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Sample records for margin translating theory

  1. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  2. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  3. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  4. Time Safety Margin: Theory and Practice

    2016-09-01

    Air Education and Training Command Handbook 99-107, T-38 Road to Wings, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, July 2013. 65 This page was intentionally left...412TW-TIH-16-01 TIME SAFETY MARGIN: THEORY AND PRACTICE WILLIAM R. GRAY, III Chief Test Pilot USAF Test Pilot School SEPTEMBER 2016... Safety Margin: The01y and Practice) was submitted by the Commander, 4 I 2th Test Wing, Edwards AFB, Ca lifornia 93524-6843. Foreign announcement and

  5. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  6. Critical Race Theory in India: "Theory Translation" and the Analysis of Social Identities and Discrimination in Indian Schooling

    Goodnight, Melissa Rae

    2017-01-01

    This article examines ethical and philosophical considerations in "theory translation," i.e. translating a theoretical framework from its original place to another national context. Critical race theory (CRT) was developed in the United States through significant struggle in order to analyze everyday racism. Marginalized groups have…

  7. Rosmary Waldrop and Theories of Translation

    Duffy Nikolai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, the German-born US-American poet, Rosmarie Waldrop, has translated over 40 different works, largely from French and German, including 14 volumes by the Jewish French-language writer, Edmond Jabès (Jabès was expelled from Egypt in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. In 2003, Waldrop was made a Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government, and in 2008 she received the PEN Award for Poetry in Translation in 2008, for her translation of Ulf Stolterfoht’s book, Lingos I-IX. As well as practising translation, however, Waldrop has also written several significant essays which reflect on different theories of translation and their implications for practice. Much of these considerations are taken up with the question of the relation between translation and writing, of thinking the ways in which theories of writing might suggest the lines for developing a specific form of poetic practice.This essay provides an overview of Waldrop’s central thoughts on translation and contextualises these in relation to some of the major theories of literary translation. In the latter part of the essay, these ideas are developed in specific relation to Waldrop’s translations of the work of Edmond Jabès and to the notion of writing practice it suggests.

  8. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  9. On recent developments in marginal separation theory.

    Braun, S; Scheichl, S

    2014-07-28

    Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although 'laminar separation bubbles' at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to 'burst' if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach a certain intensity. This then either leads to global flow separation (stall) or triggers the laminar-turbulent transition process within the boundary layer flow. This paper addresses the asymptotic analysis of the early stages of the latter phenomenon in the limit as the characteristic Reynolds number [Formula: see text], commonly referred to as marginal separation theory. A new approach based on the adjoint operator method is presented that enables the fundamental similarity laws of marginal separation theory to be derived and the analysis to be extended to higher order. Special emphasis is placed on the breakdown of the flow description, i.e. the formation of finite-time singularities (a manifestation of the bursting process), and on its resolution being based on asymptotic arguments. The passage to the subsequent triple-deck stage is described in detail, which is a prerequisite for carrying out a future numerical treatment of this stage in a proper way. Moreover, a composite asymptotic model is developed in order for the inherent ill-posedness of the Cauchy problems associated with the current flow description to be resolved.

  10. German Translation Theories and Their Practicalness

    Carol Alexandru MOHR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The translator should not be perceived as a simple producer of texts based on other texts, but as an expert, with skills, tasks and precise responsibilities, who works in cooperation with other "actors", that are part of the translating process. Text translating is not a simple linguistic act, but a complex one, that involves Linguistics, Hermeneutics (because texts must be interpreted and Semiology (because signs and symbols must be decoded. In this paper is being explained the difference between translation studies (or translatology and the linguistic theory of translation and why translatological concepts like “purpose”, “adequacy” and “actor” (as they were defined by Reiß, Vermeer and Mänttäri are essential and necessary required for a complete description and a responsible fulfillment of translating acts.

  11. On the structure of translational gauge theories of gravitation

    Wallner, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Guided by decoupling processes in general gauge theories, we examine the translation limit in U 4 -theories. It is shown that this leads to Einstein's gravity theory as the appropriate choice for a translational gauge theory of gravitation. (Author)

  12. History and theory of Scripture Translations | Loba-Mkole | HTS ...

    History and theory of Scripture Translations. ... the functional equivalence, relevance, literaryfunctional equivalence and intercultural mediation. ... on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  13. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  14. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  15. Introducing Grounded Theory into translation studies | Wehrmeyer ...

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target ...

  16. Analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Okawa, Y.

    2007-04-01

    We extend the calculable analytic approach to marginal deformations recently developed in open bosonic string field theory to open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits. We construct analytic solutions to all orders in the deformation parameter when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. (orig.)

  17. Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories

    Petti, R J

    2006-01-01

    How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry

  18. Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories

    Petti, R J [MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)

    2006-02-07

    How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry.

  19. Exact marginality in open string field theory. A general framework

    Kiermaier, M.

    2007-07-01

    We construct analytic solutions of open bosonic string field theory for any exactly marginal deformation in any boundary conformal field theory when properly renormalized operator products of the marginal operator are given. We explicitly provide such renormalized operator products for a class of marginal deformations which include the deformations of flat D-branes in flat backgrounds by constant massless modes of the gauge field and of the scalar fields on the D-branes, the cosine potential for a space-like coordinate, and the hyperbolic cosine potential for the time-like coordinate. In our construction we use integrated vertex operators, which are closely related to finite deformations in boundary conformal field theory, while previous analytic solutions were based on unintegrated vertex operators. We also introduce a modified star product to formulate string field theory around the deformed background. (orig.)

  20. The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation

    张颖

    2017-01-01

    Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.

  1. Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory

    P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production

  2. Interpretation, Cognition: From Multivector Translation Theory To Efficient Practice

    Aleksandra Nikolaevna Usacheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Translation Studies state-of-the-art which can be described as the existence of both traditional linguistic theories and many other concepts and models of translation offered by scientists from different countries in recent decades. The authors of this paper focus on the three concepts significant for the modern Translation Studies – the Skopos Theory, the Interpretative Theory and the Cognitive Theory. The paper compares several current points of view presented by Translation Studies researchers from Russia and abroad. The differences in these views are determined by some social and cultural peculiarities of different native speakers as well as by cultural specificity of linguistic signs' semantics, hence the problem of linguistic world-image compatibility. We describe the analysis results of some conceptual components of communicative and functional approach, as well as fundamental provisions of cognitive and pragmatic approaches to the translation process interpretation. Basing on their professional activity, the authors offer proven assessment of possible usage of the theories under consideration in training will-be translators and interpreters to ensure their future practice efficiency. The article describes didactic tools summarizing the best practice of Russian and Western Translation Studies schools. It gives clear examples illustrating the possibility of using the results of high-quality multi-vector and multicultural theoretical research results in specialized university training courses.

  3. Gentzler, Edwin. Translation, hypertext, and creativity: Contemporary translation theories. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2001. 232 p.

    Davi S. Gonçalves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary translation theories (Gentzler,2001 provides readers with a thorough historical analysis of how the notion of creativity and autonomy in what regards reading has been transformed – as well as regarding its influence towards the idea of translation. The place occupied by the translator is a place between spaces; a fluid locale where any concreteness has melted. Meaning is thus not graspable or amenable to be tamed; on the contrary, literature is about opening up more space for the wilderness to be (rediscovered. A text is many texts, a hypertext, filled in with narratives that mutually supplement one another, deconstructing and reconstructing meanings; and, within such picture, translation emerges not as an opportunity to resurrect the body of an original text, but as a phantasm of both sameness and uniqueness. What does exist cannot be seen; it is always on the run; meanings surface from liquefied pages, pages that escape our attempt of defining them for good. This is why translation can be taken as metonym: as s/he recreates the original text within the target context, the translator choose to highlight those textual elements that s/he deems relevant – those fragments of the text that have touched and determined his/her reading. The experience of translation, that goes beyond dichotomist standards (e.g. foreign/domestic, equivalent/adapted, etc., is finally taken as a profitable realm for the literary discourse to validate its impalpability. Such shift in the approach towards translation is significant because, even though the process of recreation takes place in every textual practice, tradition has been pressuring translation scholars towards the designing of guidelines and norms that, I dare say, only obstruct the task of translating.

  4. From Semantics to Semiotics: Demystifying Intricacies on Translation Theory

    AlBzour, Baseel A.; AlBzour, Naser N.

    2015-01-01

    The implications of any linguistic and non-linguistic research can be always of paramount importance when carefully and cleverly integrated within the scope of any interdisciplinary field of translation study. The major goal of this paper, therefore, is to highlight and stress how a semiotic approach to the theory of meaning, in general, and to…

  5. Conference Report: The New Discovery of Margins: Theory-Based Excursions in Marginal Social Fields

    Babette Kirchner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At this year's spring conference of the Sociology of Knowledge Section of the German Sociological Association, a diverse range of theoretical concepts and multiple empirical insights into different marginal social fields were presented. As in everyday life, drawing a line between center and margin can be seen as an important challenge that must equally be faced in sociology. The socially constructed borderline appears to be highly variable. Therefore it has to be delineated or fixed somehow. The construction of margins is necessary for society in general and smaller social groupings alike to confirm one's own "normal" identity, or one's own membership on the fringes. The different contributions exemplify what was established at the beginning of the conference: Namely that society and its margins are defined differently according to the empirical as well as conceptual focus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1402148

  6. Conference Report: The New Discovery of Margins: Theory-Based Excursions in Marginal Social Fields

    Kirchner, Babette; Lorenzen, Jule-Marie; Striffler, Christine

    2014-01-01

    At this year's spring conference of the Sociology of Knowledge Section of the German Sociological Association, a diverse range of theoretical concepts and multiple empirical insights into different marginal social fields were presented. As in everyday life, drawing a line between center and margin can be seen as an important challenge that must equally be faced in sociology. The socially constructed borderline appears to be highly variable. Therefore it has to be delineated or fixed somehow. ...

  7. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valli, Lorella [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Aluwini, Shafak [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  8. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V 100% ) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3-mm

  9. A Study of the Subtitle Translation in “The Big Bang Theory” from Newmark’s Communicative Translation Theory

    甄宽; 彭念凡; 甄顺

    2015-01-01

    The subtitle translation is very different from other forms of translation.We translators should meet the particular needs of the subtitle.This study is going to analyze the subtitle translation in "The Big Bang Theory" from Newmark’s Communicative Translation Theory in three main perspectives:the information transmission,the aesthetics effect and the emotional transmission.In the information transmission the study will put emphasis on the limited circumstance.In the aesthetics effect the study will explore the expression of the sense of beauty.In the emotional transmission this study will study the use of rhetoric to express different emotions.

  10. A Study on The Translation Strategies of English Advertising Texts Based on Peter Newmark's Translation Theory

    黄江云

    2017-01-01

    随着世界全球化和商业化的发展,广告已经普遍存在于人们的生活之中,并影响着人们.广告不仅是一种商品推销的手段,也是一种文化传递的交流手段.因此,对于商家来说一则有效的广告不仅要考虑说什么,还要考虑如何说,而对于译者来说,主要考虑的是该如何有效的传达广告所传递的信息,达到预期的目的.因此,研究英文广告文本及其翻译策略显得尤为必要.本文旨在通过对纽马克翻译理论的研究,尤其是他基于语言的不同功能所提出的翻译理论及两大核心翻译方法—语义翻译和交际翻译,来探析不同类型广告英语的翻译策略,力求通过利用这些翻译策略使原语广告与译语广告产生同样的效果.通过对纽马克翻译理论的研究以及对不同类型英文广告的分析,本文最后得出结论:在广告英语的翻译过程中没有所谓的万能或通用翻译法,应根据不同类型的广告灵活选择适当的翻译法.%Nowadays, with the development of the world's globalization and commercialization, more and more foreign commodities are pouring into China, also, more and more Chinese products commodities are pouring into foreign countries. Advertising has been influencing us pervasively in our daily life. It is not only the means of commodity marketing, but also the transmitter of culture. To the sellers, an effec-tive advertising involves not only what to say but also how to say. While to the translators, what they concern most is how to convey the information appropriately and effectively. Therefore, it is necessary to study English advertising texts (EAT) and their translation strategies. This essay focuses on the translation theories of Peter New Mark, es-pecially the functions of language and the two major translation meth-ods---semantic translation (ST) and communicative translation (CT), with the hope of finding more effective translation strategy for different types of

  11. Translational ethics: an analytical framework of translational movements between theory and practice and a sketch of a comprehensive approach.

    Bærøe, Kristine

    2014-09-30

    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate 'the business of translational' in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the field of medical ethics launched by Cribb, the debate is still missing. In this paper, I take up Cribb's invitation and discuss further analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice. The analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice are identified as 'movements of translation'. I explore briefly what would constitute success and limitations to these intended translational movements by addressing the challenges of the epistemological gap between philosophical and practical ethics. The categories of translational movements I suggest can serve as a starting point for a systematic, collective self-inspection and discussion of the merits and limitations of the various academic and practical activities that bioethicists are engaged in. I further propose that translational ethics could be considered as a new discipline of ethical work constructively structured around compositions of translational movements. Breaking the idea of translational ethics into distinct translational movements provide us with a nuanced set of conditions to explore and discuss the justification and limitations of various efforts carried out in the field of bioethics. In this sense, the proposed framework could be a useful vehicle for augmented collective, self-reflexivity among both philosophers and practitioners who are 'doing bioethics'. Also

  12. Bible Translation and Culture: the theory and practice of intercultural mediation in the translation of John 2.1-12

    de Vries, Lourens

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a theory of Bible translation as intercultural mediation and applies it to the translation of the story of the Cana Miracle in John 2:1-12. The theoretical framework draws on the notions of script, skopos, the ethics of loyalty and the distinction between three domains of

  13. Brief Report: Translation and Adaptation of the Theory of Mind Inventory to Spanish

    Pujals, Elena; Batlle, Santiago; Camprodon, Ester; Pujals, Sílvia; Estrada, Xavier; Aceña, Marta; Petrizan, Araitz; Duñó, Lurdes; Martí, Josep; Martin, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Solá, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Mind Inventory is an informant measure designed to evaluate children's theory of mind competence. We describe the translation and cultural adaptation of the inventory by the following process: (1) translation from English to Spanish by two independent certified translators; (2) production of an agreed version by a multidisciplinary…

  14. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Okawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction

  15. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Okawa, Y.

    2007-04-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction. (orig.)

  16. Noncommutative field theory and violation of translation invariance

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Guisado, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Noncommutative field theories with commutator of the coordinates of the form [x μ , x ν ] = i Λ μν ω x ω with nilpotent structure constants are studied and shown that a free quantum field theory is not affected. Invariance under translations is broken and the conservation of energy-momentum is violated, obeying a new law which is expressed by a Poincare-invariant equation. The resulting new kinematics is studied and applied to simple examples and to astrophysical puzzles, such as the observed violation of the GZK cutoff. The λΦ 4 quantum field theory is also considered in this context. In particular, self interaction terms violate the usual conservation of energy-momentum and, hence, the radiative correction to the propagator is altered. The correction to first order in λ is calculated. The usual UV divergent terms are still present, but a new type of term also emerges, which is IR divergent, violates momentum conservation and implies a correction to the dispersion relation. (author)

  17. Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory

    Sen, Ashoke

    2004-01-01

    Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)

  18. Marginal-Fermi-liquid theory and the isotope effect

    Nicol, E.J.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the marginal-Fermi-liquid model, the coupling between two electrons is via charge (attractive) and spin (repulsive) fluctuations, and so it does not exhibit an isotope effect. To include this effect, an additional phonon contribution must be introduced. Using the case of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , for illustrative purposes, with a total isotope effect coefficient of β tot congruent 0.05 at a T c of 90 K, we find that the implied electron-phonon mass renormalization is very small for coupling to high-energy phonons but increases rapidly with decreasing phonon frequency or an increasing amount of spin fluctuations. Finally, we examine how β increases with decreasing T c when charge fluctuations are reduced or spin fluctuations augmented

  19. Spectral and scattering theory for translation invariant models in quantum field theory

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    This thesis is concerned with a large class of massive translation invariant models in quantum field theory, including the Nelson model and the Fröhlich polaron. The models in the class describe a matter particle, e.g. a nucleon or an electron, linearly coupled to a second quantised massive scalar...... by the physically relevant choices. The translation invariance implies that the Hamiltonian may be decomposed into a direct integral over the space of total momentum where the fixed momentum fiber Hamiltonians are given by , where denotes total momentum and is the Segal field operator. The fiber Hamiltonians...

  20. Mean Field Theory, Ginzburg Criterion, and Marginal Dimensionality of Phase-Transitions

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgenau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    By applying a real space version of the Ginzburg criterion, the role of fluctuations and thence the self‐consistency of mean field theory are assessed in a simple fashion for a variety of phase transitions. It is shown that in using this approach the concept of ’’marginal dimensionality’’ emerges...... in a natural way. For example, it is shown that for many homogeneous structural transformations the marginal dimensionality is two, so that mean field theory will be valid for real three‐dimensional systems. It is suggested that this simple self‐consistent approach to Landau theory should be incorporated...

  1. Translational ethics? The theory-practice gap in medical ethics.

    Cribb, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Translational research is now a critically important current in academic medicine. Researchers in all health-related fields are being encouraged not only to demonstrate the potential benefits of their research but also to help identify the steps through which their research might be 'made practical'. This paper considers the prospects of a corresponding movement of 'translational ethics'. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of focusing upon the translation of ethical scholarship are reviewed. While emphasising the difficulties of crossing the gap between scholarship and practice, the paper concludes that a debate about the business of translation would be useful for medical ethics.

  2. Wildland recreation in the rural South: an examination of marginality and ethnicity theory

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Dreamal Worthen

    1998-01-01

    The ethnicity and marginality explanations of minority recreation participation provide the conceptual basis for the authors’ inquiry. These theories are examined for a sample of rural African-Americans and whites. Using logistic regression, the researchers test for black and while differences in: 1) visitation to wildland areas in general; 2) visitation to national...

  3. Label-free optical imaging technologies for rapid translation and use during intraoperative surgical and tumor margin assessment

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Farah, Camile S.; Kho, Esther; Marcu, Laura; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2018-02-01

    The biannual International Conference on Biophotonics was recently held on April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia. This continuing conference series brought together key opinion leaders in biophotonics to present their latest results and, importantly, to participate in discussions on the future of the field and what opportunities exist when we collectively work together for using biophotonics for biological discovery and medical applications. One session in this conference, entitled "Tumor Margin Identification: Critiquing Technologies," challenged invited speakers and attendees to review and critique representative label-free optical imaging technologies and their application for intraoperative assessment and guidance in surgical oncology. We are pleased to share a summary in this outlook paper, with the intent to motivate more research inquiry and investigations, to challenge these and other optical imaging modalities to evaluate and improve performance, to spur translation and adoption, and ultimately, to improve the care and outcomes of patients.

  4. Proses dan Hasil Penerjemahan Mahasiswa (Studi Kasus Pada Mahasiswa Translation Theory and Practice Di STAIN Pamekasan

    Mosleh Habibullah

    2015-05-01

    , from translation technique in the research is found from the text which college students translate, error in table 1, there are 3 errors, in table 2 there are six language errors, in table 3 there are six errors. In table 4 there are seven errors.However, researcher finds inadequacy which is caused by mastering vocabulary, phrase, idiom, and students’ inadequacy in using grammatical Principal from BSu (NL. Besides that, it is possible that time allocation is not enough, 100 minutes in 2 sks translation theory and 100 minutes in 2 sks translation practice

  5. On theTranslation Methods and Theory of International Advertising

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Advertisement, as a way to propagandize products, always plays its role in the special stage. A successful advertisement would help the manufacturer to achieve a large sale while an unsuccessful even a bad one would do the contrast work. Advertising is an activity containing intelligence, patience, art and diligence. With the globalization and China' s entering WT0, more and more Chinese products get the opportunity of entering world market. In this battle without smoke of gun powder, the most powerful weapon is commercial advertisement. Therefore, advertisement becomes more important. At the same time, the translation of advertising plays its role as to internationalize advertisement to the world. It seems as a bridge overpass different countries and languages. However, due to the difference among cultures, problems appear how to be a good advertising translator and how to make an excellent translation of advertising. This thesis tries to analyses the criteria and strategies of advertising translation after the discussion of the types, structure and features of style of advertisements and states that there is no an established method for advertising translation. What we should do is to be flexible to deal with the various advertisements we meet.

  6. Quantification of margins and mixed uncertainties using evidence theory and stochastic expansions

    Shah, Harsheel; Hosder, Serhat; Winter, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to implement Dempster–Shafer Theory of Evidence (DSTE) in the presence of mixed (aleatory and multiple sources of epistemic) uncertainty to the reliability and performance assessment of complex engineering systems through the use of quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology. This study focuses on quantifying the simulation uncertainties, both in the design condition and the performance boundaries along with the determination of margins. To address the possibility of multiple sources and intervals for epistemic uncertainty characterization, DSTE is used for uncertainty quantification. An approach to incorporate aleatory uncertainty in Dempster–Shafer structures is presented by discretizing the aleatory variable distributions into sets of intervals. In view of excessive computational costs for large scale applications and repetitive simulations needed for DSTE analysis, a stochastic response surface based on point-collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC) has been implemented as the surrogate for the model response. The technique is demonstrated on a model problem with non-linear analytical functions representing the outputs and performance boundaries of two coupled systems. Finally, the QMU approach is demonstrated on a multi-disciplinary analysis of a high speed civil transport (HSCT). - Highlights: • Quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology with evidence theory. • Treatment of both inherent and epistemic uncertainties within evidence theory. • Stochastic expansions for representation of performance metrics and boundaries. • Demonstration of QMU on an analytical problem. • QMU analysis applied to an aerospace system (high speed civil transport)

  7. “De interpretatione recta...”: Early Modern Theories of Translation

    Zaharia Oana-Alis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation has been essential to the development of languages and cultures throughout the centuries, particularly in the early modern period when it became a cornerstone of the process of transition from Latin to vernacular productions, in such countries as France, Italy, England and Spain. This process was accompanied by a growing interest in defining the rules and features of the practice of translation. The present article aims to examine the principles that underlay the highly intertextual early modern translation theory by considering its classical sources and development. It focuses on subjects that were constantly reiterated in any discussion about translation: the debate concerning the best methods of translation, the sense-for-sense/ word-for-word dichotomy - a topos that can be traced to the discourse on translation initiated by Cicero and Horace and was further developed by the Church fathers, notably St. Jerome, and eventually inherited by both medieval and Renaissance translators. Furthermore, it looks at the differences and continuities that characterise the medieval and Renaissance discourses on translation with a focus on the transition from the medieval, free manner of translation to the humanist, philological one.

  8. Translating Unstructured Workflow Processes to Readable BPEL: Theory and Implementation

    van der Aalst, Willibrordus Martinus Pancratius; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    and not easy to use by end-users. Therefore, we provide a mapping from Workflow Nets (WF-nets) to BPEL. This mapping builds on the rich theory of Petri nets and can also be used to map other languages (e.g., UML, EPC, BPMN, etc.) onto BPEL. In addition to this we have implemented the algorithm in a tool called...... WorkflowNet2BPEL4WS....

  9. Theory of transformation groups I general properties of continuous transformation groups a contemporary approach and translation

    2015-01-01

    This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...

  10. Translating Unstructured Workflow Processes to Readable BPEL: Theory and Implementation

    van der Aalst, Willibrordus Martinus Pancratius; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    The Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL) has emerged as the de-facto standard for implementing processes. Although intended as a language for connecting web services, its application is not limited to cross-organizational processes. It is expected that in the near future...... and not easy to use by end-users. Therefore, we provide a mapping from Workflow Nets (WF-nets) to BPEL. This mapping builds on the rich theory of Petri nets and can also be used to map other languages (e.g., UML, EPC, BPMN, etc.) onto BPEL. In addition to this we have implemented the algorithm in a tool called...

  11. Local field theory on κ-Minkowski space, star products and noncommutative translations

    Kosinski, P.; Maslanka, P.; Lukierski, J.

    2000-01-01

    We consider local field theory on κ-deformed Minkowski space which is an example of solvable Lie-algebraic noncommutative structure. Using integration formula over κ-Minkowski space and κ-deformed Fourier transform, we consider for deformed local fields the reality conditions as well as deformation of action functionals in standard Minkowski space. We present explicit formulas for two equivalent star products describing CBH quantization of field theory on κ-Minkowski space. We express also via star product technique the noncommutative translations in κ-Minkowski space by commutative translations in standard Minkowski space. (author)

  12. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  13. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  14. Erwin Schrödinger's color theory translated with modern commentary

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the most complete translation to date of Erwin Schrödinger’s work on colorimetry. In his work Schrödinger proposed a projective geometry of color space, rather than a Euclidean line-element. He also proposed new (at the time) colorimetric methods – in detail and at length - which represented a dramatic conceptual shift in colorimetry. Schrödinger shows how the trichromatic (or Young-Helmholtz) theory of color and the opponent-process (or Hering) theory of color are formally the same theory, or at least only trivially different. These translations of Schrödinger’s bold concepts for color space have a fresh resonance and importance for contemporary color theory.

  15. Informed consent in neurosurgery--translating ethical theory into action.

    Schmitz, Dagmar; Reinacher, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Although a main principle of medical ethics and law since the 1970s, standards of informed consent are regarded with great scepticism by many clinicans. By reviewing the reactions to and adoption of this principle of medical ethics in neurosurgery, the characteristic conflicts that emerge between theory and everyday clinical experience are emphasised and a modified conception of informed consent is proposed. The adoption and debate of informed consent in neurosurgery took place in two steps. Firstly, respect for patient autonomy was included into the ethical codes of the professional organisations. Secondly, the legal demands of the principle were questioned by clinicians. Informed consent is mainly interpreted in terms of freedom from interference and absolute autonomy. It lacks a constructive notion of physician-patient interaction in its effort to promote the best interest of the patient, which, however, potentially emerges from a reconsideration of the principle of beneficence. To avoid insufficient legal interpretations, informed consent should be understood in terms of autonomy and beneficence. A continuous interaction between the patient and the given physician is considered as an essential prerequisite for the realisation of the standards of informed consent.

  16. Informed consent in neurosurgery—translating ethical theory into action

    Schmitz, Dagmar; Reinacher, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Objective Although a main principle of medical ethics and law since the 1970s, standards of informed consent are regarded with great scepticism by many clinicans. Methods By reviewing the reactions to and adoption of this principle of medical ethics in neurosurgery, the characteristic conflicts that emerge between theory and everyday clinical experience are emphasised and a modified conception of informed consent is proposed. Results The adoption and debate of informed consent in neurosurgery took place in two steps. Firstly, respect for patient autonomy was included into the ethical codes of the professional organisations. Secondly, the legal demands of the principle were questioned by clinicians. Informed consent is mainly interpreted in terms of freedom from interference and absolute autonomy. It lacks a constructive notion of physician–patient interaction in its effort to promote the best interest of the patient, which, however, potentially emerges from a reconsideration of the principle of beneficence. Conclusion To avoid insufficient legal interpretations, informed consent should be understood in terms of autonomy and beneficence. A continuous interaction between the patient and the given physician is considered as an essential prerequisite for the realisation of the standards of informed consent. PMID:16943326

  17. Relevance Theory in advertisement translation%关联视角下的广告翻译

    杨春辉

    2013-01-01

    As international trade develops at fast rate ,advertisement translation provides important package for the product to enter the international market .In the essay ,the author discusses the application of the Relevance Theory in translation ,makes an cognitive anal-ysis of strategies of advertisement translation ,summarizes regular ways of advertisement translation .%  随着国际贸易的飞速发展,广告翻译成为商品打入新市场的一个重要包装。运用关联理论对广告翻译策略的合理性进行认知方面的分析,总结了关联理论指导下广告翻译常用的方法。

  18. Translation Fidelity of Psychological Scales: An Item Response Theory Analysis of an Individualism-Collectivism Scale.

    Bontempo, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the quality of translations based on item response theory (IRT). Results from the IRT technique with French and Chinese versions of a scale measuring individualism-collectivism for samples of 250 U.S., 357 French, and 290 Chinese undergraduates show how several biased items are detected. (SLD)

  19. Comments on lightlike translations and applications in relativistic quantum field theory

    Driessler, W.

    1975-01-01

    In the algebraic framework of quantum field theory we consider one parameter subgroups of lightlike translations. After establishing a few preliminary properties we prove a certain cluster property and then exhibit the close connection between such subgroups and a class of type III factors. A few applications of this connection are also discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Domain wall solitons and Hopf algebraic translational symmetries in noncommutative field theories

    Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Domain wall solitons are the simplest topological objects in field theories. The conventional translational symmetry in a field theory is the generator of a one-parameter family of domain wall solutions, and induces a massless moduli field which propagates along a domain wall. We study similar issues in braided noncommutative field theories possessing Hopf algebraic translational symmetries. As a concrete example, we discuss a domain wall soliton in the scalar φ 4 braided noncommutative field theory in Lie-algebraic noncommutative space-time, [x i ,x j ]=2iκε ijk x k (i,j,k=1,2,3), which has a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We first discuss the existence of a domain wall soliton in view of Derrick's theorem, and construct explicitly a one-parameter family of solutions in perturbation of the noncommutativity parameter κ. We then find the massless moduli field which propagates on the domain wall soliton. We further extend our analysis to the general Hopf algebraic translational symmetry

  1. Analysis of long-term guarantee of supply in power markets: Application of the marginal theory

    Parrilla, Ernesto; Vazquez, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    In this paper the marginal theory is applied to discuss the different long-term equilibria that could be reached in an electricity market depending on the market participants' (generators, consumers and the regulator) goals and constraints. The aim is to identify the key elements of a possible market failure in providing generation adequacy - immature demand, regulated tariffs, long-term contracting, different agents perception of the market risks, etc - and to study their influence in the long-term market equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze several of the different capacity mechanisms that could be used to ensure generation adequacy, such as: short-term capacity payments, long-term capacity payments and capacity markets. This final analysis includes an estimation of how useful each method is to compensate the market failures that we have previously identified

  2. Margin Evaluation in the Presence of Deformation, Rotation, and Translation in Prostate and Entire Seminal Vesicle Irradiation With Daily Marker-Based Setup Corrections

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for margin evaluation accounting for all measured displacements during treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: For 21 patients treated with stereographic targeting marker-based online translation corrections, dose distributions with varying margins and gradients were created. Sets of possible cumulative delivered dose distributions were simulated by moving voxels and accumulating dose per voxel. Voxel motion was simulated consistent with measured distributions of systematic and random displacements due to stereographic targeting inaccuracies, deformation, rotation, and intrafraction motion. The method of simulation maintained measured correlation of voxel motions due to organ deformation. Results: For the clinical target volume including prostate and seminal vesicles (SV), the probability that some part receives <95% of the prescribed dose, the changes in minimum dose, and volume receiving 95% of prescription dose compared with planning were 80.5% ± 19.2%, 9.0 ± 6.8 Gy, and 3.0% ± 3.7%, respectively, for the smallest studied margins (3 mm prostate, 5 mm SV) and steepest dose gradients. Corresponding values for largest margins (5 mm prostate, 8 mm SV) with a clinical intensity-modulated radiotherapy dose distribution were 46.5% ± 34.7%, 6.7 ± 5.8 Gy, and 1.6% ± 2.3%. For prostate-only clinical target volume, the values were 51.8% ± 17.7%, 3.3 ± 1.6 Gy, and 0.6% ± 0.5% with the smallest margins and 5.2% ± 7.4%, 1.8 ± 0.9 Gy, and 0.1% ± 0.1% for the largest margins. Addition of three-dimensional rotation corrections only improved these values slightly. All rectal planning constraints were met in the actual reconstructed doses for all studied margins. Conclusion: We developed a system for margin validation in the presence of deformations. In our population, a 5-mm margin provided sufficient dosimetric coverage for the prostate. In contrast, an 8-mm SV margin was still insufficient owing to deformations. Addition of

  3. Behavioral data requirements for translating cognitive theories into computer software algorithms

    Meister, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of cognitive theories and their links to behavioral science and advanced intelligent systems. Cognitive theories model human cognition, perception, and communication. They suggest the human functions the system should have, serve as a philosophical basis for system development, and provide abstract design guidelines. The underlying assumption behind this paper is that if the cognitive theories are to have any value at all, they must be translated into usable systems. A process for testing a cognitive theory in terms of conceptual criteria, behavioral predictions and tests, and software development and tests, is suggested. Criteria for measuring the problem solving success of the advanced system are described. A theory of the system as an intelligent problem solver is presented. (author)

  4. What can organisational theory offer knowledge translation in healthcare? A thematic and lexical analysis.

    Dadich, Ann; Doloswala, Navin

    2018-05-10

    Despite the relative abundance of frameworks and models to guide implementation science, the explicit use of theory is limited. Bringing together two seemingly disparate fields of research, this article asks, what can organisational theory offer implementation science? This is examined by applying a theoretical lens that incorporates agency, institutional, and situated change theories to understand the implementation of healthcare knowledge into practice. Interviews were conducted with 20 general practitioners (GPs) before and after using a resource to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare. Research material was analysed using two approaches - researcher-driven thematic coding and lexical analysis, which was relatively less researcher-driven. The theoretical lens elucidated the complex pathways of knowledge translation. More specifically, agency theory revealed tensions between the GP as agent and their organisations and patients as principals. Institutional theory highlighted the importance of GP-embeddedness within their chosen specialty of general practice; their medical profession; and the practice in which they worked. Situated change theory exposed the role of localised adaptations over time - a metamorphosis. This study has theoretical, methodological, and practical implications. Theoretically, it is the first to examine knowledge translation using a lens premised on agency, institutional, and situated change theories. Methodologically, the study highlights the complementary value of researcher-driven and researcher-guided analysis of qualitative research material. Practically, this study signposts opportunities to facilitate knowledge translation - more specifically, it suggests that efforts to shape clinician practices should accommodate the interrelated influence of the agent and the institution, and recognise that change can be ever so subtle.

  5. Vers une théorie décisionnelle de la traduction Toward a Decision-driven Translation Theory

    Christine Durieux

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now, research on translation was within the framework of a formal theory paradigm. An extension of structuralism, linguistic theories of translation claim complete objectivity. In opposition to that hyperpositivism, interpretive theories open widely to constructivism. The translator acts as an intermediary in the communication chain and, to that end, activates an inference engine in order to build the meaning of the text to be translated. However, if the translating process may be defined as a sequence of decisions, decision-making is not the result of a purely rational reasoning relying on strict inference rules but the outcome of a mechanism ruled by bounded rationality. The decision-making process is governed by selective attention and controlled by emotions, hence situating the translating process between reason and emotion.

  6. Rosetta: an operator basis translator for standard model effective field theory

    Falkowski, Adam [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bat. 210, Université Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); Fuks, Benjamin [Département Recherches Subatomiques, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, 23 rue du Loess, 67037, Strasbourg (France); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium); Mimasu, Ken, E-mail: k.mimasu@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theory Division, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Sanz, Verónica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-10

    We introduce Rosetta, a program allowing for the translation between different bases of effective field theory operators. We present the main functions of the program and provide an example of usage. One of the Lagrangians which Rosetta can translate into has been implemented into FeynRules, which allows Rosetta to be interfaced into various high-energy physics programs such as Monte Carlo event generators. In addition to popular bases choices, such as the Warsaw and Strongly Interacting Light Higgs bases already implemented in the program, we also detail how to add new operator bases into the Rosetta package. In this way, phenomenological studies using an effective field theory framework can be straightforwardly performed.

  7. Rosetta: an operator basis translator for standard model effective field theory

    Falkowski, Adam [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Bat. 210, Orsay (France); Fuks, Benjamin [Universite de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, Departement Recherches Subatomiques, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Veronica [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    We introduce Rosetta, a program allowing for the translation between different bases of effective field theory operators. We present the main functions of the program and provide an example of usage. One of the Lagrangians which Rosetta can translate into has been implemented into FeynRules, which allows Rosetta to be interfaced into various high-energy physics programs such as Monte Carlo event generators. In addition to popular bases choices, such as the Warsaw and Strongly Interacting Light Higgs bases already implemented in the program, we also detail how to add new operator bases into the Rosetta package. In this way, phenomenological studies using an effective field theory framework can be straightforwardly performed. (orig.)

  8. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  9. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  10. Understanding Translation

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  11. Translation-invariant global charges in a local scattering theory of massless particles

    Strube, D.

    1989-01-01

    The present thesis is dedicated to the study for specifically translation-invariant charges in the framework of a Wightman field theory without mass gap. The aim consists thereby in the determination of the effect of the charge operator on asymptotic scattering states of massless particles. In the first section the most important results in the massive case and of the present thesis in the massless case are presented. The object of the second section is the construction of asymptotic scattering states. In the third section the charge operator, which is first only defined on strictly local vectors, is extended to these scattering states, on which it acts additively. Finally an infinitesimal transformation of scalar asymptotic fields is determined. By this for the special case of translation-invariant generators and scalar massless asymptotic fields the same results is present as in the massive case. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT

  13. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  15. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review.

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-05-06

    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  16. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This

  17. Seismogenic rotational slumps and translational glides in pelagic deep-water carbonates. Upper Tithonian-Berriasian of Southern Tethyan margin (W Sicily, Italy)

    Basilone, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs), which reflect sediment mobilization processes, are helpful to identify punctual events of paleoenvironmental stresses. In the upper Tithonian-Berriasian calpionellid pelagic limestone of the Lattimusa Fm. outcropping in the Barracù section (W Sicily), paleoenvironmental restoration reveals the occurrence of a deep-water flat basin, characterised by undeformed planar bedding, laterally passing to a gentle slope where the deformed horizons alternate with undeformed beds. Here, two types of gravity slides have been differentiated on the basis of different kinds of SSDSs, brittle deformation, involved lithofacies, geometry and morphology. Type 1 slump sheets, involving marl-limestone couplets, are characterised by chaotic stratification, truncated beds, recumbent folds, tension gashes, clastic dikes and small-scale listric normal faults and thrusts. They moved downslope as a rotational slump, displaying the typical wedge-shaped morphology, becoming thicker toe-wards. Type 2 slump sheets, involving bed packages of lime mudstone, are characterised by arcuate slump scars developing downwards as listric normal faults, associated with rotational beds and bulging. Displaying tabular geometries, they moved coherently along an overall bedding parallel detachment surface as a translational glide characterised by sediment creep. Regional geology indicates that the basin (Sicanian), bordered by a stepped carbonate platform, was affected by synsedimentary tectonics throughout the Mesozoic. The synsedimentary extensional tectonics that affect the Upper Triassic-Jurassic deposits with steeped normal faults, causing tilt-block and instability of the seafloor through fluidization processes, triggered the rotational slumps of the lower portion of the section. Seismic shocks, induced by outside sector tectonics, like those recorded in the adjacent Busambra stepped carbonate platform margin, triggered the rotational slumps that are not

  18. Unified theory for stochastic modelling of hydroclimatic processes: Preserving marginal distributions, correlation structures, and intermittency

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hydroclimatic processes come in all "shapes and sizes". They are characterized by different spatiotemporal correlation structures and probability distributions that can be continuous, mixed-type, discrete or even binary. Simulating such processes by reproducing precisely their marginal distribution and linear correlation structure, including features like intermittency, can greatly improve hydrological analysis and design. Traditionally, modelling schemes are case specific and typically attempt to preserve few statistical moments providing inadequate and potentially risky distribution approximations. Here, a single framework is proposed that unifies, extends, and improves a general-purpose modelling strategy, based on the assumption that any process can emerge by transforming a specific "parent" Gaussian process. A novel mathematical representation of this scheme, introducing parametric correlation transformation functions, enables straightforward estimation of the parent-Gaussian process yielding the target process after the marginal back transformation, while it provides a general description that supersedes previous specific parameterizations, offering a simple, fast and efficient simulation procedure for every stationary process at any spatiotemporal scale. This framework, also applicable for cyclostationary and multivariate modelling, is augmented with flexible parametric correlation structures that parsimoniously describe observed correlations. Real-world simulations of various hydroclimatic processes with different correlation structures and marginals, such as precipitation, river discharge, wind speed, humidity, extreme events per year, etc., as well as a multivariate example, highlight the flexibility, advantages, and complete generality of the method.

  19. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  20. Provincialising the World Culture Theory Debate: Critical Insights from a Margin

    Takayama, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Neo-institutionalist theory of global "isomorphism", or so-called World Culture Theory (WCT), has been much debated in comparative education. One notable feature of the debate is that the vast majority of its participants belong to a handful of closely knit comparative education communities. Ironically enough then, a debate that…

  1. Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical wave functions.

    Mitri, Farid

    2014-11-01

    The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.

  2. Self-Regulation and Mechanisms of Action in Psychotherapy: A Theory-Based Translational Perspective

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Goetz, Elena L.; Detloff, Allison M.; MacDuffie, Katherine E.; Zaunmüller, Luisa; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a complex, multi-layered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual’s role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psychotherapy leads to change continue to appear, there remains much to be learned about how psychological interventions work. To guide explorations of how and for whom particular treatment approaches lead to change, researchers can rely on theory to identify potential loci for change and on translational research methods to integrate basic behavioral science and neuroscience with clinical science. In this article, we describe research linking individual differences in the self-regulation of personal goal pursuit with the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. The research draws upon regulatory focus theory as a model of self-regulation and on microintervention designs – controlled laboratory investigations of a specific therapeutic technique – to generate and test hypotheses about how psychological interventions can help to reverse maladaptive self-regulatory processes. PMID:23072383

  3. Translating child development research into practice: Can teachers foster children's theory of mind in primary school?

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Translating research findings into practice should be one of the objectives of developmental psychology. Recently, research demonstrated the existence of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM) during middle childhood that are crucial for children's academic and social adjustment. This study aims to transfer the results of recent experimental studies on ToM interventions into primary-school teachers' practices. It examines whether a ToM training programme, based on conversations about mental states, can be effective under real-world school conditions and if it can be translated in such a way that it becomes suitable for primary-school teachers. Seventy-two 8- to 9-year-old children took part in the study. A total of four classes were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental (34 children, 18 boys) or to the control condition (38 children, 18 boys). The ToM group and the control group were matched at pre-test for age, ToM, socio-economic background, verbal ability, working memory, and planning. Teachers were trained in four teacher-training sessions; the classroom-training programme was delivered by teachers in four sessions (each 50 min long). Children were assessed before the intervention, after the end of the programme, and 2 months later. The ToM group improved ToM skills significantly more than the control group both in the short and in the long term. Teachers can successfully promote their pupils' ToM development during their regular teaching hours. Results are discussed in the light of the importance of ToM promotion for children's school adjustment. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Grounding new institutional theory on a micro-sociological and practice-based foundation - exploring models of translation

    Scheuer, John Damm

    interested in explaining how and why ideas travel in and out of organizations and become institutionalized in organizational fields. More specifically the paper focuses on the way actor-network theory and the concept of translation have been translated by researchers trying to understand institutionalization......Institutional and more practice-based perspectives on organizing and change are increasingly being combined in order to understand the micro-processes on which institutional "orders" are built and changed. The aim of this paper is to analyze how this work is done in practice by researchers...... processes related to ideas that travel from one place in time and space to another. The paper suggests that combining the concept of translation and theories about institutional change will make it possible to ground macro-sociological claims about how ideas travel and become institutionalized...

  5. Using prospect theory to investigate the low marginal value of travel time for small time changes

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    A common finding in stated preference studies that measure the value of travel time (VTT) is that the measured VTT increases with the size of the time change considered, in conflict with standard neoclassical economic theory. We present a new test of a possible explanation for the phenomenon...... that builds on the diminishing or constant sensitivity of the value functions in prospect theory.We use stated preference data with trade-offs between travel time and money that provide separate identification of the degrees of diminishing sensitivity for time and money gains and losses. This enables us...

  6. Translating Inclusion

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  7. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  8. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  9. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  10. Translating the Voices of Theory/ La traduction des voix de la théorie

    case studies (Foucault in Finnish, Benveniste in Polish, Nida in Romanian, Said in Eastern Europe), explore specific settings of mediation (Polish journals, Tagalog missionary texts, French translation didactics, Danish student writing) and examine particular issues related to translating postcolonial......How theoretical discourses travel among different cultural and linguistic contexts and what transformations they experience in the process raise important theoretical questions. Different cultural practices of translation, quotation and referral inevitably modulate and re...

  11. Translating Theory into Practice: Implications of Japanese Management Theory for Student Personnel Administrators. NASPA Monograph Series Volume 3. First Edition.

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    Japanese management theory was studied to identify specific models for consideration by student personnel administrators. The report is organized into three sections: major components of Japanese management theory, potential implications for student personnel administration, and three models, based on components of Japanese management theory, for…

  12. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the translation matrices of spherical waves of multiple-scattering theory

    Torrini, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exponential nature of the translation matrix G of spherical free waves has been set forth in a previous paper.The explicit expression of the exponential form of the translation matrix is given here, once the eigenvectros and the eigenvalues of G have been found. In addition, the eigenproblem relative to the matrix which transforms outgoing waves scattered by a centre in a set of spherical free waves centered at a different point is solved

  13. Operating without a Safety Net: Gay Male Adolescents and Emerging Adults' Experiences of Marginalization and Migration, and Implications for Theory of Syndemic Production of Health Disparities

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities among gay men (HIV, substance use, depression) have been described as a mutually occurring "syndemic" that is socially produced through two overarching dynamics: marginalization and migration. Although the syndemic theory proposes a developmental trajectory, it has been largely based on epidemiological studies of adult gay men…

  14. Complications of Translating the Meanings of the Holy Qur'an at Word Level in the English Language in Relation to Frame Semantic Theory

    Balla, Asjad Ahmed Saeed; Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2017-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the problems resulting from the lexical choice in the translation of the Holy Qur'an to emphasize the importance of the theory of "Frame Semantics" in the translation process. It has been conducted with the aim of measuring the difference in concept between the two languages Arabic and…

  15. The Theory of Translation as a Condition of Chance for of Cultures Protection: The Case of Cultural Community Protocols in Colombia

    Francielle Benini Agne Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to study the theory of translation of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and its application in crop protection. As well as examining the case of Community biocultural protocols in Colombia in search for alternative protection for traditional knowledge. The questions in this study were performed: A Theory of Translation Boaventura de Sousa Santos could be a condition of possibility for the protection of culture and traditional knowledge? And the biocultural community protocols could be an example of the theory of translation? To answer these research questions we used the combination of two methods: deductive and monographic. The first was used to guide the documentary and doctrinal research as it relates to globalization and culture. The monographic method was used for the second part, to address the translation theory of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and the case of bio-cultural Community Protocols in Colombia.

  16. A Study on Ethics in Chinese Modern and Contemporary Translation Theories%中国现当代译论中的伦理探究

    蒋秀凤

    2016-01-01

    对中国现当代译论中的伦理进行探究,需从译者的责任和义务,翻译批评中的伦理,翻译研究中的伦理以及翻译研究、翻译活动和翻译批评的综合伦理等几个方面入手。翻译理论研究本身需要伦理的规范,进而运用伦理去规范翻译理论研究者和翻译理论著作出版者的研究行为,最终在我国构建起具有中国特色的、科学的翻译理论。%The ethical problems in Chinese modern translation theories have been stud-ied in terms of translator's responsibility and obligation ,ethics in translation criticism ,ethics in translation studies and the comprehensive ethical aspects of translation criticism .Transla-tion needs to be standardized with ethics ,which can be used to standardize translation theory researchers and publishers .Finally,it is hoped to establish the scientific translation theories with Chinese characteristics .

  17. Translating Globalization Theories into Educational Research: Thoughts on Recent Shifts in Holocaust Education

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Christophe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Much educational research on globalization aims to prepare students to be successful citizens in a global society. We propose a set of three concepts, drawing on systems theory (Nassehi, Stichweh) and theories of the subject (Butler, Foucault), to think the global which enables educational research to step back from hegemonic discourses and…

  18. From translation to enactment: contributions of the Actor-Network Theory to the processual approach to organizations

    Patricia Kinast De Camillis

    Full Text Available Abstract In the area of Administration, especially in the Organizational Studies (OS, the Actor-Network Theory (ANT has been regarded as part of a movement that aims to leave the functional emphasis of organization and pursue the study of process and practices of organizing - the processual approach to organizations. However, criticism to the ANT has led some authors to seek to overcome them through analytical twists concerning certain concepts. One of these "twists" involved the concept of translation and the inclusion of the concept of enactment . This article discusses both notions with the aid of two studies developed having these concepts as a basis, in order to indicate that the choice of enactment brings along a processual view different from that observed in translation. The concept of translation addresses the predominant and it emphasizes understanding how networks of relationships and objects become "stable"; in turn, enact works with multiplicity and fluidity, where the process takes precedence over things. Although the proposed term enactment does not seek to directly face all criticism, it contributes so that ANT does not take a neutral or mechanical view in its analyses and descriptions. Enactment has the view of organization as a result and product of continuous process and it allows understanding that this is not just working or not (success or failure, but it concerns the "production" of multiple realities when we conduct research in Administration having the processual approach to organizations as a basis.

  19. Writing from other margins. Difference, exception, and translation in the portuguese-speaking world: counterpoints between literary representations and critical paradigms

    Elena Brugioni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a conceptual framework for the study of the so-called Postcolonial Literatures represents a complex critical paradigm that opens up a number of theoretical paths with which to read and place literary representations within a global perspective. Regarding what can be defined as African Europhone Literatures (Zabus, 2007, the concept of translation offers the possibility of problematizing several critical issues, particularly those relating to questions of “cultural difference” (Bhabha, 1994 and, thus, the textual “embodiment of the other” (Ahmed, 2000. In this respect, translation becomes an operational concept not only for a textual hermeneutic, but also for a wider epistemological reflection, allowing for a discussion of paradigms that characterize the critical reception of the African novel, and therefore the very field of African literary criticism. Through the exploration of authors and texts from the so-called Lusophone African Literatures, this article aims to draw a critical journey that highlights the theoretical possibilities that the concept of translation can offer, in order to address literary representations as crucial “epistemological experiences” (García Canclini, 2012, 50 with which to read and understand changes, challenges and transformations of our time.

  20. Claparède (1904) on Monocular Stereopsis: History, Theory, and Translation.

    O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    Astoundingly, looking at a photograph with one eye can yield an experience of depth of the depicted objects similar to that from viewing the real objects with both eyes. Édouard Claparède (1873-1940) was one of the first to report this phenomenon in a French paper published in 1904. I give some historical and theoretical context to the phenomenon, provide some biographical information about Claparède, and provide a translation into English of Claparède's paper.

  1. Inhomogeneous ordered states and translational nature of the gauge group in the Landau continuum theory: II. Applications of the general theory

    Braginsky, A. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    A group theory approach to description of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous ordered state, proposed in the preceding paper, is applied to two problems. First, a theory of the state of a liquid-crystalline smectic type-A phase under the action of uniaxial pressure is developed. Second, a model of strengthening in quasicrystals is constructed. According to the proposed approach, the so-called elastic dislocations always appear during the phase transitions in an inhomogeneous deformed state in addition to static dislocations, which are caused by peculiarities of the crystal growth or by other features in the prehistory of a sample. The density of static dislocations weakly depends on the external factors, whereas the density of elastic dislocations depends on the state. An analogy between the proposed theory of the inhomogeneous ordered state and the quantum-field theory of interaction between material fields is considered. On this basis, the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau equation for the superconducting state is derived using the principle of locality of the transformation properties of the superconducting order parameter with respect to temporal translations

  2. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study

    Forbes Dorothy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203, including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical

  3. Italian Studies, Italian Theory and the politics of trans-lation

    Minca, C.

    2016-01-01

    Italian Theory has emerged as the result of the search for new conceptual frameworks in the face of a series of international political events concerning not only the proliferation of states of exception but also of new forms of politicization of life related to biomedical science and the

  4. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The oak or the reed: how resilience theories are translated into disaster management policies

    Caroline Wenger

    2017-09-01

    The continued development of floodplains, facilitated by structural mitigation, is an example of a highly resilient but maladaptive feedback loop. This results in risk accumulation and higher consequences during extreme floods. Research explores ways interventions could alter feedbacks and transform to more desirable resilience regimes. It is proposed that negotiating long-term adaptation pathways should be the ultimate aim for planners and emergency managers rather than resilience, which tends to support the status quo. Emergency management concepts and frameworks need to be amended in the light of resilience theories to make it easier to achieve adaptive outcomes.

  6. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents.

  7. Translation of tobacco policy into practice in disadvantaged and marginalized subpopulations: a study of challenges and opportunities in remote Australian Indigenous communities

    Robertson Jan A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia generally, smoking prevalence more than halved after 1980 and recently commenced to decline among Australia's disadvantaged Indigenous peoples. However, in some remote Indigenous Australian communities in the Northern Territory (NT, extremely high rates of up to 83% have not changed over the past 25 years. The World Health Organisation has called for public health and political leadership to address a global tobacco epidemic. For Indigenous Australians, unprecedented policies aim to overcome disadvantage and close the 'health gap' with reducing tobacco use the top priority. This study identifies challenges and opportunities to implementing these important new tobacco initiatives in remote Indigenous communities. Methods: With little empirical evidence available, we interviewed 82 key stakeholders across the NT representing operational- and management-level service providers, local Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants to identify challenges and opportunities for translating new policies into successful tobacco interventions. Data were analysed using qualitative approaches to identify emergent themes. Results The 20 emergent themes were classified using counts of occasions each theme occurred in the transcribed data as challenge or opportunity. The 'smoke-free policies' theme occurred most frequently as opportunity but infrequently as challenge while 'health workforce capacity' occurred most frequently as challenge but less frequently as opportunity, suggesting that policy implementation is constrained by lack of a skilled workforce. 'Smoking cessation support' occurred frequently as opportunity but also frequently as challenge suggesting that support for individuals requires additional input and attention. Conclusions These results from interviews with local and operational-level participants indicate that current tobacco policies in Australia targeting Indigenous smoking are sound and comprehensive

  8. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases had only a marginal role in the origin of the organization of the genetic code: Evidence in favor of the coevolution theory.

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2017-11-07

    The coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code suggests that the organization of the genetic code coevolved with the biosynthetic relationships between amino acids. The mechanism that allowed this coevolution was based on tRNA-like molecules on which-this theory-would postulate the biosynthetic transformations between amino acids to have occurred. This mechanism makes a prediction on how the role conducted by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), in the origin of the genetic code, should have been. Indeed, if the biosynthetic transformations between amino acids occurred on tRNA-like molecules, then there was no need to link amino acids to these molecules because amino acids were already charged on tRNA-like molecules, as the coevolution theory suggests. In spite of the fact that ARSs make the genetic code responsible for the first interaction between a component of nucleic acids and that of proteins, for the coevolution theory the role of ARSs should have been entirely marginal in the genetic code origin. Therefore, I have conducted a further analysis of the distribution of the two classes of ARSs and of their subclasses-in the genetic code table-in order to perform a falsification test of the coevolution theory. Indeed, in the case in which the distribution of ARSs within the genetic code would have been highly significant, then the coevolution theory would be falsified since the mechanism on which it is based would not predict a fundamental role of ARSs in the origin of the genetic code. I found that the statistical significance of the distribution of the two classes of ARSs in the table of the genetic code is low or marginal, whereas that of the subclasses of ARSs statistically significant. However, this is in perfect agreement with the postulates of the coevolution theory. Indeed, the only case of statistical significance-regarding the classes of ARSs-is appreciable for the CAG code, whereas for its complement-the UNN/NUN code-only a marginal

  9. A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices.

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Schensul, Jean J; Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts.

  10. A Model for Translating Ethnography and Theory into Culturally Constructed Clinical Practices

    Schensul, Jean J.; Schensul, Stephen L.; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J.; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts. PMID:25292448

  11. Translating Life Course Theory to Clinical Practice to Address Health Disparities

    Solomon, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In “Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework,” Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the “whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;” (2) longitudinal approach with “greater emphasis on early (“upstream”) determinants of health”; and (3) need for integration and “developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong “pipelines” for healthy development”. This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685

  12. Translation and Quality Management

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  13. Matthew and marginality

    Denis C. Duling

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores marginality theory as it was first proposed in  the social sciences, that is related to persons caught between two competing cultures (Park; Stonequist, and, then, as it was developed in sociology as related to the poor (Germani and in anthropology as it was related to involuntary marginality and voluntary marginality (Victor Turner. It then examines a (normative scheme' in antiquity that creates involuntary marginality at the macrosocial level, namely, Lenski's social stratification model in an agrarian society, and indicates how Matthean language might fit with a sample inventory  of socioreligious roles. Next, it examines some (normative schemes' in  antiquity for voluntary margi-nality at the microsocial level, namely, groups, and examines how the Matthean gospel would fit based on indications of factions and leaders. The article ,shows that the author of the Gospel of Matthew has an ideology of (voluntary marginality', but his gospel includes some hope for (involuntary  marginals' in  the  real world, though it is somewhat tempered. It also suggests that the writer of the Gospel is a (marginal man', especially in the sense defined by the early theorists (Park; Stone-quist.

  14. Translation of the V. I. Arnold paper "From Superpositions to KAM Theory" (Vladimir Igorevich Arnold. Selected — 60, Moscow: PHASIS, 1997, pp. 727-740)

    Sevryuk, Mikhail B.

    2014-11-01

    V. I. Arnold (12 June 1937-3 June 2010) published several papers where he described, in the form of recollections, his two earliest research problems (superpositions of continuous functions and quasi-periodic motions in dynamical systems), the main results and their interrelations: [A1], then [A2] (reprinted as [A4, A6]), and [A3] (translated into English by the author as [A5]). The first exposition [A1] has never been translated into English; however, it contains many details absent in the subsequent articles. It seems therefore that publishing the English translation of the paper [A1] would not be superfluous. What follows is this translation. In many cases, the translator gives complete bibliographic descriptions of various papers mentioned briefly in the original Russian text. The English translations of papers in Russian are also pointed out where possible. A related material is contained also in Arnold's recollections "On A.N. Kolmogorov". Slightly different versions of these reminiscences were published several times in Russian and English [A7-A12]. The early history of KAM theory is also discussed in detail in the recent brilliant semi-popular book [A13].

  15. On the Universality of Theory Models of Translation Ethics:From the Perspective of the Exact Referent and Status of Each Translation Agent%翻译伦理模式理论普适性思考之翻译主体指涉与定位探究

    汤金霞; 梅阳春

    2014-01-01

    由翻译的再现伦理、服务伦理、交际伦理、规范伦理和承诺伦理组成的翻译伦理模式理论对中西方翻译伦理学的发展贡献巨大,以致于国内翻译界出现了以该理论为基础构建普适性翻译伦理的建议。然而再现伦理、服务伦理、交际伦理和规范伦理没有明确翻译主体(译者除外)的具体指涉,对翻译主体(译者除外)的定位也不一致,旨在融合这4种翻译伦理的承诺伦理也没有解决这两个问题。因此,以翻译伦理模式理论为基础构建普世翻译伦理的设想不可行。%Theory of models of translation ethics constituted by translational ethics of representation, of service, of communication, of norm-based translational ethics and translation ethics of commitment contributes a lot to the development of translation ethics home and abroad. In the circle of translation of China, there comes the voice of formulating universal translation ethics on the basis of this theory. Therefore, this paper deals with the feasibility of the formulation of universal translation ethics on the basis of the theory models of translation ethics. In this paper, the exact referents of the translation agents ( mainly including the source, the target culture, the original writer, the client, the translator and the target readership) illustrated in translation ethics of representation, service, communication, norm-based translation ethics and the status of each translation agent conferred by each of the four translation ethics are compared and contrasted. It is discovered that, in the first four models of translation ethics, the referents of all the translation agents except the translator and the status conferred to each of the relevant translation agents except the target readership contradict each other. Translation ethics of commitment, with the purpose of integrating four preceding models of translation ethics does not solve the two problems either. Therefore

  16. A joint estimation of price-cost margins and sunk capital. Theory and evidence from the European electricity industry

    Roeger, W.; Warzynski, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology to jointly estimate market power and the importance of sunk capital extending the work of Hall (1988) and Roeger (1995). Wc then apply this new technique to the European electricity industry using firm level data for the period 1994-1999, and analyze the impact of the 1996 European directive to liberalize electricity markets. We find that the average price cost margin has declined from 0.29 in 1994 to 0.22 in 1999. Moreover, the magnitude of the decline is linked to firm size: the largest firms have experienced a larger percentage fall. The variable cost parameter has increased from 0.36 in 1994 to 0.56 in 1999. The main reason of the change is the switch of the relationship between real labor productivity and the share of variable capital. Our results therefore document a more competitive electricity market and a more flexible and more efficient use of capital. (au)

  17. Translation and Intertextuality

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  18. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  19. Beyond Translation

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  20. Marginal Matter

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  1. Helplessness: a systematic translational review of theory and evidence for its relevance to understanding and treating depression.

    Pryce, Christopher R; Azzinnari, Damiano; Spinelli, Simona; Seifritz, Erich; Tegethoff, Marion; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2011-12-01

    Helplessness is a major concept in depression and a major theme in preclinical and clinical depression research. For example, in rodents and humans, the learned helplessness (LH) effect describes a specific deficit in behaviour to control aversive stimuli that is induced by prior exposure to uncontrollable aversive stimuli. The LH effect is objective and valid in that the cause of the behavioural deficit, namely uncontrollability, is clear; furthermore, the deficit induced is underlain by emotional, motivational and cognitive processes that are relevant to depression psychopathology. As a further example, helplessness, hopelessness, external locus of control and causal attribution are inter-related and major themes in psychological theories (primarily cognitive theories) of depression. Despite this broad interest in helplessness, it can be argued that its potential usefulness as a scientific and clinical concept has so far not been investigated optimally, including with respect to its application in research aimed at development of improved anti-depressant pharmacotherapy. The first aim of this review was to describe and integrate the psychological evidence and the neurobiological evidence for the LH effect in rodents and healthy humans and for helplessness in depressed patients. The second aim was to conduct three systematic reviews, namely of rodent studies of the LH effect, rodent studies of effects of psychopharmacological agents on the LH effect, and human studies of efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic treatment on helplessness in depressed patients. With respect to the first aim, the major findings are: the specificity of the LH effect in otherwise non-manipulated rodents and healthy humans has been under-estimated, and the LH effect is a specific learned aversive uncontrollability (LAU) effect. There is theoretical and empirical support for a model in which a specific LAU effect induced by a life event of major emotional significance can

  2. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  3. Translation, Quality and Growth

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  4. Middlemen Margins and Globalization

    Pranab Bardhan; Dilip Mookherjee; Masatoshi Tsumagari

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of trading middlemen or entrepreneurs who perform financing, quality supervision and marketing roles for goods produced by suppliers or workers. Brand-name reputations are necessary to overcome product quality moral hazard problems; middlemen margins represent reputational incentive rents. We develop a two sector North-South model of competitive equilibrium, with endogenous sorting of agents with heterogenous entrepreneurial abilities into sectors and occupations. The Sout...

  5. Translation Techniques

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  6. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  7. 6-C polarization analysis using point measurements of translational and rotational ground-motion: theory and applications

    Sollberger, David; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Robertsson, Johan O. A.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a six-component (6-C) polarization model for P-, SV-, SH-, Rayleigh-, and Love-waves both inside an elastic medium as well as at the free surface. It is shown that single-station 6-C data comprised of three components of rotational motion and three components of translational motion provide the opportunity to unambiguously identify the wave type, propagation direction, and local P- and S-wave velocities at the receiver location by use of polarization analysis. To extract such information by conventional processing of three-component (3-C) translational data would require large and dense receiver arrays. The additional rotational components allow the extension of the rank of the coherency matrix used for polarization analysis. This enables us to accurately determine the wave type and wave parameters (propagation direction and velocity) of seismic phases, even if more than one wave is present in the analysis time window. This is not possible with standard, pure-translational 3-C recordings. In order to identify modes of vibration and to extract the accompanying wave parameters, we adapt the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC). Due to the strong nonlinearity of the MUSIC estimator function, it can be used to detect the presence of specific wave types within the analysis time window at very high resolution. We show how the extracted wavefield properties can be used, in a fully automated way, to separate the wavefield into its different wave modes using only a single 6-C recording station. As an example, we apply the method to remove surface wave energy while preserving the underlying reflection signal and to suppress energy originating from undesired directions, such as side-scattered waves.

  8. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  9. Ab initio translationally invariant nonlocal one-body densities from no-core shell-model theory

    Burrows, M.; Elster, Ch.; Popa, G.; Launey, K. D.; Nogga, A.; Maris, P.

    2018-02-01

    Background: It is well known that effective nuclear interactions are in general nonlocal. Thus if nuclear densities obtained from ab initio no-core shell-model (NCSM) calculations are to be used in reaction calculations, translationally invariant nonlocal densities must be available. Purpose: Though it is standard to extract translationally invariant one-body local densities from NCSM calculations to calculate local nuclear observables like radii and transition amplitudes, the corresponding nonlocal one-body densities have not been considered so far. A major reason for this is that the procedure for removing the center-of-mass component from NCSM wave functions up to now has only been developed for local densities. Results: A formulation for removing center-of-mass contributions from nonlocal one-body densities obtained from NCSM and symmetry-adapted NCSM (SA-NCSM) calculations is derived, and applied to the ground state densities of 4He, 6Li, 12C, and 16O. The nonlocality is studied as a function of angular momentum components in momentum as well as coordinate space. Conclusions: We find that the nonlocality for the ground state densities of the nuclei under consideration increases as a function of the angular momentum. The relative magnitude of those contributions decreases with increasing angular momentum. In general, the nonlocal structure of the one-body density matrices we studied is given by the shell structure of the nucleus, and cannot be described with simple functional forms.

  10. Struggling with Translations

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  11. Translational Creativity

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  12. On the application of the theory of the translational Brownian movement to the calculation of the differential cross-sections for the incoherent scattering of slow neutrons

    Coffey, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how three models (based on the theory of the Brownian movement) for the translational motion of an atom in a fluid may be used to calculate explicitly the intermediate scattering functions and differential cross-sections for the incoherent scattering of slow neutrons. In the first model the translational motion of the atom is represented by the motion of a particle in space subjected to no forces other than those arising from the thermal motion of its surroundings. The differential scattering cross-section for this model is then obtained as a continued fraction similar to that given by Sack (Proc. Phys. Soc.; B70:402 and 414 (1957)) for the electric polarisability in his investigation of the role of inertial effects in dielectric relaxation. The second model is a corrected version of the itinerant oscillator model of Sears (Proc. Phys. Soc.; 86:953 (1965)). Here the differential cross-section is obtained in the form of a series and a closed-form expression is found for the intermediate scattering function. The last model to be considered is the harmonically bound particle where again a closed form expression is obtained for the intermediate scattering function. In each case the intermediate scattering function has a mathematical form which is similar to the after-effect function describing the decay of electric polarisation for the rotational versions of the models. (author)

  13. Machine Translation

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  14. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  15. Cardiac troponins--Translational biomarkers in cardiology: Theory and practice of cardiac troponin high-sensitivity assays.

    Adamcova, Michaela; Popelova-Lencova, Olga; Jirkovsky, Eduard; Simko, Fedor; Gersl, Vladimir; Sterba, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tn is a unique translational biomarker in cardiology whose potential has not been diminished in the new era of high sensitive assays. cTns can be valuable markers in cardiac diseases as well as in infectious diseases and respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the role of cTns is growing in the routine evaluation of cardioxicity and in determining the efficacy/safety ratio of novel cardioprotective strategies in clinical settings. cTns can detect myocardial injury not only in a wide spectrum of laboratory animals in experimental studies in vivo, but also in isolated heart models or cardiomyocytes in vitro. The crucial issue regarding the cross-species usage of cardiac troponin investigation remains the choice of cardiac troponin testing. This review summarizes the recent proteomic data on aminoacid sequences of cTnT and cTnI in various species, as well as selected analytical characteristics of human cardiac troponin high-sensitivity assays. Due to the highly phylogenetically conserved structure of troponins, the same bioindicator can be investigated using the same method in both clinical and experimental cardiology, thus contributing to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases as well as to increased effectiveness of troponin use in clinical practice. Measuring cardiac troponins using commercially available human high-sensitivity cardiac troponin tests with convenient antibodies selected on the basis of adequate proteomic knowledge can solve many issues which would otherwise be difficult to address in clinical settings for various ethical and practical reasons. Our survey could help elaborate the practical guidelines for optimizing the choice of cTns assay in cardiology. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Syndemic theory and HIV-related risk among young transgender women: the role of multiple, co-occurring health problems and social marginalization.

    Brennan, Julia; Kuhns, Lisa M; Johnson, Amy K; Belzer, Marvin; Wilson, Erin C; Garofalo, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We assessed whether multiple psychosocial factors are additive in their relationship to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV status (i.e., can be characterized as a syndemic) among young transgender women and the relationship of indicators of social marginalization to psychosocial factors. Participants (n = 151) were aged 15 to 24 years and lived in Chicago or Los Angeles. We collected data on psychosocial factors (low self-esteem, polysubstance use, victimization related to transgender identity, and intimate partner violence) and social marginalization indicators (history of commercial sex work, homelessness, and incarceration) through an interviewer-administered survey. Syndemic factors were positively and additively related to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV infection. In addition, our syndemic index was significantly related to 2 indicators of social marginalization: a history of sex work and previous incarceration. These findings provide evidence for a syndemic of co-occurring psychosocial and health problems in young transgender women, taking place in a context of social marginalization.

  17. Machine translation

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  18. Structural Coupling and Translation

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  19. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  20. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  1. Translating India

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  2. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  3. Development of theory-based knowledge translation interventions to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based guidelines on the early management of adults with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Bérubé, Mélanie; Albert, Martin; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Contandriopoulos, Damien; DuSablon, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Gagné, Annick; Laflamme, Élise; Boutin, Nathalie; Delisle, Stéphane; Pauzé, Anne-Marie; MacThiong, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    Optimal, early management following a spinal cord injury (SCI) can limit individuals' disabilities and costs related to their care. Several knowledge syntheses were recently published to guide health care professionals with regard to early interventions in SCI patients. However, no knowledge translation (KT) intervention, selected according to a behaviour change theory, has been proposed to facilitate the use of SCI guidelines in an acute care setting. To develop theory-informed KT interventions to promote the application of evidence-based recommendations on the acute care management of SCI patients. The first four phases of the knowledge-to-action model were used to establish the study design. Knowledge selection was based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Knowledge adaptation to the local context was sourced from the ADAPTE process. The theoretical domains framework oriented the selection and development of the interventions based on an assessment of barriers and enablers to knowledge application. Twenty-nine recommendations were chosen and operationalized in measurable clinical indicators. Barriers related to knowledge, skills, perceived capacities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, and the environmental context and resources theoretical domains were identified. The mapping of behaviour change techniques associated with those barriers led to the development of an online educational curriculum, interdisciplinary clinical pathways as well as policies and procedures. This research project allowed us developing KT interventions according to a thorough behavioural change methodology. Exposure to the generated interventions will support health care professionals in providing the best care to SCI patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Translation and Creation

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  5. Compositional translation

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  6. Communication and Translation: The Search for an Interface ...

    Communication and Translation: The Search for an Interface. ... This paper focuses on the dependence of translation theories on other disciplines, especially communication. It argues that translation ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. twentieth-century english bible translations 1. introduction

    fashioned vocabulary and .... somewhat traditional translation in terms of translation theory. This ... the focus is to make the original meaning accessible to its readers. Eugene A. .... Old Testament translation and on the Nestle-Aland 25th edition of the.

  8. Translation goes to the movies

    Cronin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This highly accessible introduction to translation theory, written by a leading author in the field, uses the genre of film to bring the main themes in translation to life. Through analyzing films as diverse as the Marx Brothers' A Night at the Opera, The Star Wars Trilogies and Lost in Translation, the reader is encouraged to think about both issues and problems of translation as they are played out on the screen and issues of filmic representation through examining the translation dimension of specific films. In highlighting how translation has featured in both mainstream commercial and arthouse films over the years, Cronin shows how translation has been a concern of filmmakers dealing with questions of culture, identity, conflict and representation. This book is a lively and accessible text for translation theory courses and offers a new and largely unexplored approach to topics of identity and representation on screen. Translation Goes to the Movies will be of interest to those on translation studies...

  9. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  10. Precision translator

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  11. Translational Educational Research

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  12. Convexity and Marginal Vectors

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we construct sets of marginal vectors of a TU game with the property that if the marginal vectors from these sets are core elements, then the game is convex.This approach leads to new upperbounds on the number of marginal vectors needed to characterize convexity.An other result is that

  13. "We call ourselves marginalized"

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2014-01-01

    of the people we refer to as marginalized. In this paper, I discuss how young secondary school graduates from a pastoralist community in Kenya use and negotiate indigeneity, marginal identity, and experiences of marginalization in social navigations aimed at broadening their current and future opportunities. I...

  14. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  15. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  16. Translating a wicked problem

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    , place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...

  17. Translation Competence

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  18. Translating Harbourscapes

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  19. Word translation entropy in translation

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  20. A Pragmatic Perspective on Advertisement Translating

    管虎元

    2008-01-01

    With the strengthening of intercultural communication,advertisement translating becomes more and more impor tant in the field of commerce.Based on an analysis and comparison of English and Chinese advertisements,this paper discusses the strategies of translating advertisement from a pragmatic pernpective, including the speech act theory,the context theory and cultural consideration,etc.

  1. Translational genomics

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  2. Revising Translations

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  3. Refining margins and prospects

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  4. Marginalization of the Youth

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  5. On marginal regeneration

    Stein, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    On applying the marginal regeneration concept to the drainage of free liquid films, problems are encountered: the films do not show a "neck" of minimum thickness at the film/border transition; and the causes of the direction dependence of the marginal regeneration are unclear. Both problems can be

  6. Indian Ocean margins

    Naqvi, S.W.A

    in the latter two areas. Some of these fluxes are expected to be substantial in the case of Indonesian continental margins and probably also across the eastern coasts of Africa not covered in this chapter. However, a dearth of information makes these margins...

  7. Fixing soft margins

    P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers

  8. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  9. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  10. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...

  11. Translating democracy

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  12. Translator's preface.

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum-Part Two: Translation of MPH Core Competencies into an Integrated Theory-Based Core Curriculum.

    Corvin, Jaime A; DeBate, Rita; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the dynamics of health and health care are changing, necessitating a commitment to revising traditional public health curricula to better meet present day challenges. This article describes how the College of Public Health at the University of South Florida utilized the Intervention Mapping framework to translate revised core competencies into an integrated, theory-driven core curriculum to meet the training needs of the twenty-first century public health scholar and practitioner. This process resulted in the development of four sequenced courses: History and Systems of Public Health and Population Assessment I delivered in the first semester and Population Assessment II and Translation to Practice delivered in the second semester. While the transformation process, moving from traditional public health core content to an integrated and innovative curriculum, is a challenging and daunting task, Intervention Mapping provides the ideal framework for guiding this process. Intervention mapping walks the curriculum developers from the broad goals and objectives to the finite details of a lesson plan. Throughout this process, critical lessons were learned, including the importance of being open to new ideologies and frameworks and the critical need to involve key-stakeholders in every step of the decision-making process to ensure the sustainability of the resulting integrated and theory-based curriculum. Ultimately, as a stronger curriculum emerged, the developers and instructors themselves were changed, fostering a stronger public health workforce from within.

  14. Spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum

    Cai Jianhua; Hu Weiwen; Wang Xianchun

    2011-01-01

    FFT method can not meet the basic requirements of power spectrum for non-stationary signal and short signal. A new spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum from Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The procession of obtaining marginal spectrum in HHT method was given and the linear property of marginal spectrum was demonstrated. Compared with the FFT method, the physical meaning and the frequency resolution of marginal spectrum were further analyzed. Then the Hilbert spectrum estimation algorithm was discussed in detail, and the simulation results were given at last. The theory and simulation shows that under the condition of short data signal and non-stationary signal, the frequency resolution and estimation precision of HHT method is better than that of FFT method. (authors)

  15. Are subduction zones invading the atlantic? Evidence from the southwest iberia margin

    Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter P.; Boutelier, David; Gutscher, Marc André; Ribeiro, António

    Subduction initiation at passive margins plays a central role in the plate tectonics theory. However, the process by which a passive margin becomes active is not well understood. In this paper we use the southwest Iberia margin (SIM) in the Atlantic Ocean to study the process of passive margin

  16. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  17. Refining margins: recent trends

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  18. SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION AND HEALTH

    Marjana Bogdanović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was characterized by special improvement in health. The aim of WHO’s policy EQUITY IN HEALTH is to enable equal accessibility and equal high quality of health care for all citizens. More or less some social groups have stayed out of many social systems even out of health care system in the condition of social marginalization. Phenomenon of social marginalization is characterized by dynamics. Marginalized persons have lack of control over their life and available resources. Social marginalization stands for a stroke on health and makes the health status worse. Low socio-economic level dramatically influences people’s health status, therefore, poverty and illness work together. Characteristic marginalized groups are: Roma people, people with AIDS, prisoners, persons with development disorders, persons with mental health disorders, refugees, homosexual people, delinquents, prostitutes, drug consumers, homeless…There is a mutual responsibility of community and marginalized individuals in trying to resolve the problem. Health and other problems could be solved only by multisector approach to well-designed programs.

  19. Pickering seismic safety margin

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  20. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  1. Holography without translational symmetry

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  2. Translation and adaptation of Theory of Mind tasks into Brazilian portuguese Tradução e adaptação de tarefas de Teoria da Mente para o português brasileiro

    Breno Sanvicente-Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM is a field of social cognition that deals with the individual’s cognitive ability to interpret or infer the mental states of others based on previous knowledge. Recently, research has shown that this ability is compromised in patients with some psychopathologies, e.g., schizophrenia and autistic disorder. Investigators have also shown that deficits in ToM have impacts on social functioning and, consequently, on quality of life. Even though ToM studies have recently grown in number, some problems still remain (e.g., the difficulty of standardized tools to assess ToM in different languages. OBJECTIVES: To describe the translation and adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of two of the most important and widely used ToM tasks, namely, the Theory of Mind Stories and the Hinting Task. METHOD: The process included the following steps: 1 translation; 2 production of a single translated version and review by specialists; 3 back-translation into English; 4 review by an English-speaking specialist; 5 adaptation of marked corrections; and 6 pilot application in a group representative of the target population (people with schizophrenia. RESULTS: A final translated version was obtained for each of the tasks. Both instruments were well understood by participants and can now be used in the Brazilian experimental setting. CONCLUSION: The availability of two major ToM tasks in Brazilian Portuguese facilitates the conduction of research on the topic in Brazil. In the future, this could help design clinical interventions aimed at people with social and cognitive difficulties.INTRODUÇÃO: A teoria da mente (theory of mind, ToM é um domínio da cognição social que se refere à habilidade cognitiva de interpretar ou inferir estados mentais de outras pessoas através de conhecimentos prévios. Recentemente, pesquisas têm mostrado que essa capacidade está comprometida em algumas psicopatologias, como esquizofrenia e autismo. Al

  3. Lost in translation? Theory, policy and practice in systems-based environmental approaches to obesity prevention in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

    Sautkina, Elena; Goodwin, Denise; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Cummins, Steven

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores how system-wide approaches to obesity prevention were 'theorised' and translated into practice in the 'Healthy Towns' programme implemented in nine areas in England. Semi-structured interviews with 20 informants, purposively selected to represent national and local programme development, management and delivery were undertaken. Results suggest that informants articulated a theoretical understanding of a system-wide approach to obesity prevention, but simplifying this complex task in the context of uncertainty over programme aims and objectives, and absence of a clear direction from the central government, resulted in local programmes relying on traditional multi-component approaches to programme delivery. The development of clear, practical guidance on implementation should form a central part of future system-wide approaches to obesity prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-01-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner's little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stueckelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stueckelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stueckelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories

  5. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-11-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner’s little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stückelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stückelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stückelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories.

  6. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Abdolla Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    these levels does not mean that there is a fragmentation in translation scholarship. Rather translation scholarship despite having pluralistic frameworks is focused on a single object of study. In other words, differentiating these levels is related to the method of research rather than the object of the research. This paper makes an attempt to shed light on the mentioned levels and then to introduce some new areas which have not been discussed widely. It also tries to introduce a systematic framework for historical research of translation based on Pym’s theory of humanizing translation studies and finally to discuss the metaphorical concept of unity in diversity from the vantage point of translation studies.

  7. Marginal kidney donor

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  8. Clarifying and Teaching Bohm-Bawerk's "Marginal Pairs."

    Egger, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Briefly defines and provides some background on Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk's "marginal pairs" theory of pricing. Asserts that Bohm-Bawerk's theory is a good introduction to the Austrian school of economics and illustrates the differences between this approach and neoclassical economic theory. Includes several graphs and tables of data. (MJP)

  9. From Borders to Margins

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...... upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  10. Estimating Marginal Returns to Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16474

    Carneiro, Pedro; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal returns to college for individuals induced to enroll in college by different marginal policy changes. The recent instrumental variables literature seeks to estimate this parameter, but in general it does so only under strong assumptions that are tested and found wanting. We show how to utilize economic theory and…

  11. Deregulated model and locational marginal pricing

    Sood, Yog Raj; Padhy, N.P.; Gupta, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized optimal model that dispatches the pool in combination with privately negotiated bilateral and multilateral contracts while maximizing social benefit has been proposed. This model determines the locational marginal pricing (LMP) based on marginal cost theory. It also determines the size of non-firm transactions as well as pool demand and generations. Both firms as well as non-firm transactions are considered in this model. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE-30 bus test system. In this test system different types of transactions are added for analysis of the proposed model. (author)

  12. TRANSLATION PROCESS AND THE USE OF COMPUTER A REPORT ON PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOUR DURING TRANSLATING

    Engliana Engliana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphasising on translation process including pre- and post-editing task using a text taken randomly from news on the Internet, this paper attempts to illustrate the behaviour patterns of some students currently studying English language at the university level in Jakarta. The students received texts to be translated using the computer equipped with screen recording software aimed to record all related activities during the translation process, including the pre- and post-editing. The method involves observing the participants‘ behaviour during translating focusing on the actions performed before and after using translation tool(s. The purposes of this investigation are to determine if the students: 1 use any software and the Internet to help them; 2 use the information in the translation process; 3 apply the translation theories. The results indicates that no pre-editing task was performed prior to translation

  13. Translating Scientific Judgment, Technological Insight and Economic Theory Into Practical Policy Lessons: The Case of Climate Regulation in the United States

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Effective solutions to the climate change problem will require unprecedented cooperation across space, continuity across time and coordination between disciplines. One well-known methodology for synthesizing the lessons of physical science, energy engineering and economics is integrated assessment. Typically, integrated assessment models use scientific and technological relationships as physical constraints in a larger macroeconomic optimization that is designed to either balance the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation or find the least-cost path to an exogenously prescribed endpoint (e.g. atmospheric CO2 stabilization). The usefulness of these models depends to a large extent on the quality of the assumptions and the relevance of the outcome metrics chosen by the user. In this study, I show how a scientifically-based emissions reduction scenario can be combined with engineering-based assumptions about the energy system (e.g. estimates of the marginal cost premium of carbon-free technology) to yield insights about the price path of CO2 under a future regulatory regime. I then show how this outcome metric (carbon price) relates to key decisions about the design of a future cap-and-trade system and the way in which future carbon markets may be regulated.

  14. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  15. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Komorbiditet ved marginal parodontitis

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar

    2017-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende væsentligste viden om sammenhængen mellem marginal parodontitis og en række medicinske sygdomme, herunder hjerte-kar-sygdomme, diabetes mellitus, reumatoid arthritis, osteoporose, Parkinsons sygdom, Alzheimers sygdom, psoriasis og...

  17. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  18. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  19. Marginalization and School Nursing

    Smith, Julia Ann

    2004-01-01

    The concept of marginalization was first analyzed by nursing researchers Hall, Stevens, and Meleis. Although nursing literature frequently refers to this concept when addressing "at risk" groups such as the homeless, gays and lesbians, and those infected with HIV/AIDS, the concept can also be applied to nursing. Analysis of current school nursing…

  20. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  1. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  2. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...... the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT) is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt...

  3. Containment safety margins

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  4. Marginalized Youth. An Introduction.

    Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...

  5. On Various Negative Translations

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  6. Translator education and accreditation policies in Africa: Exploring ...

    This article questions the presuppositions on which current translator education and accreditation in South Africa and Africa are based. This is done on the basis of Tymozcko's reconceptualisation of translation studies and of Robinson's theory of translation quality. It presents sets of data as case studies that support ...

  7. Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling

    Fortiana, Josep; Rodriguez-Lallena, José

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the meeting `Distributions with given marginals and statistical modelling', held in Barcelona (Spain), July 17-20, 2000. In 24 chapters, this book covers topics such as the theory of copulas and quasi-copulas, the theory and compatibility of distributions, models for survival distributions and other well-known distributions, time series, categorical models, definition and estimation of measures of dependence, monotonicity and stochastic ordering, shape and separability of distributions, hidden truncation models, diagonal families, orthogonal expansions, tests of independence, and goodness of fit assessment. These topics share the use and properties of distributions with given marginals, this being the fourth specialised text on this theme. The innovative aspect of the book is the inclusion of statistical aspects such as modelling, Bayesian statistics, estimation, and tests.

  8. Gender issues in translation

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  9. Cultural Context and Translation

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  10. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  11. Translation-coupling systems

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  12. Literary Translation, Translating Culture: The Case of Shahriyar, the Famous Iranian Azeri Poet

    Kianbakht, Saijad

    2016-01-01

    A literary translation is a device of art used to release the text from its dependence on prior cultural knowledge (Herzfeld, 2003). The present research investigates the use of pragmatic equivalence in two translations of the Azeri Turkish long poem "Haydar Babaye Salam" by "Shahriyar." Based on Koller's theory of equivalence…

  13. The Potentiation of Meaning through Translative Reading: Poetic Translation and the Case of Gottfried Benn

    Morgan, Ian Egon

    2009-01-01

    The theory of literary translation has been plagued by a disregard of the comprehensive aspect of the task since its inception, largely focusing on the challenges of the expressive aspect instead. This development throughout the history of translation--with the notable exceptions of Martin Luther and Friedrich Schleiermacher--has led to…

  14. The Question of Ethics: What Options for the Translator?

    Abdelkarim El Amari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the process and product of translation from an ethical perspective, using Pym’s theory as opposed to Berman’s theory. Pym’s concern is primarily with the translator as a mediator; while Berman’s places emphasis on the process. They are seemingly contradictory, but, in fact, they complement each other when it comes to translation. This paper discusses the efficiency of the translation process within Berman’s theoretical framework, stressing the task and responsibility of the translator within the translating process wherein the ethics limits are in force to meet the reader/client’s expectations. This paper tries to provide a ground for discussion that might help in clearly setting ethical borders in translation. It also negotiates the impossibility of equivalence between languages, and to this effect, it capitalizes on the role of the translator as a cultural mediator.

  15. Rotational and translational Brownian motion

    Coffey, W.T.; Salford Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In this review it is proposed to summarise the work on the theory of the translational and rotational Brownian movement which has been carried on over roughly the past 30 years. The review is intended to take the form of a tutorial paper rather than a list of the results obtained by the various investigators over the period in question. In this vein then it seems appropriate to firstly give a brief account of those parts of the theory of probability which are relevant to the problems under discussion. (orig.)

  16. TEACHING COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION: AN ACTIVE RECEPTION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE TRANSLATION AND READER’S RECEPTION

    Venny Eka Meidasari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Literary theory sees reception theory from the reader response that emphasizes the reader’s reception of a literary text. It is generally called audience reception in the analysis of communications models. In literary studies, reception theory originated from the work of Hans-Robert Jauss in the late 1960s. Communication only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target receptor. Similarly, the main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. It is delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the active receptor understands. A single mistake in a context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between active receptors. This paper proposes on the role of translator as the mediator between a writer of the original text and the active target language receptors of translated version in the course of communication which definitely affects the process and result of translation practice. It also reveals the emphasis on the creation text of the translation theories originated from the strategic communication theories, which hopefully leads to a dream of the most equivalence between the text and the translated version.

  17. Marginal Models for Categorial Data

    Bergsma, W.P.; Rudas, T.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical models defined by imposing restrictions on marginal distributions of contingency tables have received considerable attention recently. This paper introduces a general definition of marginal log-linear parameters and describes conditions for a marginal log-linear parameter to be a smooth

  18. Masculinity at the margins

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2010-01-01

    and other types of material. Taking the concepts of othering, intersectionality and marginality as point of departure the article analyses how these young men experience othering and how they react to it. One type of reaction, described as stylization, relies on accentuating the latently positive symbolic...... of critique although in a masculinist way. These reactions to othering represent a challenge to researchers interested in intersectionality and gender, because gender is reproduced as a hierarchical form of social differentiation at the same time as racism is both reproduced and resisted....

  19. Understanding the organization of cognitive approaches to translation

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive approaches to translation studies are driven by three interrelated aims: to understand the structure and organization of the capacities of cognitive agents involved in processes of translation, to build better theories and models of translation, and to develop more efficient methods...... theory, it is more descriptively adequate and more fruitful to understand it as a family of projects based on multiple theories that are relevant for studying different aspects of the translation process. This perspective allows us to extract the erotetic structure of these programs which are organized...

  20. Why Translation Is Difficult

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  1. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Social Sciences (SPSS, and qualitative data depended on the software NVivo. The results of data analysis indicated a correlation between using cognitive teaching methodology and students’ performance in literary translation. The themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis referred to topics related to causes of  translation problems, including lack of experience in the field of literary translation; weakness in literary translation skills; and challenges in interpreting literary devices and eloquence. Data analysis revealed that these problems were due to using traditional teaching methods that were based on giving lectures and direct instructions, and rote learning. The emergent themes concerning ways of resolving these problems include the importance of employing cognitive methods to stimulate students’ creative abilities, and motivate them to improve their analytical and critical thinking.  The discussions, presented in the literature review of the present study, focus on five issues: the linguistics levels of literary translation; the characteristics of literary texts; the problems of translating literary texts; the main principles of the cognitive method which makes it appropriate for teaching literary translation; and the relationship between literary translation theories, cognition, and creativity. The research recommendations highlight the importance of bridging the gap between translation theory and practice to provide strategies for solving the problems of translating literary texts. The recommendations also include the procedures for integrating Newmark’s translation theory into cognitive taxonomies to enhance students’ knowledge, and help them acquire refined skills for translating literary texts efficiently.

  2. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  3. Translation in ESL Classes

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  4. TRANSLATING ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: A CASE STUDY OF EPISTEMICIDE

    KARNEDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture that creates socalled epistemicide or the erosion of knowledge, partly due to translation strategies adopted by the translator. Investigation is done using the corpusbased approach, theories of translation strategies and the comparative model. The study reveals that the translator in the macro-level text adopts the ideology of foreignising strategy rather than domesticating strategy when translating an economics textbook from English into Indonesian. This is supported by the use of the number of the source language-orientated translation techniques leading to two translation methods (i.e. literal translation and faithful translation adopted in the micro-level text. This research strongly supports another relevant study pertaining to the globalisation of knowledge through translation and also the translation theories of equivalence (i.e. overt and covert translation. The research findings also have some pedagogical implications on teaching English for Specific Purposes in higher education.

  5. A Politics of Marginability

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    2015-01-01

    always been contested and to some extent vulnerable. However, the Indian communities are strong socially and economically, and the vast majority of its people have great international networks and several potential plans or strategies for the future, should the political climate in Tanzania become......In the end of the 19th century, Indians began settling in East Africa. Most of them left Gujarat because of drought and famine, and they were in search for business opportunities and a more comfortable life. Within the following decades, many of them went from being small-scale entrepreneurs to big...... hostile towards them. I argue that this migrant group is unique being marginalized and strong at the same time, and I explain this uniqueness by several features in the Indian migrants’ cultural and religious background, in colonial and post-colonial Tanzania, and in the Indians’ role as middlemen between...

  6. Memetics and Translation Studies

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  7. Sound Effects in Translation

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  8. Marginal cost pricing of electricity

    Edsbaecker, G.

    1980-01-01

    The discipline is economics and the phenomenon is the power system. The purpose of this system is to produce, transmit and consume electricity in such a way that the sum of consumers and suppliers surplus in maximized. This is accomplished by the means of marginal cost pricing. The concepts of the power system and the relations prevailing between and among them are picked out, defined and analyzed in the frames of economic theory and operations research. Methods are developed aiming at efficient prices so that the short run function of the power system is managed in such a way that the sum of conumers and suppliers surplus is maximized within the framwork of this system, i.e. value of service of the power system is maximized. The task of developing such methods is accomplished subject to mixed production resources, transmission losses, periodic demand and also when there is lack of information concerning future and cost conditions. The main results are methods which take to account the conditions stated above. Methods not only allowing for traditional cost minimizing but also for maximation of value of service including a process of reaching optimum by gradual adaption when demand and cost curves are not known in advance. (author)

  9. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  11. Lost in translation

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  12. Speaking your Translation

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  13. Economic assessment of Operational Energy reduction options in a house using Marginal Benefit and Marginal Cost: A case in Bangi, Malaysia

    Wan Rahmah Mohd Zaki; Abdul Hadi Nawawi; Sabarinah Sh Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficient (EE) appliances such as Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) bulbs and Renewable Energy (RE), namely solar Photovoltaic (PV) can help to reduce Operational Energy (OE) in a house. In addition, a house should also incorporate Passive Architecture (PA) design strategies which in the hot and humid tropical climate, mean avoiding direct heat gain, encouraging natural cross ventilation and optimising the abundant daylight. Nevertheless, reducing OE must also mean economic gain to households to encourage their participation. Common economic gauges such as Return on Investment, Payback Period, Cost Benefit Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost are not suitable to validate OE options in households. These economic gauges approach economic assessment as an end-result on the cost side of the product and may result for good intention to be shelved, primarily because EE equipment and RE have high capital cost compared with the alternatives. On the other hand, reducing OE in houses is actually a continual progression from the status quo and there is always a marginal gain in doing so. The challenge is to know how much is the marginal benefit against the marginal cost of investing in EE and RE. In Economics, the ratio of Marginal Cost (MC) and Marginal Benefits (MB) measure additional benefits of every additional costs of investment at a specific level of production and consumption; and Economists suggests that effective gain and loss should be compared to the status quo, i.e., Relative Position (RP). The Economics theories of MC, MB and RP are being adapted to measure the progression of reducing OE. The living/dining area in two types of houses: with and without PA design strategies are simulated to use conventional incandescent light bulbs and CFL as well as solar PV in lieu of the mains electricity supply. The power requirement for artificial lighting in every case is translated into monetary value and the ratio of MB against MC for each case shows

  14. Lost in translation?

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  15. What is a translator?

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  16. What is a translator?

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  17. Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses

    Marruzzo, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye\\'s elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye\\'s ω2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime, and there is a strong increase in the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. A generalized elasticity theory is presented, based on the model assumption that the shear modulus of the disordered medium fluctuates randomly in space. The fluctuations are assumed to be uncorrelated and have a certain distribution (Gaussian or otherwise). Using field-theoretical techniques one is able to derive mean-field theories for the vibrational spectrum of a disordered system. The theory based on a Gaussian distribution uses a self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA),while the theory for non-Gaussian distributions is based on a coherent-potential approximation (CPA). Both approximate theories appear to be saddle-point approximations of effective replica field theories. The theory gives a satisfactory explanation of the vibrational anomalies in glasses. Excellent agreement of the SCBA theory with simulation data on a soft-sphere glass is reached. Since the SCBA is based on a Gaussian distribution of local shear moduli, including negative values, this theory describes a shear instability as a function of the variance of shear fluctuations. In the vicinity of this instability, a fractal frequency dependence of the density of states and the sound attenuation ∝ ω1+a is predicted with a ≲ 1/2. Such a frequency dependence is indeed observed both in simulations and in experimental data. We argue that the observed frequency dependence stems from marginally stable regions in a glass and discuss these findings in terms of rigidity percolation. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.

  18. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  19. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  20. Comment through Reception Theory on the Transmission of Chinese Culture in Two Translated Texts of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms%从接受理论评《三国演义》两个译本的文化传播

    张焰明

    2011-01-01

    接受理论倡导读者中心论,强调作者要了解潜在读者的期待视野,作品与读者之间的审美距离要适当。翻译是二度创作,也要重视潜在的译文读者。通过对《三国演义》两个译本从五个不同维度的文化比较可以看出。针对不同时代、不同类型的读者,译者应采取不同的翻译策略。%Reception Theory advocates the theory of readers as the center and emphasizes that the author should understand the expectation horizon of his potential readers, and the aesthetic distance between works and readers should be proper. Translation is the second-time creation, so the function of its potential readers can't be isnored. A comparison of five aspects of culture in two translated texts of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms demonstrates that the translator is supposed to adopt different translation strategies corresponding to readers of different times and of different kinds.

  1. Margin improvement initiatives: realistic approaches

    Chan, P.K.; Paquette, S. [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, ON (Canada); Cunning, T.A. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada); French, C.; Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, ON (Canada); Pandey, M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Murchie, M. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    With reactor core aging, safety margins are particularly tight. Two realistic and practical approaches are proposed here to recover margins. The first project is related to the use of a small amount of neutron absorbers in CANDU Natural Uranium (NU) fuel bundles. Preliminary results indicate that the fuelling transient and subsequent reactivity peak can be lowered to improve the reactor's operating margins, with minimal impact on burnup when less than 1000 mg of absorbers is added to a fuel bundle. The second project involves the statistical analysis of fuel manufacturing data to demonstrate safety margins. Probability distributions are fitted to actual fuel manufacturing datasets provided by Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Inc. They are used to generate input for ELESTRES and ELOCA. It is found that the fuel response distributions are far below industrial failure limits, implying that margin exists in the current fuel design. (author)

  2. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  3. The marginal cost of public funds

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...... of work) responses. In the modelling of extensive responses, we argue that it is crucial to account for the presence of non-convexities created by fixed work costs. In a non-convex framework, tax and transfer reforms give rise to discrete participation responses generating first-order effects...

  4. Trends in modern system theory

    Athans, M.

    1976-01-01

    The topics considered are related to linear control system design, adaptive control, failure detection, control under failure, system reliability, and large-scale systems and decentralized control. It is pointed out that the design of a linear feedback control system which regulates a process about a desirable set point or steady-state condition in the presence of disturbances is a very important problem. The linearized dynamics of the process are used for design purposes. The typical linear-quadratic design involving the solution of the optimal control problem of a linear time-invariant system with respect to a quadratic performance criterion is considered along with gain reduction theorems and the multivariable phase margin theorem. The stumbling block in many adaptive design methodologies is associated with the amount of real time computation which is necessary. Attention is also given to the desperate need to develop good theories for large-scale systems, the beginning of a microprocessor revolution, the translation of the Wiener-Hopf theory into the time domain, and advances made in dynamic team theory, dynamic stochastic games, and finite memory stochastic control.

  5. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  6. Unlocking the potential of translation for FLT

    Alenka Kocbek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes unlocking the potential of translation for foreign language teaching (FLT by seeking to create synergies with the related discipline of translation science (TS. This aim is in keeping with the guidelines for language teaching provided in the Common European Framework of Languages, which introduced a model of communicative competences including communicative language competences as those which enable a person to act by drawing on specific linguistic means. First, an overview of the changing status of translation in FLT is presented – from its being considered a fundamental teaching method and basic skill in the Grammar-Translation Method, to its being all but outlawed in more recent communicative and task-based approaches, to its final rehabilitation in recent decades. It is then shown that, in the development of FLT, the parallel evolution of TS somehow failed to be acknowledged and, consequently, the opportunity to create valuable synergies between the two disciplines was missed. Following the stance of authors who have advocated the use of translation in FLT, it is argued that translation can effectively supplement the development of the four traditional language skills and, moreover, that some of the insights developed by TS can effectively be integrated into FLT as strategies aimed at enhancing leaners’ cross-cultural communicative competences. To this purpose, selected insights from TS (e.g. the functional approach and the skopos theory, the cultureme model, the theory of memes are discussed and their potential for creating synergies with FLT are explored. Finally, the paper discusses the omnipresence of different forms of translation and interpreting in contemporary societies and shows that this naturally and logically calls for a systematic inclusion of translation in FLT.

  7. Lost in Translation?

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  8. Translating VDM to Alloy

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  9. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  10. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  11. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  12. Measuring Translation Literality

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  13. Text Coherence in Translation

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  14. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  15. Stimulating translational research

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  16. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  17. Translation between cultures

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  18. Idioms and Back Translation

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  19. Asymmetric Translation between Multiple Representations in Chemistry

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-01-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests…

  20. Radiotherapy margin design with particular consideration of high curvature CTVs

    Herschtal, Alan; Kron, Tomas; Fox, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In applying 3D conformal radiation therapy to a tumor clinical target volume (CTV), a margin is added around the CTV to account for any sources of error in the application of treatment which may result in misalignment between the CTV and the dose distribution actually delivered. The volume enclosed within the CTV plus the margin is known as the PTV, or planning target volume. The larger the errors are anticipated to be, the wider the margin will need to be to accommodate those errors. Based on the approach of van Herk et al. [''The probability of correct target dosage: Dose-population histograms for deriving treatment margins in radiotherapy,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol., Phys. 47(4), 1121-1135 (2000)] this paper develops the mathematical theory behind the calculation of the margin width required to ensure that the entire CTV receives sufficiently high dose with sufficiently high probability. The margin recipe developed not only considers the magnitude of the errors but also includes a term to adjust for curved CTV surfaces. In doing so, the accuracy of the margin recipe is enhanced yet remains mathematically concise enough to be readily implemented in the clinical setting. The results are particularly relevant for clinical situations in which the uncertainties in treatment are large relative to the size of the CTV.

  1. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  2. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  3. The uses of relevance theory for the study of explicitation and implicitation: the case of the Indonesian translations of Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men

    Murtisari, Murtisari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the use of the techniques of ‘explicitation’ and ‘implicitation’ in literary translation. The data is derived from the translations into Indonesian of two novels by American author John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and Of Mice and Men (1937), as, respectively, Amarah by Sapardi Djoko Damono (2000) and Tikus dan Manusia by Pramoedya Ananta Toer (2003). A total of 513 items of explicitation and implicitation (‘de-explicitation’) were obtained from the first eigh...

  4. The Contrastive analysis of the translation of English film titles into Lithuanian and Russian

    Šidiškytė, Daiva; Tamulaitienė, Daiva

    2013-01-01

    Titles are most important in terms of information they carry about the text, the film, radio programme, etc. Translation of titles is a challenging task that is fulfilled by employing specific translation methods. The aim of the theoretical part of this article is to present the problem of title translation into the target language, to give an overview of major translation theories and methods used in the translation of film titles and titles in general. The practical analysis in the article ...

  5. Learning Convex Inference of Marginals

    Domke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical models trained using maximum likelihood are a common tool for probabilistic inference of marginal distributions. However, this approach suffers difficulties when either the inference process or the model is approximate. In this paper, the inference process is first defined to be the minimization of a convex function, inspired by free energy approximations. Learning is then done directly in terms of the performance of the inference process at univariate marginal prediction. The main ...

  6. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  7. Amorphous gauge glass theory

    Nielsen, H.B.; Bennett, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Assuming that a lattice gauge theory describes a fundamental attribute of Nature, it should be pointed out that such a theory in the form of a gauge glass is a weaker assumption than a regular lattice model in as much as it is not constrained by the imposition of translational invariance; translational invariance is, however, recovered approximately in the long wavelength or continuum limit. (orig./WL)

  8. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  9. On Interactive Teaching Model of Translation Course Based on Wechat

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a theory related to knowledge and learning, focusing on learners' subjective initiative, based on which the interactive approach has been proved to play a crucial role in language learning. Accordingly, the interactive approach can also be applied to translation teaching since translation itself is a bilingual transformational…

  10. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  11. Problems in Translating Figures of Speech: A Review of Persian Translations of Harry Potter Series

    Fatemeh Masroor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.

  12. The Digital Outcasts - Advanced Margins in Digital Societies

    Hjelholt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This work-in-progress paper reports on preliminary findings from 15 interviews with so called “non-digital” Danish citizens to address and problematize this classification as a social category. In linking classification theory (the categories used in the digital post system) to a notion of advanced...... further work will use the concept of advanced digital marginalization, to elaborate on these findings....

  13. Locational marginal prices with SVC in Indian electricity market ...

    Spot pricing based on short run marginal cost (SRMC) theory has the potential to provide the economic signals for the power system operation. Reactive power has gained importance as an ancillary service in competitive markets and its impact on nodal price can not be ignored. With the emergence of FACTS technology, ...

  14. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  15. Marginal-cost pricing for Hydro-Quebec residential customers

    Paquin, C.

    1994-02-01

    An option available to governments and to utilities such as Hydro-Quebec for responding to objectives of energy efficiency is the adoption of marginal cost pricing. Compared to currently used price structures, marginal cost pricing will allow improvement of price signals and assure an optimal utilization of the resource. That type of pricing could be economically beneficial but may not be desirable from the point of view of revenue distribution. Taking account of Hydro-Quebec's cost structure, pure marginal cost pricing would generate an income that would be strongly contested on equity grounds. For example, it would raise prices 60% for residential customers. Faced with this possibility, an analysis is presented of the impact of a peak-offpeak pricing (or pure marginal cost pricing) on Hydro-Quebec's residential customer energy bills. The marginal costs of Hydro-Quebec are calculated by the method of Bernard and Chatel (1985) and analysis of the results is based on Friedman and Weare (1993). A sample of 28,417 residential customers from a 1989 Hydro-Quebec survey is used in the study. Two scenarios are analyzed; the first allowing comparison of the energy bill only on the basis of marginal costs and of average costs, and the second allowing comparison of the impact of marginal cost pricing on the total bill. In the first scenario, the impact translates into a 31% increase in energy bills for the entire customer class considered; in addition, this impact is inversely proportional to the revenue class. In the second scenario, the increase is 24%. 33 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  16. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  17. Aristotle, De Memoria et Reminiscentia. Text, Translation and Interpretive Essays

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition.......The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition....

  18. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  19. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  20. A phased translation function

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  1. Translation of research outcome

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  2. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  3. Translation for language purposes

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  4. Lost in Translation

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  5. Lost in translation?

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  6. Machine Translation from Text

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  7. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  8. Translating Alcohol Research

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  9. Translationally invariant and non-translationally invariant empirical effective interactions

    Golin, M.; Zamick, L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work empirical deficiencies of the core-renormalized realistic effective interactions are examined and simple corrective potentials are sought. The inability of the current realistic interactions to account for the energies of isobaric analog states is noted, likewise they are unable to reproduce the changes in the single-particle energies, as one goes from one closed shell to another. It is noted that the Schiffer interaction gives better results for these gross properties and this is attributed to a combination of several facts. First, to the inclusion of long range terms in the Schiffer potential, then to the presence of relative p-state terms (l=1), in addition to the usual relative s-state terms (l=0). The strange shape of the above interaction is further attributed to the fact that it is translationally invariant whereas the theory of core-polarization yields non-translationally invariant potentials. Consequently, as a correction to the monopole deficiencies of the realistic interactions the term Vsub(mon)=ar 2 (1)r 2 (2)+r 2 (1)+β[r 4 (1)r 2 (2)r 4 (2) ] is proposed. (Auth.)

  10. The Marginal Source of Finance

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the ongoingdebate on which view of equity, traditional or new, that best describes firm behavior. According to the traditional view, the marginal source of finance is new equity, whereas under to the new view, marginal financing comes from retained earnings. In the theoretical part, we set up a model where the firm faces a cost of adjusting the dividend level because of an aggravated free cash flow problem. The existence of such a cost - which has been used in arguing the...

  11. Parent-Child Cultural Marginalization and Depressive Symptoms in Asian American Family Members

    Kim, Su Yeong; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Stroh, Kunise; Wang, Jenny Jiun-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The current study findings refute the recent claim that marginality theory lacks construct validity. Cultural marginalization is significantly related to depressive symptoms in Korean American, Chinese American, and Japanese American parents and adolescents living in the United States. Correlational analyses indicate that adolescents' depressive…

  12. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  13. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  14. Coupled dynamics of translation and collapse of acoustically driven microbubbles.

    Reddy, Anil J; Szeri, Andrew J

    2002-10-01

    Pressure gradients drive the motion of microbubbles relative to liquids in which they are suspended. Examples include the hydrostatic pressure due to a gravitational field, and the pressure gradients in a sound field, useful for acoustic levitation. In this paper, the equations describing the coupled dynamics of radial oscillation and translation of a microbubble are given. The formulation is based on a recently derived expression for the hydrodynamic force on a bubble of changing size in an incompressible liquid [J. Magnaudet and D. Legendre, Phys. Fluids 10, 550-556 (1998)]. The complex interaction between radial and translation dynamics is best understood by examination of the added momentum associated with the liquid motion caused by the moving bubble. Translation is maximized when the bubble collapses violently. The new theory for coupled collapse and translation dynamics is compared to past experiments and to previous theories for decoupled translation dynamics. Special attention is paid to bubbles of relevance in biomedical applications.

  15. Evaluation of reactivity shutdown margin for nuclear fuel reload optimization

    Wong, Hing-Ip; Maldonado, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    The FORMOSA-P code is a nuclear fuel management optimization package that combines simulated annealing (SA) and nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT). Recent studies at Electricite de France (EdF-Clamart) have produced good results for power-peaking minimizations under multiple limiting control rod configurations. However, since the reactivity shutdown margin is not explicitly treated as an objective or constraint function, then any optimal loading patterns (LPs) are not guaranteed to yield an adequate shutdown margin (SDM). This study describes the implementation of the SDM calculation within a FORMOSA-P optimization. Maintaining all additional computational requirements to a minimum was a key consideration

  16. Evaluation of reactivity shutdown margin for nuclear fuel reload optimization

    Engrand, P.; Wong, H. I.; Maldonado, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The FORMOSA-P code is a nuclear fuel management optimization package which combines simulated annealing (SA) and nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT). Recent studies at Electricite de France have produced good results for power peaking minimizations under multiple limiting control rod configurations. However, since the reactivity shutdown margin is not explicitly treated as an objective or constraint function, then any optimal loading patterns (LPs) are not guaranteed to yield an adequate shutdown margin (SDM). This study describes the implementation of the SDM calculation within a FORMOSA-P optimization. Maintaining all additional computational requirements to a minimum was a key consideration. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  17. Air-Sea Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone

    2016-03-31

    elementascience.org Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zoneAir-Sea interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone Seth Zippel1* • Jim Thomson1 1Applied...Bidlot, 2013; Collins -III et al., 2015). Spectral wave directions and spread are given in Figure 5, where the difference in wave and wind direction...359219a0. Chalikov DV, Belevich MY. 1993. One-dimensional theory of the wave boundary layer. Bound-Lay Meteor 63: 65–96. Collins -III CO, Rogers WE

  18. Learning by Translating: A Contrastive Methodology for ESP Learning and Translation

    Sara Laviosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years applied linguists have explored the possibility of integrating the insights of second language acquisition theories, contrastive analysis, foreign language teaching methodologies, and translation studies with a view to enhancing current communicative models and techniques for L2 teaching and translator training (see for example Sewell and Higgins 1996; Laviosa-Braithwaite 1997; Campbell 1998; Malmkjær 1998; Laviosa 2000; Colina 2002. We intend to make a contribution to this interdisciplinary orientation by putting forward a translation-based methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and grammar through real life mediating communicative activities. With particular reference to the translation task itself, we endeavour to provide teachers of English for special purposes and translator trainers with a methodology for guiding their students in producing, to the best of their abilities, a target text which meets the quality criteria of terminological accuracy and stylistic fluency, and is also effective in terms of the communicative situation it is intended for. After outlining the rationale and main theoretical approaches underpinning our work, we will illustrate our methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and translation skills from a contrastive perspective, as in our book Learning by Translating (Laviosa and Cleverton 2003.

  19. Characterizing Convexity of Games using Marginal Vectors

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between convexity of TU games and marginal vectors.We show that if specfic marginal vectors are core elements, then the game is convex.We characterize sets of marginal vectors satisfying this property, and we derive the formula for the minimum number of marginal

  20. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  1. Translating The girls of Balthus

    Rosana Kohl Bines

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What is the point in trying to write something that is irreducible to another form of expression? The question appears at the end of a noteworthy short story by the Brazilian writer Sergio Sant’Anna, which painstakingly describes a series of paintings by the Polish-French artist Balthasar Balthus. These paintings depict young girls in ambiguous poses, between innocence and lusciousness. The present paper investigates translation processes between painting and literature, through the topos of childhood, taken as a borderline zone and a passageway between the domains of silence and of language. To that end, the paper traces an intellectual itinerary that stems from the Freudian theory on aphasia.

  2. Recent FRC translation experiments on FRX-C/T

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Hugrass, W.N.; Klingner, P.L.; McKenna, K.F.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the last CT Symposium, several accomplishments have been realized from the FRC translation studies on the FRX-C/T device: (1) FRCs have been launched into, and trapped in, a dc magnetic guide field region without the use of any pulsed ''gate'' coils; (2) detailed studies of translation dynamics have been performed which are consistent with energy conservation, adiabatic compression theory, and 2-D MHD simulations; (3) the confinement properties of translated FRC has been evaluated; (4) translation through either puff or static deuterium gas fill has been demonstrated; (5) higher density (n less than or equal to 4 x 10 15 cm -3 ) FRCs have been translated over 10-m lengths; (6) the n = 2 rotational instability has been stabilized by FRC translation into a weak helical quadrupole field

  3. Marginality and Variability in Esperanto.

    Brent, Edmund

    This paper discusses Esperanto as a planned language and refutes three myths connected to it, namely, that Esperanto is achronical, atopical, and apragmatic. The focus here is on a synchronic analysis. Synchronic variability is studied with reference to the structuralist determination of "marginality" and the dynamic linguistic…

  4. Texas curve margin of safety.

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  5. Ethnographies of marginality [Review article

    Beuving, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Africanist discourse today displays a strong, widespread and growing sense of optimism about Africa's economic future. After decades of decline and stagnation in which Africa found itself reduced to the margins of the global economic stage, upbeat Afro-optimism seems fully justified. One only needs

  6. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  7. Pushing the Margins of Responsibility

    Santoni de Sio, Filippo; Di Nucci, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    David Shoemaker has claimed that a binary approach to moral responsibility leaves out something important, namely instances of marginal agency, cases where agents seem to be eligible for some responsibility responses but not others. In this paper we endorse and extend Shoemaker’s approach by pres...

  8. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  9. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  10. Translational research in medicine

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  11. Engineering in translational medicine

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  12. Data format translation routines

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  13. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  14. The Translation and Adaptation of Agile Methods

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use translation theory to develop a framework (called FTRA) that explains how companies adopt agile methods in a discourse of fragmentation and articulation. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative multiple case study of six firms using the Scrum agile...... (Scrum). This limits the confidence that the framework is suitable for other kinds of methodologies. Practical implications The FTRA framework and the technological rules are promising for use in practice as a prescriptive or even normative frame for governing methodology adaptation. Social implications....../value The use of translation theory and the FTRA framework to explain how agile adaptation (in particular Scrum) emerges continuously in a process where method fragments are articulated and re-articulated to momentarily suit the local setting. Complete agility that rapidly and elegantly changes its own...

  15. Interpreting Marginal Effects in the Multinomial Logit Model

    Wulff, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    with a substantial increase in the probability of entering a foreign market using a joint venture, while increases in the unpredictability in the host country environment are associated with a lower probability of wholly owned subsidiaries and a higher probability of exporting entries....... that have entered foreign markets. Through the application of a multinomial logit model, careful analysis of the marginal effects is performed through graphical representations, marginal effects at the mean, average marginal effects and elasticities. I show that increasing cultural distance is associated......This paper presents the challenges when researchers interpret results about relationships between variables from discrete choice models with multiple outcomes. The recommended approach is demonstrated by testing predictions from transaction cost theory on a sample of 246 Scandinavian firms...

  16. Improved statistical confirmation of margins for setpoints and transients

    Nutt, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    Framatome ANP Richland, Inc. has developed an integrated, automated, statistical methodology for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Margins for transients and calculated trips are confirmed using several new applications of probability theory. The methods used for combining statistics reduces the conservatisms inherent in conventional methods and avoids the numerical limitations and time constraints imposed by Monte Carlo techniques. The new methodology represents the state of the art in the treatment of uncertainties for reactor protection systems. It all but eliminates concerns with the calculated trips for PWRs and by improving the margin for all transients will allow for far more aggressive peaking limits and fuel management schemes. The automated nature of the bulk of this process saves Framatome ANP time and effort, minimizes the potential for errors and makes the analysis for all cycles and plants consistent. The enhanced margins remove analytical limitations from the customer and allow for more economical operation of the plant. (authors)

  17. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

  18. On the marginally relevant operator in z=2 Lifshitz holography

    Holsheimer, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    We study holographic renormalization and RG flow in a strongly-coupled Lifshitz-type theory in 2+1 dimensions with dynamical exponent z=2. The bottom-up gravity dual we use is 3+1 dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a massive vector field. This model contains a marginally relevant operator around the Lifshitz fixed point. We show how holographic renormalization works in the presence of this marginally relevant operator without the need to introduce explicitly cutoff-dependent counterterms. A simple closed-form expression is found for the renormalized on-shell action. We also discuss how asymptotically Lifshitz geometries flow to AdS in the interior due to the marginally relevant operator. We study the behavior of the renormalized entanglement entropy and confirm that it decreases monotonically along the Lifshitz-to-AdS RG flow

  19. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  20. Word Translation Entropy

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  1. George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.

    Lyons, J B

    1997-04-01

    Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.

  2. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  3. Made in translation

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  4. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  5. New evidence on the asymmetry in gasoline price: volatility versus margin?

    Abosedra, S.; Radchenko, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent evidence on the role that gasoline margins and volatility play in the asymmetric response of gasoline prices to changes in oil prices at different stages of distribution process. In a regression model with margins, we find that margins are statistically significant in explaining asymmetry between crude oil and spot gasoline prices, spot gasoline prices and wholesale gasoline prices, and wholesale gasoline prices and retail prices. In a regression model with input volatility, we find evidence that volatility is responsible for asymmetry between wholesale gasoline prices and retail gasoline prices. When both, gasoline margins and gasoline volatility are included in the regression, we find evidence supporting margins, the search theory, volatility, the oligopolistic coordination theory and an explanation of asymmetry. (author)

  6. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  7. Margins related to equipment design

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  8. Indigenous women's voices: marginalization and health.

    Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne

    2005-10-01

    Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.

  9. Translation Methods Used In Writing Indonesian Subtitles Of “Kung Fu Panda Holiday”

    NURMALLAH, HERDIANTI

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, western movies that are spoken in English make the need for Indonesian subtitles increase. To make subtitles in different language, translation has an important role. The translator must use appropriate methods to produce good translation. This study aims to find out the kinds of translation methods used in writing Indonesian subtitles of the movie “Kung Fu Panda Holiday” by using Newmark's theory (1988). This study uses descriptive qualitative approach with document analysis. T...

  10. On Deletion of Sutra Translation

    CHEN Shu-juan

    2017-01-01

    Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.

  11. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  12. Marginalism, quasi-marginalism and critical phenomena in micellar solutions

    Reatto, L.

    1986-01-01

    The observed nonuniversal critical behaviour of some micellar solutions is interpreted in terms of quasi-marginalism, i.e. the presence of a coupling which scales with an exponent very close to the spatial dimensionality. This can give rise to a preasymptotic region with varying effective critical exponents with a final crossover to the Ising ones. The reduced crossover temperature is estimated to be below 10 -6 . The exponents β and γ measured in C 12 e 5 are in good agreement with the scaling law expected to hold for the effective exponents. The model considered by Shnidman is found unable to explain the nonuniversal critical behaviour

  13. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING MARGIN LEVELS ON FUTURES OPTIONS PRICE

    Yanling GU; Juan LI

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the effects of changing margin levels on the price of futures options and how to organize a market maker's position. Black model (1976) becomes a special case of this paper.The paper prices futures options by duplicating them and adopting the theory of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs for short). Furthermore, the price of a futures option is the unique solution to a nonlinear BSDE.

  15. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  16. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  17. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  18. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  19. Translation of Financial Statements

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  20. CADAT network translator

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  1. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  2. Reliabilityy and operating margins of LWR fuels

    Strasser, A.A.; Lindquist, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    The margins to fuel thermal operating limits under normal and accident conditions are key to plant operating flexibility and impact on availability and capacity factor. Fuel performance problems that do not result in clad breach, can reduce these margins. However, most have or can be solved with design changes. Regulatory changes have been major factors in eroding these margins. Various methods for regaining the margins are discussed

  3. Translating organizational change

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...

  4. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  5. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values

    Gaussens, J.; Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J.

    1965-01-01

    Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust the level of the losses to attain this equation of marginal costs, as these are easier to obtain from the firm than a justification of the actual prices. One notices moreover that, although mainly concerned with losses, this global analysis can bring both the state and the firm to a better use of other production factors. An account is given of the theory of this economic optimization method and practical applications in the field of natural uranium-graphite moderated and CO 2 cooled reactor fuel element fabrication are offered. (authors) [fr

  6. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  7. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY... securities. The required margin on a net long or net short commitment in a when-issued security is the margin...) Interest charged on credit maintained in the margin account; (ii) Premiums on securities borrowed in...

  8. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  9. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  10. Knowledge translation in health care as a multimodal interactional accomplishment

    Kjær, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of their education where they are in clinical practice. The analysis is made possible through video recordings of how student nurses translate their theoretical knowledge into a professional situational conduct in everyday interactional accomplishments among supervisors and patients. The analysis shows how some......In the theory of health care, knowledge translation is regarded as a crucial phenomenon that makes the whole health care system work in a desired manner. The present paper studies knowledge translation from the student nurses’ perspective and does that through a close analysis of the part...... knowledge gets translated through the use of rich multimodal embodied interactions, whereas the more abstract aspects of knowledge remain untranslated. Overall, the study contributes to the understanding of knowledge translation as a multimodal, locally situated accomplishment....

  11. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  12. Quantification of margins and uncertainties: Alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty

    Helton, Jon C.; Johnson, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy in conjunction with the national security laboratories (i.e., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) initiated development of a process designated Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) for the use of risk assessment methodologies in the certification of the reliability and safety of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. A previous presentation, 'Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties: Conceptual and Computational Basis,' describes the basic ideas that underlie QMU and illustrates these ideas with two notional examples that employ probability for the representation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. The current presentation introduces and illustrates the use of interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory as alternatives to the use of probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in QMU-type analyses. The following topics are considered: the mathematical structure of alternative representations of uncertainty, alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving only epistemic uncertainty, and alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving a separation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Analyses involving interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory are illustrated with the same two notional examples used in the presentation indicated above to illustrate the use of probability to represent aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses.

  13. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  14. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  15. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  16. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  17. International Meeting on Languages, Applied Linguistics and Translation

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages, applied linguistics and translation. The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t...

  18. The marginal cost of public funds: theory and applications

    Dahlby, Bev

    2008-01-01

    ... with Externalities 3.4.1 Environmental Externalities 3.4.2 Public Expenditure Externalities 3.5 The MCF with Imperfect Competition in Commodity Markets 3.5.1 The MCF under Monopoly 51 54 55 58 63 63 ...

  19. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  20. Dopamine reward prediction error responses reflect marginal utility.

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Schultz, Wolfram

    2014-11-03

    Optimal choices require an accurate neuronal representation of economic value. In economics, utility functions are mathematical representations of subjective value that can be constructed from choices under risk. Utility usually exhibits a nonlinear relationship to physical reward value that corresponds to risk attitudes and reflects the increasing or decreasing marginal utility obtained with each additional unit of reward. Accordingly, neuronal reward responses coding utility should robustly reflect this nonlinearity. In two monkeys, we measured utility as a function of physical reward value from meaningful choices under risk (that adhered to first- and second-order stochastic dominance). The resulting nonlinear utility functions predicted the certainty equivalents for new gambles, indicating that the functions' shapes were meaningful. The monkeys were risk seeking (convex utility function) for low reward and risk avoiding (concave utility function) with higher amounts. Critically, the dopamine prediction error responses at the time of reward itself reflected the nonlinear utility functions measured at the time of choices. In particular, the reward response magnitude depended on the first derivative of the utility function and thus reflected the marginal utility. Furthermore, dopamine responses recorded outside of the task reflected the marginal utility of unpredicted reward. Accordingly, these responses were sufficient to train reinforcement learning models to predict the behaviorally defined expected utility of gambles. These data suggest a neuronal manifestation of marginal utility in dopamine neurons and indicate a common neuronal basis for fundamental explanatory constructs in animal learning theory (prediction error) and economic decision theory (marginal utility). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Some reflections on Romanian translation studies

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I decided to examine two “verdicts” on the specificity (or the lack of specificity of Romanian translation studies in order to define and explain the present situation in this field: one given in the Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, the other in a book on “Romanian translation ideas and meta-ideas”. I believe that the current situation justifies the following hypothesis: the current specific of translation theories in the Romanian space is entailed by the existence of two circuits. The first is academic and international, aiming at including the Romanian research in European directions, by assimilating them more or less. The second is a national circuit—where the positions expressed within the first circuit penetrate indirectly, through “central” languages—and it manifests itself as selective and elective affinities between the two; their interaction is sporadic and it occurs mainly through other languages, not through an interiorization process related to the language of the Romanian source space.

  2. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  3. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  4. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  5. Computer-aided translation tools

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  6. Safety margins in deterministic safety analysis

    Viktorov, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has acquired certain prominence in the attempts to demonstrate quantitatively the level of the nuclear power plant safety by means of deterministic analysis, especially when considering impacts from plant ageing and discovery issues. A number of international or industry publications exist that discuss various applications and interpretations of safety margins. The objective of this presentation is to bring together and examine in some detail, from the regulatory point of view, the safety margins that relate to deterministic safety analysis. In this paper, definitions of various safety margins are presented and discussed along with the regulatory expectations for them. Interrelationships of analysis input and output parameters with corresponding limits are explored. It is shown that the overall safety margin is composed of several components each having different origins and potential uses; in particular, margins associated with analysis output parameters are contrasted with margins linked to the analysis input. While these are separate, it is possible to influence output margins through the analysis input, and analysis method. Preserving safety margins is tantamount to maintaining safety. At the same time, efficiency of operation requires optimization of safety margins taking into account various technical and regulatory considerations. For this, basic definitions and rules for safety margins must be first established. (author)

  7. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  8. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  9. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  10. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  11. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  12. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Éric Poirier

    2016-04-01

    complex terms. These works will encourage the matching of translation study theories and corpus translation studies with professional practices. It will also encourage the matching of translation studies and corpus translation studies with source and target language usages and with textual correlations between source language real usages and target language translation real practices.

  13. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    matching of translation study theories and corpus translation studies with professional practices. It will also encourage the matching of translation studies and corpus translation studies with source and target language usages and with textual correlations between source language real usages and target language translation real practices.

  14. Techniques Of Translating English Figurative Expressions In ‘Colours’ Magazine By Garuda Indonesia Into Indonesian

    Ni Luh Putu Unix Sumartini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to find out the Techniques of Translating English Figurative Expression in ‘Colours’ Magazine by Garuda Indonesia into Indonesian. There are three problems are discussed in this study, namely (1 types of figurative expressions found in the English version of ‘Colours’ magazine and their translation’s equivalence into Indonesian and (2 kinds of translation techniques applied in translating the English figurative expression into Indonesian, This research belongs to qualitative research and the data used in this study were taken from the ‘Colours’ magazine by Garuda Indonesia. The main theory which is applied in this study is taken from the theory of Molina & Albir (2002 in their book entitled Translation Techniques Revisited; A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach. Another theory applied is taken from the theory of McArthur (1992 in his book entitled The Oxford Companion on The English Language. Other supporting theories which are used to support this study are the theory of Larson (1998 in her book entitled Meaning-Based Translation and some other books considered relevant to the topic. The result showed that there are eleven kinds of English figurative expressions found in the data. They are antithesis, euphemism, hyperbole, idioms, irony, metaphor, metonimy, personification, pleonasm, simile and synecdoche. In translating techniques, the translator applied ten translating techniques, they are; adaptation, borrowing, compensation, description, established equivalent, linguistic comprehension, literal technique, modulation, reduction and transposition. In translating a figurative expression from SL into TL, some of the results showed that an English figurative expression is translated into Indonesian figurative translation but some of them can not maintain its figurativeness in Indonesian, therefore the English figurative expression is translated into Indonesian non-figuratively.

  15. Magnetic translator bearings

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  16. The complete works of Gabrio Piola commented English translation

    Maier, Giulio; Perego, Umberto; Andreaus, Ugo; Esposito, Raffaele; Forest, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Gabrio Piola works had an enormous impact on the development of applied mathematics and continuum mechanics. An excellent scientific committee who took it upon themselves to translate his complete works. In a second step, they commented  Piola’s work and compared it to modern theories in mechanics in order to stress Piola’s impact on modern science and proofs that he has set milestones in applied mathematics. This book presents Piola's original Italian texts together with is translations and their comments. It shows impressively that Gabrio Piola’s work must still be regarded as a modern theory.

  17. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  18. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  19. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  20. Reflections on the role and design of online dictionaries for specialised translation

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article is an updated and modified version of a Spanish article published in MonTi 6 (cf. Tarp 2014a). It deals with specialised translation dictionaries. Based on the principles of the function theory, it analyses the different phases and sub-phases of the translation process from a lexicog......This article is an updated and modified version of a Spanish article published in MonTi 6 (cf. Tarp 2014a). It deals with specialised translation dictionaries. Based on the principles of the function theory, it analyses the different phases and sub-phases of the translation process from...

  1. Encoding of marginal utility across time in the human brain.

    Pine, Alex; Seymour, Ben; Roiser, Jonathan P; Bossaerts, Peter; Friston, Karl J; Curran, H Valerie; Dolan, Raymond J

    2009-07-29

    Marginal utility theory prescribes the relationship between the objective property of the magnitude of rewards and their subjective value. Despite its pervasive influence, however, there is remarkably little direct empirical evidence for such a theory of value, let alone of its neurobiological basis. We show that human preferences in an intertemporal choice task are best described by a model that integrates marginally diminishing utility with temporal discounting. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that activity in the dorsal striatum encodes both the marginal utility of rewards, over and above that which can be described by their magnitude alone, and the discounting associated with increasing time. In addition, our data show that dorsal striatum may be involved in integrating subjective valuation systems inherent to time and magnitude, thereby providing an overall metric of value used to guide choice behavior. Furthermore, during choice, we show that anterior cingulate activity correlates with the degree of difficulty associated with dissonance between value and time. Our data support an integrative architecture for decision making, revealing the neural representation of distinct subcomponents of value that may contribute to impulsivity and decisiveness.

  2. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  4. Marginal Matters: Exploring the Advancement of LGBTQ-Friendly Changes at a Catholic College in the United States

    Jacobson, Seth A.

    2017-01-01

    Extant scholarship and theory tends to overlook and mis-theorize the role that marginal actors play in organizational change and development. Therefore, this study employed and centered a multidimensional concept of marginality in an in-depth exploration of a specific organizational change and development context: a Roman Catholic College…

  5. Marginal cost application in the power industry

    Twardy, L.; Rusak, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two kind of marginal costs, the short-run and the long-run, are defined. The former are applied in conditions when the load increase is not accompanied neither by the increase of the transmission capacity not the installed capacity while the latter assume new investments to expand the power system. The long-run marginal costs be used to forecast optimized development of the system. They contain two main components: the marginal costs of capacity and the marginal costs of energy. When the long-run marginal costs are calculated, each component is considered for particular voltage levels, seasons of the year, hours of the day - selected depending on the system reliability factor as well as on its load level. In the market economy countries the long-run marginal costs can be used for setting up the electric energy tariffs. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  6. Found in translation

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    activities and uses, and people’s ideas and desires for future development can be a pertinent starting point. Furthermore, a clearly defined programming phase where design problems are formulated by different representational media and collectively assessed by students and teachers proved helpful...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  7. Repetition, originality and translation

    Kelvin Falcão Klein

    2016-01-01

    in his book Benjamin’s -abilities. he central hypothesis of the article is that the passage of “origin” to “originality”, as well as from “translation” to “translatability”, reveals a conceptual potential that is constitutive of the status of literary theory in recent years.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  9. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  10. Benefit–cost analysis of non-marginal climate and energy projects

    Dietz, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Conventional benefit–cost analysis incorporates the normally reasonable assumption that the policy or project under examination is marginal. Among the assumptions this entails is that the policy or project is small, so the underlying growth rate of the economy does not change. However, this assumption may be inappropriate in some important circumstances, including in climate-change and energy policy. One example is global targets for carbon emissions, while another is a large renewable energy project in a small economy, such as a hydropower dam. This paper develops some theory on the evaluation of non-marginal projects, with empirical applications to climate change and energy. We examine the conditions under which evaluation of a non-marginal project using marginal methods may be wrong, and in our empirical examples we show that both qualitative and large quantitative errors are plausible. - Highlights: • This paper develops the theory of the evaluation of non-marginal projects. • It also includes empirical applications to climate change and energy. • We show when evaluation of a non-marginal project using marginal methods is wrong

  11. Complex force network in marginally and deeply jammed solids

    Hu Mao-Bin; Jiang Rui; Wu Qing-Song

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the force network properties of marginally and deeply jammed packings of frictionless soft particles from the perspective of complex network theory. We generate zero-temperature granular packings at different pressures by minimizing the inter-particle potential energy. The force networks are constructed as nodes representing particles and links representing normal forces between the particles. Deeply jammed solids show remarkably different behavior from marginally jammed solids in their degree distribution, strength distribution, degree correlation, and clustering coefficient. Bimodal and multi-modal distributions emerge when the system enters the deep jamming region. The results also show that small and large particles can show different correlation behavior in this simple system

  12. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    High-resolution Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) surveys offshore of La Jolla in southern California and the Eel River in northern California provide the opportunity to investigate the role of tectonics in the formation of stratigraphic architecture and margin morphology. Both study sites are characterized by shore-parallel tectonic deformation, which is largely observed in the structure of the prominent angular unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify three sedimentary sequences offshore of La Jolla: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. The estuarine unit is confined to the canyon edges in what may have been embayments during the last sea-level rise. The healing-phase unit appears to infill rough areas on the transgressive surface that may be related to relict fault structures. The upper transparent unit is largely controlled by long-wavelength tectonic deformation due to the Rose Canyon Fault. This unit is also characterized by a mid-shelf (˜40 m water depth) thickness high, which is likely a result of hydrodynamic forces and sediment grain size. On the Eel margin, we observe three distinct facies: a seaward-thinning unit truncated by the transgressive surface, a healing-phase unit confined to the edges of a broad structural high, and a highly laminated upper unit. The seaward-thinning wedge of sediment below the transgressive surface is marked by a number of channels that we interpret as distributary channels based on their morphology. Regional divergence of the sequence boundary and transgressive surface with up to ˜8 m of sediment preserved across the interfluves suggests the formation of subaerial accommodation during the lowstand. The healing-phase, much like that in southern California, appears to infill rough areas in the

  13. Aspects of marginal expenditures in energy sector

    Stojchev, D.; Kynev, K.

    1994-01-01

    Technical and economical problems of marginal analysis methodology, its application procedure in energy sector and marginal expenditures determination are outlined. A comparative characteristics of the application is made for different periods of time. The differences in calculation of the marginal expenditures and prices are discussed. The operational costs, investments and inflation are analyzed. The mechanism of application of this approach in different planing horizon is outlined. The role of the change in the costs in time, the time unit, volume, the scope of application, etc. are determined. The areas of transition from one to other form of marginal expenditures are shown. 4 refs. (orig.)

  14. The marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are on important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per ton of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9--23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO 2 and those of CH 4 and N 2 O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. The expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%

  15. On the evaluation of marginal expected shortfall

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of systemic risk, Marginal Expected Shortfall may be considered to evaluate the marginal impact of a single stock on the market Expected Shortfall. These quantities are generally computed using log-returns, in particular when there is also a focus on returns conditional distribution....... In this case, the market log-return is only approximately equal to the weighed sum of equities log-returns. We show that the approximation error is large during turbulent market phases, with a subsequent impact on Marginal Expected Shortfall. We then suggest how to improve the evaluation of Marginal Expected...

  16. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  18. [Resection margins in conservative breast cancer surgery].

    Medina Fernández, Francisco Javier; Ayllón Terán, María Dolores; Lombardo Galera, María Sagrario; Rioja Torres, Pilar; Bascuñana Estudillo, Guillermo; Rufián Peña, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Conservative breast cancer surgery is facing a new problem: the potential tumour involvement of resection margins. This eventuality has been closely and negatively associated with disease-free survival. Various factors may influence the likelihood of margins being affected, mostly related to the characteristics of the tumour, patient or surgical technique. In the last decade, many studies have attempted to find predictive factors for margin involvement. However, it is currently the new techniques used in the study of margins and tumour localisation that are significantly reducing reoperations in conservative breast cancer surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategy Of Translating Gadget Brochure

    Deny Kusuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title of this writing is strategy of translating gadget brochure. There were two problems discussed in this thesis, namely (1 terms found in the gadget manual book and its equivalence in Indonesia, (2 strategies applied in translating gadget brochure. Based on the analysis result, it was found that the terms and its equivalent words found in the gadget brochure were classified based on: 1 simple words or compound words and terminology forming phrase. 2 words category found are: noun and verb. The recommended pattern to determine the equivalent word was pure borrowing strategy, not adaptation borrowing strategy. The adaptation borrowing in this context was related to the spellings, the pronunciation or sound adaptation in the TL rather than adaptation for the cultural substitutes that conceptually mismatches with the standardized terminology in the SL. In addition, the result of the analysis that there were seven strategies found in gadget brochure, they were translation by more general word (Superordinate, translation by a more neutral/expressive word, translation by cultural substitution, translation by using loan word or loan word plus explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  20. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  1. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  2. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  3. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  4. The wise translator: reflecting on judgement in translator education ...

    The question of how one goes about teaching students to be translators is a central area of concern for translation teachers. As a reflective practitioner, I have a hunch about how to solve my problem. This paper is therefore in itself part of a reflective practicum, part of my reflection-in-action. I am in the process of restructuring ...

  5. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  6. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  7. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...

  8. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  9. Comparison of ITER performance predicted by semi-empirical and theory-based transport models

    Mukhovatov, V.; Shimomura, Y.; Polevoi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The values of Q=(fusion power)/(auxiliary heating power) predicted for ITER by three different methods, i.e., transport model based on empirical confinement scaling, dimensionless scaling technique, and theory-based transport models are compared. The energy confinement time given by the ITERH-98(y,2) scaling for an inductive scenario with plasma current of 15 MA and plasma density 15% below the Greenwald value is 3.6 s with one technical standard deviation of ±14%. These data are translated into a Q interval of [7-13] at the auxiliary heating power P aux = 40 MW and [7-28] at the minimum heating power satisfying a good confinement ELMy H-mode. Predictions of dimensionless scalings and theory-based transport models such as Weiland, MMM and IFS/PPPL overlap with the empirical scaling predictions within the margins of uncertainty. (author)

  10. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  11. Developmental Status of Translational Medicine on Cerebral Stroke

    Yun-chuan WU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine, as a new research theory and disciplinary branch, aims at the translation from bench to bedside. It can shorten the gap between basic scientific research and clinical treatment, and promote the highly efficient application of basic research results in clinical practice through bidirectional connection and feedback process between them. Cerebral stroke, as a common cerebrovascular circulatory disorder in clinic, is characterized by high morbidity, high disability rate and high mortality. After disease onset, patients are frequently complicated with severe functional disorders and sequelae, such as aphasia, paralysis, and partial or complete loss of self-care capacity, thus bringing about great burdens to the patients’ families and to the society. In China, there are more than 2 000 000 new cases with cerebral stroke annually, > 50% of whom are complicated with different-degree neurological functional decrease or deletion, and more than 1 000 000 die of cerebral stroke annually. Therefore, cerebral stroke is also an important concern in translational medicine study. In recent years, International Stroke Conference has emphasized the necessity of translational medicine research, and the bidirectional translation of bench to bedside (B2B is of great significance in guiding the development of depth and width of translational medicine on stroke. This study mainly reviewed the advances of translational medicine at home and abroad and its significance in guiding the clinical treatment of cerebral stroke.

  12. The Simpsons: Translation and language teaching in an EFL class

    Elisabetta Pavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available My point of departure for this paper is that translation, so long neglected in foreign language teaching, can not only improve students’ linguistic competences in both a foreign language and their mother tongue, but also their awareness of cultural and intercultural elements. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in language teaching, that linguistic competences are the key to learning a language and to communicating in a foreign language; consequently, they assume that translation ought to play a major role in the study of a foreign language. Indeed, late 20th century theories of language teaching, apart from the grammar-translation method, have largely ignored or criticized the role of translation. I will focus on a translation course I taught to a class of a year three Italian undergraduate students studying foreign languages, and discuss the advantages of using translation to improve students’ linguistic competences, in their mother tongue and in the foreign language, and to develop their intercultural communicative competences and their cultural (Bassnett, 2002, 2007 and intercultural awareness (Kramsch, 1993, 1998. The translated text was taken from The Simpsons, season 21, episode 16.

  13. Health Narratives in the Greek Translated Press

    Themis Panagiotis Kaniklidou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks see how meaning is constructed in translated news texts about health and science and awards a narrative potential to unforced translation shifts, moving along the theoretical lines of Baker's Narrative Theory (2006. The thematic thread of health zooms in on “emotional frames” (Nabi, 2003 of risk and fear of human health that is narrated as being 'under attack’ by potentially dangerous diseases. Themes also orbit around schemas that promote hope and optimism about science represented as coming to the rescue of man from fear of the disease. The data consists of 21 pairs of English-Greek health news articles culled from the Greek newspapers I Kathimerini, To Vima and Ta Nea. Findings point towards translation as a process that employs lexicogrammatical and intrasentential configurations to a give emphasis to the risk or hope dimensions underlying a heath or science story, b enable the reflection or emergence of a cascade of public, conceptual and master narratives.

  14. Categorical marginal models: quite extensive package for the estimation of marginal models for categorical data

    Wicher Bergsma; Andries van der Ark

    2015-01-01

    A package accompanying the book Marginal Models for Dependent, Clustered, and Longitudinal Categorical Data by Bergsma, Croon, & Hagenaars, 2009. It’s purpose is fitting and testing of marginal models.

  15. Knowledge translation is the use of knowledge in health care decision making.

    Straus, Sharon E; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Graham, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview of the science and practice of knowledge translation. Narrative review outlining what knowledge translation is and a framework for its use. Knowledge translation is defined as the use of knowledge in practice and decision making by the public, patients, health care professionals, managers, and policy makers. Failures to use research evidence to inform decision making are apparent across all these key decision maker groups. There are several proposed theories and frameworks for achieving knowledge translation. A conceptual framework developed by Graham et al., termed the knowledge-to-action cycle, provides an approach that builds on the commonalities found in an assessment of planned action theories. Review of the evidence base for the science and practice of knowledge translation has identified several gaps including the need to develop valid strategies for assessing the determinants of knowledge use and for evaluating sustainability of knowledge translation interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  17. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  18. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  19. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  20. Values and marginal preferences in international business

    Maseland, Robbert; van Hoorn, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Maseland and van Hoorn argued that values surveys tend to conflate values and marginal preferences. This assertion has been challenged by Brewer and Venaik, who claim that the wording of most survey items does not suggest that these elicit marginal preferences.

  1. Steep microbial boundstone-dominated plaform margins

    Kenter, J.A.M.; Harris, P.M.; Della Porta, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Seaward progradation of several kilometers has been documented mostly for leeward margin low-angle carbonate slope systems with a dominant platform top sediment source. However, steep and high-relief margins fronting deep basins can also prograde and as such are somewhat perplexing. Characteristics

  2. Views of orality and the translation of the Bible.

    de Vries, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of constructions of orality that played an important role in the theory and practice of modern Bible translation. Three distinct perspectives can be distinguished. First we have the constructions of orality as articulated by Buber and Rosenzweig in the Interbellum

  3. towards the design for a new bible translation in sesotho

    the theory and practice of Bible translation at this stage are Eugene A. Nida and his colleagues of the ..... I've seen a black bear.” These qualities contribute to .... met a few boys sitting on the rock that had a small hole in it. They were milking the ...

  4. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  5. Addressing the Problem of Translatability when Translating the Russian Fiction Text into English (“Vanka” by A. Chekov

    Надежда Алексеевна Дудик

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental problem involved in the theory and practice of translation from one language into another consists in achieving adequacy between the source language (SL and the target language (TL. Adequacy can be reached by means of employing the communication strategy, i.e. by discussing the dialogue nature of the text in particular; by analyzing realia in translation in terms of the text as a whole, rather than as isolated units in the system of language; and by looking at how the semantic category of intensity influences the translatability of the Russian fiction text into English. The research has shown that the aspects examined are typical of Russian-English translation in general rather than of a single text.

  6. Revising and editing for translators

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  7. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  8. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  10. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  11. MARGINS: Toward a novel science plan

    Mutter, John C.

    A science plan to study continental margins has been in the works for the past 3 years, with almost 200 Earth scientists from a wide variety of disciplines gathering at meetings and workshops. Most geological hazards and resources are found at continental margins, yet our understanding of the processes that shape the margins is meager.In formulating this MARGINS research initiative, fundamental issues concerning our understanding of basic Earth-forming processes have arisen. It is clear that a business-as-usual approach will not solve the class of problems defined by the MARGINS program; the solutions demand approaches different from those used in the past. In many cases, a different class of experiment will be required, one that is well beyond the capability of individual principle investigators to undertake on their own. In most cases, broadly based interdisciplinary studies will be needed.

  12. Marginal deformations of heterotic G 2 sigma models

    Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Quigley, Callum; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the infinitesimal moduli space of heterotic G 2 compactifications was described in supergravity and related to the cohomology of a target space differential. In this paper we identify the marginal deformations of the corresponding heterotic nonlinear sigma model with cohomology classes of a worldsheet BRST operator. This BRST operator is nilpotent if and only if the target space geometry satisfies the heterotic supersymmetry conditions. We relate this to the supergravity approach by showing that the corresponding cohomologies are indeed isomorphic. We work at tree-level in α' perturbation theory and study general geometries, in particular with non-vanishing torsion.

  13. Information Foraging Theory: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis

    2014-11-01

    oceanographic information, human intelligence (HUMINT), open-source intelligence ( OSINT ), and information provided by other governmental departments [1][5...Human Intelligence IFT Information Foraging Theory LSA Latent Semantic Similarity MVT Marginal Value Theorem OFT Optimal Foraging Theory OSINT

  14. TRANSLATING BLACKNESS: A CHALLENGE TO TRANSLATION STUDIES IN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Maria Aparecida Andrade Salgueiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents aspects of a work in progress about both African-American and Afro-Brazilian Literatures as well as Translation Studies. As it makes observations about how blackness has been translated in different contexts and geographical spaces, it calls the reader’s attention to power relations, processes of colonial and post-colonial identity construction, the rising of literary canons, cultural hegemony and globalization, demystifying spaces and showing translation as an activity that does not take place in a neutral space, but, for sure, inside social and political concrete situations.

  15. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  16. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  17. An IGRT margin concept for pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    Groher, M.; Kopp, P.; Deutschmann, H.; Sedlmayer, F.; Wolf, Frank; Drerup, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gold-marker-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the prostate allows to correct for inter- and intrafraction motion and therefore to safely reduce margins for the prostate planning target volume (PTV). However, pelvic PTVs, when coadministered in a single plan (registered to gold markers [GM]), require reassessment of the margin concept since prostate movement is independent from the pelvic bony anatomy to which the lymphatics are usually referenced to. We have therefore revisited prostate translational movement relative to the bony anatomy to obtain adequate margins for the pelvic PTVs compensating mismatch resulting from referencing pelvic target volumes to GMs in the prostate. Prostate movement was analyzed in a set of 28 patients (25 fractions each, totaling in 684 fractions) and the required margins calculated for the pelvic PTVs according to Van Herk's margin formula M = 2.5 Σ + 1.64 (σ ' -σ p ). The overall mean prostate movement relative to bony anatomy was 0.9 ± 3.1, 0.6 ± 3.4, and 0.0 ± 0.7 mm in anterior/posterior (A/P), inferior/superior (I/S) and left/right (L/R) direction, respectively. Calculated margins to compensate for the resulting mismatch to bony anatomy were 9/9/2 mm in A/P, I/S, and L/R direction and 10/11/6 mm if an additional residual error of 2 mm was assumed. GM-based IGRT for pelvic PTVs is feasible if margins are adapted accordingly. Margins could be reduced further if systematic errors which are introduced during the planning CT were eliminated. (orig.) [de

  18. Quantum electronics basic theory

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  19. Investigating Connectivity and Consistency Criteria for Phrase Pair Extraction in Statistical Machine Translation

    Martzoukos, S.; Costa Florêncio, C.; Monz, C.; Kornai, A.; Kuhlmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The consistency method has been established as the standard strategy for extracting high quality translation rules in statistical machine translation (SMT). However, no attention has been drawn to why this method is successful, other than empirical evidence. Using concepts from graph theory, we

  20. A Protocol of Japanese-English Translation

    三浦, 勲夫; MIURA, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Every year I translate Japanes enewspaper articles into English and publish them in book form containing 12 or more translations. In translating there are regular procedures I go through:1)initial translation done by me and 2) corrected translation done through discussion between a native English speaker and me.

  1. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  2. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  3. Effect of Margin Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings.

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Al Ajmi, Mohammed Ginan; Al Dhafyan, Mohammed; Jomah, Abdulrehman; Abualsaud, Haytham; Almashali, Mazen

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Shoulder versus Chamfer margin design on the marginal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings. 40 extracted molar teeth were mounted in resin and prepared for zirconia crowns with two margin preparation designs (20=Shoulder and 20=Chamfer). The copings were manufactured by Cercon® (DeguDent GmbH, Germany) using the CAD/CAM system for each tooth. They were tried on each tooth, cemented, thermocycled, re-embedded in resin and were subsequently cross sectioned centrally into two equal mesial and distal halves. They were examined under electron microscope at 200 X magnification and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points in micrometers (µm). The o verall mean marginal gap for the two groups was found to be 206.98+42.78µm with Shoulder margin design (Marginal Gap=199.50+40.72µm) having better adaptation compared to Chamfer (Marginal Gap=214.46+44.85µm). The independent-samples t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference (p=.113) between the means of marginal gap for Shoulder and Chamfer margin designs and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points for the two groups. The Chamfer margin design appeared to offer the same adaptation results as the Shoulder margin design.

  4. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator.

    Foxx, R M

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  7. Translation and spaces of reading

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  8. Eye-movements During Translation

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....

  9. Einstein's theory recovered

    Sebestyen, A.

    1980-11-01

    It is shown that a consequent treatment of local Lorentz invariance and of the group of translations as a gauge symmetry group necessarily leads to theories in which torsion has no place. It is also shown that the requirement of symmetry under Lorentz gauge tranformations leads to the emergence of the conventional √-gR additive term, responsible for the effects of gravitation, in the Lagrangian. It is thus proved that Einstein's general relativity is a unique consequence of the requirements of invariance under translations and Lorentz transformations. (author)

  10. Translation and Creative Writing: An Interview with Professor Margaret Rogers

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This interview was conducted with Emerita Professor Margaret Rogers with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the relationship between translation and creative writing. Emerita Professor Rogers is in the Centre for Translation Studies, School of English and Languages, University of Surrey, UK. She is also the founder of Terminology Network at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting in the UK. Professor Rogers introduced creative writing into the translation curriculum some 10 years ago at her own university.   The Interview   RB[1]: Do you believe in a theory of translation? MR[2]: There are many ways of trying to understand and, where we can, explain translation in all its guises, loci and times. To talk about ‘a theory’ in this context doesn’t help much. There are many different approaches to the academic study of translation: rather simply put, the particular approach which we choose to adopt may depend on our object of study (e.g. literary translation or specialised translation, what we want to find out about this (e.g. are we interested in product or process, in a historical or contemporary perspective, what resources we have available (e.g. a fully funded research team or a solo effort and so on. Many projects are interdisciplinary—this has long been recognised—and translation scholars are becoming much more resourceful in identifying, adopting and adapting relevant approaches from intersecting disciplines such as comparative literature, cultural studies, history, linguistics, philosophy, psychology and sociology. Some scholars are now advocating a problem-based approach. In any research project it is important to establish how the problem/phenomenon/issue which has been identified as the focus of the study can be tackled. For this, in an empirical study a method is crucial: in translation studies this is rarely something that can be picked off the shelf and is often a contribution to the

  11. Approaches to translational plant science

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  12. Translating English Idioms and Collocations

    Rochayah Machali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of English should be made aware of the nature, types, and use of English idioms. This paper disensses the nature of idioms and collocations and translation issues related to them

  13. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    The Coordinator, Translation Services coordinates the overall operations of the ... services in IDRC by acting as the main resource person for internal clients ... all operational issues in order to ensure good quality products delivered on time.

  14. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for citizen engagement in areas traditionally belonging exclusively to experts, such as health, law and technology has given rise to the necessity of making expert knowledge available to the general public through genres such as instruction manuals for consumer goods, patien...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....

  15. The Society for Translational Medicine

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  16. Style and ideology in translation

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  17. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  18. Marginal deformations of 3d supersymmetric U(N) model and broken higher spin symmetry

    Hikida, Yasuaki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wada, Taiki [Department of Physical Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University,Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2017-03-08

    We examine the marginal deformations of double-trace type in 3d supersymmetric U(N) model with N complex free bosons and fermions. We compute the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents to the 1/N order but to all orders in the deformation parameters by mainly applying the conformal perturbation theory. The 3d field theory is supposed to be dual to 4d supersymmetric Vasiliev theory, and the marginal deformations are argued to correspond to modifying boundary conditions for bulk scalars and fermions. Thus the modification should break higher spin gauge symmetry and generate the masses of higher spin fields. We provide supports for the dual interpretation by relating bulk computation in terms of Witten diagrams to boundary one in conformal perturbation theory.

  19. Marginal deformations of 3d supersymmetric U(N) model and broken higher spin symmetry

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Wada, Taiki

    2017-01-01

    We examine the marginal deformations of double-trace type in 3d supersymmetric U(N) model with N complex free bosons and fermions. We compute the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents to the 1/N order but to all orders in the deformation parameters by mainly applying the conformal perturbation theory. The 3d field theory is supposed to be dual to 4d supersymmetric Vasiliev theory, and the marginal deformations are argued to correspond to modifying boundary conditions for bulk scalars and fermions. Thus the modification should break higher spin gauge symmetry and generate the masses of higher spin fields. We provide supports for the dual interpretation by relating bulk computation in terms of Witten diagrams to boundary one in conformal perturbation theory.

  20. Methylation patterns in marginal zone lymphoma.

    Arribas, Alberto J; Bertoni, Francesco

    Promoter DNA methylation is a major regulator of gene expression and transcription. The identification of methylation changes is important for understanding disease pathogenesis, for identifying prognostic markers and can drive novel therapeutic approaches. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding DNA methylation in MALT lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Despite important differences in the study design for different publications and the existence of a sole large and genome-wide methylation study for splenic marginal zone lymphoma, it is clear that DNA methylation plays an important role in marginal zone lymphomas, in which it contributes to the inactivation of tumor suppressors but also to the expression of genes sustaining tumor cell survival and proliferation. Existing preclinical data provide the rationale to target the methylation machinery in these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathology of nodal marginal zone lymphomas.

    Pileri, Stefano; Ponzoni, Maurilio

    Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas (NMZLs) are a rare group of lymphoid disorders part of the spectrum of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, which encompass splenic marginal one B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) and extra nodal marginal zone of B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), often of MALT-type. Two clinicopathological forms of NMZL are recognized: adult-type and pediatric-type, respectively. NMZLs show overlapping features with other types of MZ, but distinctive features as well. In this review, we will focus on the salient distinguishing features of NMZL mostly under morphological/immunophenotypical/molecular perspectives in views of the recent acquisitions and forthcoming updated 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Policy Implementation, Role Conflict and Marginalization

    Prince Acheampong

    governance, their role has been politically, administratively, and financially ... of marginalization of the Traditional Systems in terms of legal, financial and ..... the President as the Chief Executive Officer of the district is another controlling factor.

  3. Limitations of ''margin'' in qualification tests

    Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out investigations of polymer radiation degradation behaviors which have brought to light a number of reasons why this concept of margin can break down. First of all, we have found that dose-rate effects vary greatly in magnitude. Thus, based on high dose-rate testing, poor materials with large dose-rate effects may be selected over better materials with small effects. Also, in certain cases, material properties have been found to level out (as with PVC) or reverse trend (as with buna-n) at high doses, so that ''margin'' may be ineffective, misleading, or counterproductive. For Viton, the material properties were found to change in opposite directions at high and low dose rates, making ''margin'' inappropriate. The underlying problem with the concept of ''margin'' is that differences in aging conditions can lead to fundamental differences in degradation mechanisms

  4. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  5. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  6. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  7. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  8. Conjugate dynamical systems: classical analogue of the quantum energy translation

    Torres-Vega, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of quantum mechanics that has not been fully understood is the energy shift generated by the time operator. In this study, we introduce the use of the eigensurfaces of dynamical variables and commutators in classical mechanics to study the classical analogue of the quantum translation of energy. We determine that there is a conjugate dynamical system that is conjugate to Hamilton's equations of motion, and then we generate the analogue of the time operator and use it in the translation of points along the energy direction, i.e. the classical analogue of the Pauli theorem. The theory is illustrated with a nonlinear oscillator model. (paper)

  9. Achieving Sound Beauty in Chinese Translations of English Songs

    陶薪平

    2017-01-01

    Song is a kind of combination of language and music. Song achieves its aesthetic information and arouses feeling with its own sentiments and aesthetic effect. However, various kinds of present problems lead to much loss of beauty. Besides, the theoretical works concerning this area is much meager. Translation of English songs into Chinese has been studied from functional equivalence theory or the functionalism. The present thesis offers a new perspective―beauty in sound from Xu Yuanchong's"three beauties principle", aiming to seek possible ways to represent beauty in translation practice, and some typical examples are compared and analyzed.

  10. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households......Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...

  11. In silico particle margination in blood flow

    Müller, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    A profound knowledge of margination, the migration of blood components to the vessel wall in blood flow, is required in order to understand the genesis of various diseases, as e.g., cardiovascular diseases or bleeding disorders. Margination of particles is a pre-condition for potential adhesion. Adhesion to the vessel wall is required for platelets, the protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), but also for drug and imaging agent carriers in order to perform their particular tasks. In the haemosta...

  12. Translator-computer interaction in action

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  13. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  14. NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan

    Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig

  15. A quantitative analysis of transtensional margin width

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Buiter, Susanne J. H.

    2018-06-01

    Continental rifted margins show variations between a few hundred to almost a thousand kilometres in their conjugated widths from the relatively undisturbed continent to the oceanic crust. Analogue and numerical modelling results suggest that the conjugated width of rifted margins may have a relationship to their obliquity of divergence, with narrower margins occurring for higher obliquity. We here test this prediction by analysing the obliquity and rift width for 26 segments of transtensional conjugate rifted margins in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. We use the plate reconstruction software GPlates (http://www.gplates.org) for different plate rotation models to estimate the direction and magnitude of rifting from the initial phases of continental rifting until breakup. Our rift width corresponds to the distance between the onshore maximum topography and the last identified continental crust. We find a weak positive correlation between the obliquity of rifting and rift width. Highly oblique margins are narrower than orthogonal margins, as expected from analogue and numerical models. We find no relationships between rift obliquities and rift duration nor the presence or absence of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs).

  16. Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions

    Luiz Daniel Rodrigues Dinarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, based in sign language translation researches, and at the same time entering discussions with inspiration in contemporary theories on the concept of "deconstruction" (DERRIDA, 2004 DERRIDA e ROUDINESCO, 2004 ARROJO, 1993, to reflect on some aspects concerning to the definition of the role and duties of translators and interpreters. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity.

  17. About the Translation of the Poem by Gabriel Aresti “The House of my Father”

    Luarsabishvili, Vladimer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, several versions of the poem “My father’s house” by Gabriel Aresti are analysed. The author studies in depth the theory and the practice of translation with the example of several translators. In the article, several specific examples of diverse translations by K. Gamsakhurdia, M. Tsvetaeva, V. Nabokov, J. Borges, etc, are quoted. At the end of his work, the author suggests his own version of the russian translation of the poem by Gabriel Aresti “My father’s house”.

  18. Translation and Audience: Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Gold-Bug”

    Clayton Tyler McKee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to explore how the intended audience of a translation shapes the techniques used by the translators of the same text in order to convey the same message in a different manner. Focusing on two translations of a work done by Edgar Allen Poe, this work demonstrates how the translator shapes a translation to its audience, whether it is a pedagogical purpose or a literary one. In nineteenth century France, translations of Edgar Allan Poe began appearing in newspapers and journals catching the attention of well-known authors, such as Charles Baudelaire. While many academics, such as Wallaert and Bonnefoy, have compared Baudelaire’s translations and language choice to the original works and other translators working in the intellectual arena, the translation of “The Gold-Bug” in a young women’s magazine has not been included in the conversation. Twenty-two years before Baudelaire translates “The Gold-Bug,” originally published in English in 1843, Le magasin de desmoiselles offered a version of “Le scarabée d’or” which differed greatly in style from the version Baudelaire would provide. Comparing the two versions of the story through Schleiermacher’s theory on moving the text and Nida’s theory of equivalencies demonstrates how methods of translation fit for specific audiences in terms of a text’s foreignization and domestication. Le magasin strove to educate young bourgeoisie women à l’aristocrat while Baudelaire found inspiration in Poe’s work which would influence other movements in France. These purposes led to two translations that educate readers on foreign authors also allowing a view into how audience has influenced the translation of Poe for the French public.

  19. "Students at the Margins": Student Affairs Administrators Creating Inclusive Campuses for LGBTQ Students in the South

    Martin, Georgianna; Broadhurst, Christopher; Hoffshire, Michael; Takewell, William

    2018-01-01

    Activism by student affairs administrators can provide powerful methods for change within higher education for LGBTQ students. Though the LGBTQ community has experienced improvements in campus climates, marginalizing policies for members of that community are still prevalent in higher education. Using the tempered radicals theory to guide this…

  20. Privileged Biofuels, Marginalized Indigenous Peoples: The Coevolution of Biofuels Development in the Tropics

    Montefrio, Marvin Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels development has assumed an important role in integrating Indigenous peoples and other marginalized populations in the production of biofuels for global consumption. By combining the theories of commoditization and the environmental sociology of networks and flows, the author analyzed emerging trends and possible changes in institutions…

  1. IRT Item Parameter Recovery with Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation Using Loglinear Smoothing Models

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lewis, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Loglinear smoothing (LLS) estimates the latent trait distribution while making fewer assumptions about its form and maintaining parsimony, thus leading to more precise item response theory (IRT) item parameter estimates than standard marginal maximum likelihood (MML). This article provides the expectation-maximization algorithm for MML estimation…

  2. Theoretical and practical reviews of the Indonesian translated “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” novel

    Zulfadli A. Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the results of translation of the English novel “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” into Indonesian. The Indonesian version of the novel was compared with the English original one to find the translation practices used by the translator. The translation was analysed by focusing on the strategies the translator used in translating the text from the Second Language into the Target Language. It was found that the translator of the novel used four strategies: foreignization and domestication, cultural equivalences, zero-translation, and pragmatic translation. Furthermore, the cultural differences and new words which were created by the original author were the most difficult ones to find equivalences for in Indonesian. The translator tended to use original words from the source text un-translated into the TL. As a result, the target text does not read smoothly, or naturally, and may sound “foreign” to readers. It is suggested that translators should attempt to translate literary works by applying proper translation theory and practice.

  3. The Use of Loan Translation as a Term-Creation Strategy in Duramazwi reMimhanzi

    Gift Mheta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article presents loan translation as one of the key strategies that lexicographers at the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI employed in the creation of new terminology during the compila-tion of the music dictionary Duramazwi reMimhanzi. Inspired by the authors' keen interest in lexicography and active involvement in the compilation of Duramazwi reMimhanzi, it discusses the advantages and disad-vantages of loan translation. Analysis of this term-creation strategy is done using Chimhundu's (1996 trans-lation and terminology development theory known as the scan and balance theory.

  4. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...... characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis...

  5. Translational Medicine Advances in von Willebrand Disease

    Lillicrap, David

    2014-01-01

    Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some pre-clinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized. PMID:23809112

  6. Margins for treatment planning of proton therapy

    Thomas, Simon J

    2006-01-01

    For protons and other charged particles, the effect of set-up errors on the position of isodoses is considerably less in the direction of the incident beam than it is laterally. Therefore, the margins required between the clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) can be less in the direction of the incident beam than laterally. Margins have been calculated for a typical head plan and a typical prostate plan, for a single field, a parallel opposed and a four-field arrangement of protons, and compared with margins calculated for photons, assuming identical geometrical uncertainties for each modality. In the head plan, where internal motion was assumed negligible, the CTV-PTV margin reduced from approximately 10 mm to 3 mm in the axial direction for the single field and parallel opposed plans. For a prostate plan, where internal motion cannot be ignored, the corresponding reduction in margin was from 11 mm to 7 mm. The planning organ at risk (PRV) margin in the axial direction reduced from 6 mm to 2 mm for the head plan, and from 7 mm to 4 mm for the prostate plan. No reduction was seen on the other axes, or for any axis of the four-field plans. Owing to the shape of proton dose distributions, there are many clinical cases in which good dose distributions can be obtained with one or two fields. When this is done, it is possible to use smaller PTV and PRV margins. This has the potential to convert untreatable cases, in which the PTV and PRV overlap, into cases with a gap between PTV and PRV of adequate size for treatment planning

  7. How I Created the Theory of Relativity.

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.

    1982-01-01

    This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)

  8. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  9. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  10. ISN Nexus 2016 Symposia: Translational Immunology in Kidney Disease—The Berlin Roadmap

    Hans-Joachim Anders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the treatment of immune-mediated kidney diseases has only marginally benefited from highly specific biological drugs that have demonstrated remarkable effects in many other diseases. What accounts for this disparity? In April 2016, the International Society of Nephrology held a Nexus meeting on Translational Immunology in Nephrology in Berlin, Germany, to identify and discuss hurdles that block the translational flow of target identification, and preclinical and clinical target validation in the domain of immune-mediated kidney disease. A broad panel of experts including basic scientists, translational researchers, clinical trialists, pharmaceutical industry drug developers, and representatives of the American and European regulatory authorities made recommendations on how to overcome such hurdles at all levels of the translational research process. The results of these discussions are presented here, which may serve as a roadmap for how to optimize the process of developing more innovative and effective drugs for patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases.

  11. Tracing Translations of ICT Policies in Higher Education

    Cifuentes Alvarez, Gary Alberto; Duenas, Paola Ximena Valero

    2016-01-01

    , material actants and activities. The analytical strategy is deployed in the case of three Colombian higher education institutions working with ICT policies for teacher development. The cases show that agency is distributed among different entities constituting assemblages that enact policies in unexpected......Educational policy enactment is a matter of policy translation. A Latourian sociomaterial perspective is proposed to challenge traditional policy implementation frameworks. We offer analytical tools to trace processes of policy translation in practice settings as entanglements of human agents...... pathways. Equally, in all these cases routine activities or unobserved artifacts were key to trace such translations of policies. Our analysis and findings provide a critical review of hermeneutics of policies, one of the dimensions of Stephen Ball´s policy enactment theory. In doing so, a more nuanced...

  12. Crossing Linguistic Borders : Translating Democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution

    Barbara Quaranta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of political concepts into different places and cultures happens first and foremost through translation. Far from being a simple transposition of meaning into a different language to facilitate border crossing, it also entails a process of adjustment to a different cultural context and a change in what is perceived to be the original meaning of the concept. Translation should also include the analysis of the social contexts that cause a political concept to be modified. Through Baker's social narrative theory, all these aspects can be integrated to analyse how the concept of democracy moves from place to place and from language to language leading to more complex understandings of it. I will examine the meaning of the concept of democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution to outline the main features of an intercultural translational process of the concept of democracy.

  13. Novel maximum-margin training algorithms for supervised neural networks.

    Ludwig, Oswaldo; Nunes, Urbano

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes three novel training methods, two of them based on the backpropagation approach and a third one based on information theory for multilayer perceptron (MLP) binary classifiers. Both backpropagation methods are based on the maximal-margin (MM) principle. The first one, based on the gradient descent with adaptive learning rate algorithm (GDX) and named maximum-margin GDX (MMGDX), directly increases the margin of the MLP output-layer hyperplane. The proposed method jointly optimizes both MLP layers in a single process, backpropagating the gradient of an MM-based objective function, through the output and hidden layers, in order to create a hidden-layer space that enables a higher margin for the output-layer hyperplane, avoiding the testing of many arbitrary kernels, as occurs in case of support vector machine (SVM) training. The proposed MM-based objective function aims to stretch out the margin to its limit. An objective function based on Lp-norm is also proposed in order to take into account the idea of support vectors, however, overcoming the complexity involved in solving a constrained optimization problem, usually in SVM training. In fact, all the training methods proposed in this paper have time and space complexities O(N) while usual SVM training methods have time complexity O(N (3)) and space complexity O(N (2)) , where N is the training-data-set size. The second approach, named minimization of interclass interference (MICI), has an objective function inspired on the Fisher discriminant analysis. Such algorithm aims to create an MLP hidden output where the patterns have a desirable statistical distribution. In both training methods, the maximum area under ROC curve (AUC) is applied as stop criterion. The third approach offers a robust training framework able to take the best of each proposed training method. The main idea is to compose a neural model by using neurons extracted from three other neural networks, each one previously trained by

  14. Knowledge translation mechanisms in open innovation

    Simeone, Luca; Secundo, Giustina; Schiuma, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This paper investigates the role of design as a knowledge translation mechanism in R&D-oriented open innovation. The scope of the paper is the investigation of how design can be used as a mean of knowledge transfer among various stakeholders who speak different languages and have divergent...... needs and interests in a process where knowledge openly flew across the boundaries of a high number of organizations. Methods. The paper combines the insights from theory with the empirical evidences gathered by adopting an extreme case study approach: the detailed analysis of a case study related...... and favors coordination in open innovation projects where many different stakeholders are engaged in. Research limitations. Although the adoption of an extreme case study approach offers important implications to understand the role of design in R&D-oriented open innovation, the use of single case study...

  15. (ReTranslating as Re-membering

    Julie Tarif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how (retranslation – interlingual and intersemiotic – can be perceived as a way of both remembering the literary legacy of other cultures but also as a way of re-membering/re-generating the body of literature(s of the importing culture. It focuses on what is called “a classic” and anchors its reflexion in polysystem theory and in the metaphorical vision of literary works as an organic living body. To do so, it concentrates on the British literary classic Oliver Twist and its translations and adaptations into French. The article addresses the following questions: What is to be remembered of certain works? Why, how and by whom are those works remembered?

  16. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  17. The Analysis of English and Lithuanian Idioms and the Problems of Their Translation

    Jelena Suchanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems associated with comprehension and translation of idioms within the framework of the theory of linguistic relativity and the translation theories. The main statements of these theories used for explaining the difficulties of idioms’ translation from/into the English or Lithuanian language are presented. The considered problems are analysed from various perspectives. Case studies, demonstrating different nomination principles used in English and Lithuanian due to different approaches of the native speakers of these languages to the same objects or ‘pieces’ of reality are provided. The comparative analysis of English and Lithuanian idioms as the most interesting and peculiar expressions of a language, showing its unique character, is performed and the arising difficulties and the available techniques of idioms’ translation are demonstrated, taking into account the main statements of the theories of linguistic relativity and translation. Special attention is paid to idioms, whose main ideas are expressed differently in the considered languages and, therefore, present many difficulties to non-native speakers. The influence of traditions, culture, the environment and other factors on the form and contents of the idioms in each of the considered languages is also shown. The analysis performed demonstrates the effectiveness of the theory of linguistic relativity in explaining the nature and causes of the arising comprehension and translation problems, as well as its possibilities to give a translator a native speaker’s insight and help him\\her avoid some typical errors. The recommendations of how to make a translation of idioms more accurate and authentic by using the appropriate translation techniques are also given.

  18. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  19. Working with Corpora in the Translation Classroom

    Krüger, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of…

  20. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…