressive regimen and interstitial fibrosis and tubules atrophy at 12 months postrenal transplant.

    Gelens, M.A.; Steegh, F.M.; Hooff, J.P. van; Suylen, R.J. van; Nieman, F.H.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Peutz-Kootstra, C.J.; Christiaans, M.H.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is histopathologically characterized by interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. This study investigated the relative contribution of baseline donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrop

  19. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  20. [DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): as a tobacco-associated disease -- case report].

    Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina


    DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia) is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse and uniform accumulation of alveolar macrophages. There is a strong association with tobacco since 90% of the patients are smokers. The interstitial lung diseases related to tobacco are diverse and include tumours, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, RBILD (Respiratory Bronchilites associated Interstitial Lung Disease), DIP and Langerhans Cell Histiocitosis. The authors present a case of DIP. A brief theorycal revision and discussion of a case is made facing the association with tobacco.

  1. Kinetics of self-interstitials reactions in p-type silicon irradiated with alpha particles

    Makarenko, L.F., E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Belarusian State University, Independence Ave. 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Evans-Freeman, J.H. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Lastovski, S.B.; Murin, L.I.; Korshunov, F.P. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)


    New findings on the self-interstitial migration in p-type silicon are presented. They are based on experimental studies of the formation kinetics of defects related to interstitial carbon after irradiation with alpha particles. The main parameters characterizing the interaction rate of silicon self-interstitials with substitutional carbon atoms have been determined. A preliminary interpretation of the experimental data is given. The interpretation takes into account different diffusivities of self-interstitials in their singly and doubly ionized states.

  2. [Persistent tachypnea in infants: possibly due to interstitial pneumonitis

    Kingma, M.L.; Nef, J.J.E.M. de; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Merth, I.T.


    In three male infants aged 3, 4.5 and 11 months with tachypnea and feeding problems, the initial supplementary examination revealed no possible cause. The tissue obtained by open lung biopsy showed interstitial pneumonia/pneumonitis. The two youngest patients were treated with hydrochloroquine and p

  3. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi


    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  4. Rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale

    Acharya Sourya


    Full Text Available Rheumatiod arthritis (RA is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The predominant presentation is polyarticular, symmetric peripheral arthritis with relative sparing of axial skeleton. Inflammatory synovitis is the pathologic hallmark. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve several other organ systems and amongst them pulmonary manifestations occur commonly. We report a case of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

  5. Rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

    Acharya, Sourya; Mahajan, S N; Shukla, Samarth; Diwan, S K; Banode, Pankaj; Kothari, Nirmesh


    Rheumatiod arthritis (RA) is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The predominant presentation is polyarticular, symmetric peripheral arthritis with relative sparing of axial skeleton. Inflammatory synovitis is the pathologic hallmark. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve several other organ systems and amongst them pulmonary manifestations occur commonly. We report a case of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

  6. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed...

  7. [HRCT patterns of the most important interstitial lung diseases

    Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.


    Interstitial lung diseases are a mixed group of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases which can have an acute or chronic course. Idiopathic diseases and diseases with an underlying cause (e.g. collagen vascular diseases) share the same patterns. Thin section computed tomography (CT) plays a central role

  8. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus


    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  9. Interstitial pulmonary disorders in indium-processing workers.

    Chonan, T; Taguchi, O; Omae, K


    The production of indium-tin oxide has increased, owing to the increased manufacture of liquid-crystal panels. It has been reported that interstitial pneumonia occurred in two indium-processing workers; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether interstitial pulmonary disorders were prevalent among indium workers. The study was carried out in 108 male workers in the indium plant where the two interstitial pneumonia patients mentioned above were employed, and included high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, pulmonary function tests and analysis of serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 and the serum indium concentration. Significant interstitial changes were observed in 23 indium workers on HRCT and serum KL-6 was abnormally high (>500 U x mL(-1)) in 40 workers. Workers with serum indium concentrations in the highest quartile had significantly longer exposure periods, greater HRCT changes, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and higher KL-6 levels compared with those in the lowest quartile. The serum indium concentration was positively correlated with the KL-6 level and with the degree of HRCT changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that serum KL-6 and high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities were prevalent among indium workers and that these abnormalities increased with the indium burden, suggesting that inhaled indium could be a potential cause of occupational lung disease.

  10. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  12. A recombinant human enzyme for enhanced interstitial transport of therapeutics.

    Bookbinder, L H; Hofer, A; Haller, M F; Zepeda, M L; Keller, G-A; Lim, J E; Edgington, T S; Shepard, H M; Patton, J S; Frost, G I


    Subcutaneously injected therapeutics must pass through the interstitial matrix of the skin in order to reach their intended targets. This complex, three-dimensional structure limits the type and quantity of drugs that can be administered by local injection. Here we found that depolymerization of the viscoelastic component of the interstitial matrix in animal models with a highly purified recombinant human hyaluronidase enzyme (rHuPH20) increased the dispersion of locally injected drugs, across a broad range of molecular weights without tissue distortion. rHuPH20 increased infusion rates and the pattern and extent of appearance of locally injected drugs in systemic blood. In particular, rHuPH20 changed the pharmacokinetic profiles and significantly augmented the absolute bioavailability of locally injected large protein therapeutics. Importantly, within 24 h of injection, the interstitial viscoelastic barriers were restored without histologic alterations or signs of inflammation. rHuPH20 may function as an interstitial delivery enhancing agent capable of increasing the dispersion and bioavailability of coinjected drugs that may enable subcutaneous administration of therapeutics and replace intravenous delivery.

  13. Interstitial control in titanium alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    Henriques, V.A.R.; Petroni, S.L.G.; Cairo, C.A.A. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/CTA/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial. Divisao de Materiais; Paula, M.S.M.; Galvani, E.T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial


    The titanium alloys are used for applications that demand high performance, including surgical implants and aerospace applications. Powder metallurgy is an advantageous alternative for titanium parts production with complex geometries at a relative low cost. Despite that, it is verified that the introduction of interstitial elements (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) wile processing these alloys, though can increase hardness and mechanical resistance, which is frequently related to the reduction of ductility and fragility increase. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the interstitial elements in commercially pure Ti and Ti-{sup 13}Nb-{sup 13}Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy (P/M). Samples were produced by the mixing of hydride metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering at 1400 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. The interstitial content was analysed by Leco equipment. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities with a Widmanstatten microstructure. The oxygen and nitrogen contents are above the ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) and the critical issues were identified in the original blended elemental route. (author)

  14. Improved laser applicators for interstitial thermotherapy of brain structures

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Ulrich, Frank; Schober, Ralf; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund; Wolbarsht, Myron L.


    Interstitial thermotherapy is a new treatment for deep seated brain tumors. To destroy large tissue volumes without adverse effects (vaporization, carbonization) a new laser catheter was developed. The device combines the radiative heating of distant tissue volumes with the conductive cooling of areas close to the optical fiber tip.

  15. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip


    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  16. Nonequilibrium effects in fixed-bed interstitial fluid dispersion

    Kronberg, A.E.; Westerterp, K.R.


    Continuum models for the role of the interstitial fluid with respect to mass and heat dispersion in a fixed bed are discussed. It is argued that the departures from local equilibrium and not the concentration and temperature gradients as such should be considered as the driving forces for mass and h

  17. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    Homan, T.A.M.


    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  18. Interstitial fluid flow:simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    Wei Yao; Guang-Hong Ding


    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues,while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array,we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software,studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow,and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells,up to 30 Pa or so,which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries,blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion,numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research,helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells,and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  19. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Knowlton, W.B.


    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  20. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy as a Possible Cause of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia in a Patient with Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    D Jeffrey Moore


    Full Text Available The present case report describes a 44-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea due to diffuse interstitial lung disease. High-resolution computed tomography showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia, but the lung biopsy obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy was consistent with a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Following the procedure, the patient developed progressive respiratory distress and died on postoperative day 13 with a clinical picture of acute interstitial pneumonia. The autopsy showed evidence of diffuse alveolar damage superimposed on the background pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The present case report supports the notion that patients with a variety of subtypes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias may be at risk of exacerbation of their underlying disease following thoracic procedures, including video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy.

  1. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) and radiological findings suggestive of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) - case report.

    Płóciniczak, Alicja; Goździk-Spychalska, Joanna; Batura-Gabryel, Halina Batura-Gabryel


    Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a term to describe individuals with both interstitial lung disease (ILD) and combinations of other clinical, serologic, and/or pulmonary morphologic features, which presumably originate from an underlying systemic autoimmune condition, but do not meet current rheumatologic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). Predominantly, interstitial pneumonia arises in the course of an established CTD, but it is not so rare for the ILD to be the first, and possibly the one and only manifestation of a latent CTD. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia (LIP) is an uncommon disease, characterized by infiltration of the interstitium and alveolar spaces of the lung by lymphocytes, plasma cells and other lymphoreticular elements. The cause of LIP is still unknown but it could be also a manifestation of CTD. Clinically, it is highly variable, from spontaneous resolution to progressive respiratory failure and death despite glucocorticoid treatment. Since there are no recent standards for the management of LIP, the disease is treated empirically. We report a case of a HIV-negative 54-year-old woman, who was suspected of LIP according to clinical features and radiological findings. Positive laboratory results were highly suggestive of underlying autoimmune process, but did not fulfil the criteria of any particular CTD. Because of severe general condition of the patient, immunosuppressive treatment was started immediately, without further invasive diagnostics including lung biopsy, which is required for a definitive diagnosis. We present two-year observation of the patient with all our doubts concerning clinical proceedings.

  2. Tiny but complex - interactive 3D visualization of the interstitial acochlidian gastropod Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970

    Heß Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesopsammic acochlidians are small, and organ complexity may be strongly reduced (regressive evolution by progenesis, especially in microhedylacean species. The marine interstitial hedylopsacean Pseudunela cornuta (Challis, 1970, however, was suggested as having a complex reproductive system resembling that of much larger, limnic and benthic species. The present study aims to reconstruct the detailed anatomy and true complexity of P. cornuta from serial, semithin histological sections by using modern computer-based 3D visualization with Amira software, and to explain it in an evolutionary context. Results Our results demonstrate considerable discordance with the original species description, which was based solely on paraffin sections. Here, we show that the nervous system of P. cornuta has paired rhinophoral, optic and gastro-oesophageal ganglia, three distinct ganglia on the visceral nerve cord, and a putative osphradial ganglion, while anterior accessory ganglia are absent. The presence of an anal genital cloaca is clearly rejected and the anus, nephropore and gonopore open separately to the exterior; the circulatory and excretory systems are well-differentiated, including a two-chambered heart and a complex kidney with a long, looped nephroduct; the special androdiaulic reproductive system shows two allosperm receptacles, three nidamental glands, a cavity with unknown function, as well as highly complex anterior copulatory organs with two separate glandular and impregnatory systems including a penial stylet that measures approximately a third of the whole length of the preserved specimen. Conclusion In spite of its small body size, the interstitial hermaphroditic P. cornuta shows high complexity regarding all major organ systems; the excretory system is as differentiated as in species of the sister clade, the limnic and much larger Acochlidiidae, and the reproductive system is by far the most elaborated one ever observed

  3. Micosis Fungoide Intersticial: Diagnóstico diferencial con el Granuloma Anular Intersticial Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: Differential diagnosis with Interstitial Granuloma Annulare

    RE Achenbach; LJA Lococo; GF Sánchez; S Monroy; MI Jorge; EH Pittaro


    La micosis fungoide en su variante histopatológica intersticial, puede ser confundida con el granuloma anular intersticial. Se ejemplifican dos casos de micosis fungoide intersticial y se subrayan los criterios histopatológicos para el diagnóstico diferencial, entre estas dos entidades.The interstitial type of mycosis fungoides and the interstitial type of granuloma annulare have several findings in common, in some cases may be difficult to differentiate them. Two cases of interstitial mycosi...



    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  5. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth


    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  6. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth


    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  7. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report.

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki


    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies.

  8. Marine antivenoms.

    Currie, Bart J


    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  9. Acute plasmacytic interstitial nephritis in a child with Down syndrome.

    Al-Hermi, B E; Thorner, P S; Arbus, G S


    A 7.5-year-old boy with Down syndrome presented in acute renal failure (ARF) needing dialysis. When 1.5 years old he had a neuroblastoma, was treated for 1 year with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and off chemotherapy had since been in remission. Renal biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, principally of plasma cells with some lymphocytes and eosinophils. Immunofluorescence showed no deposition of immunoglobulins or complement (C3). The plasma cells were a mixture of kappa and lambda light chain-producing cells. The patient spontaneously improved a week after admission. Initial ultrasonography showed enlarged kidneys with loss of corticomedullary differentiation. We are unaware of a report of ARF in a child, resulting primarily from a polyclonal plasmacytic interstitial nephritis. The etiology remains unclear.


    Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL


    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  11. Human interstitial cellular model in therapeutics of heart valve calcification.

    He, Caimei; Tang, Hai; Mei, Zijian; Li, Nichujie; Zeng, Zhi; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Yin, Yulong; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Yang, Xiaoping


    Calcific aortic valve disease is a common, severe heart condition that is currently with no proven, effective drug treatment and requires a surgical valve replacement or an entire heart explanation. Thus, developing novel, targeted therapeutic approaches becomes a major goal for cardiovascular disease research. To achieve this goal, isolated heart valve interstitial cells could be an advanced model to explore molecular mechanisms and measure drug efficacy. Based on this progress, molecular mechanisms that harbor components of  inflammation and fibrosis coupled with proteins, for example, BMP-2, TLRs, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, have been proposed. Small molecules or antibodies targeting these proteins have shown promising efficacy for either reversing or slowing down calcification development in vitro. In this review, we summarize these potential therapeutics with some highlights of interstitial cellular models.

  12. Acute respiratory failure secondary to mesalamine-induced interstitial pneumonitis.

    Abraham, Albin; Karakurum, Ali


    Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect of mesalamine therapy is a rare but potentially serious complication. Patients typically have a mild disease course with no documented cases of respiratory failure in published literature. Given its variable latent period and non-specific signs and symptoms, it may be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and a non-productive cough, 2 weeks after initiation of therapy with mesalamine. His hospital course was complicated by acute respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Radiographic studies revealed bilateral lower lobe infiltrates and bronchosopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering a diagnosis of mesalamine-induced lung injury in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms while on mesalamine therapy and to review relevant literature.

  13. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Yang Xia


    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  14. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Kostas Archontogeorgis


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis.

  15. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    Trevor Mitcham


    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures.

  16. Explicit studies of the quantum theory of light interstitial diffusion

    Emin, D.; Baskes, M.I.; Wilson, W.D.


    The formalism associated with small-polaron diffusion in the high temperature semiclassical regime is generalized so as to transcend simplifications employed in developing the nonadiabatic theory. The diffusion constant is then calculated for simple models in which the metal atoms interact with each other and with the interstitial atom with two-body forces. Studies of these models not only confirm the necessity of generalizing the formalism but also yield diffusion constants whose magnitudes and temperature dependenes ar consistent with the general features of the existing data for the diffusion of hydrogen and its isotopes in bcc metals. The motion of a positive muon between interstitial positions of a metal is also investigated. (GHT)

  17. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  18. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A


    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  19. Interstitial cells of Cajal, the Maestro in health and disease

    Randa; M; Mostafa; Yasser; M; Moustafa; Hosam; Hamdy


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are important players in the symphony of gut motility. They have a very signif icant physiological role orchestrating the normal peristaltic activity of the digestive system. They are the pacemaker cells in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles. Absence, reduction in number or altered integrity of the ICC network may have a dramatic effect on GI system motility. More understanding of ICC physiology will foster advances in physiology of gut motility which will help in a future break...

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    Takehara H


    Full Text Available This study focuses on a possible role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in interstitial pulmonary diseases. We determined a soluble form of ICAM-1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF using ELISA in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, bronchiolitis obliterance organizing pneumonia (BOOP, or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP. In addition, we investigated the expression of ICAM-1 in the lung tissues of these patients by means of immunohistochemical staining. Serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were significantly higher in patients with UIP or NSIP than in healthy subjects, and were also high in patients with BOOP. The soluble ICAM-1 in BALF tended to be higher in patients with UIP, BOOP, or NSIP than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was seen between soluble levels of ICAM-1 in serum and BALF. In the immunostaining of ICAM-1 of the lung tissues, ICAM-1 expression was more pronounced in patients with UIP than in those with BOOP or NSIP. The increased expression of ICAM-1 was seen in type II alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium in patients with interstitial pneumonia. A positive correlation was observed between the degree of ICAM-1 expression in the lung tissues and the BALF levels of soluble ICAM-1. The expression of ICAM-1 in type II alveolar epithelium suggests that ICAM-1 plays a specific role in the fibrotic process of the lung, and that the measurement of soluble ICAM-1 in sera and BALF could be a useful marker for evaluating the progression of fibrosis.

  1. Interstitial pregnancies' diagnosis and management: an eleven cases series.

    Surbone, Anna; Cottier, Olivier; Vial, Yvan; Francini, Katyuska; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Achtari, Chahin


    Interstitial pregnancy represents 2% of ectopic pregnancies, but it is a highly morbid condition with a 2.5% of maternal mortality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic management remains controversial. The aim of this review is to describe the management of interstitial pregnancy in our institution between 2001 and 2011 and to define some general rules for the clinical practice. Single institution retrospective study. Eleven women were treated for interstitial pregnancy. The median age was 33 years and the median gestity was 4. Seven patients had a history of gynaecological surgery and four interstitial pregnancies followed in vitro fertilisation. The diagnosis was made at a median gestational age of seven weeks with a median beta-HCG level of 5,838 U/l. Six of the eleven patients received an initial treatment with intracornual methotrexate, three with intramuscular methotrexate and two with surgery. The median time to beta-HCG resolution was 58 days. Three of the eleven patients needed a second line treatment: two after intramuscular methotrexate and one after intracornual methotrexate. Six patients had further pregnancies and delivered by caesarean section. A high prevalence of previous ectopic pregnancies, gynaecological surgery and of pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilisation was observed. The earliness of the diagnosis was the factor that allowed a conservative treatment in most cases. Beta-HCG level follow up was fundamental in allowing a second line therapy but beta-HCG can persist over a long period of time and this must be taken into account due to its possible psychological impact. Intracornual methotrexate seems to be more efficacious than intramuscular methotrexate in our series.

  2. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    Soto, G., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re{sub 3}N and Re{sub 2}N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials

  3. The Multifaceted Aspects of Interstitial Lung Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Lorenzo Cavagna


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation.

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    O'Dwyer, David N


    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  5. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with connective tissue diseases features: A review.

    Cottin, Vincent


    A systematic approach is recommended to search for clinical and biological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) in any patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the diagnostic approach to ILD, a diagnosis of CTD should be considered particularly in women and subjects younger than 50 years, and in those with an imaging and/or pathological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of CTD may be difficult when ILD is the presenting or the dominant manifestation of CTD. A proportion of patients with ILD present symptoms that belong to the spectrum of CTD and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given CTD. Some imaging and histopathological patterns may also suggest the presence of an underlying CTD. Although studies published to date used heterogeneous definitions and terminology for this condition, evidence is accumulating that even limited CTD features are relevant regarding symptoms, imaging features, pathological pattern and possibly evolution to overt CTD, whereas the impact on prognosis needs confirmation. Conversely, autoantibodies alone do not seem to impact the prognosis or management in patients with otherwise typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and no extra-pulmonary manifestation. A collective international multidisciplinary effort has proposed a uniform definition and criteria for 'interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features', a condition characterized by limited CTD features occurring in the setting of ILD, with the aim of fostering future clinical studies. Referral of ILD patients suspect to have CTD to a rheumatologist and possibly multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to a better management.

  6. Interstitial capillary changes in lithium nephropathy: effects of antihypertensive treatment.

    Skyum, Helle; Marcussen, Niels; Nielsen, Steen Horne; Christensen, Sten


    Histopathological changes were investigated in the tubulointerstitium and in the capillaries of male Wistar rats with lithium-induced nephropathy using stereological methods. Two antihypertensive drugs with opposite effects on the renin-angiotensin system, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic, modified the nephropathy. Generally, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduction in GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the reduction in the volume of intact tubular structures and interstitial capillaries. A significant negative correlation was seen between the reduction in GFR and the increase in tubulocapillary distance and the absolute volume of interstitial connective tissue, respectively. Treatment with perindopril, and to some extent hydrochlorothiazide, reversed the rise in systolic blood pressure associated with lithium-induced nephropathy but did not affect the progression to terminal uraemia, the structural renal changes or the mortality. In conclusion, severe tubular and capillary changes are seen in this model of chronic renal failure. Tubular atrophy is associated with a decrease in interstitial capillaries and with an increase in the tubulocapillary distance. Systemic hypertension or activation of the renin-angiotensin system may not be important factors for the progression to terminal renal failure.

  7. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)


    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  8. Relationship of jute dust to interstitial fibrosis in rat lung.

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiaobin; Lou, Jiezhi; Liu, Zhenlin


    The relationship between jute dust and lung interstitial fibrosis was studied by instilling groups of rats, via trachea, with jute dust and comparing the results with those for positive (quartz) and negative (saline) controls. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals and their lungs and hilar lymph nodes were analyzed for collagen content and morphologic changes. The earliest changes consisted of alveolar edema, increased numbers of intraalveolar macrophages, and marked thickening of the interalveolar septa, with mixed cellular infiltrates. Moderate thickening of the alveolar walls and the zones around the peribronchioles was seen in the test groups at 6 mo. After 12 mo, some fibrosis of the alveoli walls and peribronchiole zones occurred. Interstitial cellular nodules were observed occasionally, composed mainly of dust particles, fibroblasts, reticular fibers, and collagen fibers. The collagen content in the lungs of the jute dust groups was significantly higher than for the saline control group for all test periods. The authors conclude that jute dust may induce lung interstitial fibrosis.

  9. Interstitial fluid: the overlooked component of the tumor microenvironment?

    Wiig Helge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase, together constituting the tissue microenvironment. Here we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of tumors, i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stromal cells. Novel knowledge on this compartment may provide important insight into how tumors develop and how they respond to therapy. Results We discuss available techniques for interstitial fluid isolation and implications of recent findings with respect to transcapillary fluid balance and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. By the development of new methods it is emerging that local gradients exist in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma. Such gradients may provide new insight into the biology of tumors and mechanistic aspects linked to therapy. The emergence of sensitive proteomic technologies has made the interstitial fluid compartment in general and that of tumors in particular a highly valuable source for tissue-specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally at high concentrations in the tissue of interest and will eventually appear in the plasma, where they are diluted. Conclusions Access to fluid that reliably reflects the local microenvironment enables us to identify substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease.

  10. Interplay between interstitial displacement and displacive lattice transformations

    Zhang, Xie; Hickel, Tilmann; Rogal, Jutta; Neugebauer, Jörg


    Diffusionless displacive lattice rearrangements, which include martensitic transformations, are in real materials often accompanied by a displacive drag of interstitials. The interplay of both processes leads to a particular atomistic arrangement of the interstitials in the product phase, which is decisive for its performance. An archetype example is the martensitic transformation in Fe-C alloys. One of the puzzles for this system is that the deviation from the cubic symmetry (i.e., the tetragonality) in the martensite resulting from this interplay is lower than what thermodynamics dictates. In our ab initio approach, the relative motion of C in the transforming lattice is studied with the nudged elastic band method. We prove that an atomic shearlike shuffle mechanism of adjacent (11 2 ¯) Fe layers along the ±[111] bcc directions is essential to achieve a redistribution of C atoms during the fcc → bcc transition, which fully explains the abnormal behavior. Furthermore, the good agreement with experiment validates our method to treat a diffusionless redistribution of interstitials and a displacive rearrangement of the host lattice simultaneously.

  11. Solving the puzzle of interstitial loop formation in bcc Iron.

    Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E; Osetsky, Yury N; Terentyev, Dmitry


    The interstitial loop is a unique signature of radiation damage in structural materials for nuclear and other advanced energy systems. Unlike other bcc metals, two types of interstitial loops, 1/2 and , are formed in bcc iron and its alloys. However, the mechanism by which interstitial dislocation loops are formed has remained undetermined since they were first observed more than fifty years ago. We describe our atomistic simulations that have provided the first direct observation of loop formation. The process was initially observed using our self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method, and subsequently confirmed using molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of loops involves a distinctly atomistic interaction between two 1/2 loops, and does not follow the conventional assumption of dislocation theory, which is Burgers vector conservation between the reactants and the product. The process observed is different from all previously proposed mechanisms. Thus, our observations might provide a direct link between experiments and simulations and new insights into defect formation that may provide a basis to increase the radiation resistance of these strategic materials.

  12. Neural network approach for differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases

    Asada, Naoki; Doi, Kunio; MacMahon, Heber; Montner, Steven M.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Abe, Chihiro; Wu, Chris Y.


    A neural network approach was applied for the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. The neural network was designed for distinguishing between 9 types of interstitial lung diseases based on 20 items of clinical and radiographic information. A database for training and testing the neural network was created with 10 hypothetical cases for each of the 9 diseases. The performance of the neural network was evaluated by ROC analysis. The optimal parameters for the current neural network were determined by selecting those yielding the highest ROC curves. In this case the neural network consisted of one hidden layer including 6 units and was trained with 200 learning iterations. When the decision performances of the neural network chest radiologists and senior radiology residents were compared the neural network indicated high performance comparable to that of chest radiologists and superior to that of senior radiology residents. Our preliminary results suggested strongly that the neural network approach had potential utility in the computer-aided differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. 1_

  13. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    Chatzikyrkou Christos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin.

  14. Paclitaxel attenuates renal interstitial fibroblast activation and interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting STAT3 signaling

    Zhang L


    results suggest that paclitaxel may block the STAT3 activity by disrupting the association of STAT3 with tubulin and inhibiting STAT3 nucleus translocation, consequently leading to the suppression of renal interstitial fibroblast activation and the development of renal fibrosis, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production.Keywords: UUO, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubulin, paclitaxel, STAT3

  15. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Knowlton, William Barthelemy

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Lisp+) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Lisp+ drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Lisp+ drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Lisp+ drifting. The Osb i concentration was measured ({˜}2× 10sp{15}\\ cmsp{-3}) by local vibrational mode Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and did not vary radially across the wafer. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Lisp+ drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Lisp+ drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Lisp+ drift process. The precipitates were characterized using selected area diffraction (SAD) and image contrast analysis. The results suggested that the precipitates may cause stacking faults and their identity may be lithium silicides such as Lisb{21}Sisb5\\ and\\ Lisb{13}Sisb4. TEM revealed a decreasing distribution of Li precipitates as a function of Lisp+ drift depth along the growth direction. A preliminary model is presented that simulates Lisp+ drifting. The objective of the model is to incorporate the Li precipitate density distribution and Lisp+ drift depth to extract the size and capture cross-section of the D-defects. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. However, Lisp+ drifting has shown that D-defects are indeed still present. Lisp+ drifting is able to detect D-defects at concentrations lower than conventional techniques. Lisp+ drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the

  16. Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis in native and allograft renal biopsies: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    Gupta, Pallav; Rana, D S; Bhalla, A K; Gupta, Ashwini; Malik, Manish; Gupta, Anurag; Bhargava, Vinant


    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

  17. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao


    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  18. Lattice site specific diffusion properties for substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms in ZnO crystals

    Yaqoob, Faisal; Huang, Mengbing


    Fundamental understanding of impurity diffusion in crystals remains a challenge due to lack of experimental capabilities for measuring the diffusion properties of atoms according to their substitutional and interstitial lattice locations. With examples of indium and silver in ZnO crystals, we demonstrate an ion beam based method to experimentally determine the energetics and entropy changes in diffusion of substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms. While the interstitial Ag diffuses much faster than the substitutional Ag, as normally expected, the interstitial In migrates slower than the substitutional In, which is attributed to a large negative entropy change (˜-10 kB), possibly caused by the large atomic size of In. The activation energy and the diffusivity pre-exponential factor for the interstitial Ag are significantly enhanced, being more than a factor of two and ˜13 orders of magnitude, respectively, relative to the case for the interstitial In. This implies two different diffusion mechanisms between these two types of interstitial atoms in ZnO crystals: the direct interstitial diffusion mechanism for the interstitial In and the kick-out diffusion mechanism for the interstitial Ag. In addition, the activation energies and the diffusivity prefactors follow the Meyer-Neldel relationship with an excitation energy of ˜92 meV.

  19. Evaluation of prostaglandin E2 and E-series prostaglandin receptor in patients with interstitial cystitis.

    Wada, Naoki; Ameda, Kaname; Furuno, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Hiroki; Date, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Hidehiro


    We evaluated PGE2 and EP receptor in patients with interstitial cystitis. Enrolled in the study were 20 female patients with interstitial cystitis (11 with and 9 without Hunner lesions), 9 female controls with another urological disease who needed a cystoscopic procedure and 10 normal volunteers. In all participants we determined O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores, and obtained voluntary urine specimens for PGE2 analysis. Using anesthesia the bladder was distended by saline in stepwise fashion from 100 ml to maximum capacity in patients with interstitial cystitis. Each time the infused saline was retrieved for PGE2 analysis. We also measured PGE2 and the expression of EP receptor mRNA in bladder biopsy tissue in patients with interstitial cystitis. Symptom and problem indexes in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions were significantly higher than in patients with interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions. Urinary PGE2 in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions was significantly higher than in patients with interstitial cystitis without lesions, controls and normal volunteers. PGE2 in retrieved saline in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions increased depending on infusion volume but not in patients with interstitial cystitis without lesions. PGE2 content in bladder biopsy tissue was significantly higher in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions than in controls. In patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions the expression of EP1 and EP2 mRNA was significantly higher than in controls. Our study showed increased PGE2 production and mRNA expression of EP1 and EP2 receptors in the bladder in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions. Further studies are warranted to explore the pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U


    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features.

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O


    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.


    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  3. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  4. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  5. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others


    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  6. Tsunamis and marine life

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...



    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  8. Clinical experience with pirfenidone in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

    Miura, Yukiko; Saito, Takefumi; Fujita, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Toru; Takoi, Hiroyuki; Yatagai, Yohei; Rin, Shigen; Sekine, Akimasa; Hayashihara, Kenji; Nei, Takahito; Azuma, Arata


    Interstitial lung disease is the most common complication and cause of death among patients with scleroderma. Scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease has usually been treated with cyclophosphamide; however, its effect was evaluated to be modest and long-term administration of this drug is associated with adverse effects. Herein, we report our clinical experience of administering pirfenidone, which is an antifibrotic agent, in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. All patients demonstrated an increase in vital capacity.

  9. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael


    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  10. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Takashi Maoka


    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  11. A case of interstitial lung disease associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Okubo, Gosuke; Noma, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yuko; Sada, Ryuichi; Kobashi, Yoichiro


    This case report describes a 64-year-old woman with interstitial lung disease associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. Chest computed tomography revealed consolidations along bronchovascular bundles in the periphery of the lower lungs. Interstitial lung disease developed acutely, and the patient died 3 months after the clinical diagnosis. An autopsy was performed, and a large section of the lung specimen was prepared. Various interstitial lesions including organizing pneumonia, cellular and fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and diffuse alveolar damage were seen in the large section. Correlating the large section and computed tomography images was useful for determining the distribution of diffuse alveolar damage.

  12. Study on defects associated with interstitial oxygen in PbWO4 crystal

    Liu Feng-song; Gu Mu; Zhang Rui


    The defects associated with interstitial oxygen in lead tungstate crystals (PbWO4) are investigated by the relativistic self-consistent discrete variational embedded cluster method. The research work is focused on the density of states of interstitial oxygen defects and relational Frankel defects. The transition state method is used to calculate excitation energy of different electron orbits. Simulation results show that the existence of defects related to interstitial oxygen can diminish the bandwidth of the WO2-4 group, and it might produce the green luminescence. Frankel defects associated with interstitial oxygen could result in the absorption at 420nm.

  13. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)


    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    N. Hotta


    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  15. Interstitial vortex in superconducting film with periodic hole arrays

    He Shi-Kun; Zhang Wei-Jun; Wen Zhen-Chao; Xiao Hong; Han Xiu-Feng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Qiu Xiang-Gang


    The response of superconducting Nb films with a diluted triangular and square array of holes to a perpendicular magnetic field are investigated.Due to small edge-to-edge separation of the holes,the patterned films are similar to multi-connected superconducting islands.Two regions in the magnetoresistance R(H) curves can be identified according to the field intervals of the resistance minima.Moreover,in between these two regions,variation of the minima spacing was observed.Our results provide strong evidence of the coexistence of interstitial vortices in the islands and fluxoids in the holes.

  16. Facts and promises on lung biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases.

    Campo, Ilaria; Zorzetto, Michele; Bonella, Francesco


    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of >100 pulmonary disorders. ILDs are characterized by an irreversible architectural distortion and impaired gas exchange; however, there is great variability in the clinical course. ILD diagnosis requires a combination of clinical data, radiological imaging and histological findings (when a lung biopsy is required). At the same time, successful management of ILD patients strictly depends on an accurate and confident diagnosis. In this context, the detection of reliable biomarkers able to identify ILD subtypes, avoiding lung biopsy, as well as the capacity to stratify patients and predict over time the disease course, has become a primary aim for all research studies in this field.

  17. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune


    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  18. A case of Amyopathic Dermatomyositis associated with Interstitial Pulmonary Disease.

    Ugan, Y; Sahin, M; Dogru, A; Bayram, D; Ceyhan, A M; Tunc, S E


    Inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the skeletal muscles and proximal muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic cutaneous findings such as heliotrope rash, Gottron's sign, Gottron's papules, shawl sign and machinist hand. Amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) is a rare but well-recognized clinical subtype of DM, constituting aproximately 10-20% of patients with this disease. It generally manifests only pathognomonic skin findings without clinical and laboratory evidence of muscle involvement. In this report, we present a rare case of ADM associated with interstitial pulmonary disease.

  19. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine and Radiology); Hall, R. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK))


    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones.

  20. Update in diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease.

    Mikolasch, Theresia A; Garthwaite, Helen S; Porter, Joanna C


    The field of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has undergone significant evolution in recent years, with an increasing incidence and more complex, ever expanding disease classification. In their most severe forms, these diseases lead to progressive loss of lung function, respiratory failure and eventually death. Despite notable advances, progress has been challenged by a poor understanding of pathological mechanisms and patient heterogeneity, including variable progression. The diagnostic pathway is thus being continually refined, with the introduction of tools such as transbronchial cryo lung biopsy and a move towards genetically aided, precision medicine. In this review, we focus on how to approach a patient with ILD and the diagnostic process.

  1. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Unnati D. Desai


    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  2. Granulomatous Interstitial Nephritis Presenting as Hypercalcemia and Nephrolithiasis

    Saika Sharmeen


    Full Text Available We report a case of acute kidney injury as the initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. A 55-year-old male was sent from his primary care physician’s office with incidental lab findings significant for hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury with past medical history significant for nephrolithiasis. Initial treatment with intravenous hydration did not improve his condition. The renal biopsy subsequently revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN. Treatment with the appropriate dose of glucocorticoids improved both the hypercalcemia and renal function. Our case demonstrates that renal limited GIN due to sarcoidosis, although a rare entity, can cause severe acute kidney injury and progressive renal failure unless promptly diagnosed and treated.

  3. Crohn's disease: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in colonic myenteric plexus

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas


    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), remains unclear. Ultrastructural alterations in ICC in the colonic myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) have been reported previously in UC, but descriptions of ICC...... were dilated and appeared to be empty. Lipid droplets and lipofuscin-bodies were prominent in glial cells and neurons. ICC-MP were scanty but, as in controls, had caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and membrane-associated dense bands with a patchy basal lamina. ICC...

  4. Ortho and para interstitial H{sub 2} in silicon

    Lavrov, E.V.; Weber, J


    H{sub 2} trapped at the interstitial T site in Si is studied by Raman scattering. Both ortho and para nuclear-spin states of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} have been observed. It is shown that the Raman signals of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in the J=0 state, where J is the rotational quantum number, disappear preferentially from the spectra during laser excitation or prolonged storage at room temperature in the dark. This surprising behavior is tentatively explained by different diffusion rates of H{sub 2} in the J=0 and 1 states.

  5. Survival following interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent malignant glioma.

    Kitchen, N D; Hughes, S W; Taub, N A; Sofat, A; Beaney, R P; Thomas, D G


    The treatment of recurrent malignant glioma is difficult and at present largely disappointing. Furthermore the results of any treatment modality need to be interpreted with knowledge regarding patient selection and timing of treatment. The results of interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 in 23 patients are presented. There were no operative complications. Median survival time from tumour recurrence and implantation was 36 and 25 weeks respectively. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was significantly associated with survival, though patient age, original tumour histology, prior chemotherapy, and time to recurrence were not. Treatment does confer modest survival benefit as compared to controls, but our results are not as impressive as others. Reasons for this finding are discussed.

  6. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha expression in interstitial lung disease.

    Standiford, T J; Rolfe, M W; Kunkel, S L; Lynch, J P; Burdick, M D; Gilbert, A R; Orringer, M B; Whyte, R I; Strieter, R M


    Mononuclear phagocyte (M phi) recruitment and activation is a hallmark of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung, including sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1 alpha), a peptide with leukocyte activating and chemotactic properties, may play an important role in mediating many of the cellular changes that occur in sarcoidosis and IPF. In initial experiments, we demonstrated that human rMIP-1 alpha exerted chemotactic activities toward both polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, and these activities were inhibited by treatment with rabbit anti-human MIP-1 alpha antiserum. In support of the potential role of MIP-1 alpha in interstitial lung disease, we detected MIP-1 alpha in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 22/23 patients with sarcoidosis (mean 443 +/- 76 pg/ml) and 9/9 patients with IPF (mean 427 +/- 81 pg/ml), whereas detectable MIP-1 alpha was found in only 1/7 healthy subjects (mean 64 +/- 64 pg/ml). In addition, we found a 2.5- and 1.8-fold increase in monocyte chemotactic activity in BALF obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and IPF respectively, as compared to healthy subjects, and this monocyte chemotactic activity, but not neutrophil chemotactic activity, was reduced by approximately 22% when bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sarcoidosis and IPF patients were preincubated with rabbit antihuman MIP-1 alpha antibodies. To determine the cellular source(s) of MIP-1 alpha within the lung, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cell pellets, transbronchial biopsies, and open lung biopsies obtained from patients with IPF and sarcoidosis. Substantial expression of cell-associated MIP-1 alpha was detected in M phi, including both alveolar AM phi and interstitial M phi. In addition, interstitial fibroblasts within biopsies obtained from sarcoid and IPF patients also expressed immunoreactive MIP-1 alpha. Minimal to no detectable MIP-1

  7. Marine Robot Autonomy


    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  8. Dose optimization in gynecological 3D image based interstitial brachytherapy using martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT -an institutional experience

    Pramod Kumar Sharma


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose optimization in 3D image based gynecological interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template (MUPIT. Axial CT image data set of 20 patients of gynecological cancer who underwent external radiotherapy and high dose rate (HDR interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT was employed to delineate clinical target volume (CTV and organs at risk (OARs. Geometrical and graphical optimization were done for optimum CTV coverage and sparing of OARs. Coverage Index (CI, dose homogeneity index (DHI, overdose index (OI, dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR, external volume index (EI, conformity index (COIN and dose volume parameters recommended by GEC-ESTRO were evaluated. The mean CTV, bladder and rectum volume were 137 ± 47cc, 106 ± 41cc and 50 ± 25cc, respectively. Mean CI, DHI and DNR were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.11 and 0.31 ± 0.09, while the mean OI, EI, and COIN were 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.05, respectively. The estimated mean CTV D90 was 76 ± 11Gy and D100 was 63 ± 9Gy. The different dosimetric parameters of bladder D2cc, D1cc and D0.1cc were 76 ± 11Gy, 81 ± 14Gy, and 98 ± 21Gy and of rectum/recto-sigmoid were 80 ± 17Gy, 85 ± 13Gy, and 124 ± 37Gy, respectively. Dose optimization yields superior coverage with optimal values of indices. Emerging data on 3D image based brachytherapy with reporting and clinical correlation of DVH parameters outcome is enterprizing and provides definite assistance in improving the quality of brachytherapy implants. DVH parameter for urethra in gynecological implants needs to be defined further.

  9. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi


    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile.

  10. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismüller, Axel


    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions and the significance thresholds were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the MF features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  11. Tumor interstitial fluid formation, characterization and clinical implications

    Marek eWagner


    Full Text Available The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase, together constituting the tissue microenvironment. In the present review we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors (TIF, i.e. the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this compartment may provide important insight into how tumors develop and how they respond to therapy. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to transcapillary fluid balance and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. It has recently been shown that local gradients exist in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new insight into the biology of tumors. The emergence of sensitive proteomic technologies has made the interstitial fluid compartment in general, but that of tumors in particular, a highly valuable source for tissue specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally at high concentrations in the tissue of interest and will eventually appear in the plasma where they are diluted. Access to fluid that reliably reflects the local microenvironment enables us to identify substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease.

  12. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Yasushi Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  13. Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia: What Is the Optimal Approach to Management?

    Tomassetti, Sara; Ryu, Jay H; Piciucchi, Sara; Chilosi, Marco; Poletti, Venerino


    We reviewed current aspects of the clinical and pathogenic profile of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), to better elucidate the complex issue of management and treatment options for NSIP patients. Recent findings suggest that idiopathic NSIP is a complex clinical entity with a disease spectrum that includes at least three different phenotypes: NSIP associated with autoimmune features, emphysema, and familial interstitial lung disease. This distinction, based mainly on clinical findings, may be of critical importance when it comes to making a decision on patients' management. This hypothesis warrants further studies. Currently, two major radiologic-pathologic different profiles have been well established. First, the "inflammatory type" characterized by prominent lymphocytic inflammation both on biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with mixed NSIP/organizing pneumonia pattern that tends to have a better response to corticosteroid and immunosuppressive treatment. Second, the "highly fibrotic" subgroup that shows prominent reticular changes and traction bronchiectasis by HRCT, high fibrotic background on biopsy, and no lymphocytosis on BAL. The latter fibrotic NSIP is the subgroup with less potential to respond to immunosuppressive treatment and a marginal risk to evolve into "full-blown idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis." The management of patients with fibrotic, progressive, and immunosuppressive treatment, refractory NSIP remains uncertain, and further studies are needed to address the role of antifibrotic drug in this settings. Oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and lung transplantation are of importance in the current management of severe, progressive, and refractory NSIP patients.

  14. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 15

    Sayles, Fred L.; Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.


    Analyses of pore fluids from reducing environments demonstrate that reduction of SO4 is accompanied by large increases in alkalinity and strong depletion of Ca and Mg. The data are compatible with a model of replacement of Fe3+ in clay lattices by Mg from the interstitial solutions and the precipitation of pyrite. Depletions of Na in the interstitial solutions are related to Mg losses by a ratio of approximately 1:3. Pore fluids from oxidizing pelagic sediments exhibit little SO4 depletion. Losses of Mg are accompanied by the addition of Ca to the pore solutions on a nearly 1:1 basis. Strong Sr enrichment is also found in these solutions. The magnitude of the Sr increase suggests that considerable carbonate recrystallization has occurred. As part of an extensive interlaboratory and analytical calibration, the effect of squeezing sediment at different temperatures has been studied in depth. Samples of a variety of lithologies have been included. Enrichment of K by as much as 24 percent and depletion of Mg and Ca by up to 7 percent occurs during warming. However, no significant effect upon Cl and SO4 could be detected. The strongest effects are seen in the minor constituents studied. On warming, Sr, Si, and B are enriched as much as 19, 40, and 60 percent, respectively. The size of the observed concentration changes varies with the mineralogy of the sediment, but is significant in all types studied, particularly with regards to Mg and K.


    XU Xiao-hua; HUANG Lian-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-hong; ZHU Kang-er; XU Yang; WU Dong; ZHAO Xiao-ying


    Objective: To explore the risk factors and prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis(CMV-IP) after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). Methods: 43 patients who received allo-PBSCT were allocated to either a Gancyclovir(GCV)-prophylaxis group (n=19) or a non-GCV prophylaxis group (n=24).A comparison was made of the incidence of CMV-IP in patients given or not given prophylactic gancyclovir. Results: 9patients in non-GCV prophylaxis group developed late CMV-IP (P<0.05). Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) may be associated with a high risk of CMV-IP. 5 cases of CMV-IP were successfully treated with GCV, but 3 cases died of CMV-IP.The most common adverse event of GCV was neutropenia, but was reversible. Conclusion: CMV infection was a major cause of interstitial pneumonitis after allo-PBSCT, which correlated strongly with the severity of GVHD. Gancyclovir was shown to be effective in both prophylaxis and treatment of CMV-IP.

  16. [Severe interstitial lung disease from pathologic gastroesophageal reflux in children].

    Ahrens, P; Weimer, B; Hofmann, D


    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of pulmonary conditions that cause restrictive lung disease of poor prognosis, especially if growth failure, pulmonary hypertension and fibrosis appears. We report on the case of a girl of 11 years of age who suffered from severe nonallergic asthma in early childhood and who developed severe interstitial pulmonary disease caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux at the age of 8 years. This diagnosis was established by lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and a high amount of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, 2-level pH measurement and oesophageal biopsy. Because therapy with oral and inhaled steroids failed and Omeprazol showed benificial effects, hemifundoplication according to THAL was performed. At present the lung function is clearly normal and there is no need of any medicaments. Following the history, we can assume the pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to be the cause of the disease. It is important to state that there were no typical symptoms at any time pointing to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The development of pulmonary disease by pathological reflux is very often caused by "silent aspiration". Very typically there are no symptoms such as vomiting, heartburn and pain but only signs of chronic lung disease.

  17. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine


    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  18. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Irfan Moinuddin


    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  19. Interstitially stabilized phases in the zirconium-nickel system

    MacKay, R.A.


    Addition of nonmetal interstitial atoms to Zr-Ni compounds has resulted in several new phases. A single-crystal x-ray study was carried out for Zr{sub 3}NiO. Zr{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O is a high- temperature phase, forming in samples annealed at 1250 C. Huekel band calculations led to prediction and confirmation of additional phases in more electron rich systems. Other phases studied by XRD are Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 0.6}, Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}O, and Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Phases identified by powder diffraction are Nb{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O, Zr{sub 4}Cu{sub 2}O, and Zr{sub 6}Co{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O. New Zr kappa phases in space group P6s{sub 3}/mmc were found: Zr{sub 9}Mo{sub 4}SO{sub x} and Zr{sub 9}W{sub 4}(S,Ni)O{sub 3}. A new structure type was discovered with Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}TiSiO{sub 1.8}. In all these interstitially stabilized phases, O is coordinated in Zr octahedral; there are no Ni-O interactions.

  20. Interstitial volume modulates the conduction velocity-gap junction relationship.

    Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Salama, Mohamed E; Poelzing, Steven


    Cardiac conduction through gap junctions is an important determinant of arrhythmia susceptibility. Yet, the relationship between degrees of G(j) uncoupling and conduction velocity (θ) remains controversial. Conflicting results in similar experiments are normally attributed to experimental differences. We hypothesized that interstitial volume modulates conduction velocity and its dependence on G(j). Interstitial volume (V(IS)) was quantified histologically from guinea pig right ventricle. Optical mapping was used to quantify conduction velocity and anisotropy (AR(θ)). Albumin (4 g/l) decreased histologically assessed V(IS), increased transverse θ by 71 ± 10%, and lowered AR(θ). Furthermore, albumin did not change isolated cell size. Conversely, mannitol increased V(IS), decreased transverse θ by 24 ± 4%, and increased AR(θ). Mannitol also decreased cell width by 12%. Furthermore, mannitol was associated with spontaneous ventricular tachycardias in three of eight animals relative to zero of 15 during control. The θ-G(j) relationship was assessed using the G(j) uncoupler carbenoxolone (CBX). Whereas 13 μM CBX did not significantly affect θ during control, it slowed transverse θ by 38 ± 9% during mannitol (edema). These data suggest changes in V(IS) modulate θ, AR(θ), and the θ-G(j) relationship and thereby alter arrhythmia susceptibility. Therefore, V(IS) may underlie arrhythmia susceptibility, particularly in diseases associated with gap junction remodeling.

  1. Trauma- related xanthogranulomatous interstitial nephritis:a clinicopathological analysis


    Objective: To investigate the pathogenesis, exact nature, histologic feature of xanthogranulomatous interstitial nephritis (XGIN) as well as its significance in clinical medicine.Methods: The medical histories concerned were collected with diagnostic images including CT scanning,ultrasonography, intravenous urography ( IVU ) and laboratory data being synthesized by comparison with what was discovered during operations and pathologic examinations.Results: All patients were ever struck on their loins or backs by blunt violence over 4-12 years. The diseases were dinically diagnosed as "renal cancer" before, during and after operations, and treated with radical nephrectomy. Located at cortical parts, the tumor focus had penetrated the renal capsules and invaded other organs. However, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the lesions were xanthogranulomas, not tumors, in which there were stacks of foam cells and lymphocytes with vast extends of fibrotic tissues obliterating the cortical interstitial structures. Urinary tracts yielded no bacterium,obstruction or calculus.Conclusions: XGIN is likely to be one kind of immunologic mediated granuloma following blunt renal trauma. It is imperative to clarify pathogenesis and character of this lesion so as to find out any approach to diagnosis and cure of such an unusual nephropathy.

  2. Anomalous dynamics of interstitial dopants in soft crystals

    Tauber, Justin; Higler, Ruben; Sprakel, Joris


    The dynamics of interstitial dopants govern the properties of a wide variety of doped crystalline materials. To describe the hopping dynamics of such interstitial impurities, classical approaches often assume that dopant particles do not interact and travel through a static potential energy landscape. Here we show, using computer simulations, how these assumptions and the resulting predictions from classical Eyring-type theories break down in entropically stabilized body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals due to the thermal excitations of the crystalline matrix. Deviations are particularly severe close to melting where the lattice becomes weak and dopant dynamics exhibit strongly localized and heterogeneous dynamics. We attribute these anomalies to the failure of both assumptions underlying the classical description: (i) The instantaneous potential field experienced by dopants becomes largely disordered due to thermal fluctuations and (ii) elastic interactions cause strong dopant-dopant interactions even at low doping fractions. These results illustrate how describing nonclassical dopant dynamics requires taking the effective disordered potential energy landscape of strongly excited crystals and dopant-dopant interactions into account.

  3. Human renal medullary interstitial cells and analgesic nephropathy.

    Whiting, P H; Tisocki, K; Hawksworth, G M


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of known papillotoxins using cultures of human renal interstital medullary cells (hRMIC). The culture of hMIC was based on the primary culture of human renal medullary explants, selective detachment of interstitial cells and selective overgrowth of these cells in a serum-rich medium after dilution cloning. The homogeneous population of cells obtained exhibited the characteristic morphological and functional characteristics of Type I interstitial cells, viz. stellate-shaped cells demonstrating numerous lipid droplets, abundant endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, fine filaments underlying the cell membrane and the production of extracellular matrix. Cytotoxicity studies using hMIC and known papillotoxins clearly demonstrated a reduction in cell viability that varied with bath exposure time and type of agent tested. While only phenylbutazone and mefenamic acid produced significant cytotoxicity after a 24 h incubation period, cell viability assessed using the MTT assay was only profoundly reduced by aspirin and paracetamol following sub-chronic exposure for 7 days. The rank order of cytotoxicity observed in hMIC was phenylbutazone > mefenamic acid > aspirin > paracetamol. The results demonstrate the potential of hMIC for investigating and defining the early cellular events in the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy.

  4. Interstitial radiation: short-term palliation or curative therapy?

    Whitmore, W F; Hilaris, B; Batata, M; Sogani, P; Herr, H; Morse, M


    The management of clinically localized prostatic cancer by interstitial implantation of 125I seeds has been under exploration at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for thirteen years. This investigation was prompted by clinical evidence of the radioresponsiveness of some prostatic cancers, the limited applicability of surgical excision, and the possibility that interstitial therapy would have less of an adverse effect on the quality of life than would alternative treatments. Cumulative experience indicates that the technique is associated with low morbidity and mortality and high functional preservation rates; local control rates (routine biopsies were not done), within the constraints of still-limited follow-up intervals, are in the 80 per cent to 90 per cent range; and actuarial survival rates at nine years (including patients who received endocrine therapy for metastatic or intractable local disease) are approximately 90 per cent for T1, 60 per cent for T2, and 45 per cent for T3 lesions. Approximate actuarial nine-year survival rates are 80 per cent for all patients with negative nodes and 50 per cent for all patients with positive nodes. Taking into account limitations of the data and the hazards of comparing this therapy with other uncontrolled treatments, 125I appears to be a therapeutic option for the control of clinically localized prostatic cancer.

  5. Interstitial radiation: short-term palliation or curative therapy

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.; Hilaris, B.; Batata, M.; Sogani, P.; Herr, H.; Morse, M.


    The management of clinically localized prostatic cancer by interstitial implantation of /sup 125/I seeds has been under exploration at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for thirteen years. This investigation was prompted by clinical evidence of the radioresponsiveness of some prostatic cancers, the limited applicability of surgical excision, and the possibility that interstitial therapy would have less of an adverse effect on the quality of life than would alternative treatments. Cumulative experience indicates that the technique is associated with low morbidity and mortality and high functional preservation rates; local control rates (routine biopsies were not done), within the constraints of still-limited follow-up intervals, are in the 80 per cent to 90 per cent range; and actuarial survival rates at nine years (including patients who received endocrine therapy for metastatic or intractable local disease) are approximately 90 per cent for T1, 60 per cent for T2, and 45 per cent for T3 lesions. Approximate actuarial nine-year survival rates are 80 per cent for all patients with negative nodes and 50 per cent for all patients with positive nodes. Taking into account limitations of the data and the hazards of comparing this therapy with other uncontrolled treatments, /sup 125/I appears to be a therapeutic option for the control of clinically localized prostatic cancer.

  6. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B


    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...

  7. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo


    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  8. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian.

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Kolo, Philip Manman; Ogunmodede, James Ayodele; Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Salami, Kazeem Alakija


    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  9. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian

    Ademola Emmanuel Fawibe


    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  10. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in circular muscle of human small intestine

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Qvortrup, Klaus;


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine.......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine....

  11. Cystitis and interstitial nephritis related to the use of tiaprofenic acid (Surgam (TM))

    van Gameren, [No Value; Gokemeijer, JDM


    We describe a case of concurrent presentation of severe haemorrhagic cystitis and acute interstitial nephritis with eventually lethal outcome, associated with the use of tiaprofenic acid (Surgam(TM)), a propionic acid-derived non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Although interstitial nephri

  12. Increased urinary levels of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein suggest a systemic etiology of interstitial cystitis

    Bade, J J; Marrink, J; Karrenbeld, A; van der Weele, L; Mensink, H J


    Purpose: We investigated the role of Tamm-Horsfall protein in interstitial cystitis. Materials and Methods: Urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein excretion was analyzed in interstitial cystitis patients and controls, and bladder biopsy specimens were stained immunohistochemically for Tamm-Horsfall protein.

  13. Hartree-Fock Cluster Study of Interstitial Transition Metals in Silicon

    Broer, R.; Aissing, G.; Nieuwpoort, W.C.; Feiner, L.F.


    Results are presented of a Hartree-Fock cluster study of interstitial Ti, V, Cr, and Mn impurities in silicon. A Si10 cluster models the nearest Si atoms around a tetrahedral interstitial site in crystalline Si. The dangling bonds of the Si atoms are saturated by hydrogens. The effect of the Si core

  14. Interstitial pH in human skeletal muscle during and after dynamic graded exercise

    Street, D; Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten


    In this study a new method has been used to measure interstitial pH continuously in human muscle during graded exercise. Human subjects performed 5 min of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at power outputs of 30, 50 and 70 W. Muscle interstitial pH was measured continuously in microdialysis...

  15. Macrophage Chemotaxis in Anti-tubular Basement Membrane-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in Guinea Pigs

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Merrow, Martha; Phillips, S. Michael; Norman, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.


    Interstitial renal lesions containing T cells and macrophages develop after 14 days in guinea pigs immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane-induced interstitial nephritis. We serially examined the renal venous and systemic arterial sera from such animals to determine if chemotactic factor

  16. W/kit gene required for interstitial cells of Cajal and for intestinal pacemaker activity

    Huizinga, J D; Thuneberg, L; Klüppel, M;


    that the interstitial cells of Cajal express the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, mice with mutations in the dominant white spotting (W) locus, which have cellular defects in haematopoiesis, melanogenesis and gametogenesis as a result of mutations in the Kit gene, also lack the network of interstitial cells...

  17. Hartree-Fock Cluster Study of Interstitial Transition Metals in Silicon

    Broer, R.; Aissing, G.; Nieuwpoort, W.C.; Feiner, L.F.

    Results are presented of a Hartree-Fock cluster study of interstitial Ti, V, Cr, and Mn impurities in silicon. A Si10 cluster models the nearest Si atoms around a tetrahedral interstitial site in crystalline Si. The dangling bonds of the Si atoms are saturated by hydrogens. The effect of the Si core

  18. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  19. Marine Environmental History

    Poulsen, Bo


    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  20. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri


    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  1. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  2. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    Natalie Netz


    Full Text Available Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed.

  3. Marine electrical practice

    Watson, G O


    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  4. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa


    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  5. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia;


    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... levels. These findings provide novel insight into the role of adenosine in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation and vascular function by revealing that both interstitial and plasma adenosine have a stimulatory effect on NO and prostacyclin formation. In addition, both skeletal muscle and microvascular...

  6. A Case of IgG4-Related Lung Disease Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Ahn, Jee Hwan; Hong, Sun In; Cho, Dong Hui; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Joon Seon; Song, Jin Woo


    Intrathoracic involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has recently been reported. However, a subset of the disease presenting as interstitial lung disease is rare. Here, we report a case of a 35-year-old man with IgG4-related lung disease with manifestations similar to those of interstitial lung disease. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities and rapidly progressive pleural and subpleural fibrosis in both upper lobes. Histological findings showed diffuse interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 were also increased. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related lung disease, treated with anti-inflammatory agents, and showed improvement. Lung involvement of IgG4-related disease can present as interstitial lung disease and, therefore, should be differentiated when evaluating interstitial lung disease.

  7. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars


    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  8. Parasites and marine invasions

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.


    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  9. Marine Ecological Regions 2000

    California Department of Resources — This shapefile was screen digitized from 'Calecoregions1.jpg' a georectified digital image of the original map of California's ecoregions, including the marine...

  10. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Suppasil Maneerat


    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  11. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    Baeza, A.; Arcos, D.; Vallet-Regí, M.


    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia.

  12. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha


    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  13. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    Huber, Markus B; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A; Wismüller, Axel; 10.1117/12.844318


    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characteriza...

  14. Interstitial pulmonary emphysema in ventilated neonates. Long-term observations

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.


    106 (15.7%) of 675 artificially ventilated newborn developed interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIE). Basic lung diseases were: IRDS, neonatal pneumonia, shock lung, meconium aspiration, hypoplasia of the lungs and other miscellaneous disorders of the chest. PIE developed in 68% of patients within 8 hours following artificial respiration. At the beginning of PIE both lungs were concerned in 41.5% of patients, one lobe of both lungs was affected in 32.1%. PIE was located in one lung in 8.5% and in only one lobe in 17.9%. Maximum of PIE was seen within 5 days after initiating respiration in 76.7% of the patients. Persistent PIE developed in 28.7% of the patients. Persistent PIE of both lungs was seen in 11 cases, PIE of one lung in 8 cases and persistent lobar emphysema in another 8. Pulmonary pseudocysts developed in 22 (20.8%) of the patients.

  15. Beyond pneumonoconiosis: Recently described occupational interstitial lung diseases

    Evangelia Nena


    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Recent technological innovations have resulted in the introduction of new substances in different manufacturing procedures. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the adverse effects of some novel substances has led to the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD among exposed workers. Exposure to diacetyl can cause bronchiolitis obliterans (“popcorn lung”, while exposure to nylon flock, Acramin-FWN, indium-tin oxide, biomass fuels or nanoparticles is associated with ILD. In addition, hypersensitivity pneumonitis can occur after exposure to additives in animal feed. Finally, new applications of substances already known to be hazardous can result in the occurrence of ILD in exposed workers. Pneumon 2010, 23(3:293-300.

  16. Building a reference multimedia database for interstitial lung diseases.

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Vargas, Alejandro; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning


    This paper describes the methodology used to create a multimedia collection of cases with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The dataset contains high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) image series with three-dimensional annotated regions of pathological lung tissue along with clinical parameters from patients with pathologically proven diagnoses of ILDs. The motivations for this work is to palliate the lack of publicly available collections of ILD cases to serve as a basis for the development and evaluation of image-based computerized diagnostic aid. After 38 months of data collection, the library contains 128 patients affected with one of the 13 histological diagnoses of ILDs, 108 image series with more than 41l of annotated lung tissue patterns as well as a comprehensive set of 99 clinical parameters related to ILDs. The database is available for research on request and after signature of a license agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Diagnostic Dilemma

    Mark J. Hamblin


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is an increasingly recognized complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA contributing to significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis can be challenging since patients are unlikely to report dyspnea due to an overall decrease in physical activity with advanced arthritic symptoms. Additionally, infections, drug toxicity, and environmental toxins can mimic ILD, creating significant diagnostic dilemmas for the clinician. In this paper we will explore an effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of RA-ILD. We will also discuss features of drug-related toxicities, infections, and environmental toxins that comprise the main entities in the differential diagnosis of RA-ILD. Finally, we will explore the known and experimental treatment options that may have some benefit in the treatment of RA-ILD.

  18. Distortions induced by radioactive seeds into interstitial brachytherapy dose distributions.

    Zhou, Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi; Modrick, Joseph M


    In a previous article, we presented development and verification of an integral transport equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. Recently, we have included fluorescence radiation physics and parallel computation to the standing algorithms so that we can compute dose distributions for a large set of seeds without resorting to the superposition methods. The introduction of parallel computing capability provided a means to compute the dose distribution for multiple seeds in a simultaneous manner. This provided a way to study strong heterogeneity and shadow effects induced by the presence of multiple seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant. This article presents the algorithm for computing fluorescence radiation, algorithm for parallel computing, and display results for an 81-seed implant that has a perfect and imperfect lattice. The dosimetry data for a single model 6711 seeds is presented for verification and heterogeneity factor computations using simultaneous and superposition techniques are presented.

  19. Cellular interactions in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases

    Gianluca Bagnato


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD encompasses a large and diverse group of pathological conditions that share similar clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations, despite potentially having quite different aetiologies and comorbidities. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF represents probably the most aggressive form of ILD and systemic sclerosis is a multiorgan fibrotic disease frequently associated with ILD. Although the aetiology of these disorders remains unknown, in this review we analyse the pathogenic mechanisms by cell of interest (fibroblast, fibrocyte, myofibroblast, endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells and immune competent cells. New insights into the complex cellular contributions and interactions will be provided, comparing the role of cell subsets in the pathogenesis of IPF and systemic sclerosis.


    Izidor Kern


    Full Text Available Background. By the bronchoscopic lavaging we obtain cytological specimen of the peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF examination gives us information about inflammation in the interstitial lung diseases. BALF sampling and its laboratory processing are standardized in our hospital. Quality assurance practice requires that each institution establish disease characteristic BALF profiles. The aim of this study was to find common cytological characteristics of BALF specimens in sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic bronchoalveolitis (EABA, asbestosis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP.Material and methods. We included 135 BALF specimens of good quality from patients with one of the mentioned entities that were diagnosed clinically, radiographically and pathologically. Based on diferential cell counts and lymphocytic phenotypisation done by immunofluorescence, BALF specimens were categorized as normal type, lymphocytic, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, macrophagic and mixed cell alveolitis. Statistical comparison was performed by the analysis of variance which was done by SAS software.Results. BALF in sarcoidosis shown in 71% lymphocytic or mixed cell (lymphocytic and neutrophilic or eosinophilic type alveolitis with increased CD4/CD8 ratio (> 3.5 in 61.4% specimens. EABA patients had lymphocytic or mixed cell (lymphocytic and neutrophilic or eosinophilic type alveolitis in 53.3% of BALF specimens with decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (< 1 in 38.5% of specimens. Macrophagic alveolitis was the most common type found in asbestosis (52.9%. CD4/CD8 ratio was usually decreased or normal. Patients with IIP had all types of alveolitis and none of them prevailed, but neutrophils were increased often (53.3%. CD4/CD8 ratio was decreased in 65.5% of BALF specimens in IIP.Conclusions. Sarcoidosis has the most characteristic BALF profile (CD4 lymphocytic alveolitis. We often see macrophagic alveolitis in asbestosis. BALF specimens in

  1. Iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for experimental liver cancer

    ZHOU Fei-guo; YAN Jian-jun; HUANG Liang; LIU Cai-feng; ZHANG Xiang-hua; ZHOU Wei-ping; YAN Yi-qun


    Objective:To study the effect of iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy on liver cancer.Methods:Animal model of human liver cancer was established by injecting SMMC-7721 cells cultivated in vitro subcutaneously into the flank of BALB/c nude mice.Nude mice with tumor of 5 mm in diameter were randomly divided into 2 groups(n=10).One iodine-125 seed of apparent activity 0.8 mCi was implanted into the center of tumor in treatment group,whereas an inactive seed was implanted in control group.The other 20 nude mice with tumor reaching 10 mm in diameter were also treated as above.The size of tumor was determined weekly after implantation,and pathological examination and blood routine were taken on the 28th day.Results:Tumor growth was obviously inhibited in treatment group of tumor of 5 mm in diameter,and there was statistically significant difference in tumor volume between treatment and control groups(P<0.01).Around iodine-125 seed,apparent necrosis of tumor was shown in treatment group,accompanied by karyopyknosis and reduced plasma in residual tumor cells microscopically.Tumor growth was not inhibited in either treatment or control group of tumor of 10 mm in diameter.There was no obvious adverse effect except for decreased white blood cells in treatment groups.Conclusion:There is certain effect of iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy on liver cancer,which is associated with the size of tumor.

  2. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a nickel metal hydride battery worker: a case report and literature review

    CAI Hou-rong; CAO Min; MENG Fan-qing; WEI Jing-yi; HOU Jie


    @@ Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very rare chronic interstitial pneumonia caused by exposure to metal compounds such as cobalt or tungsten carbide. Although GIP was included in an original framework for the histologic classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias by Liebow and Carrington in 1969,1 GIP is currently considered a form of pneumoconiosis.

  3. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...



    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26



    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  6. Marine functional food

    Luten, J.B.


    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  7. Cultivation of marine sponges

    QU Yi; ZHANG Wei; LI Hua; YU Xingju; JIN Meifang


    Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges.The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

  8. Marine biomass research advances

    Bender, E.


    This paper reports on research in California, New York and elsewhere into marine biomass. A manmade marine farm moored four miles off the coast of southern California pumps deep water up a 450 m pipe to fertilize giant kelp. After harvesting and chopping by existing commercial methods, the kelp would be converted, by either anaerobic bacteria or thermal processes, into methane and other products.

  9. Protection of Marine Mammals

    Knoll, M.; Ciaccia, E.; Dekeling, R.P.A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Liddell, K.; Gunnarsson, S.L.; Ludwig, S.; Nissen, I.; Lorenzen, D.; Kreimeyer, R.; Pavan, G.; Meneghetti, N.; Nordlund, N.; Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Zon, A.T. van; Fraser, L.; Johansson, T.; Garmelius, M.


    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for

  10. Comparison of clinicoradiologic manifestation of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A report from NRITLD

    Tafti Saeid


    Full Text Available Background: Ever since Katzenstein and Fiorelli introduced the term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP to denote those cases of interstitial pneumonia that cannot be categorized as any of the other types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP, there has been continuing debate on whether it is a real clinical entity or not. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Symposium task group tried to identify idiopathic NSIP as a separate disease and exclude it from the category of IIP. However, it appears that the clinical presentation of NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP are the same. Objective : To show that the radiologic features of NSIP and UIP should be relied upon, instead of clinical presentation and pathologic findings, to differentiate between the two. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who had received a diagnosis of either NSIP or UIP on the basis of open lung biopsy between January 2001 and December 2007 were identified for inclusion in this retrospective review. The study included 61 subjects: 32 men and 29 women with a mean age of 59.39 ± 14.5 years. Chest computed tomography images of all the cases were collected for a review. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT and all pathologic specimens were also evaluated. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to evaluate whether radiology can be used instead of biopsy for the diagnosis of NSIP and UIP. Comparison of the mean ages and the time intervals (i.e., interval between symptom onset and the time of diagnosis in the UIP and NSIP groups was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. Association between gender and biopsy result was evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Data were evaluated using SPSS, v.13. Results : Sixty-one patients were included in this study, 32 were male and 29 were female. On the basis of biopsy findings, 50 (82% patients had UIP and 11 (18% had NSIP. Thirty (60% of the 50 patients who had UIP were male and 20 (40% were female; 2 (18

  11. High Performance Marine Vessels

    Yun, Liang


    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  12. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine


    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  13. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung


    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options.

  14. Interstitial Cystitis and Endometriosis in Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: The “Evil Twins” Syndrome

    Chung, Rosemary P.; Gordon, David


    Objective: To determine the prevalence of interstitial cystitis and endometriosis in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted in 178 women with CPP who presented with bladder base/anterior vaginal wall and/or uterine tenderness, with or without irritative voiding symptoms. The Potassium Sensitivity Test was used to assess bladder epithelial dysfunction. Patients were evaluated with concurrent laparoscopy and cystoscopy with hydrodistention. Results: Laparoscopic findings among the 178 patients with chronic pelvic pain supported a diagnosis of endometriosis in 134 (75%) patients, and cystoscopy confirmed a diagnosis of interstitial cystitis in 159 (89%) patients. Both interstitial cystitis and endometriosis were diagnosed in 115 patients (65%). The Potassium Sensitivity Test was positive in 146 (82%) patients, with 140 (96%) of these patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis and 105 (72%) with endometriosis. Conclusions: Results of this prospective study show that interstitial cystitis and endometriosis may frequently coexist in patients with chronic pelvic pain. A positive Potassium Sensitivity Test accurately predicted the presence of interstitial cystitis in 96% of these patients with chronic pelvic pain, as confirmed by cystoscopic hydrodistention. It is necessary to consider the diagnosis of endometriosis and interstitial cystitis concurrently in the evaluation of patients with chronic pelvic pain to avoid unnecessary delay in identifying either condition. PMID:15791965

  15. Assessment of the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue of healthy adults using ultrasonography

    Terumi Ueda-Iuchi


    Full Text Available Objective: Lymphoedema involves swelling, especially in the subcutaneous tissues. For lymphoedema management to be successful, it is necessary to remove the interstitial fluid. Subcutaneous echogenicity may be associated with interstitial fluid, but echogenicity is not an indicator for the evaluation of management because we do not directly compare echogenicity with the interstitial fluid. We aimed to identify an outcome indicator for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography. We assessed the correlation between echogenicity and transverse relaxation rate (R2 on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: This was an observational study. Healthy adults with leg swelling after activity for >8 h were recruited. The legs of 13 women were evaluated using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of the limb circumference before and after an intervention to reduce the swelling. Results: Echogenicity in the oedema group was greater than that of the controls. Echogenicity decreased with reductions in oedema. The range of the strongest correlations with the changes in R2 occurred at echogenicity values of 48–144 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: r = −0.63 and p < 0.01. Thus, it was possible to evaluate the interstitial fluid using echogenicity. Conclusion: The outcome indicators for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography were echogenicities in the range of 48–144, and these values were valid for assessing the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue.

  16. Marine scaping: The structuring of marine practices

    Toonen, H.M.; Tatenhove, van J.


    Oceans and seas are heavily exploited by different kinds of human activities. More and more information becomes a formative force in governing conflicting human activities and spatial claims at sea, as it is changing processes, institutions and practices of marine governance. This paper presents a c

  17. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E;


    of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report.......A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...

  18. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel


    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  19. Sequential change of high-resolution CT findings of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    Tsukada, Hiroshi; Furuizumi, Naoya; Akita, Shinichi; Oda, Junichi; Sakai, Kunio; Suzuki, Eiichi; Emura, Iwao (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Sequential changes of interstitial lung disease in fourteen patients of polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) were followed up by high-resolution CT (HRCT). Most frequent CT findings were intense lung attenuation (ILA) with volume loss and slightly increased lung attenuation (SILA). Open lung biopsy was performed in a case with ILA shadow which revealed so-called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Most intense ILA and SILA shadows resolved after steroid therapy. Some of ILA, however, reappeared and accompanied more prominent volume loss findings than before treatment. We think HRCT findings of interstitial lung disease in PM/DM may indicate prognosis of these diagnoses to some degree. (author).

  20. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    Pelton, A.R.


    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy.

  1. De novo interstitial deletion q16.2q21 on chromosome 6

    Villa, A.; Urioste, M.; Luisa, M. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)] [and others


    A de novo interstitial deletion of 6q16.2q21 was observed in a 23-month-old boy with mental and psychomotor delay, obese appearance, minor craniofacial anomalies, and brain anomalies. We compare clinical manifestations of this patient with those observed in previously reported cases with similar 6q interstitial deletions. It is interesting to note the clinical similarities between some patients with interstitial deletions of 6q16 or q21 bands and patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and it may help to keep in mind cytogenetic studies of patients with some PWS findings. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)


    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  3. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)


    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  4. Dynamics of interstitial hydrogen molecules in crystalline silicon

    Estreicher, S.K.; Wells, K. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Fedders, P.A. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Ordejon, Pablo [Institut de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)


    The static and dynamic properties of interstitial H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} molecules in crystalline silicon are obtained from ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations with atomic-like basis sets. The static (T=0) calculations agree with those of most other authors: the centre of mass (CM) of H{sub 2} is at the tetrahedral interstitial (T) site, the molecule is a nearly-free rotator, and the activation energy for diffusion is 0.90 eV. However, these results fail to explain a number of experimental observations, such as why H{sub 2} is infrared (IR) active, why the expected ortho/para splitting is not present, why the symmetry is C{sub 1}, why the piezospectroscopic tensors of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} are identical or why the exposure to an H/D mix results in a single HD line which is not only at the wrong place but also much weaker than expected. In the present work, we extend the static calculations to include the constant-temperature dynamics for H{sub 2} in Si. At T>0 K, the CM of the molecule no longer remains at the T site. Instead, H{sub 2} 'bounces' off the walls of its tetrahedral cage and exchanges energy with the host crystal. The average position of the CM is away from the T site along <100>. Under uniaxial stress, the CM shifts off that axis and the molecule has C{sub 1} symmetry. The H-H stretch frequency calculated from the Fourier transform of the v-v autocorrelation function is close to the measured one. Since the potential energy experienced by H{sub 2} in Si near the T site is very flat, we argue that H{sub 2} should be a nearly free quantum mechanical rotator. Up to room temperature, only the j=0 and j=1 rotational states are occupied, H{sub 2} resembles a sphere rather than a dumbbell, the symmetry is determined by the position of the CM and HD is equivalent to DH in any symmetry. The rapid motion of the CM implies that an ortho-to-para transition will occur if a large magnetic moment is nearby. Several candidates are proposed. Since

  5. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  6. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  7. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The application and related documents are available for... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  8. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  9. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR...

  10. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  11. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... ] scientific research on marine mammal parts. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for..., and export marine mammal parts for scientific research studies. The requested permit has been issued...

  12. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  13. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus...... no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. RESULTS: The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786 + 3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261 + 522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7 · 10......(-9) and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all...




    A patient initially presented with sarcoidosis in combination with myositis of sarcoid origin and Raynaud's phenomenon. During the course of his disease, he additionally developed scleroderma. Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed because of increase of interstitial markings in the presence of enlarged

  15. Interstitial pneumonitis is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients treated with sirolimus.

    Morcos, A


    Sirolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug which is being used increasingly after liver transplantation because of its renal sparing and anti-tumour effects. It has been associated with uncommon, but potentially fatal, interstitial pneumonitis.

  16. High-resolution CT study of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    Tomii, Keisuke; Iwata, Takekuni; Oida, Kazukiyo (Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)) (and others)


    High-resolution CT scans of lung parenchyma were obtained in 8 patients with pure polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM-DM) with interstitial lung involvement. The most frequent findings were subpleural curved band-like shadows (A 2), which were demonstrated in 7 patients (88%). Open lung biopsy was performed in a case of A 2 shadow, which revealed non-specific interstitial pneumonia (chronic interstitial pneumonia, not otherwise specified). Most of the A 2 shadows gradually shrinked with steroids or immunosuppressants, and then disappeared completely or changed into subpleural curvilinear shadows (A 1). Peri-bronchovascular shadows (B) were detected in 4 patients (50%). Acute exacerbation had occurred in the two of them, but after all every B shadow reduced or disappeared with therapy. We think A 2 and B shadows are characteristic HRCT findings of interstitial lung disease in PM-DM and their prognosis is fairly good. (author).

  17. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides With Lichen Sclerosus-Like Clinical and Histopathological Features.

    Tekin, Burak; Kempf, Werner; Seckin, Dilek; Ergun, Tulin; Yucelten, Deniz; Demirkesen, Cuyan


    Mycosis fungoides (MF) simulates a variety of dermatologic disorders histopathologically and clinically, well deserving the designation of a great mimicker. Interstitial MF is a rare, but well-recognized histopathological variant resembling the interstitial form of granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of morphea. From a clinical standpoint, MF can have a wide array of manifestations, including an anecdotal presentation with lesions clinically suggestive of lichen sclerosus (LS). We herein report a 25-year-old man with a history of patch-stage MF who later developed widespread LS-like lesions histopathologically consistent with interstitial MF. In some biopsies, additional features resembling LS were discerned. We think that our case might represent a unique variant of interstitial MF presenting with LS-like lesions. The diagnostic challenge arising from this uncommon presentation is discussed together with review of the literature.

  18. The in vitro cytotoxicity of urine from patients with interstitial cystitis

    Beier-Holgersen, R; Hermann, G G; Mortensen, S O


    Urine from patients with interstitial cystitis has been reported to be more cytotoxic than urine from healthy subjects when tested in vitro against cells from a normal urothelial cell line. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method to measure urinary cytotoxicity and so make...... it possible to estimate the toxicity of urine from interstitial cystitis patients. The study included 10 women with interstitial cystitis and 10 healthy controls. Urine specimens were obtained from both groups and urine cytotoxicity was measured by a modified 51Cr-release assay: A range of urine dilutions...... in urine cytotoxicity between interstitial cystitis patients and healthy controls. Urine cytotoxicity was increased by dilution in both groups....

  19. A novel anion interstitial defect structure in zinc-blende materials: A first-principles study

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Duan, Xiangyang; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong


    The low-formation energy structure of anion interstitial defect in zinc-blende materials is usually identified as the tetrahedron central structure where the anion interstitial atom is surrounded by four countercation atoms. A line-type anion interstitial defect structure AD_il , however, is found to be lower in energy than the tetrahedron central anion interstitial defect structure by first-principles calculations. By analyzing the structural and electronical characters of this line-type defect in relative compounds of zinc-blende materials, we attribute this to the electronegativity shift trends and the bond forming, which lead to the hybridization types varying from sp 3 to sp-like and ending at sp.

  20. Diffuse Alveolar Damage: A Common Phenomenon in Progressive Interstitial Lung Disorders

    Riitta Kaarteenaho


    Full Text Available It has become obvious that several interstitial lung diseases, and even viral lung infections, can progress rapidly, and exhibit similar features in their lung morphology. The final histopathological feature, common in these lung disorders, is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD. The histopathology of DAD is considered to represent end stage phenomenon in acutely behaving interstitial pneumonias, such as acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Acute worsening and DAD may occur also in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonias (NSIPs, and even in severe viral lung infections where there is DAD histopathology in the lung. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the DAD reaction is needed to clarify the treatment for these serious lung diseases. There is an urgent need for international efforts for studying DAD-associated lung diseases, since the prognosis of these patients has been and is still dismal.


    The practice of measuring contaminants in interstitial water (IW) during sediment toxicity tests enables researchers to relate contaminant concentrations to organism responses. It is critical that contaminant concentrations are quantified in a precise manner when making these mea...

  2. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in myenteric plexus of human colon

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Rasmussen, Helle


    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized the distinct......The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized...... and had myoid features such as scattered caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, and cytoplasmic dense bodies. We found characteristic dense membrane-associated bands with a patchy basal lamina, invaginating cellular protrusions (peg and socket junctions) between ICC and between ICC and muscle cells...

  3. Therapeutic Effect of 0.1% Topical Tacrolimus for Childhood Interstitial Keratitis Refractory to Cyclosporine.

    Joko, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ogata, Miki; Ohashi, Yuichi


    To report our findings in a case of childhood refractory interstitial keratitis successfully treated with 0.1% topical tacrolimus. A 12-year-old boy presented with a 3-year history of interstitial keratitis. For the recurrent interstitial keratitis he had been treated with topical and systemic acyclovir, steroids, and topical cyclosporine for 3 years. Our examinations revealed severe stromal infiltrates and neovascularization. Treatment was changed from topical 0.5% cyclosporine to topical 0.1% tacrolimus combined with topical acyclovir and betamethasone. After 2 weeks of treatment with topical tacrolimus, the degree of stromal infiltrates decreased. Although the improvements were slow, the stromal infiltrates resolved somewhat, and neovascularization and topical acyclovir and betamethasone were tapered and stopped in 18 months. Since then, the patient has not shown any recurrence for 9 months without medication. Our findings indicate that topical tacrolimus should be considered for treating refractory interstitial keratitis in children.

  4. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    Bin Chiu


    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A, derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC. However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC.

  5. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: where do we stand?

    Susanna Cappelli


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients and despite recent advances in the treatment is, at present, the major cause of death. Today, an early diagnosis of ILD is possible, and is mandatory to improve the prognosis of the disease. Pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography remain the mainstay for the diagnosis of SSc-ILD, but there is a growing interest in lung ultrasound. Recently, the correlation between severity of fibrosis and some peripheral blood biomarkers has been described. Nonselective immunosuppressors are still the main treatment for ILD, with cyclophosphamide (CYC most widely used to obtain remission. Novel therapies towards specific molecular and cellular targets have been suggested; in particular, rituximab (RTX has shown promising results, but further research is needed. It is of paramount importance to define the severity of the disease and the risk of progression in order to define the need for treatment and the treatment intensity. We propose the division of the treatment strategies at our disposal to induce remission into three categories: high intensity (haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, medium intensity (CYC and RTX and low intensity (azathioprine (AZA and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. After obtaining remission, maintenance treatment with AZA or MMF should be started. In this review we explore new advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of SSc-ILD.

  6. Prevalence and prognosis of unclassifiable interstitial lung disease.

    Ryerson, Christopher J; Urbania, Thomas H; Richeldi, Luca; Mooney, Joshua J; Lee, Joyce S; Jones, Kirk D; Elicker, Brett M; Koth, Laura L; King, Talmadge E; Wolters, Paul J; Collard, Harold R


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and outcomes of patients with unclassifiable interstitial lung disease (ILD) and to develop a simple method of predicting disease behaviour. Unclassifiable ILD patients were identified from an ongoing longitudinal cohort. Unclassifiable ILD was diagnosed after a multidisciplinary review did not secure a specific ILD diagnosis. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-IPF ILDs. Independent predictors of mortality were determined using Cox proportional-hazards analysis to identify subgroups with distinct disease behaviour. Unclassifiable ILD was diagnosed in 10% of the ILD cohort (132 out of 1370 patients). The most common reason for being unclassifiable was missing histopathological assessment due to a high risk of surgical lung biopsy. Demographic and physiological features of unclassifiable ILD were intermediate between IPF and non-IPF disease controls. Unclassifiable ILD had longer survival rates when compared to IPF on adjusted analysis (hazard ratio 0.62, p = 0.04) and similar survival compared to non-IPF ILDs (hazard ratio 1.54, p = 0.12). Independent predictors of survival in unclassifiable ILD included diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (p = 0.001) and a radiological fibrosis score (p = 0.02). Unclassifiable ILD represents approximately 10% of ILD cases and has a heterogeneous clinical course, which can be predicted using clinical and radiological variables.

  7. Structural Engineering Vacuum-plasma Coatings Interstitial Phases

    O.V. Sobol'


    Full Text Available The analysis of possible structural conditions defined nonequilibrium processes in vacuum-plasma methods of obtaining interstitial phase coatings. It is shown that nonequilibrium conditions the deposition of ion-plasma flows significantly expands the range of possible structural states formed material from amorphous like to highly ordered crystalline. High speed determines the thermalization phase forming cubic crystal lattice (in most cases the structural type NaCl. On examples of W-C and Ta-N system with a hexagonal lattice type in equilibrium conditions and shows the mechanism of the transition from a metastable state with a cubic lattice in equilibrium with a hexagonal crystal lattice. The transition is performed by diffusion-shear transformation with the formation of stacking faults in the alternation of the most densely packed planes along the [111] axis. The formation of stacking faults contribute to a small area of the shift in nanocrystalline materials and the availability of jobs, and shift the conversion itself (through the formation of stacking faults is accompanied by a sudden relaxation of the structural stresses. Based on the atomic mobility criterion discussed mechanisms of structural transformations in the vacuum-plasma coatings and the necessary physical and technological conditions for structural changes aimed at the stage of precipitation and high temperature annealing.

  8. Segmentation of interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images

    Dash, Jatindra K.; Madhavi, Vaddepalli; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Prafulla


    Automated segmentation of pathological bearing region is the first step towards the development of lung CAD. Most of the work reported in the literature related to automated analysis of lung tissue aims towards classification of fixed sized block into one of the classes. This block level classification of lung tissues in the image never results in accurate or smooth boundaries between different regions. In this work, effort is taken to investigate the performance of three automated image segmentation algorithms those results in smooth boundaries among lung tissue patterns commonly encountered in HRCT images of the thorax. A public database that consists of HRCT images taken from patients affected with Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) is used for the evaluation. The algorithms considered are Markov Random Field (MRF), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Mean Shift (MS). 2-fold cross validation approach is followed for the selection of the best parameter value for individual algorithm as well as to evaluate the performance of all the algorithms. Mean shift algorithm is observed as the best performer in terms of Jaccard Index, Modified Hausdorff Distance, accuracy, Dice Similarity Coefficient and execution speed.

  9. Role of interstitial fluid pressurization in TMJ lubrication.

    Zimmerman, B K; Bonnevie, E D; Park, M; Zhou, Y; Wang, L; Burris, D L; Lu, X L


    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the disc and condylar cartilage function as load-bearing, shock-absorbing, and friction-reducing materials. The ultrastructure of the TMJ disc and cartilage is different from that of hyaline cartilage in other diarthrodial joints, and little is known about their lubrication mechanisms. In this study, we performed micro-tribometry testing on the TMJ disc and condylar cartilage to obtain their region- and direction-dependent friction properties. Frictional tests with a migrating contact area were performed on 8 adult porcine TMJs at 5 different regions (anterior, posterior, central, medial, and lateral) in 2 orthogonal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral). Some significant regional differences were detected, and the lateral-medial direction showed higher friction than the anterior-posterior direction on both tissues. The mean friction coefficient of condylar cartilage against steel was 0.027, but the disc, at 0.074, displayed a significantly higher friction coefficient. The 2 tissues also exhibited different frictional dependencies on sliding speed and normal loading force. Whereas the friction of condylar cartilage decreased with increased sliding speed and was independent of the magnitude of normal force, friction of the disc showed no dependence on sliding speed but decreased as normal force increased. Further analysis of the Péclet number and frictional coefficients suggested that condylar cartilage relies on interstitial fluid pressurization to a greater extent than the corresponding contact area of the TMJ disc.

  10. Tissue dielectric measurement using an interstitial dipole antenna.

    Wang, Peng; Brace, Christopher L


    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to measure the dielectric properties of biological tissues with an interstitial dipole antenna based upon previous efforts for open-ended coaxial probes. The primary motivation for this technique is to facilitate treatment monitoring during microwave tumor ablation by utilizing the heating antenna without additional intervention or interruption of the treatment. The complex permittivity of a tissue volume surrounding the antenna was calculated from reflection coefficients measured after high-temperature microwave heating by using a rational function model of the antenna's input admittance. Three referencing liquids were needed for measurement calibration. The dielectric measurement technique was validated ex vivo in normal and ablated bovine livers. Relative permittivity and effective conductivity were lower in the ablation zone when compared to normal tissue, consistent with previous results. The dipole technique demonstrated a mean 10% difference of permittivity values when compared to open-ended coaxial cable measurements in the frequency range of 0.5-20 GHz. Variability in measured permittivities could be smoothed by fitting to a Cole-Cole dispersion model. Further development of this technique may facilitate real-time monitoring of microwave ablation treatments through the treatment applicator.

  11. Hemoglobin variant (hemoglobin Aalborg) mimicking interstitial pulmonary disease.

    Panou, Vasiliki; Jensen, Peter-Diedrich Mathias; Pedersen, Jan Freddy; Thomsen, Lars Pilegaard; Weinreich, Ulla Møller


    Hemoglobin Aalborg is a moderately unstable hemoglobin variant with no affiliation to serious hematological abnormality or major clinical symptoms under normal circumstances. Our index person was a healthy woman of 58, not previously diagnosed with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg, who developed acute respiratory failure after a routine cholecystectomy. Initially she was suspected of idiopathic interstitial lung disease, yet a series of tests uncovered various abnormal physiological parameters and set the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg. This led us to examine a group of the index person's relatives known with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg in order to study whether the same physiological abnormalities would be reencountered. They were all subjected to spirometry and body plethysmography, six-minute walking test, pulse oximetry, and arterial blood gas samples before and after the walking test. The entire study population presented the same physiological anomalies: reduction in diffusion capacity, and abnormalities in P(a)O2 and p50 values; the latter could not be presented by the arterial blood gas analyzer; furthermore there was concordance between pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas samples regarding saturation. These data suggest that, based upon the above mentioned anomalies in physiological parameters, the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg should be considered.

  12. Hemoglobin Variant (Hemoglobin Aalborg Mimicking Interstitial Pulmonary Disease

    Vasiliki Panou


    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Aalborg is a moderately unstable hemoglobin variant with no affiliation to serious hematological abnormality or major clinical symptoms under normal circumstances. Our index person was a healthy woman of 58, not previously diagnosed with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg, who developed acute respiratory failure after a routine cholecystectomy. Initially she was suspected of idiopathic interstitial lung disease, yet a series of tests uncovered various abnormal physiological parameters and set the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg. This led us to examine a group of the index person’s relatives known with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg in order to study whether the same physiological abnormalities would be reencountered. They were all subjected to spirometry and body plethysmography, six-minute walking test, pulse oximetry, and arterial blood gas samples before and after the walking test. The entire study population presented the same physiological anomalies: reduction in diffusion capacity, and abnormalities in PaO2 and p50 values; the latter could not be presented by the arterial blood gas analyzer; furthermore there was concordance between pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas samples regarding saturation. These data suggest that, based upon the above mentioned anomalies in physiological parameters, the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg should be considered.

  13. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven


    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated Analysis of Crackles in Patients with Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    B. Flietstra


    Full Text Available Background. The crackles in patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF can be difficult to distinguish from those heard in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF and pneumonia (PN. Misinterpretation of these crackles can lead to inappropriate therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the crackles in patients with IPF differ from those in patients with CHF and PN. Methods. We studied 39 patients with IPF, 95 with CHF and 123 with PN using a 16-channel lung sound analyzer. Crackle features were analyzed using machine learning methods including neural networks and support vector machines. Results. The IPF crackles had distinctive features that allowed them to be separated from those in patients with PN with a sensitivity of 0.82, a specificity of 0.88 and an accuracy of 0.86. They were separated from those of CHF patients with a sensitivity of 0.77, a specificity of 0.85 and an accuracy of 0.82. Conclusion. Distinctive features are present in the crackles of IPF that help separate them from the crackles of CHF and PN. Computer analysis of crackles at the bedside has the potential of aiding clinicians in diagnosing IPF more easily and thus helping to avoid medication errors.

  15. Delayed Paclitaxel-Trastuzumab-Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis in Breast Cancer

    Omalkhair Abulkhair


    Full Text Available Pneumonitis is a rare but serious complication associated with paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab treatment. We report a 51-year-old female patient with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with shortness of breath, fever, dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. She had been treated without complications for 10 weeks with paclitaxel (Taxol® and trastuzumab (Herceptin® as neoadjuvant therapy, with complete clinical and pathological response. Infections and cardiomyopathy were excluded as causes of her symptoms. Bronchoscopy and biopsy were performed and a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis was made. After treatment with steroids, the patient showed a significant response in less than 24 h; she was discharged home without the need for oxygen less than 48 h after therapy initiation. Although no causative association could be found between either trastuzumab or paclitaxel and this patient’s pulmonary syndrome, the potential for such toxicity should be considered, especially as paclitaxel/trastuzumab is a vey common combination therapy for breast cancer.

  16. Clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Wang, Ting; Zheng, Xing-Ju; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the lung. This study aimed to identify clinical features of RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD). Patients with RA were retrospectively enrolled and sub-classified as RA-ILD or RA without ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography imaging. Pulmonary function testing parameters and levels of RA-related biomarkers, tumour markers, and acute-phase proteins were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression model was used to assess the strength of association between RA-ILD and clinical features of interest. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess potential predictive value of clinical features for detecting RA-ILD. Comparison analysis indicated that the percentage of predicted value of total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were reduced in patients with RA-ILD. Tumour markers CA15-3 and CA125 were increased in patients with RA-ILD. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased DLCO was related to the increased likelihood of RA-ILD (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = [0.91, 0.98]). The cut-off point at 52.95 percent of predicted value could sensitively discriminate RA patients with or without ILD. Our study suggested that DLCO value could be a useful tool for detecting ILD in patients with RA.

  17. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Alexopoulou Iakovina


    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  18. Incorporation of Interstitial Gas Effects on Granular Flows

    Hrenya, Christine; Garzo, Vicente; Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar


    Numerous examples of granular flows exist in which the role of the interstitial gas cannot be ignored. A range of approaches have been taken to incorporate these effects into continuum descriptions. Early efforts simply added a mean drag law to the momentum balance. This ad hoc approach was followed by more rigorous treatments in which an instantaneous drag was incorporated directly into the kinetic equation. Analytical expressions for the resulting continuum description were obtained in the Stokes limit, but not possible higher Reynolds numbers. In the current effort, DNS-based simulations are used to develop a model for the instantaneous drag force that is applicable to a wide range of Reynolds number. This model, based on the Langevin equation, is incorporated into the Enskog equation in order to derive a continuum description for the gas-solid flow. In the limit of Stokes flow, the additional terms arising in the conservation equation are found to match those of previous analytical treatments. Furthermore, the impact of gas on the solid-phase constitutive relations, which was ignored in analytical treatments, is determined. The parameter space examined is consistent with that found in circulating fluidized beds. For such systems, the results indicate a non-negligible impact of the gas phase on the shear viscosity and the Dufour coefficient.

  19. Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration

    Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume


    While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

  20. Fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT findings that predict mortality

    Edey, Anthony J.; Hansell, David M. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Devaraj, Anand A. [St. George' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Tooting (United Kingdom); Barker, Robert P. [Frimley Park Hosptal, Department of Radiology, Frimley, Surrey (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Andrew G. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom)


    The study aims were to identify CT features that predict outcome of fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) when information from lung biopsy data is unavailable. HRCTs of 146 consecutive patients presenting with fibrotic IIP were studied. Visual estimates were made of the extent of abnormal lung and proportional contribution of fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic (cysts {<=}4 mm) and macrocystic honeycombing. A score for severity of traction bronchiectasis was also assigned. Using death as our primary outcome measure, variables were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. CT features predictive of a worse outcome were coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, as well as overall extent of lung abnormality (p < 0.001). Importantly, increased severity of traction bronchiectasis, corrected for extent of parenchymal abnormality, was predictive of poor prognosis regardless of the background pattern of abnormal lung (HR = 1.04, CI = 1.03-1.06, p < 0.001). On bivariate Cox analysis microcystic honeycombing was a more powerful determinant of a poor prognosis than macrocystic honeycombing. In fibrotic IIPs we have shown that increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is indicative of higher mortality irrespective of the HRCT pattern and extent of disease. Extent of microcystic honeycombing is a more powerful determinant of outcome than macrocystic honeycombing. (orig.)

  1. A robotic multi-channel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    Sharikova, Anna V.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.


    A custom-made robotic multichannel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) was developed and tested in a phantom experiment. The system, which was compatible with the operating room (OR) environment, had 16 channels for independent positioning of light sources and/or isotropic detectors in separate catheters. Each channel's motor had an optical encoder for position feedback, with resolution of 0.05 mm, and a maximum speed of 5 cm/s. Automatic calibration of detector positions was implemented using an optical diode beam that defined the starting position of each motor, and by means of feedback algorithms controlling individual channels. As a result, the accuracy of zero position of 0.1 mm for all channels was achieved. We have also employed scanning procedures where detectors automatically covered the appropriate range around source positions. Thus, total scan time for a typical optical properties (OP) measurement throughout the phantom was about 1.5 minutes with point sources. The OP were determined based on the measured light fluence rates. These enhancements allow a tremendous improvement of treatment quality for a bulk tumor compared to the systems employed in previous clinical trials.

  2. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    Yadollah Omidi


    Results: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b extracellular matrix (ECM is deformed, (c stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d immune system mechanisms are defective, (e non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm are formed, and (h interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics.

  3. Aortic calcified particles modulate valvular endothelial and interstitial cells.

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Bertazzo, Sergio; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Yacoub, Magdi H; Chester, Adrian H; Latif, Najma

    Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs). Cell differentiation, viability, and proliferation were analyzed. Particles were heterogeneous, differing in size and shape, and were crystallized as calcium phosphate. Diseased donors had significantly more calcified particles compared to healthy donors (Pparticles from healthy and diseased donors. VECs treated with calcified particles showed a significant decrease in CD31 and VE-cadherin and an increase in von Willebrand factor expression, Pparticles. Isolated calcified particles from human aortae are not innocent bystanders but induce a phenotypical and pathological change of VECs and VICs characteristic of activated and pathological cells. Therapy tailored to reduce these calcified particles should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo


    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  5. Ratcheting Behavior of a Titanium-Stabilized Interstitial Free Steel

    De, P. S.; Chakraborti, P. C.; Bhattacharya, B.; Shome, M.; Bhattacharjee, D.


    Engineering stress-control ratcheting behavior of a titanium-stabilized interstitial free steel has been studied under different combinations of mean stress and stress amplitude at a stress rate of 250 MPa s-1. Tests have been done up to 29.80 pct true ratcheting strain evolution in the specimens at three maximum stress levels. It is observed that this amount of ratcheting strain is more than the uniform tensile strain at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and evolves without showing tensile instability of the specimens. In the process of ratcheting strain evolution at constant maximum stresses, the effect of increasing stress amplitude is found to be more than that of increasing the mean stress component. Further, the constant maximum stress ratcheting test results reveal that the number of cycles ( N) required for 29.80 pct. true ratcheting strain evolution exponentially increases with increase of stress ratio ( R). Post-ratcheting tensile test results showing increase of strength and linear decrease in ductility with increasing R at different constant maximum stresses indicate that stress parameters used during ratcheting tests influence the size of the dislocation cell structure of the steel even with the same amount of ratcheting strain evolution. It is postulated that during ratcheting fatigue, damage becomes greater with the increase of R for any fixed amount of ratcheting strain evolution at constant maximum stress.

  6. Interstitial irradiation for unresectable carcinoma of the lung.

    Hilaris, B S; Martini, N; Batata, M; Beattie, E J


    From 1963 to 1971, 105 patients with histologically proved cancer of the lung were explored at Memorial Hospital and underwent interstitial implantation using encapsulated sources of radon 222 (53 patients) or iodine 125 (52 patients). These lung cancers were considered unresectable because of extension of the disease into the mediastinum with fixation or invasion of the major vessels, trachea, and esophagus or chest wall involvement. No apical lesions, which have a better prognosis, are included in this review. Sixty-nine patients had epidermoid cancer, 24 had adenocarcinoma, and the remaining 12 had various other histological types. All patients were staged according to the criteria proposed by the American Joint Committee using the TNM definitions (standing for tumor, nodes, and metastasis). Local control was obtained in 8 of 10 patients (80% with clinical Stage I and II unresectable cancers of the lung and in 44 of the 95 (46%) with clinical Stage III lung cancer. The two-year survival was 50% for Stages I and II and 7% for Stage III. Five patients have survived for five years or more. The complications, disease-free interval, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival are presented and indications for this type of therapy outlined.



    <正>20141900Lan Xianhong(Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Land and Resources,Qingdao 266071,China);Zhang Zhixun Geochemical Characteristics of Trace Elements of Sediments from Drillhole SFK-1

  8. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  9. WMO Marine Final Reports

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  10. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan


    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  11. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Pomin, Vitor H.


    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  12. Marine turtle capture data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate abundance, growth, and survival rate and to collect tissue samples, marine turtles are captured at nesting beaches and foraging grounds through various...

  13. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    Machado, Henrique

    microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...... to better understand the potential harbored in marine bacteria. The work presented makes use of whole genome sequencing of marine bacteria to prove that the genetic repertoire for secondary metabolite production harbored in these bacteria is far larger than anticipated; to identify and develop a new...

  14. Marine Mineral Exploration

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  15. Mismanagement of marine fisheries

    Longhurst, A


    .... The relatively open structure and strong variability of marine ecosystems is discussed in relation to the reliability of resources used by the industrial-level fishing that became globalised during...

  16. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  17. The marine cyanobacterium

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.


    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate suc

  18. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  19. Marine Reference Materials

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M, and...

  20. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  1. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  2. MCNP Parametric Studies of Plutonium Metal and Various Interstitial Moderating Materials

    Glazener, Natasha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kamm, Ryan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) has performed calculations evaluating the effect of different interstitial materials on 5.0-kg of plutonium metal. As with all non-fissionable interstitials, the results here illustrate that it requires significant quantities of oil to be intimately mixed with plutonium, reflected by a thick layer of full-density water, to achieve the same reactivity as that of solid plutonium metal.

  3. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一


    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  4. Experimental evidence for thermal generation of interstitials in a metallic crystal near the melting temperature

    Safonova, E. V.; Mitrofanov, Yu P.; Konchakov, R. A.; Vinogradov, A. Yu; Kobelev, N. P.; Khonik, V. A.


    The only intrinsic point defects of simple crystalline metals known from solid state physics are vacancies and interstitials. It is widely believed that while vacancies play a major role in crystal properties and their concentration reaches relatively big values near the melting temperature T m, interstitials essentially do not occur in thermodynamic equilibrium and their influence on properties is minor. Here, taking aluminum single crystals as an example, we present compelling experimental evidence for rapid thermoactivated growth of interstitial concentration upon approaching T m. Using high precision measurements of the shear modulus we found a diaelastic effect of up to -1.5% near T m. It is argued that this effect is mostly due to the generation of dumbbell (split) interstitials. The interstitial concentration c i rapidly increases upon approaching T m and becomes only 2-3 times smaller than that of vacancies just below T m. The reason for this c i -increase is conditioned by a decrease of the Gibbs free energy with temperature, which in turn originates from the high formation entropy of dumbbell interstitials and a decrease of their formation enthalpy at high c i . Special molecular dynamic simulation confirmed all basic aspects of the proposed interpretation. The results obtained (i) demonstrate the significance of interstitial concentration near T m that could lead to the revaluation of vacancy concentration at high temperatures, (ii) suggest that dumbbell interstitials play a major role in the melting mechanism of monatomic metallic crystals and (iii) support a new avenue for in-depth understanding of glassy metals.

  5. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)


    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  6. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一


    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  7. Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) of benign cystic thyroid nodules--a prospective randomized trial

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo


    Recurrence rate, after aspiration, in cystic thyroid nodules is very high. Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is a minimally invasive procedure that reduces the need for surgery in patients with a benign solid thyroid nodule.......Recurrence rate, after aspiration, in cystic thyroid nodules is very high. Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is a minimally invasive procedure that reduces the need for surgery in patients with a benign solid thyroid nodule....

  8. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara


    Background In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is classified based on the underlying disease and its treatment is aimed at reducing the clinical signs and, if possible, addressing the primary disease process. PH is of...

  9. Marine Navigational Vocabulary



    Every industry has its professional terms or particular use of common words. The marine industry is no exception. This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to the elementary vocabularies related to marine industry from six aspects: types of ships;ship’s structure and equipment, manning, logbook, safety and organizations concerned. The corresponding Chinese terms is given simultaneously. It concludes that a good master of these vocabularies is useful and necessary for Chinese seafarers whose native language is not English.

  10. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Borthwick, Alistair G. L.


    Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...

  11. Marine Ecosystem Services

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  12. Marine winch drive systems

    Clifford, M.; Smith, P.M.


    In the design of marine winch drive systems, efficiency, controllability, compactness and component layout flexibility are major considerations. This paper discusses design concepts aimed at achieving the above considerations in the design of variable speed, hydrostatic, marine winch drive systems. These concepts utilize a high pressure, load sensing pump, and a low-speed, high-torque (LSHT), radial-piston, hydraulic motor. These components are then shown applied in several open circuit hydrostatic power transmission systems.

  13. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Suppasil Maneerat


    Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, t...

  14. Marine Ecosystem Services

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  15. Marine Resiliency Study II


    1S. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, Post Trawna t ic Stress Disorder , Biomarker , Suicide , Combat 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER...Project 2a ( Neuro -cognition Study) deploying Marines from 1/7 were assessed during the allotted 2012 timeframe. In total 570 Marines were available...Project 2 ( Neuro -cognition Study) remain current, as necessary for the data collection as noted above. Task 3: In coordination with HQMC, NIMH

  16. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana


    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  17. Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis-related Interstitial Lung Disease: A Review of Existing and Emerging Therapies.

    Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Tashkin, Donald P


    Although interstitial lung disease accounts for the majority of deaths of patients with systemic sclerosis, treatment options for this manifestation of the disease are limited. Few high-quality, randomized, controlled trials exist for systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease, and historically, studies have favored the use of cyclophosphamide. However, the benefit of cyclophosphamide for this disease is tempered by its complex adverse event profile. More recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of mycophenolate for systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease, including Scleroderma Lung Study II. This review highlights the findings of this study, which was the first randomized controlled trial to compare cyclophosphamide with mycophenolate for the treatment of systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease. The results reported in this trial suggest that there is no difference in treatment efficacy between mycophenolate and cyclophosphamide; however, mycophenolate appears to be safer and more tolerable than cyclophosphamide. In light of the ongoing advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis, this review also summarizes novel treatment approaches, presenting clinical and preclinical evidence for rituximab, tocilizumab, pirfenidone, and nintedanib, as well as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation. This review further explores how reaching a consensus on appropriate study end points, as well as trial enrichment criteria, is central to improving our ability to judiciously evaluate the safety and efficacy of emerging experimental therapies for systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease.

  18. Nature of the Interstitials in Titanium Dioxide and Their Impact on Transmission Coefficient: Ab Initio Calculations

    Lei Li


    Full Text Available The ab initio calculations about the properties of the interstitials doping in the rutile TiO2 and their impact on the transport coefficients are reported. As the doping of the Zr or Ti interstitials in the TiO2, the lattice Ti4+ ions acquire the excess electrons so reduced to the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. However, the Cu interstitials could not lose enough electrons to reduce the lattice Ti4+ ions. Furthermore, the Ti or Cu interstitials in the ZrO2 also are unable to promote the lattice Zr4+ ions to form the lattice Zr3+ or Zr2+ ions. The high transport coefficients are observed in the defected TiO2 with the Ti or Zr interstitials as the high concentration of the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. So, the Zr interstitials are the favorable choice for the extra-doping to improve the transport properties in the TiO2-based resistive random access memory.

  19. Is a linear probe helpful in diagnosing diseases of pulmonary interstitial spaces?

    Natalia Buda


    Full Text Available In a lung ultrasound examination, interstitial lung lesions are visible as numerous B-line artifacts, and are best recorded with the use of a convex probe. Interstitial lung lesions may result from many conditions, including cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, or interstitial lung disease. Hence difficulties in the differential diagnostics of the above clinical conditions. This article presents cases of patients suffering from interstitial lung lesions discovered in the course of lung ultrasound examination. The patients were examined with a 3.5–5.0 MHz convex probe and a 7.0–11.0 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound images have been analysed, and differences in the imaging with both probes in patients with interstitial lung lesions have been detailed. The use of a linear probe in patients with interstitial lung lesions (discovered with a convex or a micro-convex probe provides additional information on the source of the origin of the lesions.

  20. Localised vibrational mode spectroscopy studies of self-interstitial clusters in neutron irradiated silicon

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [University of Athens, Solid State Physics Section, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    The evolution of self-interstitial clusters in silicon (Si), produced by fast neutron irradiation of silicon crystals followed by anneals up to 750 °C, is investigated using localised vibrational mode spectroscopy. A band at 582 cm{sup −1} appears after irradiation and is stable up to 550 °C was attributed to small self-interstitial clusters (I{sub n}, n ≤ 4), with the most probable candidate the I{sub 4} structure. Two bands at 713 and 758 cm{sup −1} arising in the spectra upon annealing of the 582 cm{sup −1} band and surviving up to ∼750 °C were correlated with larger interstitial clusters (I{sub n}, 5 ≤ n ≤ 8), with the most probable candidate the I{sub 8} structure or/and with chainlike defects which are precursors of the (311) extended defects. The results illustrate the presence of different interstitial clusters I{sub n}, at the various temperature intervals of the material, in the course of an isochronal anneal sequence. As the annealing temperature increases, they evolve from first-order structures with a small number of self-interstitials (I{sub n}, n ≤ 4) for the temperatures 50 < T < 550 °C, to second order structures (I{sub n}, 5 ≤ n ≤ 8) with a larger number of interstitials, for the temperatures 550 < T < 750 °C.

  1. Comparison of apoprotein B of low density lipoproteins of human interstitial fluid and plasma.

    Hong, J L; Pflug, J; Reichl, D


    Virtually all apoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins of the peripheral interstitial fluid of subjects with primary lymphoedema float in the ultracentrifugal field in the density interval 1.019-1.063 g/ml; in this respect they are similar to plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL). 2. Virtually all apo-B-containing lipoproteins of interstitial fluid migrate in the electrophoretic field with pre-beta mobility; in this respect they are similar to plasma very-low-density lipoproteins. 3. The apoB of lipoproteins of interstitial fluid does not differ in terms of Mr from apoB-100 of human plasma [Kane, Hardman & Paulus (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2465-2469] as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Both apoB of interstitial fluid and plasma are heterogenous in terms of their charge as determined by isoelectric focusing of their complexes with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P40. ApoB of plasma LDL focuses between pH5.9 and 6.65, and that of interstitial fluid LDL between pH 5.9 and 6.1. Thus the overall charge of apoB of interstitial fluid is more negative than that of its plasma LDL counterpart.

  2. Rare Earth Interstitials in Ge: A Hybrid Density Functional Theory Study

    Igumbor, E.; Andrew, R. C.; Meyer, W. E.


    In this work, the results of density functional theory calculations for rare earth (Ce, Pr, Eu, and Er) interstitials in Ge are presented. We employed the hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) for all the calculations. We calculated the formation energies and charge state transition levels for the tetrahedral (T) and hexagonal (H) configurations of the Ce, Pr, Eu, and Er interstitials in Ge. While for the T configuration, the charge states of the Ce and Pr did not induce any thermodynamic accessible transition state level within the band gap of Ge, for both the T and H configurations the Eu and Er interstitials in Ge induce deep levels in the band gap. The H configuration of the Ce interstitial in Ge induces a shallow donor level at 0.03 eV below the conduction band. The Eu interstitial exhibits negative-U properties for the (+2/-2) transition level and the Er interstitial displays characteristics of charge state controlled metastability.

  3. Time lag of glucose from intravascular to interstitial compartment in type 1 diabetes.

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Veettil, Sona; Slama, Michael; Kudva, Yogish C; Peyser, Thomas; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita


    The premise of effective closed-loop insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) relies on the accuracy of continuous interstitial fluid glucose sensing that represents the crucial afferent arm of such a system. An important determinant of sensor accuracy is the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the interstitial space. The purpose of current studies was to determine the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the abdominal subcutaneous interstitial space in T1D. Four microdialysis catheters were inserted into the abdominal subcutaneous space in 6 T1D subjects under overnight fasted conditions. Plasma glucose was maintained at 113.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl using a continuous intravenous insulin infusion. After sequential intravenous bolus administrations of glucose isotopes, timed plasma and interstitial fluid samples were collected chronologically and analyzed for tracer enrichments. We observed a median (range) time lag of tracer appearance (time to detection) into the interstitial space after intravenous bolus of 6.8 (4.8-9.8) minutes, with all participants having detectable values by 9.8 minutes. We conclude that in the overnight fasted state in T1D adults, the delay of glucose appearance from the vascular to the interstitial space is less than 10 minutes, thereby implying that this minimal physiological time lag should not be a major impediment to the development of an effective closed-loop control system for T1D.

  4. The difference of the PDT's effects between interstitial lighting and continuous lighting in low oxygen density

    Yang, Jiumin; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Tao


    Tumor oxygen depletion plays an important role in the process of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). The paper focuses on the improvement of the lighting mode to carry out this cancer therapy more effectively in low oxygen content. The effect of interstitial lighting was compared with that of continuous lighting in different oxygen density measured with a homemade device in PDT. 90 mice were divided into 3 groups: the contrast group, the continuous lighting group and the interstitial lighting group. The initial oxygen content was measured with a homemade device before the treatment. To examine the different effects, both the interstitial lighting and the continuous lighting have the same fluent rates (30mW/cm2, 32.4J/ cm2). The continuous lighting lasted 18 minutes while the interstitial lighting lasted 36 minutes with 1 second's idle time and 1 second's effective time of each pulse. The result shows that the volume of tumor doubling duration in interstitial lighting group is longer in the condition of low initial oxygen content. Thus with low initial oxygen content, the interstitial lighting is more effective than the continuous lighting during PDT.

  5. Increased prevalence of high anti-Cladosporium antibody titers in interstitial lung diseases.

    Watanuki, Zenta; Okada, Shinji; Chiba, Shigeki; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuko; Yamada, Norihiro


    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a large group of different diseases, with a large part comprising idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Differentiating hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), especially its chronic form and other ILDs, is difficult because of similarities in radiological manifestation and clinical course, and the difficulty of identifying causative antigens. We recently experienced a patient with Cladosporium-induced chronic HP that developed in a household environment, but the cause had been misdiagnosed as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia for several years. This case highlighted the need for measures differentiating HP from idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. In this study, we examined fungal exposure in ILDs using an antibody titer in serum to identify possible fungus-related HP. We measured the antibody titer to Cladosporium spp. in 34 patients with various ILDs, 17 patients with bronchial asthma, and 21 control subjects using an immunofluorescence assay. ILDs included HP (5 patients), idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (21 patients), and ILDs with collagen vascular diseases (8 patients). Results showed a significantly higher tendency for high anti-Cladosporium antibody titers in ILD groups (12 patients out of 34 patients), compared to patients with bronchial asthma (0/17) or control subjects (0/21). This increase in antibody titers was observed not only in patients with HP, but also in those with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and those exhibiting collagen vascular diseases with ILDs. This report highlights the pathogenic role of fungal antigens in various ILDs. In conclusion, fungi commonly observed in our living environment such as Cladosporium could be involved in the development of ILDs.

  6. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report

    Doi A


    Full Text Available Asako Doi,1,2 Kentaro Iwata,3 Shigeo Hara,4 Yukihiro Imai,5 Toshikazu Hasuike,1,2 Hiroaki Nishioka,1,2 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of General Internal Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, 4Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Hospital, 5Department of Pathology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN. However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, interstitial nephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy

  7. The role of interstitial binding in radiation induced segregation in W-Re alloys

    Gharaee, Leili; Marian, Jaime; Erhart, Paul


    Due to their high strength and advantageous high-temperature properties, tungsten-based alloys are being considered as plasma-facing candidate materials in fusion devices. Under neutron irradiation, rhenium, which is produced by nuclear transmutation, has been found to precipitate in elongated precipitates forming thermodynamic intermetallic phases at concentrations well below the solubility limit. Recent measurements have shown that Re precipitation can lead to substantial hardening, which may have a detrimental effect on the fracture toughness of W alloys. This puzzle of sub-solubility precipitation points to the role played by irradiation induced defects, specifically mixed solute-W interstitials. Here, using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the energetics of mixed interstitial defects in W-Re, W-V, and W-Ti alloys, as well as the heat of mixing for each substitutional solute. We find that mixed interstitials in all systems are strongly attracted to each other with binding energies of -2.4 to -3.2 eV and form interstitial pairs that are aligned along parallel first-neighbor strings. Low barriers for defect translation and rotation enable defect agglomeration and alignment even at moderate temperatures. We propose that these elongated agglomerates of mixed-interstitials may act as precursors for the formation of needle-shaped intermetallic precipitates. This interstitial-based mechanism is not limited to radiation induced segregation and precipitation in W-Re alloys but is also applicable to other body-centered cubic alloys.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)


    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  9. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    A Barkhordari


    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  10. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia: unusual lung disorder and an update

    Dai Jinghong; Huang Mei; Cao Min; Miao Liyun; Xiao Yonglong; Shi Yi; Meng Fanqing


    Background Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) was a rare form of pneumoconiosis,associated with exposure to hard metals,which had been reported mostly as isolated case reports.We described eight cases of GIP diagnosed in our hospital during the past seven years,with particular reference to new findings.Methods Eight patients with GIP confirmed by biopsy in the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to Medical School of Nanjing University from 2005 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed.For each patient,the occupy histories and medical records were thoroughly reviewed and clinic data were extracted.Two radiologists,without knowledge of any of the clinical and functional findings,independently reviewed the HRCT scans of all patients.Follow-up data were collected.Results Among the eight patients,seven had a history of exposure to hard metal dusts,one denied an exposure history.The most common manifestations were cough and dyspnea.One patient initiated with pneumothorax and another pleural effusion,both of which were uncommon to GIP.The main pathologic appearances were the presence of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in the alveolar space.The clinical symptoms and radiographic abnormalities were obviously improved after cessation of exposure and receiving corticosteroid treatments,recurrences were observed in two patients when they resumed work.In spite of exposure cessation and corticosteroid treatment,one patient developed pulmonary fibrosis at seven years follow-up.Conclusions Awareness of the patients' occupational history often provided clues to the diagnosis of GIP.Histopathologic examinations were necessary to establish the right diagnosis.Exposure cessation was of benefit to most patients; however,pulmonary fibrosis was possible in spite of exposure cessation and corticosteroid treatment.Better ways should be found out to improve the outcome and quality of life.

  11. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy


    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  12. Substrate properties influence calcification in valvular interstitial cell culture.

    Benton, Julie A; Kern, Hanna B; Anseth, Kristi S


    Valvular calcification is an active, cell-mediated process that results in significant morbidity and mortality. In standard culture, valvular interstitial cells (VICs) elicit significant calcification as a result of myofibroblast activation, and this limits their use in characterization studies. The study aim was to identify culturing substrates that would suppress atypical VIC calcification, and to investigate culture substrates representing a more physiological system. Several culture platforms were selected to compare and contrast the influence of biochemical and mechanical properties on VIC calcification. Substrates investigated included: tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), TCPS coated with either fibronectin or fibrin, and an elastic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, also with fibronectin or fibrin coupled to the surface. Experiments were repeated with profibrotic growth factor transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). VIC calcification was characterized by calcific nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium accumulation. Gene and protein expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (aSMA) and core binding factor-1 (CBFa-1) were analyzed with qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Unmodified TCPS substrates had an innate ability to promote the markers of calcification studied. The addition of TGF-beta1 enhanced levels of all osteoblastic markers studied. When TCPS surfaces were modified with fibronectin, all markers for calcification were repressed, but alphaSMA - a marker for myofibroblastic activity was unchanged. Meanwhile, fibrin-modified TCPS surfaces enhanced calcification over unmodified TCPS substrates. On soft PEG hydrogels, all markers for calcification were repressed, regardless of the surface chemistry, while alphaSMA expression remained unaffected. Collectively, VIC properties are highly linked to the culture microenvironment. Both, the biochemical and mechanical environment of tissue culture has an effect on the spontaneous calcification

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and progression of scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    De Santis, Maria; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Peluso, Giusy; Pinnelli, Michela; Alivernini, Stefano; Zizzo, Gaetano; Bocci, Mario; Capacci, Annunziata; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Pagliari, Gabriella; Varone, Francesco; Pistelli, Roberto; Danza, Francesco Maria; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco


    So far no clinical or experimental evidences clearly explain how and which systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients will experience a functional and radiological progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether any bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) characteristic, compared with clinical, functional and radiological parameters, is associated with the risk of progression of ILD and worse survival in SSc patients. Lung involvement was evaluated in 110 consecutively examined SSc patients with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 73 patients with evidence of ILD on HRCT underwent BAL. The progression of ILD was evaluated with PFTs and HRCT after 1-year follow-up. A 36-month survival analysis was assessed. ILD patients with alveolitis had a higher risk to have restrictive lung disease and honeycombing, to experience a worsening in honeycombing score or to develop honeycombing. ILD progression was associated with the evidence of honeycombing on HRCT, with the presence of eosinophils, with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and with a higher CD19 percentage count in the BALF or with a positive BALF microbiological culture. The patients with ILD had a worse overall survival. The diffuse disease was the only independent risk factor of overall mortality, and the extent of honeycombing on HRCT was the only independent risk factor of lung disease-related mortality. Our study suggests the importance of evaluating ILD with HRCT and BAL in order to characterize the risk factors of SSc lung involvement progression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. DESIGN: Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. RESULTS: Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001. The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.27∼3.66. Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53 compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  15. Numerical methods for determining interstitial oxygen in silicon

    Stevenson, J.O.; Medernach, J.W.


    The interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) concentration in Czochralski silicon and the subsequent SiO{sub x} precipitation are important parameters for integrated circuit fabrication. Uncontrolled SiO{sub x} precipitation during processing can create detrimental mechanical and electrical effects that contribute to poor performance. An inability to consistently and accurately measure the initial O{sub i} concentration in heavily doped silicon has led to contradictory results regarding the effects of dopant type and concentration on SiO{sub x} precipitation. The authors have developed a software package for reliably determining and comparing O{sub i} in heavily doped silicon. The SiFTIR{copyright} code implements three independent oxygen analysis methods in a single integrated package. Routine oxygen measurements are desirable over a wide range of silicon resistivities, but there has been confusion concerning which of the three numerical methods is most suitable for the low resistivity portion of the continuum. A major strength of the software is an ability to rapidly produce results for all three methods using only a single Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum as input. This ability to perform three analyses on a single data set allows a detailed comparison of the three methods across the entire range of resistivities in question. Integrated circuit manufacturers could use the enabling technology provided by SiFTIR{copyright} to monitor O{sub i} content. Early detection of O{sub i} using this diagnostic could be beneficial in controlling SiO{sub x} precipitation during integrated circuit processing.

  16. Interstitial Lung Disease in India. Results of a Prospective Registry.

    Singh, Sheetu; Collins, Bridget F; Sharma, Bharat B; Joshi, Jyotsna M; Talwar, Deepak; Katiyar, Sandeep; Singh, Nishtha; Ho, Lawrence; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi; Gupta, Rakesh; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Singh, Tejraj; Moond, Vijay; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Ahuja, Jitesh; Chetambath, Ravindran; Ghoshal, Aloke G; Jain, Nirmal K; Devi, H J Gayathri; Kant, Surya; Koul, Parvaiz; Dhar, Raja; Swarnakar, Rajesh; Sharma, Surendra K; Roy, Dhrubajyoti J; Sarmah, Kripesh R; Jankharia, Bhavin; Schmidt, Rodney; Katiyar, Santosh K; Jindal, Arpita; Mangal, Daya K; Singh, Virendra; Raghu, Ganesh


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. Existing ILD registries have had variable findings. Little is known about the clinical profile of ILDs in India. To characterize new-onset ILDs in India by creating a prospective ILD using multidisciplinary discussion (MDD) to validate diagnoses. Adult patients of Indian origin living in India with new-onset ILD (27 centers, 19 Indian cities, March 2012-June 2015) without malignancy or infection were included. All had connective tissue disease (CTD) serologies, spirometry, and high-resolution computed tomography chest. ILD pattern was defined by high-resolution computed tomography images. Three groups independently made diagnoses after review of clinical data including that from prompted case report forms: local site investigators, ILD experts at the National Data Coordinating Center (NDCC; Jaipur, India) with MDD, and experienced ILD experts at the Center for ILD (CILD; Seattle, WA) with MDD. Cohen's κ was used to assess reliability of interobserver agreement. A total of 1,084 patients were recruited. Final diagnosis: hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 47.3% (n = 513; exposure, 48.1% air coolers), CTD-ILD in 13.9%, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 13.7%. Cohen's κ: 0.351 site investigator/CILD, 0.519 site investigator/NDCC, and 0.618 NDCC/CILD. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis was the most common new-onset ILD in India, followed by CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; diagnoses varied between site investigators and CILD experts, emphasizing the value of MDD in ILD diagnosis. Prompted case report forms including environmental exposures in prospective registries will likely provide further insight into the etiology and management of ILD worldwide.

  17. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris


    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  18. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Chris Bowler


    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  19. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris


    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  20. Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon


    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  1. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Tsz Leung Yip


    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  2. An analytical model to predict interstitial lubrication of cartilage in migrating contact areas.

    Moore, A C; Burris, D L


    For nearly a century, articular cartilage has been known for its exceptional tribological properties. For nearly as long, there have been research efforts to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for application toward biomimetic bearing applications. It is now widely accepted that interstitial fluid pressurization is the primary mechanism responsible for the unusual lubrication and load bearing properties of cartilage. Although the biomechanics community has developed elegant mathematical theories describing the coupling of solid and fluid (biphasic) mechanics and its role in interstitial lubrication, quantitative gaps in our understanding of cartilage tribology have inhibited our ability to predict how tribological conditions and material properties impact tissue function. This paper presents an analytical model of the interstitial lubrication of biphasic materials under migrating contact conditions. Although finite element and other numerical models of cartilage mechanics exist, they typically neglect the important role of the collagen network and are limited to a specific set of input conditions, which limits general applicability. The simplified approach taken in this work aims to capture the broader underlying physics as a starting point for further model development. In agreement with existing literature, the model indicates that a large Peclet number, Pe, is necessary for effective interstitial lubrication. It also predicts that the tensile modulus must be large relative to the compressive modulus. This explains why hydrogels and other biphasic materials do not provide significant interstitial pressure under high Pe conditions. The model quantitatively agrees with in-situ measurements of interstitial load support and the results have interesting implications for tissue engineering and osteoarthritis problems. This paper suggests that a low tensile modulus (from chondromalacia or local collagen rupture after impact, for example) may disrupt interstitial

  3. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia as a manifestation of SLE and secondary Sjogren's syndrome.

    Garcia, Daniel; Young, Lary


    A 47-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed at age of 35 years was admitted for dyspnoea, substernal chest pain, dry mucosas and difficulty in swallowing. Physical examination revealed vesicular breath sounds bilaterally. Laboratory work showed antinuclear antibody (ANA) (speckled pattern, 1:40), positive anti-Sjogren's syndrome antigen (SSA) and antisingle side band (SSB) and negative double-strand DNA (dsDNA), with normal C3,C4,C50. A high-resolution chest CT scan demonstrated multiple bronchial cysts and diffuse interstitial infiltrates. Surgical lung biopsy revealed emphysematous changes and mild lymphocytic infiltrate around the bronchioles compatible with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia diagnosis. This case illustrates a patient with primary SLE overlapped by initial manifestations of secondary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) presenting with associated autoimmune interstitial lung disease. Antibody markers, high-resolution chest CT scan and surgical lung biopsy were essential in evaluating this patient, confirming the interstitial lymphocytic infiltration of the lung. Primary SS (pSS) is the most commonly associated disease to lung interstitial pneumonia (LIP) (25%). High-resolution chest CT scan demonstrates areas of ground-glass attenuation, suggestive of interstitial disease. Surgical lung biopsy shows pathologic increase of mature lymphocyte cells and histiocytes. Most of the cases have a benign presentation and shortly relapse. Superimposed infection, pulmonary fibrosis and lymphoma develop in less than 20% of cases. Corticosteroids are the primary therapy. While pSS is commonly associated with interstitial lung involvement, secondary Sjogren's syndrome (sSS) is only rare. It has been described the initial sSS presentation by Sica symptoms development only, and our case is the first report of LIP presentation as initial manifestation of sSS. Our patient remained stable after corticosteroids and hydoxychloroquine therapy and no

  4. Immunosuppressive regimen and interstitial fibrosis and tubules atrophy at 12 months postrenal transplant.

    Gelens, Mariëlle A C J; Steegh, Floor M E G; van Hooff, Johannes P; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Nieman, Frederikus H M; van Heurn, Lodewijk W E; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L


    Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is histopathologically characterized by interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. This study investigated the relative contribution of baseline donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score at month 12 after renal transplantation. This retrospective study includes all 109 consecutive recipients with adequate implantation and month 12 biopsies transplanted between April of 2003 and February of 2007. Immunosuppression regimen was tacrolimus and steroids (10 days) plus either sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil. Average interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score increased from 0.70 to 1.65 (Patrophy score at month 12 was significantly related to donor type (donors after cardiac death versus living donor had interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score+0.41, 95% confidence interval=0.05-0.76, P=0.02), baseline interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and immunosuppression regimen. Because of interaction between the latter two variables (P=0.002), results are given separately: recipients with a baseline interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score of zero had a 0.60 higher score at month 12 (95% confidence interval=0.09-1.10, P=0.02) when mycophenolate mofetil-treated, whereas recipients with a baseline interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy score more than zero had a 0.38 higher score at month 12 (95% confidence interval=0.01-0.74, P=0.04) when sirolimus-treated. A higher score at month 12 correlated with a lower estimated GFR (ρ=-0.45, P<0.001). These findings suggest that histologic assessment of a preimplantation biopsy may guide choice of immunosuppresion to maximize transplant survival and its interaction with type of immunosuppression.

  5. Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method

    Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.


    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

  6. The marine diversity spectrum

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn


    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  7. Marine-Design Education

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.


    ) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need......This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  8. Marine-Design Education

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.


    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  9. Marine biosurfaces research program

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  10. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh


    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  11. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Allen, Betty, Comp.


    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  12. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Sarkar, A.

    stream_size 12413 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt stream_source_info Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 editorial persistent... problem of marine pollution, it is indeed a prime need of the hour to assess the state of pollution of the marine environment. environmental data off Cundapoor and Kasargod along the coast of Karnataka that can be utilized for comprehensive interpretation...

  13. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature

    Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.


    We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

  14. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  15. Empowering marine science through genomics

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C

    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    Ærtebjerg, G.


    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  17. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  18. Empowering marine science through genomics

    Volckaert, F.A M J; Barbier, M.; Canario, A; Olsen, J.L.; Wesnigk, J; Clark, M; Boyen, C


    Marine scientists in Europe summarize their successes with genome technologies in the marine sciences and make a plea for a concerted international effort to raise greater public education for support. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine microbiology: Evolution on acid

    Collins, Sinéad


    The prediction of marine microbial responses to ocean acidification is a key challenge for marine biologists. Experimental evolution offers a powerful tool for understanding the forces that will shape tomorrow's microbial communities under global change.

  20. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of...

  1. Forming limit strains of interstitial free-IF steel sheet

    Bressan, José Divo; Moreira, Luciano Pessanha; Freitas, Maria Carolina dos Santos


    Present work examines mathematical models to predict the onset of localized necking in sheet metal forming of interstitial free steel, such as biaxial stretching and deep drawing. Forming Limit Curve, FLC, which is an essential material parameter necessary to numerical simulation by FEM, of IF steel sheet was assessed experimentally by Nakajima testing and ASAME software. The "Map of Principal Surface Limit Strains - MPLS", shows the experimental FLC which is the plot of principal true strains in the sheet metal surface (ɛ1, ɛ2), occurring at critical points obtained in laboratory formability tests or in the fabrication process of parts. Two types of undesirable rupture mechanisms can occur in sheet metal forming products: localized necking and rupture by induced shear stress. Therefore, two kinds of limit strain curves can be plotted in the forming map: the local necking limit curve FLC-N and the shear stress rupture limit curve FLC-S. Localized necking is theoretically anticipated to occur by two mathematical models: Marciniak-Kuczynski modeling, hereafter named M-K approach, and D-Bressan modeling. In the M-K approach, local necking originates at an initial sheet thickness heterogeneity or defect fo = tob/toa. The strain state inside the evolving groove moves to plane strain and the limit strain ɛ1* is attained when the strain ɛ1a outside the groove or neck stop to increase. In the D-Bressan model, local necking is proposed to initiate at the instability point of maximum load, at a thickness defect (λ/μ)diffuse inside the grooved sheet thickness. The inception of visible grooving on the sheet surface evolves from instability point to localized (λ/μ)crit and final rupture, during further sheet metal straining. Work hardening law is defined for a strain and strain-rate material by the effective current stress. The average experimental hardening law curve for tensile tests at 0°, 45° and 90°, assuming normal anisotropy, was used to analyze the plasticity

  2. Binding and interstitial penetration of liposomes within avascular tumor spheroids.

    Kostarelos, Kostas; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Papakostas, Alexandros; Yang, Wei-Hong; Ballangrud, Ase; Sgouros, George


    The liposomal delivery of cancer therapeutics, including gene therapy vectors, is an area of intense study. Poor penetration of liposomes into interstitial tumor spaces remains a problem, however. In this work, the penetration of different liposomal formulations into prostate carcinoma spheroids was examined. Spheroid penetration was assessed by confocal microscopy of fluorescently labeled liposomes. The impact of liposomal surface charge, mean diameter, lipid bilayer fluidity and fusogenicity on spheroid penetration was examined. A variety of different liposome systems relevant to clinical or preclinical protocols have been studied, including classical zwitterionic (DMPC:chol) and sterically stabilized liposomes (DMPC:chol:DOPE-PEG2000), both used clinically, and cationic liposomes (DMPC:DOPE:DC-chol and DOTAP), forming the basis of the vast majority of nonviral gene transfer vectors tested in various cancer trials. Surface interactions between strongly cationic vesicles and the tumor cells led to an electrostatically derived binding-site barrier effect, inhibiting further association of the delivery systems with the tumor spheroids (DMPC:DC-chol). However, inclusion of the fusogenic lipid DOPE and use of a cationic lipid of lower surface charge density (DOTAP instead of DC-chol) led to improvements in the observed intratumoral distribution characteristics. Sterically stabilized liposomes did not interact with the tumor spheroids, whereas small unilamellar classical liposomes exhibit extensive distribution deeper into the tumor volume. Engineering liposomal delivery systems with a relatively low charge molar ratio and enhanced fusogenicity, or electrostatically neutral liposomes with fluid bilayers, offered enhanced intratumoral penetration. This study shows that a delicate balance exists between the strong affinity of delivery systems for the tumor cells and the efficient penetration and distribution within the tumor mass, similar to previous work studying

  3. Natural history of five children with surfactant protein C mutations and interstitial lung disease.

    Avital, Avraham; Hevroni, Avigdor; Godfrey, Simon; Cohen, Shlomo; Maayan, Channa; Nusair, Samir; Nogee, Lawrence M; Springer, Chaim


    Interstitial lung diseases in infants and children are uncommon and may be caused by specific inborn errors of surfactant metabolism. Five children with open lung biopsy diagnosed interstitial lung disease were followed (mean of 27.2 years) and evaluated for surfactant protein gene mutations. Four of the children were originally diagnosed as desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and one as chronic interstitial pneumonitis. All had good response to chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine treatment for periods of 7-38 months. Lung function tests, incremental exercise tests, and rentgenological studies were performed in the children. Surfactant protein gene mutations were searched in all the patients and in part of their families. Three of the patients, aged now 32, 29, and 37 years, feel well and have normal lung function, while two of the patients, both females, aged 28 and 37 years, conduct normal activities of daily living, have healthy children but have clinical, physiological and rentgenological evidence of restrictive lung disease. All five patients were found to have surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) mutations, three of them with the most common mutation (p.I73T) and the other two with new mutations of surfactant protein C gene (p.I38F and p.V39L). We conclude that detection of surfactant protein mutations should be attempted in all children presenting with interstitial lung disease. Furthermore, treatment with hydroxychloroquine should be considered in children with SFTPC mutations. Prospective evaluation of hydroxychloroquine therapy in a greater number of patients is needed.

  4. Simeprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin induced interstitial pneumonitis: first case report.

    Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Akihiko


    The effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment has improved with the development of interferon (IFN), and it has drastically improved with the development of peg-interferon-α (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) and, more recently, with the addition of a protease inhibitor. Simeprevir, which is a second-generation protease inhibitor, has shown clinically favorable safety and tolerability profiles. Simeprevir received its first global approval in Japan in September 2013 for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C in combination with PEG-IFN and RBV. One serious adverse event associated with IFN therapy is interstitial pneumonitis, which can be fatal. We experienced a patient with interstitial pneumonitis that was induced by simeprevir with PEG-IFN and RBV therapy for chronic hepatitis C in the early stages of therapy (8 wk after initiating therapy). This is the first case report of interstitial pneumonitis with simeprevir with PEG-IFN and RBV in the world. In addition, it is very interesting that the onset of interstitial pneumonitis was earlier than that in conventional PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. This finding suggests that simeprevir augments the adverse event. We present this case report in light of relevant literature on interstitial pneumonitis with conventional PEG-IFN and RBV therapy.

  5. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad


    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago.A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA).The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease.

  6. [Epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary peculiarities of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    Aydi, Z; Rachdi, I; Ben Dhaou, B; Dridi, M; Daoud, F; Baili, L; Boussema, F


    Pulmonary involvement during systemic sclerosis (SS) is dominated by interstitial lung disease and arterial pulmonary hypertension. It is about a retrospective study analyzing 65 cases of SS over a period of 13 years. We compared cases with and without interstitial lung disease. The diagnosis of SS was retained according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/EULAR 2013 criteria. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease was retained in TDM and EFR. Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a pulmonary arterial pression higher than 25 mmHg. The mean delay of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and the diagnosis was of 48 months (extremes 0-78 months). The comparison between both groups according to average age of the patients, prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, frequency of Raynaud phenomenon and trophic disorders did not find any significant difference. Lung involvement was associated with an esophageal involvement in 71% of the cases (P=0.059). Antibodies anti-Scl 70 were noted more frequently in patient's with interstitial lung disease (79% of the cases, P=0.001). Patients were treated with colchicine and vitamin E. A corticotherapy had been indicated at a single patient. The evolution of SS was marked by the stabilisation of the restrictive syndrome in 71.8% of the cases and a worsening in 25% of the cases. Early and appropriate diagnosis of SS and screening of lung involvement are essential for a early care.

  7. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    David Vansthertem


    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  8. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Petera, J.; Odrazka, K.; Zouhar, M.; Bedrosova, J.; Dolezel, M. [Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Background: interstitial low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy allows conservative treatment of T1-T2 penile carcinoma. High-dose-rate (HDR) is often considered to be dangerous for interstitial implants because of a higher risk of complications, but numerous reports suggest that results may be comparable to LDR. Nevertheless, there are no data in the literature available regarding HDR interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis. Case report: a 64-year-old man with T1 NO MO epidermoid carcinoma of the glans is reported. Interstitial HDR brachytherapy was performed using the stainless hollow needle technique and a breast template for fixation and good geometry. The dose delivered was 18 x 3 Gy twice daily. Results: after 232 days from brachytherapy, the patient was without any evidence of the tumor, experienced no serious radiation-induced complications, and had a fully functional organ. Conclusion: HDR interstitial brachytherapy is feasible in selected case of penis carcinoma, when careful planning and small single fractions are used. (orig.)

  9. Successful EGFR-TKI rechallenge of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis after gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Kubota, Kaoru; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Tamura, Tomohide


    We report the case of a 49-year-old non-smoking Japanese woman with backache and difficulty in walking. She was diagnosed as having advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and an epithelial growth factor receptor mutation (in-frame deletions in exon 19) was found. After radiation therapy of bone metastases with spinal cord compression and brain metastases, gefitinib was administered. On day 2, she developed acute interstitial lung disease. Gefitinib therapy was discontinued and treatment with high-dose steroid therapy improved the interstitial lung disease. Cisplatin plus pemetrexed was initiated as second-line chemotherapy, but she was hospitalized again for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Considering the poor prognosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, we decided that erlotinib was our only choice of treatment. As a third-line treatment, erlotinib was administered after informing the patient about the high risk of interstitial lung disease. Neurological symptoms were improved within a week and interstitial lung disease did not recur. The patient has received erlotinib successfully for 18 months without the recurrence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Erlotinib rechallenge after gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease must be carefully chosen based on the balance of a patient's risk and benefit.

  10. Interstitial cystitis: a retrospective analysis of treatment with pentosan polysulfate and follow-up patient survey.

    Waters, M G; Suleskey, J F; Finkelstein, L J; Van Overbeke, M E; Zizza, V J; Stommel, M


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) in relieving symptoms of interstitial cystitis, the authors retrospectively reviewed charts of 260 patients in whom interstitial cystitis had been diagnosed. Subsequently, they conducted a follow-up phone interview or mail survey of those patients who were treated with PPS to investigate changes in the patients' symptoms, adverse effects, and change in quality of life. The control group consisted of patients whose interstitial cystitis had been diagnosed at cystoscopy and had a duration of at least 1 year and who had taken at least one or more oral medications for their symptoms. The average length of treatment was 9.3 months among the 27 subjects on PPS therapy. The mean length of time that they had diagnosed interstitial cystitis was 35.63 months and 48.78 months for the PPS-treated and control groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference. Changes in frequency, urgency, and pain were greater in the treatment group and statistically significant (P = .11, P = .49, and P = .004, respectively). No change occurred in the rate of nocturia in the PPS-treated group compared with that in the control group. Symptoms of both groups improved over time, but improvement was statistically significantly greater in the treatment group (P = .001) over the treatment interval. The most common side effect attributable to PPS was diarrhea in 15% of subjects. Pentosan proved to be an efficacious option for reducing the debilitating symptoms of interstitial cystitis.

  11. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future


    well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future 5a...distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future Charles H. Greene Kohala Center P.O. Box 437462 Kamuela, HI 96743

  12. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.


    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  13. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  14. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written...

  15. Cultivation of marine sponges

    Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.


    There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass are reviewed, and several factors that possibly

  16. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    :// equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean where low concentration of a micronutrient (iron) appears to limit photosynthesis. In areas characterized by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in surface waters, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON...

  17. Marine Renewable Energies

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego


    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...



    20160004 Chen Liangjin(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Zhu Maoxu Speciation of Organic Sulfur in Inner

  19. Marine complex adaptive systems

    Bigagli, Emanuele


    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodive



    <正>20130639Cui Yingchun ( Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology , First Institute of Oceanography , State Oceanic Administration , Qingdao 266061 , China ); Shi Xuefa Records of Past 70 Ma Dust Activities in Ferromanganese Crusts from Pacific Ocean (Journal of Jilin University , ISSN1671-5888 , CN22-1343/P