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Sample records for marathon running performance

  1. Differences in age of peak marathon performance between mountain and city marathon running - The ‘Jungfrau Marathon’ in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-02-28

    The age of the best marathon performance has been well investigated for flat city marathon running, but not for mountain marathon running. The aim of this study was to determine the age of the best mountain marathon performance and to compare to results of a flat city marathon. Race times and ages of finishers of a mountain marathon with 1,830 m of altitude change (Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland) and two flat city marathons (Lausanne Marathon and Zurich Marathon, Switzerland) were analysed using linear, non-linear and mixed-effects regression analyses. Race times were slower in the mountain compared to the city marathon. In both the mountain marathon and the city marathons, women and men improved performance and men were faster than women when the fastest per year and all per year were considered. When the fastest runners in 1-year age intervals were considered in the mountain marathon, the fastest man (3:01 h:min) was ~35.6 years and the fastest women (3:28 h:min) ~34.5 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (4:59 h:min) were ~29.1 years old and the fastest women (5:16 h:min) were ~25.6 years old. In the city marathons in 1-year age intervals, the fastest man (2:10 h:min) was ~23.7 years old and the fastest woman (2:36 h:min) ~32.2 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (3:41 h:min) were ~35.0 years old and the fastest women (4:00 h:min) ~33.8 years old. In summary, the age of the fastest women and men was higher in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons when the fastest runners were considered. However, when all finishers were considered the age of the fastest women and men was lower in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons.

  2. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

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    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.

  3. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance.

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    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P running time for the top ten finishers remained stable for females, while it significantly (P = 0.001) increased by 2.4 min per annum for males. There was a significant (P running times for both sexes. The best 100-km running times was observed for the age comprised between 30 and 49 years for males, and between 30 and 54 years for females, respectively. The age-related decline in running performance was similar until 60-64 years between males and females, but was greater for females compared to males after 65 years. Future studies should investigate the lifespan from 65 to 75 years to better understand the performance difference between male and female master ultra-marathoners.

  4. Can neuromuscular fatigue explain running strategies and performance in ultra-marathons?: the flush model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-06-01

    While the industrialized world adopts a largely sedentary lifestyle, ultra-marathon running races have become increasingly popular in the last few years in many countries. The ability to run long distances is also considered to have played a role in human evolution. This makes the issue of ultra-long distance physiology important. In the ability to run multiples of 10 km (up to 1000 km in one stage), fatigue resistance is critical. Fatigue is generally defined as strength loss (i.e. a decrease in maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), which is known to be dependent on the type of exercise. Critical task variables include the intensity and duration of the activity, both of which are very specific to ultra-endurance sports. They also include the muscle groups involved and the type of muscle contraction, two variables that depend on the sport under consideration. The first part of this article focuses on the central and peripheral causes of the alterations to neuromuscular function that occur in ultra-marathon running. Neuromuscular function evaluation requires measurements of MVCs and maximal electrical/magnetic stimulations; these provide an insight into the factors in the CNS and the muscles implicated in fatigue. However, such measurements do not necessarily predict how muscle function may influence ultra-endurance running and whether this has an effect on speed regulation during a real competition (i.e. when pacing strategies are involved). In other words, the nature of the relationship between fatigue as measured using maximal contractions/stimulation and submaximal performance limitation/regulation is questionable. To investigate this issue, we are suggesting a holistic model in the second part of this article. This model can be applied to all endurance activities, but is specifically adapted to ultra-endurance running: the flush model. This model has the following four components: (i) the ball-cock (or buoy), which can be compared with the rate of perceived

  5. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics.

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    Kyröläinen, H; Pullinen, T; Candau, R; Avela, J; Huttunen, P; Komi, P V

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyzed. Blood samples were drawn to analyze serum creatine kinase activity (S-CK), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and blood lactate (B-La). A video analysis was performed (200 frames x s(-1)) to investigate running mechanics. A kinematic arm was used to determine the external work of each subject. The results of the present study demonstrate that after the marathon, a standardized 5-min submaximal running test resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate (P stride frequency and a similar decrease in stride length were observed (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate clearly that weakened running economy cannot be explained by changes in running mechanics. Therefore, it is suggested that the increased physiological loading is due to several mechanisms: increased utilization of fat as an energy substrate, increased demands of body temperature regulation, and possible muscle damage.

  6. Relationship between cytokines and running economy in marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Junior Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, expresses the relationship between the energy cost of running (Cr and the work performed by a runner and is an predictor of performance. Given the intense effort of marathon runners during training and competition and the dearth of studies that address performance and cytokines in this population, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between RE and cytokines in marathon runners.

  7. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beat, Knechtlee; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P 

  8. Xiamen Runs Faster with Marathon Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhijuan; YeShaojin

    2005-01-01

    On March 26, 15,920 contestants were running on Xiamen's Island Loop Road, dubbed as the world's most beautiful race lane. Along the 42.195kilometer lane, some 300 thousand spectators shouted and applauded for those runners. That was the Third Xiamen International Marathon Competition, which was called by local people """"a big festival"""". There has been never a sport game that makes the city so enthusiastic.

  9. Thermoregulation and marathon running: biological and environmental influences.

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    Cheuvront, S N; Haymes, E M

    2001-01-01

    The extreme physical endurance demands and varied environmental settings of marathon footraces have provided a unique opportunity to study the limits of human thermoregulation for more than a century. High post-race rectal temperatures (Tre) are commonly and consistently documented in marathon runners, yet a clear divergence of thought surrounds the cause for this observation. A close examination of the literature reveals that this phenomenon is commonly attributed to either biological (dehydration, metabolic rate, gender) or environmental factors. Marathon climatic conditions vary as much as their course topography and can change considerably from year to year and even from start to finish in the same race. The fact that climate can significantly limit temperature regulation and performance is evident from the direct relationship between heat casualties and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), as well as the inverse relationship between record setting race performances and ambient temperatures. However, the usual range of compensable racing environments actually appears to play more of an indirect role in predicting Tre by acting to modulate heat loss and fluid balance. The importance of fluid balance in thermoregulation is well established. Dehydration-mediated perturbations in blood volume and blood flow can compromise exercise heat loss and increase thermal strain. Although progressive dehydration reduces heat dissipation and increases Tre during exercise, the loss of plasma volume contributing to this effect is not always observed for prolonged running and may therefore complicate the predictive influence of dehydration on Tre for marathon running. Metabolic heat production consequent to muscle contraction creates an internal heat load proportional to exercise intensity. The correlation between running speed and Tre, especially over the final stages of a marathon event, is often significant but fails to reliably explain more than a fraction of the variability in

  10. Metabolic factors limiting performance in marathon runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Rapoport

    Full Text Available Each year in the past three decades has seen hundreds of thousands of runners register to run a major marathon. Of those who attempt to race over the marathon distance of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 kilometers, more than two-fifths experience severe and performance-limiting depletion of physiologic carbohydrate reserves (a phenomenon known as 'hitting the wall', and thousands drop out before reaching the finish lines (approximately 1-2% of those who start. Analyses of endurance physiology have often either used coarse approximations to suggest that human glycogen reserves are insufficient to fuel a marathon (making 'hitting the wall' seem inevitable, or implied that maximal glycogen loading is required in order to complete a marathon without 'hitting the wall.' The present computational study demonstrates that the energetic constraints on endurance runners are more subtle, and depend on several physiologic variables including the muscle mass distribution, liver and muscle glycogen densities, and running speed (exercise intensity as a fraction of aerobic capacity of individual runners, in personalized but nevertheless quantifiable and predictable ways. The analytic approach presented here is used to estimate the distance at which runners will exhaust their glycogen stores as a function of running intensity. In so doing it also provides a basis for guidelines ensuring the safety and optimizing the performance of endurance runners, both by setting personally appropriate paces and by prescribing midrace fueling requirements for avoiding 'the wall.' The present analysis also sheds physiologically principled light on important standards in marathon running that until now have remained empirically defined: The qualifying times for the Boston Marathon.

  11. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

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    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  12. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  13. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  14. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  15. Geneva Marathon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running and Fitness Clubs

    2010-01-01

    Congratulations to all the CERN participants in the Geneva marathon and half-marathon who ran on Sunday 9 May. CERN performed exceptionally well in the inter-enterprise category, collecting the 1st and 2nd places in the Marathon competition, and 2nd place in the half-marathon competition.   Some of the CERN Running Club participants after the Geneva Marathon 2010. From left to right: Junginger Tobias (marathon), Dore Graham (half-marathon), Cauphy Alain (marathon), Ruiz Camille (half-marathon), Ziogas Nicolas (marathon), Fluckiger Martin (marathon). More than 24 runners from CERN participated in either the Marathon or the half-Marathon. A successful but not easy day in Geneva, as reported by Nick Ziogas: “37 to 40 was very tough for me. My goal was to improve from last year and I improved by 3 minutes 10 seconds which is fantastic really. So I am delighted!”. Participants in the leading CERN teams in each category are listed below. MARATHON 1. CERN ...

  16. The effect of marathon running on carnitine metabolism and on some aspects of muscle mitochondrial activities and antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M B; Jones, D A; Edwards, R H; Corbucci, G C; Montanari, G; Trevisani, C

    1986-01-01

    Carnitine is an essential co-factor in the catabolism of fats as an energy source. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of running a marathon on the metabolism of carnitine by endurance-trained athletes, and to evaluate the effect of carnitine administration on the performance of such exercise. The effects of marathon running on mitochondrial enzymes and cellular anti-oxidants were also examined to assess whether the expression of these activities is altered by exercise. Subjects were 10 experienced male marathon runners aged between 19 and 25 years. Running a marathon caused a fall in the plasma content of unesterified carnitine (37%) and an increase in the level of acetylcarnitine present (288%). Loading of the athletes with L-carnitine for 10 days before running a marathon abolished the exercise-induced fall in plasma-free carnitine (P less than 0.05) whilst amplifying the production of acetylcarnitine (P less than 0.05). Carnitine loading of the athletes studied made no detectable improvement in performance of the marathon (P greater than 0.05). Cytochrome oxidase, succinate cytochrome C reductase and superoxide dismutase activities present in skeletal muscle were unaltered by marathon running. However, such exercise caused a large increase in the tissue content of oxidized glutathione (189%) at the expense of reduced glutathione (-18%).

  17. Cognitive orientations in marathon running and "hitting the wall"

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    Stevinson, C. D.; Biddle, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether runners' cognitions during a marathon are related to "hitting the wall". To test a new and more comprehensive system for classifying cognition of marathon runners. METHODS: Non-elite runners (n = 66) completed a questionnaire after finishing the 1996 London marathon. The runners were recruited through the charity SPARKS for whom they were raising money by running in the race. RESULTS: Most runners reported that during the race their thoughts were internally associative, with internally dissociative thoughts being the least prevalent. Runners who "hit the wall" used more internal dissociation than other runners, indicating that it is a hazardous strategy, probably because sensory feedback is blocked. However, internal association was related to an earlier onset of "the wall", suggesting that too much attention on physical symptoms may magnify them, thereby exaggerating any discomfort. External dissociation was related to a later onset, probably because it may provide a degree of distraction but keeps attention on the race. CONCLUSIONS: "Hitting the wall" for recreational non-elite marathon runners is associated with their thought patterns during the race. In particular, "the wall" is associated with internal dissociation. 




 PMID:9773172

  18. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

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    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome.

  19. Development of Modern Marathons and Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Belovski

    2014-07-01

    Moderní marathon a distanční běh zažívají výrazný rozmach a přitahují stále větší zájem všech zainteresovaných osob – stakeholderů běžeckého sportu. Můžeme však konstatovat, že mezi aktivními běžci jakož i mezi dalšími lidmi, kteří jsou přímo či nepřímo s distančním během spojeni, nejsou vědomosti o jeho současném rozvoji příliš hluboké. Tato práce chce nabídnout vybrané, zásadní události moderní historie distančního běhu, a sloužit tak nejen zaníceným aktivním běžcům a organizátorům běžeckých závodů, ale též historikům, studentům a akademikům jako zdroj užitečných informací a základ pro budoucí vědeckou činnost.

  20. Arterial stiffness is inversely associated with a better running record in a full course marathon race

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Su-Jeen; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sewon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and may contribute to reduced running capacity in humans. This study investigated the relationship between course record and arterial stiffness in marathoners who participated in the Seoul International Marathon in 2012. [Methods] A total of 30 amateur marathoners (Males n = 28, Females n = 2, mean age = 51.6 ± 8.3 years) were assessed before and after the marathon race. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV)...

  1. Motivation dimensions for running a marathon: A new model emerging from the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS

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    Sima Zach

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

  2. Contemporary nutrition approaches to optimize elite marathon performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2013-09-01

    The professionalization of any sport must include an appreciation for how and where nutrition can positively affect training adaptation and/or competition performance. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing importance of nutrition in sports that feature very high training volumes and are of a long enough duration that both glycogen and fluid balance can limit performance. Indeed, modern marathon training programs and racing satisfy these criteria and are uniquely suited to benefit from nutritional interventions. Given that muscle glycogen is limiting during a 2-h marathon, optimizing carbohydrate (CHO) intake and delivery is of maximal importance. Furthermore, the last 60 y of marathon performance have seen lighter and smaller marathoners, which enhances running economy and heat dissipation and increases CHO delivery per kg body mass. Finally, periodically training under conditions of low CHO availability (eg, low muscle glycogen) or periods of mild fluid restriction may actually further enhance the adaptive responses to training. Accordingly, this commentary highlights these key nutrition and hydration interventions that have emerged over the last several years and explores how they may assist in world-class marathon performance.

  3. LHC Report: getting in shape for the Run 2 marathon

    CERN Multimedia

    Mirko Pojer & Matteo Solfaroli

    2015-01-01

    The buzzword you'll hear most both inside and outside the CCC is "training". Rather than preparation for an athletic competition, it actually refers to the way the LHC is trying to get in shape for the long Run 2 marathon at 6.5 TeV.   Picture 1: progress of LHC superconducting circuit commissioning. In the previous edition of the Bulletin, we discussed the lengthy process of commissioning LHC superconducting circuits and the phenomenon of repetitive quenches accompanying the progressive increase in their performance. This is typical for superconducting magnets, but it is particularly intriguing for the LHC dipole magnets. Not only because each and every one of the 1,232 dipoles has to reach the same current target in order for beams to circulate at a certain energy (the weakest link of the chain determining or compromising the performance of all the others), but also because we know that every additional quench brings us closer to our 2015 objective. All...

  4. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

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    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  5. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  6. Does marathon running cause acute lesions of the knee? Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, C.; Schueller, G.; Uffmann, M.; Bader, T.R. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-10-15

    An investigation was conducted into whether running a marathon causes acute alterations in menisci, cartilage, bone marrow, ligaments, or joint effusions, which could be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-two non-professional marathon runners underwent MRI of the knee before and immediately after running a marathon. Lesions of menisci and cartilage (five-point scale), bone marrow, ligaments (three-point scale), joint effusion, and additional findings were evaluated and a total score was assessed. Before the marathon, grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in eight runners, and grade 2 lesions in five runners. After the marathon, an upgrading from a meniscal lesion grade 1 to grade 2 was observed in one runner. Before the marathon, grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three runners, and grade 2 lesions in one runner, all of which remained unchanged after the marathon. Before and after the marathon, unchanged bone marrow edema was present in three runners and unchanged anterior cruciate ligament lesions (grade 1) were seen in two runners. Joint effusions were present in 13 runners in the pre-run scans, slightly increased in four runners after the marathon, and newly occurred in one runner after the marathon. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner showed an increase after the marathon in two runners, whereas no runner showed an improvement of the radiological findings (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P>0.05). The evaluation of lesions of the knee with MRI shows that marathon running does not cause severe, acute lesions of cartilage, ligaments, or bone marrow of the knee in well-trained runners. Only subtle changes, such as joint effusions or increased intrameniscal signal alterations, were imaged after running a marathon. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk R. [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Behringer, Michael [German Sport University, Cologne (Germany); Zilkens, Christoph [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bbittersohl@partners.org [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup **} relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2{sup **} mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2{sup **} after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2{sup **} values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2{sup *} mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2{sup *} values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2{sup *} after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2{sup *} values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2{sup *} values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2{sup *} values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2

  8. Biological aspects of salivary hormones in male half-marathon performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Branimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical effort is known to alter the blood levels of many hormones, but there are only a few studies about the biological changes of salivary hormones. The aim of this work was to determine whether salivary testosterone and salivary cortisol levels, measured two weeks before a half-marathon race, relate to running performance in male recreational athletes. A group of eleven male recreational athletes preparing for a half-marathon was included in the study. Saliva for testosterone and cortisol determinations was collected before and immediately after a 15-km training run, two weeks before the half-marathon. Individual official half-marathon times, expressed in hours, were used as a measure of performance. Mean testosterone concentrations were 1.07±0.33 nmol/L before the run and 0.88±0.35 nmol/L after the run (p<0.05. Mean cortisol concentrations were 12.28±8.46 nmol/L before the run and 38.08±19.63 nmol/L after the run (p<0.05. The pre-run salivary testosterone levels marginally correlated with the corresponding half-marathon running times (p=0.068, 95% bootstrap CI for slope -0.40 to -0.06. However, post-run salivary testosterone levels significantly correlated with the corresponding half-marathon running times (p=0.011, 95% bootstrap CI for slope -0.41 to -0.16, even considering correlations with the runners’ age. Salivary cortisol levels, either pre- or post-run, did not correlate with the corresponding half-marathon running times. The results of this study suggest that post-exercise salivary testosterone levels could have the potential to predict performance in endurance running, at least in recreational athletes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175036

  9. [Sudden cardiac death during a city marathon run].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, J; Schmid, E; Fischer, S; Hürlimann, S; Konrad, C

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical stress is a rare event with an incidence of 1-3 deaths per 100,000 athletes per year. A coronary anomaly is the second most common cause of death following hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Symptomatic prodromes occur in 20% of cases prior to the SCD event. This case report describes a 35-year-old male who collapsed near the finishing line of a half marathon run. Despite immediate resuscitation attempts and initial return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), a pulseless electrical activity (PEA) followed and the patient died 1 h after arrival in the resuscitation unit. The autopsy revealed an anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA), which can lead to ischemia of the respective heart muscles under severe stress.

  10. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial injury and ventricular torsion after marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Keithahn, Alexandra; Hertel, Gernot; Drexel, Verena; Stern, Heiko; Schuster, Tibor; Lorang, Dan; Beer, Ambros J; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Nickel, Thomas; Weis, Michael; Botnar, Rene; Schwaiger, Markus; Halle, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Recent reports provide indirect evidence of myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction after prolonged exercise. However, existing data is conflicting and lacks direct verification of functional myocardial alterations by CMR [cardiac MR (magnetic resonance)]. The present study sought to examine structural myocardial damage and modification of LV (left ventricular) wall motion by CMR imaging directly after a marathon. Analysis of cTnT (cardiac troponin T) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) serum levels, echocardiography [pulsed-wave and TD (tissue Doppler)] and CMR were performed before and after amateur marathon races in 28 healthy males aged 41 ± 5 years. CMR included LGE (late gadolinium enhancement) and myocardial tagging to assess myocardial injury and ventricular motion patterns. Echocardiography indicated alterations of diastolic filling [decrease in E/A (early transmitral diastolic filling velocity/late transmitral diastolic filling velocity) ratio and E' (tissue Doppler early transmitral diastolic filling velocity)] postmarathon. All participants had a significant increase in NT-proBNP and/or cTnT levels. However, we found no evidence of LV LGE. MR tagging demonstrated unaltered radial shortening, circumferential and longitudinal strain. Myocardial rotation analysis, however, revealed an increase of maximal torsion by 18.3% (13.1 ± 3.8 to 15.5 ± 3.6 °; P=0.002) and maximal torsion velocity by 35% (6.8 ± 1.6 to 9.2 ± 2.5 °·s-1; Pincreased by 1.23 ± 0.33 °·s-1 after marathon (Pheart rate, whereas peak untwist rate showed no relevant changes. Although marathon running leads to a transient increase of cardiac biomarkers, no detectable myocardial necrosis was observed as evidenced by LGE MRI (MR imaging). Endurance exercise induces an augmented systolic wringing motion of the myocardium and increased diastolic filling velocities. The stress of marathon running seems to be better described as a burden of myocardial

  12. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, J H Jaap

    2016-10-03

    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon. Data were continuously recorded during the entire 42.2km (26.2Miles) of the Marathon. Data from the individual sensors were transmitted wirelessly to a receiver, mounted on the handlebar of an accompanying cyclist. Anatomical calibration was performed using both static and dynamic procedures and sensor orientations were thus converted to body segment orientations by means of transformation matrices obtained from the segment calibration. Joint angle (hip, knee and ankle) trajectories as well as center of mass (COM) trajectory and acceleration were derived from the sensor data after segment calibration. Data were collected and repeated measures one way ANOVA׳s, with Tukey post-hoc test, were used to statistically analyze differences between the defined kinematic parameters (max hip angle, peak knee flexion at mid-stance and at mid-swing, ankle angle at initial contact and COM vertical displacement and acceleration), averaged over 100 strides, between the first and the last stages (8 and 40km) of the marathon. Significant changes in running mechanics were witnessed between the first and the last stage of the marathon. This study showed the possibility of performing a 3D kinematic analysis of the running technique, in the sport specific setting, by using inertial magnetic measurement units. For

  13. Does a run/walk strategy decrease cardiac stress during a marathon in non-elite runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan; Gronwald, Thomas; Jäger, Frank-Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Although alternating run/walk-periods are often recommended to novice runners, it is unclear, if this particular pacing strategy reduces the cardiovascular stress during prolonged exercise. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the effects of two different running strategies on selected cardiac biomarkers as well as marathon performance. Randomized experimental trial in a repeated measure design. Male (n=22) and female subjects (n=20) completed a marathon either with a run/walk strategy or running only. Immediately after crossing the finishing line cardiac biomarkers were assessed in blood taken from the cubital vein. Before (-7 days) and after the marathon (+4 days) subjects also completed an incremental treadmill test. Despite different pacing strategies, run/walk strategy and running only finished the marathon with similar times (04:14:25±00:19:51 vs 04:07:40±00:27:15 [hh:mm:ss]; p=0.377). In both groups, prolonged exercise led to increased B-type natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme and myoglobin levels (pcorrelated with the velocity at the individual anaerobic threshold. Run/walk strategy compared to running only reported less muscle pain and fatigue (p=0.006) after the running event. In conclusion, the increase in cardiac biomarkers is a reversible, physiological response to strenuous exercise, indicating temporary stress on the myocyte and skeletal muscle. Although a combined run/walk strategy does not reduce the load on the cardiovascular system, it allows non-elite runners to achieve similar finish times with less (muscle) discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrocardiographic monitoring during marathon running: a proof of feasibility for a new telemedical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spethmann, Sebastian; Prescher, Sandra; Dreger, Henryk; Nettlau, Herbert; Baumann, Gert; Knebel, Fabian; Koehler, Friedrich

    2014-11-01

    There is a risk for sudden cardiac death and nonfatal arrhythmias for marathon runners. A new telemedical approach to prevent sudden cardiac death could be online electrocardiogram monitoring during endurance sport events, which would allow the emergency services located along the running track to initiate instantaneous therapy. In a first proof-of-concept study we evaluate the feasibility of recording, transferring and analysing an electrocardiogram via a mobile phone (electrocardiogram streaming) and compare the quality to a conventional Holter electrocardiogram during marathon running. A total of 10 recreational endurance runners are equipped with a Holter Tele-electrocardiogram and a standard smartphone connected via Bluetooth to each other in order to continuously record an electrocardiogram during a first marathon event (five runners) and a second marathon event (five runners). All streaming electrocardiogram data were transferred from the device to our telemedicine centre (Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany); the data were monitored live and stored for a subsequent offline analysis. The primary endpoint was the percentage of successful transfer time of the streaming electrocardiogram compared with Holter electrocardiogram; the secondary endpoint was the percentage of correctly identified arrhythmias in the observed period. It is technically feasible to stream an electrocardiogram during marathon running in the presence of thousands of mobile phone users. In addition, the identification of arrhythmias during a marathon is possible by electrocardiogram streaming. However, during the first race, the data transfer quality was low. After improvement of the software, in the subsequent race there was an extremely good quality in the data transfer via the mobile phone network (89%) and 100% of the rhythm disturbances could be detected in the streamed electrocardiogram. Online electrocardiogram surveillance during marathon running is a promising preventive

  15. Daily marathon running for a week-the biochemical and body compositional effects of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas; Laye, Matthew J;

    2013-01-01

    effects were observed. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance decreased markedly, and an improved lipid profile was found. A decrease in fat mass and increase in lean body mass was observed, resulting in no overall weight changes. In summary, the race did not cause any major adverse......Karstoft, K, Solomon, TP, Laye, MJ, and Pedersen, BK. Daily marathon running for a week-The biochemical and body compositional effects of participation. J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 2927-2933, 2013-Although long-distance running, such as ultramarathons and multistage races, is increasingly popular......, it maybe potentially harmful to health, despite sparse evidence. We studied 8 experienced recreational runners participating in a multiple-marathon running event in which 7 marathons were completed on consecutive days. Fasting blood chemistry and body composition were assessed before and 20-24 hours after...

  16. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  17. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  18. Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique L. Billat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost. Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR, CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min. Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively. Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO×m−1 (r=−0.65, P<0.01 and positively correlated with the runner’s ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r=0.83, P<0.0002. Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners.

  19. Alveolar-membrane diffusing capacity limits performance in Boston marathon qualifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleen M Lavin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: (1 to examine the relation between pulmonary diffusing capacity and marathon finishing time, and (2, to evaluate the accuracy of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO in predicting marathon finishing time relative to that of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO. METHODS: 28 runners [18 males, age = 37 (SD 9 years, body mass = 70 (13 kg, height = 173 (9 cm, percent body fat = 17 (7 %] completed a test battery consisting of measurement of DLNO and DLCO at rest, and a graded exercise test to determine running economy and aerobic capacity prior to the 2011 Steamtown Marathon (Scranton, PA. One to three weeks later, all runners completed the marathon (range: 2:22:38 to 4:48:55. Linear regressions determined the relation between finishing time and a variety of anthropometric characteristics, resting lung function variables, and exercise parameters. RESULTS: In runners meeting Boston Marathon qualification standards, 74% of the variance in marathon finishing time was accounted for by differences in DLNO relative to body surface area (BSA (SEE = 11.8 min, p<0.01; however, the relation between DLNO or DLCO to finishing time was non-significant in the non-qualifiers (p = 0.14 to 0.46. Whereas both DLCO and DLNO were predictive of finishing time for all finishers, DLNO showed a stronger relation (r(2 = 0.30, SEE = 33.4 min, p<0.01 compared to DLCO when considering BSA. CONCLUSION: DLNO is a performance-limiting factor in only Boston qualifiers. This suggests that alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is a limitation to performance in faster marathoners. Additionally, DLNO/BSA predicts marathon finishing time and aerobic capacity more accurately than DLCO.

  20. Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Myburgh, K H; Schall, R

    1990-01-01

    Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance in races of 10-90 km. Race time at 10 or 21.1 km was the best predictor of performance at 42.2 km in specialist marathon runners and at 42.2 and 90 km in specialist ultra-marathon runners (r = 0.91-0.97). Peak treadmill running velocity was the best laboratory-measured predictor of performance (r = -0.88(-)-0.94) at all distances in ultra-marathon specialists and at all distances except 42.2 km in marathon specialists. Other predictive variables were running velocity at the lactate turnpoint (r = -0.80(-)-0.92); % VO2max at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.76-0.90) and VO2max (r = 0.55(-)-0.86). Peak blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.68-0.71) and VO2 at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.10-0.61) were less good predictors. These data indicate: (i) that in groups of trained long distance runners, the physiological factors that determine success in races of 10-90 km are the same; thus there may not be variables that predict success uniquely in either 10 km, marathon or ultra-marathon runners, and (ii) that peak treadmill running velocity is at least as good a predictor of running performance as is the lactate turnpoint. Factors that determine the peak treadmill running velocity are not known but are not likely to be related to maximum rates of muscle oxygen utilization.

  1. Running Pace Decrease during a Marathon Is Positively Related to Blood Markers of Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Fernández, David; Abián-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, César; Calleja-González, Julio; Pérez-González, Benito

    2013-01-01

    Background Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s) of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women) for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity) running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. Results Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction) had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L−1; P<0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L−1; P<0.05), and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L−1; P = 0.07) in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (−3.1 ± 1.0 v −3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60) or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35). Conclusions/Significance Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation. PMID:23460881

  2. Running pace decrease during a marathon is positively related to blood markers of muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. RESULTS: Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L(-1; P<0.05, lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L(-1; P<0.05, and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L(-1; P = 0.07 in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (-3.1 ± 1.0 v -3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60 or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation.

  3. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key points Fatigue does not increase foot pressures Every runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favours Foot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run PMID:27274662

  4. Skin-fold thickness and race performance in male mountain ultra-marathoners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies showed in high level runners both an association between selected skin-fold thicknesses at the lower limb and running performance and between thickness of skin-fold and training. We investigated the association of skin-fold thicknesses with total race time in 25 male mountain ultra-marathoners with 44.5 (7.0) years, 73.0 (7.8) kg body mass, 1.78 (0.07) m body height and a BMI of 22.9 (1.8) kg/m2 in a 7-day mountain ultra-marathon over 350 km with 11,000 m of altitude. The relat...

  5. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Polytechnic School, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Marathon (42 km and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods: Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results: A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat, the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion: Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. Keywords: running, performance, training indices, body fat, sports training

  6. Use of Bioimpedianciometer as Predictor of Mountain Marathon Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athlete's chronological age were negatively associated with race performance. In contrast, the daily training volume was positively associated with mountain marathon time. A regression analysis showed that race time could be predicted (R(2) = .948) by the daily training load, sports experience, age, body fat mass, BF and level of abdominal obesity. The comparison between performance groups regarding to body composition and training characteristics showed that the higher performance group was lighter with lower BF, fat mass and level of abdominal obesity, and with more days of training per week compared with the lower performance group (p mountain marathon runners should develop exercise and nutritional strategies to reduce BF and consider increasing mean daily training volume to improve performance.

  7. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Alexander Rüst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05 and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998-2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running.

  8. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hohmann, Peter Reaburn, Kevin Tetsworth, Andreas Imhoff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001, forefoot (p = 0.0001, midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006, hindfoot (p = 0.0001, first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001 and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001. Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance.

  9. Gender differences in wheelchair marathon performance – Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepers R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Romuald Lepers,1 Paul J Stapley,2 Beat Knechtle3,41INSERM U1093, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 2School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of the study was (1 to examine the changes in participation and performance of males and females at the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon in Oita, Japan, between 1983 and 2011, and (2 to analyze the gender difference in the age of peak wheelchair marathon performance.Methods: Age and time performance data for all wheelchair athletes completing the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011 were analyzed.Results: Mean annual number of finishers was 123 ± 43 for males and 6 ± 3 for females (5.0% ± 2.0% of all finishers, respectively. Mean age of overall finishers was significantly (P = 0.026 greater for males (41.3 ± 1.8 years compared to females (32.7 ± 1.4 years. In contrast, there was no difference in the mean age of the top three overall finishers between males (35.8 ± 3.2 years and females (31.6 ± 1.5 years. The race time of the top three overall finishers was significantly lower (P < 0.01 for males (1:34 ± 0:11 hours:minutes compared to females (1:59 ± 0:20 hours:minutes, but it was not significantly different between male (2:06 ± 0:12 hours:minutes and female (2:12 ± 0:18 hours:minutes overall finishers. The mean gender difference in time was 26.1% ± 9.7% for the top three overall finishers.Conclusion: Further studies are required to investigate the reasons for the low participation of females in wheelchair marathons and why the gender difference in marathon performance is much greater for disabled athletes than for able-bodied athletes.Keywords: endurance, sex difference, disabled athlete, spinal cord injury

  10. [Running injuries sustained in a marathon race. Registration of the occurrence and types of injuries in the 1986 Arhus Marathon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, B W; Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Jensen, J

    1989-08-28

    A questionnaire investigation was undertaken in connection with the Arhus Marathon Race in 1986, with the object of registering experience, previous running injuries, amount of training, running injuries, treatment and causes. A total of 831 replies were obtained (90%). Of these, there were 731 men and 100 women with an average age of 34.6 (11-77) years, duration og training 5.5 months, training distance 47.5 km/week and tempo 10.8 km/hour. Among these, 193 injuries were registered in 161 runners (19%). Eighty-nine had to stop sports for more than one week and 26 still had injuries which limited participation in sport after eight weeks. The injuries consisted of blisters (25%) and stress injuries (66%) particularly in the knee (37%) and leg (23%). Runners who sustained injuries were found to be significantly younger than non-injured runners, their training distance was less and training tempo lower. The causes of the injuries were mainly overexertion. The significance for the types of shoes for stress injuries was investigated and a tendency to increased risk of overexertion injuries was demonstrated on employing competition shoes and cheap jogging shoes.

  11. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = −0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = −0.37), subscapula (r = −0.28), abdomen (r = −0.31), and suprailiaca (r = −0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = −0.32); percentage body fat (r = −0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = −0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = −0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners. PMID:21566757

  12. [Hyponatremic encephalopathy with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Development following marathon run].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellershoff, G

    2013-04-01

    This article presents the case of a 52-year-old woman who developed exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) complicated by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema after a marathon run. The condition of EAH is a potentially life-threatening complication of endurance exercise. The main cause seems to be inadequate intake of free water during or following exercise with enduring antidiuresis due to nonosmotic stimulation of ADH secretion. Known risk factors are female gender, slow running pace and lack of weight loss. Emergency therapy is fluid restriction and bolus infusion of 3% NaCl solution to rapidly reduce brain edema.

  13. Forecasting to velocities harness racing on average, long, superlong distances (marathon run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko L.I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of increase of sporting results are shown in a marathon. The sportsmen of high qualification are investigational in age from 17 to 27 years. Sportsmen are practice mainly on distance of 1500m. The degree of deoxygenation during at run with different speed and his attitude is certain toward a maximal deoxygenation. The degree of including of anaerobic metabolism is during work of different power. The indexes of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism allow to forecast sporting results in at run.

  14. Alterations of Vertical Jump Mechanics after a Half-Marathon Mountain Running Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissavet N. Rousanoglou, Konstantinos Noutsos, Achilleas Pappas, Gregory Bogdanis, Georgios Vagenas, Ioannis A. Bayios, Konstantinos D. Boudolos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatiguing effect of long-distance running has been examined in the context of a variety of parameters. However, there is scarcity of data regarding its effect on the vertical jump mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations of countermovement jump (CMJ mechanics after a half-marathon mountain race. Twenty-seven runners performed CMJs before the race (Pre, immediately after the race (Post 1 and five minutes after Post 1 (Post 2. Instantaneous and ensemble-average analysis focused on jump height and, the maximum peaks and time-to-maximum peaks of: Displacement, vertical force (Fz, anterior-posterior force (Fx, Velocity and Power, in the eccentric (tECC and concentric (tCON phase of the jump, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05. The jump height decrease was significant in Post 2 (-7.9% but not in Post 1 (-4.1%. Fx and Velocity decreased significantly in both Post 1 (only in tECC and Post 2 (both tECC and tCON. Α timing shift of the Fz peaks (earlier during tECC and later during tCON and altered relative peak times (only in tECC were also observed. Ensemble-average analysis revealed several time intervals of significant post-race alterations and a timing shift in the Fz-Velocity loop. An overall trend of lowered post-race jump output and mechanics was characterised by altered jump timing, restricted anterior-posterior movement and altered force-velocity relations. The specificity of mountain running fatigue to eccentric muscle work, appears to be reflected in the different time order of the post-race reductions, with the eccentric phase reductions preceding those of the concentric one. Thus, those who engage in mountain running should particularly consider downhill training to optimise eccentric muscular action.

  15. Age and ultra-marathon performance - 50 to 1,000 km distances from 1969 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Tobias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated age and performance in distance-limited ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 1,000 km. Age of peak running speed and running speed of the fastest competitors from 1969 to 2012 in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km ultra-marathons were analyzed using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analyses. The ages of the ten fastest women ever were 40 ± 4 yrs (50 km), 34 ± 7 yrs (100 km), 42 ± 6 yrs (200 km), and 41 ± 5 yrs (1,000 km). The ages were significantly different betw...

  16. Effect of age and performance on pacing of marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Attiki, Greece; 2Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Pacing strategies in marathon runners have previously been examined, especially with regard to age and performance level separately. However, less information about the age × performance interaction on pacing in age-group runners exists. The aim of the present study was to examine whether runners with similar race time and at different age differ for pacing. Data (women, n=117,595; men, n=180,487 from the “New York City Marathon” between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed. A between–within subjects analysis of variance showed a large main effect of split on race speed (p<0.001, η2=0.538 with the fastest speed in the 5–10 km split and the slowest in the 35–40 km. A small sex × split interaction on race speed was found (p<0.001, η2=0.035 with men showing larger increase in speed at 5 km and women at 25 km and 40 km (end spurt. An age-group × performance group interaction on Δspeed was shown for both sexes at 5 km, 10 km, 15 km, 20 km, 25 km, 30 km, 35 km, and 40 km (p<0.001, 0.001≤η2≤0.004, where athletes in older age-groups presented a relatively more even pace compared with athletes in younger age-groups, a trend that was more remarkable in the relatively slow performance groups. So far, the present study is the first one to observe an age × performance interaction on pacing; ie, older runners pace differently (smaller changes than younger runners with similar race time. These findings are of great practical interest for coaches working with marathon runners of different age, but similar race time. Keywords: running, master athlete, endurance, aerobic capacity, fatigue, gender, race time

  17. Alterations of Vertical Jump Mechanics after a Half-Marathon Mountain Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Pappas, Achilleas; Bogdanis, Gregory; Vagenas, Georgios; Bayios, Ioannis A; Boudolos, Konstantinos D

    2016-06-01

    The fatiguing effect of long-distance running has been examined in the context of a variety of parameters. However, there is scarcity of data regarding its effect on the vertical jump mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations of countermovement jump (CMJ) mechanics after a half-marathon mountain race. Twenty-seven runners performed CMJs before the race (Pre), immediately after the race (Post 1) and five minutes after Post 1 (Post 2). Instantaneous and ensemble-average analysis focused on jump height and, the maximum peaks and time-to-maximum peaks of: Displacement, vertical force (Fz), anterior-posterior force (Fx), Velocity and Power, in the eccentric (tECC) and concentric (tCON) phase of the jump, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). The jump height decrease was significant in Post 2 (-7.9%) but not in Post 1 (-4.1%). Fx and Velocity decreased significantly in both Post 1 (only in tECC) and Post 2 (both tECC and tCON). Α timing shift of the Fz peaks (earlier during tECC and later during tCON) and altered relative peak times (only in tECC) were also observed. Ensemble-average analysis revealed several time intervals of significant post-race alterations and a timing shift in the Fz-Velocity loop. An overall trend of lowered post-race jump output and mechanics was characterised by altered jump timing, restricted anterior-posterior movement and altered force-velocity relations. The specificity of mountain running fatigue to eccentric muscle work, appears to be reflected in the different time order of the post-race reductions, with the eccentric phase reductions preceding those of the concentric one. Thus, those who engage in mountain running should particularly consider downhill training to optimise eccentric muscular action. Key pointsThe 4.1% reduction of jump height immediately after the race is not statistically significantThe eccentric phase alterations of jump mechanics precede

  18. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, G; McHugh, M P; Hill, J A; Brouner, J; Jewell, A P; van Someren, K A; Shave, R E; Howatson, S A

    2010-12-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of a tart cherry juice in aiding recovery and reducing muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Twenty recreational Marathon runners assigned to either consumed cherry juice or placebo for 5 days before, the day of and for 48 h following a Marathon run. Markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, muscle soreness and isometric strength), inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid], total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress [thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls] were examined before and following the race. Isometric strength recovered significantly faster (P=0.024) in the cherry juice group. No other damage indices were significantly different. Inflammation was reduced in the cherry juice group (IL-6, Pcherry juice than the placebo group for all post-supplementation measures (Pcherry juice than the placebo at 48 h (Pcherry juice appears to provide a viable means to aid recovery following strenuous exercise by increasing total antioxidative capacity, reducing inflammation, lipid peroxidation and so aiding in the recovery of muscle function.

  19. Age and ultra-marathon performance - 50 to 1,000 km distances from 1969 – 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Tobias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated age and performance in distance-limited ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 1,000 km. Age of peak running speed and running speed of the fastest competitors from 1969 to 2012 in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km ultra-marathons were analyzed using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analyses. The ages of the ten fastest women ever were 40 ± 4 yrs (50 km), 34 ± 7 yrs (100 km), 42 ± 6 yrs (200 km), and 41 ± 5 yrs (1,000 km). The ages were significantly different betw...

  20. A faster running speed is associated with a greater body weight loss in 100-km ultra-marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Alexander Rüst, Christoph; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In 219 recreational male runners, we investigated changes in body mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), and urine specific gravity as well as fluid intake during a 100-km ultra-marathon. The athletes lost 1.9 kg (s = 1.4) of body mass, equal to 2.5% (s = 1.8) of body mass (P running speed (r = -0.16, P running speed (r = 0.42, P 0.05). In conclusion, faster runners lost more body mass, runners lost more body mass when they drank less fluid, and faster runners drank more fluid than slower runners.

  1. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques.

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    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    Full Text Available Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d'Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques.Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-, in the middle (Middle- and immediately after (Post- Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2α and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA; Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit and urine parameters by standard analyses.Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 μmol.min-1, oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2α: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine, inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1 and lactate production (+190%, associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7% and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76% was found.The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and transporting samples for further analysis

  2. Long distance run induced hydration and kidney function changes in marathoners

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    Luiz Guilherme Cruz Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the study was to verify the hydration status and the kidney function in marathoners during the training season and after a marathon race. Nine male runners were investigated during 12 weeks of training. Urine was collected in four moments; in the beginning (C1 and during (C2 the training program, before (C3 and after (C4 the competition. Urine pH was measured using reagent tapes, urine density with a refractometer, protein excretion by Bradford assay and erythrocytes and leucocytes by microscopy. Changes were observed when C-4 was compared to the other collection times for all variables investigated. It is possible to conclude that physical exertion induced important changes in the hydration status and glomerular membrane selectivity to macromolecules, modifying the kidney function of the marathoners in C4.

  3. My First Marathon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANTOINECHAZELLE

    2005-01-01

    THE decision on where to run my first marathon was an easy one: I chose my second home, Xiamen, a beautiful city with long beaches and a lovely climate. The route for the Xiamen marathon,which runs along the Island Ring Road, must be the most beautiful in the world.

  4. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in half- and full marathons held in Switzerland, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschmann A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available André Aschmann,1 Beat Knechtle,2 Marco Cribari,1 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Vincent Onywera,3 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers4 1Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, Kenya; 4Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Endurance running performance of African (AF and non-African (NAF athletes is investigated, with better performances seen for Africans. To date, no study has compared the age of peak performance between AF and NAF runners. The present research is an analysis of the age and running performance of top AF and NAF athletes, using the hypothesis that AF athletes were younger and faster than NAF athletes. Methods: Age and performance of male and female AF and NAF athletes in half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland in 2000–2010 were investigated using single and multilevel hierarchical regression analyses. Results: For half-marathons, male NAF runners were older than male AF runners (P = 0.02; NAF, 31.1 years ± 6.4 years versus AF, 26.2 years ± 4.9 years, and their running time was longer (P = 0.02; NAF, 65.3 minutes ± 1.7 minutes versus AF, 64.1 minutes ± 0.9 minutes. In marathons, differences between NAF and AF male runners in age (NAF, 33.0 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 28.6 years ± 3.8 years; P 0.05 or running time (NAF, 75.0 minutes ± 3.7 minutes versus AF, 75.6 minutes ± 5.3 minutes; P > 0.05 between NAF and AF female half-marathoners. For marathoners, NAF women were older than AF female runners (P = 0.03; NAF, 31.6 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 27.8 years ± 5.3 years, but their running times were similar (NAF, 162.4 minutes ± 7.2 minutes versus AF, 163.0 minutes ± 7.0 minutes; P > 0.05. Conclusion: In Switzerland

  5. Increase in finishers and improvement of performance of masters runners in the Marathon des Sables

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    Jampen SC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Saskia Carolin Jampen,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Romuald Lepers,3 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceAim: The aim of the study was to examine finisher and performance trends of ultrarunners in the Marathon des Sables, the world's largest multistage ultramarathon.Methods: The age and running speed was analyzed for 6945 finishes of 909 women and 6036 men between 2003 and 2012 at the Marathon des Sables covering about 240 km in the Moroccan desert.Results: The number of finishes increased significantly for both women and men from 2003–2012. The annual number of finishes increased in age groups: 30–34 years (r2 = 0.50; P = 0.021, 45–49 years (r2 = 0.81; P = 0.0004, and 50–54 years (r2 = 0.46; P = 0.029 for women and in all age groups older than 35 years for men (35–39 years: r2 = 0.64, P = 0.0054; 40–44 years: r2 = 0.67, P = 0.0036; 45–49 years: r2 = 0.77, P = 0.0007; 50–54 years: r2 = 0.72, P = 0.0018; 55–59 years: r2 = 0.42, P = 0.041; and 60–64 years: r2 = 0.67, P = 0.0038. The fastest running speed was achieved by runners in the age group of 35–39 years for both sexes. The mean age of overall finishers was 41.0 ± 9.1 years for women and 41.3 ± 9.5 years for men. For men, running speed improved for athletes in the age group of 35–39 years (r2 = 0.44; P = 0.036 and of 40–44 years (r2 = 0.51; P = 0.019, while it decreased for athletes in the age group of 30–34 years (r2 = 0.66, P = 0.0039. For women, running speed remained stable during the study period for athletes in all age groups.Conclusion: These data suggest that the number of finishers of masters runners older than 40 years increased for both sexes at the Marathon des Sables, as has been previously observed for single

  6. Physiological and Biomechanical Mechanisms of Distance Specific Human Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M A

    2017-08-01

    Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles. Middle distance running performance is characterized by intermediates of biomechanical and physiological parameters, with the possibility of unique combinations of each leading to high-level performance. The relatively fast velocities in mid-distance events require a high mechanical power output, though ground reaction forces are less than in sprinting. Elite mid-distance runners exhibit local muscle adaptations that, along with a large anaerobic capacity, provide the ability to generate a high power output. Aerobic capacity starts to become an important aspect of performance in middle distance events, especially as distance increases. In distance running events, V˙O2max is an important determinant of performance, but is relatively homogeneous in elite runners. V˙O2 and velocity at lactate threshold have been shown to be superior predictors of elite distance running performance. Ultramarathons are relatively new running events, as such, less is known about physiological and biomechanical parameters that underlie ultra-marathon performance. However, it is clear that performance in these events is related to aerobic capacity, fuel utilization, and fatigue resistance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in

  7. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  8. Damage to Liver and Skeletal Muscles in Marathon Runners During a 100 km Run With Regard to Age and Running Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębski Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine: (1 whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2 whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3 whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners’ health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25, 50, 75 and 100 km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed with the distance covered (p < 0.05, which continued during recovery. An increase in the mean values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and C-reactive protein (CRP (p < 0.05 was observed with each sequential course. The biggest differences between the age groups were found for the activity of liver enzymes and LDH after completing 75 km as well as after 24 hours of recovery. It can be concluded that the response to extreme exertion deteriorates with age in terms of the active movement apparatus.

  9. Damage to Liver and Skeletal Muscles in Marathon Runners During a 100 km Run With Regard to Age and Running Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Żychowska, Małgorzata; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Konieczna, Anna; Kortas, Jakub

    2015-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2) whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3) whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners' health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25, 50, 75 and 100 km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was observed with the distance covered (p < 0.05), which continued during recovery. An increase in the mean values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.05) was observed with each sequential course. The biggest differences between the age groups were found for the activity of liver enzymes and LDH after completing 75 km as well as after 24 hours of recovery. It can be concluded that the response to extreme exertion deteriorates with age in terms of the active movement apparatus.

  10. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  11. A brief review: the implications of iron supplementation for marathon runners on health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourdos, Michael C; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-02-01

    The marathon is considered one of the most demanding endurance events, imposing an enormous amount of physiological stress on bodily structures, the metabolic machinery, and organ systems. Scientific evidence has conclusively shown that marathoners are in need of special nutritional strategies to maintain performance and health. Indeed, among competitive athletes, marathoners are at greater risk to develop anemia, bone mineral density loss, immunosuppression, and other clinical syndromes that may affect performance. Inadequate dietary intake of the micronutrient iron has been identified as one key factor in the development of the above mentioned anomalies. In fact, iron is one of the few nutrients recommended as a supplement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), and Dietitians of Canada. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to discuss the role of iron on the marathoner's health and performance. Special emphasis will be given to the physiological mechanisms accounting for the additional iron need in this group of athletes and the nutritional strategies intended to counteract iron deficiency.

  12. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among half marathon and marathon runners of the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012: A prospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppel, D; de Koning, J; Verhagen, A P; Scholten-Peeters, G G M

    2016-02-01

    To determine risk factors for running injuries during the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012. Prospective cohort study. Population-based study. This study included 943 runners. Running injuries after the Lage Landen Marathon. Sociodemographic and training-related factors as well as lifestyle factors were considered as potential risk factors and assessed in a questionnaire 1 month before the running event. The association between potential risk factors and injuries was determined, per running distance separately, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 154 respondents sustained a running injury. Among the marathon runners, in the univariate model, body mass index ≥ 26 kg/m(2), ≤ 5 years of running experience, and often performing interval training, were significantly associated with running injuries, whereas in the multivariate model only ≤ 5 years of running experience and not performing interval training on a regular basis were significantly associated with running injuries. Among marathon runners, no multivariate model could be created because of the low number of injuries and participants. This study indicates that interval training on a regular basis may be recommended to marathon runners to reduce the risk of injury.

  13. Optimizing Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widule, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    The optimization of step length and step rate (frequency) is essential for sprinters. This article analyzes data that compare step rate and step length to height, as a function of running speed, for ten elite runners. How results of such analyses can be used in training runners is also discussed. (IAH)

  14. Rate of cardiac arrhythmias and silent brain lesions in experienced marathon runners: rationale, design and baseline data of the Berlin Beat of Running study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeusler Karl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular exercise is beneficial for cardiovascular health but a recent meta-analysis indicated a relationship between extensive endurance sport and a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, an independent risk factor for stroke. However, data on the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias or (clinically silent brain lesions during and after marathon running are missing. Methods/ Design In the prospective observational “Berlin Beat of Running” study experienced endurance athletes underwent clinical examination (CE, 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, carotid ultrasound imaging (CUI and serial blood sampling (BS within 2-3 days prior (CE, MRI, CUI, BS, directly after (CE, BS and within 2 days after (CE, MRI, BS the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON 2011. All participants wore a portable electrocardiogram (ECG-recorder throughout the 4 to 5 days baseline study period. Participants with pathological MRI findings after the marathon, troponin elevations or detected cardiac arrhythmias will be asked to undergo cardiac MRI to rule out structural abnormalities. A follow-up is scheduled after one year. Results Here we report the baseline data of the enrolled 110 athletes aged 36-61 years. Their mean age was 48.8 ± 6.0 years, 24.5% were female, 8.2% had hypertension and 2.7% had hyperlipidaemia. Participants have attended a mean of 7.5 ± 6.6 marathon races within the last 5 years and a mean of 16 ± 36 marathon races in total. Their weekly running distance prior to the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON was 65 ± 17 km. Finally, 108 (98.2% Berlin Beat-Study participants successfully completed the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON 2011. Discussion Findings from the “Berlin Beats of Running” study will help to balance the benefits and risks of extensive endurance sport. ECG-recording during the marathon might contribute to identify athletes at risk for cardiovascular events. MRI results will give new insights into the link

  15. An extreme mountain ultra-marathon decreases the cost of uphill walking and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Vernillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the effects of the world’s most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24000 m on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE and immediately after (POST the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h-1, +20%; running at 6 km·h-1, +15%; and running at 8 km·h-1, +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system. Results: The average time of the study participants to complete the MUM was 129 h 43 min 48 s (range: 107 h 29 min 24 s to 144 h 21 min 0 s. Energy costs in walking (-11.5 ± 5.5%, P < 0.001, as well as in the first (-7.2 ± 3.1%, P = 0.01 and second (-7.0 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02 running condition decreased between PRE and POST, with a reduction both in the heart rate (-11.3%, -10.0%, and -9.3%, respectively and oxygen uptake only for the walking condition (-6.5%. No consistent and significant changes in the kinematics variables were detected (P values from 0.10 to 0.96. Conclusion: Though fatigued after completing the MUM, the subjects were still able to maintain their uphill locomotion patterns noted at PRE. The decrease (improvement in the energy costs was likely due to the prolonged and repetitive walking/running, reflecting a generic improvement in the mechanical efficiency of locomotion after ~130 h of uphill locomotion rather than constraints imposed by the activity on the musculoskeletal structure and function.

  16. An Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Decreases the Cost of Uphill Walking and Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Savoldelli, Aldo; Skafidas, Spyros; Zignoli, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Giardini, Guido; Trabucchi, Pietro; Millet, Grégoire P; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system. Results: The average time of the study participants to complete the MUM was 129 h 43 min 48 s (range: 107 h 29 min 24 s to 144 h 21 min 0 s). Energy costs in walking (-11.5 ± 5.5%, P running condition decreased between PRE and POST, with a reduction both in the heart rate (-11.3, -10.0, and -9.3%, respectively) and oxygen uptake only for the walking condition (-6.5%). No consistent and significant changes in the kinematics variables were detected (P-values from 0.10 to 0.96). Conclusion: Though fatigued after completing the MUM, the subjects were still able to maintain their uphill locomotion patterns noted at PRE. The decrease (improvement) in the energy costs was likely due to the prolonged and repetitive walking/running, reflecting a generic improvement in the mechanical efficiency of locomotion after ~130 h of uphill locomotion rather than constraints imposed by the activity on the musculoskeletal structure and function.

  17. The Boston Marathon versus the World Marathon Majors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip B Maffetone; Rita Malcata; Ivan Rivera; Paul B Laursen

    2017-01-01

    The Boston Marathon course is deemed ineligible for world record status due to its unidirectional nature and excessive negative elevation change, yet performance times across the World Marathon Majors (WMM...

  18. Marathon pacing and elevation change

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, J B

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of marathon pacing and elevation change is presented. It is based on an empirical observation of how the pace of elite and non-elite marathon runners change over the course of the marathon and a simple approximation of the energy cost of ascent and decent. It was observed that the pace of the runners slowed in a regular manner that could be broken up into four regions. That observation can be used to project target paces for a desired marathon finish time. However, that estimate fails to take in to account the energetic costs of elevation changes (hills) along the marathon course. Several approximations are made to give a coarse estimate of target paces for marathon run on courses with significant elevation changes, i.e. a hilly course. The 2012 Oakland Marathon course is used as and example of a hilly course and the times of 23 finishers are examined.

  19. Born to run. Studying the limits of human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is recognised that regular physical activity and a high level of fitness are powerful predictors of positive health outcomes. There is a long and rich history of significant feats of human endurance with some, for example, the death of the first marathon runner, Pheidippides, associated with negative health outcomes. Early studies on endurance running used X-ray and interview techniques to evaluate competitors and comment on performance. Since then, comparatively few studies have looked at runners competing in distances longer than a marathon. Those that have, tend to show significant musculoskeletal injuries and a remarkable level of adaptation to this endurance load. The TransEurope Footrace Project followed ultra-endurance runners aiming to complete 4,500 Km of running in 64 days across Europe. This pioneering study will assess the impact of extreme endurance on human physiology; analysing musculoskeletal and other tissue/organ injuries, and the body's potential ability to adapt to extreme physiological stress. The results will be of interest not only to endurance runners, but to anyone interested in the limits of human performance. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/78

  20. Glasgow marathons 1982-1987. A review of medical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Rogers, P N; Wright, I H

    1990-02-01

    The race statistics, whether conditions and incidence of medical problems for the six consecutive years of the Glasgow Marathon are reviewed. The results suggest that the popularity of marathon running is declining but that the competitors are becoming more experienced, seeking medical assistance earlier and, as a result, experiencing fewer and less serious problems at the finish. The effect of weather conditions on the runners' performance is discussed.

  1. Nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of recent marathon finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-09-01

    To describe the nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of marathoners. A survey-based study was conducted with 422 recent marathon finishers (199 men, 223 women). Participants reported their running background, demographics, diets followed, supplements used, and food/fluid intake during their most recent marathon (median 7 days prior), as well as beliefs about hydration, fueling, and sources of nutrition information. Median finishing times were 3:53 (3:26-4:35) and 4:25 (3:50-4:59) h:min for men and women during their most recent marathon. Most participants (66.1%) reported typically following a moderate-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diet, while 66.4% carbohydrate-loaded prior to their most recent marathon. Among 139 participants following a specific diet over the past year, the most common were vegetarian/vegan/pescatarian (n = 39), Paleolithic (n = 16), gluten-free (n = 15), and low-carbohydrate (n = 12). Roughly 35% of participants took a supplement intended to improve running performance over the past month. Women were more likely to follow specific diets (39.0% vs. 26.1%), while men were more likely to recently use performance-enhancing supplements (40.2% vs. 30.0%). Most participants (68.3%) indicated they were likely or very likely to rely on a structured plan to determine fluid intake, and 75% were confident in their ability to hydrate. At least 35.6% of participants thought they could improve marathon performance by 8% or more with nutrition interventions. Scientific journals ranked as the most reliable source of nutrition information, while running coaches ranked as the most likely source to be utilized. Findings from this investigation, such as diets and supplements utilized by marathoners, can be used by practitioners and researchers alike to improve the dissemination of scientifically-based information on nutrition and marathon running.

  2. Changes in Running Speeds in a 100 KM Ultra-Marathon Race

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam R. Waldeck; Gaonyadiwe G. Mokone; Kirkman, Mark C.; Dugas, Jonathan P.; Mike I. Lambert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if runners who completed a 100 km ultramarathon race in the fastest times changed their running speeds differently compared to those runners who ran an overall slower race. Times were taken from the race results of the 1995 100 km IAU World Challenge in Winschoten, Netherlands. Race times and 10 km split times were analyzed. Runners (n = 67) were divided into groups of ten with the last group consisting of seven runners. The mean running speed for ea...

  3. Physical performance in middle age and old age: good news for our sedentary and aging society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Wunderlich, Max; Sievert, Alexander; Essfeld, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Erley, Oliver; Küchmeister, Gerd; Piekarski, Claus; Löllgen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    .... We assessed the endurance of a physically active subgroup of the population by performing an age- and sex-stratified analysis of over 900,000 running times of marathon and half-marathon participants aged 20 to 79...

  4. Nutritional planning to run an Ultra-marathon, the Transvulcania: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López-Gómez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Transvulcania is an individual mountain competition with 74,6km. The event has provisioning areas to meet the needs of nutrition and hydration of the participants. The importance of dietarynutritional preparation is in preventing or reducing gastrointestinal problems, dehydration, hyponatremia, fatigue, among others. The aim is to describe the dietary and nutritional planning an athlete in this event. Eating habits, supplement intake and body composition were evaluated in a 37 years old male with 10 years of sports experience. Dietary and nutritional recommendations for athletes in competition, test time, refreshment areas and possible food intake/supplements were taken into account for dietary planning during the competition. The dietary and nutritional planning in ultra-endurance events is important to successfully perform the competition, tolerating and taking foods/supplements properly, and avoiding nutritional risk and dehydration, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances, etc.

  5. A word from Steve Myers: The Operational Performance Marathon is just starting

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the previous Bulletin, Lyn (Evans) referred to the construction phase of the LHC as a marathon that is now almost completed. This is absolutely true and thanks to the hard work and dedication of all the construction staff, CERN now has a superb accelerator ready to be operated and driven to its maximum potential performance. However, for many of us, the next phase of operation and exploitation of the LHC is a second marathon and the firing pistol has just been fired. My first encounter with the LHC was in the very early 1980s, when many of us were fully occupied with LEP construction. Through a chance invitation by CERN director Herwig Schopper I participated in a discussion in the US about future proton colliders. Following this meeting, in April 1983, my boss (the late Wolfgang Schnell) and I published "LEP note 440", which gave preliminary estimates of the possible performance of a proton collider in the LEP tunnel. After the controversial de...

  6. Changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run in relation to the age and speed of runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Jastrzębski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study was to reveal morphology, electrolyte and chosen biochemical parameters in terms of health risk in runners in reference to their age and running speed in the case of running a distance of 100 km, which occur after 12 h or 24 h of recovery. Material and Methods: Fourteen experienced, male, amateur, ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age and two speed groups took part in the 100-km run. Blood samples for analyses indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25 km, 50 km, 75 km and 100 km, as well as 12 h and 24 h after termination of the run. Results: The sustained ultramarathon run along with the distance covered (p < 0.05 caused an increase in myoglobin (max 90-fold, bilirubin (max 2.8-fold and total antioxidant status (max 1.15-fold, which also continued during the recovery. Significant changes in the number of white blood cells were observed with each sequential course and could be associated with muscle damage. The electrolyte showed changes towards slight hyperkalemia, but no changes in natrium and calcium concentrations. There were no significant differences between the age and speed groups for all the parameters after completing the 100-km run as well as after 12 h and 24 h of recovery. Conclusions: Considering changes in blood morphology and chosen biochemical parameters in ultra-marathon runners during a 100-km run it can be stated that such an exhausting effort may be dangerous for human health due to metabolic changes and large damage to the organs. Negative metabolic changes are independent of age of an ultramarathon runner and occur both in younger (32±5.33 years and older participants (50.56±9.7 years. It can be concluded that organ damage and negative metabolic changes during a 100-km run occur similarly in participants less experienced as well as in well trained runners. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:801–814

  7. Non-professional marathon running: RAGE axis and ST2 family changes in relation to open-window effect, inflammation and renal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekos, Christine; Zimmermann, Matthias; Unger, Lukas; Janik, Stefan; Hacker, Philipp; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Koller, Michael; Fritz, Robert; Gäbler, Christian; Kessler, Mario; Nickl, Stefanie; Didcock, Jessica; Altmann, Patrick; Haider, Thomas; Roth, Georg; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Moser, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting data exist on the relevance of marathon (M) and half marathon (HM) running for health. The number of non-professional athletes finishing M and HM events is steadily growing. In order to investigate molecular changes occurring in amateur athletes, we enrolled 70 non-professional runners finishing a single M (34) or HM (36) event at baseline, the finish line and during recovery, and 30 controls. The measurement of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts, Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, ST2 and cytokeratin 18 was combined with molecules measured during clinical routine. Results were analyzed in the light of blood cell analysis, lactate measurements, correction for changes in plasma volume and body composition assessments. There were intrinsic differences in body mass index, abdominal body fat percentage and training time between M and HM runners. C-reactive protein changes in M and HM runners. While soluble RAGE, AGEs and ST2 increased immediately after the race in HM runners, HMGB1 increased in HM and M after the race and declined to baseline after a recovery period. We give insights into the regulation of various molecules involved in physical stress reactions and their possible implications for the cardiovascular system or renal function. PMID:27653273

  8. Marathon progress: demography, morphology and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Andy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Guillaume, Marion; Rizk, Melissa; Schipman, Julien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    As opposed to many other track-and-field events, marathon performances still improve. We choose to better describe the reasons for such a progression. The 100 best marathon runners archived from January 1990 to December 2011 for men and from January 1996 to December 2011 for women were analysed. We determined the impact of historical, demographic, physiological, seasonal and environmental factors. Performances in marathons improve at every level of performance (deciles). In 2011, 94% of the 100 best men athletes were African runners; among women athletes they were 52%. Morphological indicators (stature, body mass and Body Mass Index (BMI)) have decreased. We show a parabolic function between BMI and running speed. The seasonal distribution has two peaks, in spring (weeks 14 to 17) and autumn (weeks 41 to 44). During both periods, the average temperature of the host cities varies close to optimal value for long distance race. African men and women runners are increasingly dominating the marathon and pushing its record, through optimal eco-physiological conditions.

  9. A performance analysis of a Stand Up Paddle Board marathon race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, AProf Ben; Hing, Prof Wayne; Climstein, AProf Mike; Furness, AProf James

    2016-10-28

    Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity in which little scientific research exists. A review of the literature failed to identify a single article pertaining to the physiological demands of SUP competition. The purpose of this study was to conduct a performance analysis of a national level SUP marathon race. Ten elite SUP athletes (6 male, 4 female) were recruited from the Stand Up Paddle Surfing Association of Australia to have their race performance in the Australian Titles analyzed. Performance variables included SUP speed, course taken and heart rate, measured with a 15Hz GPS unit. Results demonstrated that there was a variation in distance covered (13.3km-13.9km), peak speed (18.8km/hr-26.4km/hr) and only moderate correlations (r=0.38) of race result to distance covered. Significantly greater amounts of time were spent in 5-10km/hr speed zones (p<0.05) during the race. Peak heart rate varied from 168-208bpm amongst the competitors with the average heart rate was 168.6±9.8bpm. Significantly higher durations were spent in elevated heart rate zones (p<0.05) with participants spending 89.3% of their race within 80-100% of their age-predicted HRmax. Marathon SUP races appear to involve a high aerobic demand, with maintenance of near max heart rates required for the duration of the race. There is a high influence of tactical decisions and extrinsic variables to race results. These results provide a greater understanding of the physiological demands of distance events and may assist in the development of specialised training programs for SUP athletes.

  10. Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in runners following a competitive marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Zwetsloot, Kevin A; Knab, Amy M; Imagita, Hidetaka; Luo, Beibei; Davis, Barbara; Zubeldia, José M

    2014-07-01

    Adaptogens modulate intracellular signaling and increase expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72). Rhodiola rosea (RR) is a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of RR supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), plasma cytokines, and extracellular HSP72 (eHSP72) in experienced runners completing a marathon. Experienced marathon runners were randomized to RR (n=24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male) groups and under double-blinded conditions ingested 600mg/day RR extract or placebo for 30days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood samples were collected, and vertical jump and DOMS assessed the day before, 15min post- and 1.5h post-marathon. DOMS was also assessed for seven days post-marathon. Marathon race performance did not differ between RR and placebo groups (3.87±0.12h and 3.93±0.12h, respectively, p=0.722). Vertical jump decreased post-marathon (time effect, p0.300). In conclusion, RR supplementation (600mg/day) for 30days before running a marathon did not attenuate the post-marathon decrease in muscle function, or increases in muscle damage, DOMS, eHSP72, or plasma cytokines in experienced runners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marathon Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; van de Kam, Jan

    Marathon Migrants onderscheidt zich van alle andere vogelboeken door de combinatie van tekst van de trekvogelecoloog en waddenonderzoeker prof. dr. Theunis Piersma en de sublieme foto’s van de bekende vogelfotograaf Jan van de Kam. Door de wetenschappelijke blik van de fotograaf zijn de foto’s meer

  12. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by

  13. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by me

  14. Run 1 Legacy Performance : electrons/photons

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, the run 1 legacy performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The two speakers should try to enlight the differences of performances between the two experiments, and explain what worked better/worse than planned, as well as the lessons for the run 2.

  15. Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, P B; Nieman, D C; O'Connor, P J

    1993-02-01

    Four topics are addressed: fluid/fuel replacement during the marathon, marathoning and susceptibility to infection, psychological aspects of elite marathoners and the gender gap in marathon performance. Although these topics are diverse, they all relate to practical questions raised by coaches and athletes. Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that it is advisable for marathoners to consume 800 to 1000 L/h of sports drink providing 45 to 60 g/h of carbohydrate. It is strongly suggested to practice fluid consumption during training sessions as it is probable that tolerance to drinking during running is a trainable adaptation. Epidemiological and clinical research support the concept that marathon training and racing increase the runner's risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of negative changes in immune function. Susceptibility to infection may be reduced by proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate recovery between vigorous workouts and minimal exposure to sick people during periods of heavy training and major races. Although psychological research in this area is still limited, evidence suggests that elite marathoners rely primarily on associative strategies during competition while judiciously dissociating in order to cope with pain. It is recommended that coaches and athletes interested in employing psychological interventions seek assistance from professionals well trained in the fields of both psychology and exercise science. Will women soon outrun men? Over the past 2 decades societal views and training practices of women distance runners have changed greatly, yet certain performance-related biological differences between men and women are unlikely to change.

  16. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niklas Lehto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners. Methods: Subjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons held from 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342 male runners. Results: The relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t=a+bx+cx2, which models 99.7%of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. A quantification of the age’s influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5%of the total variance seen in the performance data. Conclusion: These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

  17. Jet performance in Run 2 at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kunigo, Takuto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Slides for the talk "Jet performance in Run 2" at BOOST 2016. In this talk, the jet energy calibration sequence ( including in-situ calibrations at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV ), jet energy scale and resolution uncertainties and the jet calibration plan for 2016 will be presented.

  18. Prevalence in running events and running performance of endurance runners following a vegetarian or vegan diet compared to non-vegetarian endurance runners: the NURMI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirnitzer, Katharina; Seyfart, Tom; Leitzmann, Claus; Keller, Markus; Wirnitzer, Gerold; Lechleitner, Christoph; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial and detrimental effects of various vegetarian and vegan diets on the health status are well known. Considering the growing background numbers of vegetarians and vegans, the number of vegetarian and vegan runners is likely to rise, too. Therefore, the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study was designed as a comparative study to investigate the prevalence of omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans in running events and to detect potential differences in running performance comparing these three subgroups. The NURMI Study will be conducted in three steps following a cross-sectional design. Step 1 will determine epidemiological aspects of endurance runners (any distance) using a short standardized questionnaire. Step 2 will investigate dietary habits and running history from eligible participants (capable of running a half-marathon at least) using an extended standardized questionnaire. Step 3 will collect data after a running event on finishing time and final ranking as well as a post-race rating of perceived exertion, mood status, nutrient and fluid intake during the race. Our study will provide a major contribution to overcome the lack of data on the prevalence and running performance of vegetarian and vegan runners in endurance running events. We estimate the prevalence of vegetarians and vegans participating in a running event to be less compared to the respective proportion of vegetarians and vegans to the general population. Furthermore we will validate the subject's self-assessment of their respective diet. This comparative study may identify possible effects of dietary behavior on running performance und may detect possible differences between the respective subgroups: omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan runners. Trial registration Current controlled trials, ISRCTN73074080.

  19. Ergogenic effect of music during running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In running competitions portable music players and headphones are often banned. In some cases, runners have been disqualified after using such devices during competition. In this paper, it is discussed whether, aside from possible safety reasons, such competition regulations make sense and whether music can have an ergogenic effect on performance. Although a definitive conclusion on the regulation matter is not of our concern here, we review evidence of the fact that music is capable of enhan...

  20. ATLAS Run-2 status and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pastore, Francesca; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the 2013/2014 shutdown of the LHC the ATLAS detector has been improved. A new silicon pixel detector layers has been installed, and the muon detector coverage has been improved substantially. In addition nearly all other parts of the detector have also been revised to adapt them to the higher pileup conditions or make them more robust in general. This talk will describe these improvements, and how they affect the performance of physics objects. The initial results showing the detector performance as obtained from cosmic runs and/or initial beam data will also be shown.

  1. Running to Extremes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHILIP JONES

    2010-01-01

    @@ For some, simply running 21 km, or a full marathon at 42 kin, isn't enough of an achievement. I mean, you can run a marathon in almost every major city in the world and many of them are centerpiece events watched by a global audience.

  2. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  3. Ketone production in ultra marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, J; Glonek, T

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of ketone production in ultra marathon runners and what affect if any this has on performance. Participants in the Cliff Young Australian Six Day Race (n=31) provided a prerace urine sample and, then, random urine samples throughout the duration of the event, ranging from 4-20 samples each. Based on urinalysis results, participants were divided into two groups: those who formed ketones (ketone group), and those who did not form ketones or formed ketones only once during a race at the lowest recordable value (non-ketone group). The average ketone level of the 22 athletes in the ketone group (value+/-standard deviation: 5.67+/-5.59 mg/dL) was statistically different from 9 athletes who were in the non-ketone group (0.18+/-0.14 mg/dL) (Pketone value was compared, excluding runners who did not complete the race, the ketone group (5.88+/-1.37) remained statistically different from the non-ketone group (0.2+/-0.45) (Pketones and runners who do not make ketones, the level of ketones produced did not affect overall distance run, which is the performance criterion of the race. The nature of this extreme event has illuminated a physiologic difference among ultra marathon runners, and although this difference does not appear to affect race performance, the long-term health consequences are unknown and additional rigorous research is warranted.

  4. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners.Methods: The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites, previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time, and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05, had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05 and thigh (P < 0.01, and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05 compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001 and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001, but were running slower (P < 0.01 compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05. In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001 and running speed during training (P < 0.0001 were related to marathon race times.Conclusion: In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do

  5. Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Abraham, Corinne S; Lockey, Richard A; Goodwin, Jon E; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on multiple sprint running performance. Using a randomized double-blind research design, 21 physically active men ingested a gelatin capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg x kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (maltodextrin) 1 h before completing an indoor multiple sprint running trial (12 x 30 m; repeated at 35-s intervals). Venous blood samples were drawn to evaluate plasma caffeine and primary metabolite concentrations. Sprint times were recorded via twin-beam photocells, and earlobe blood samples were drawn to evaluate pretest and posttest lactate concentrations. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the tests, with RPE recorded after every third sprint. Relative to placebo, caffeine supplementation resulted in a 0.06-s (1.4%) reduction in fastest sprint time (95% likely range = 0.04-0.09 s), which corresponded with a 1.2% increase in fatigue (95% likely range = 0.3-2.2%). Caffeine supplementation also resulted in a 3.4-bpm increase in mean heart rate (95% likely range = 0.1-6.6 bpm) and elevations in pretest (+0.7 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.1-1.3 mmol x L(-1)) and posttest (+1.8 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.3-3.2 mmol x L(-1)) blood lactate concentrations. In contrast, there was no significant effect of caffeine supplementation on RPE. Although the effect of recovery duration on caffeine-induced responses to multiple sprint work requires further investigation, the results of the present study show that caffeine has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance in both single and multiple sprint sports.

  6. Convection-diffusion effects in marathon race dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of the recent terrorist attack event on the 2013 Boston Marathon, the increasing participation of recreational runners in large marathon races has imposed important logistical and safety issues for organizers and city authorities. An accurate understanding of the dynamics of the marathon pack along the race course can provide important insights for improving safety and performance of these events. On the other hand, marathon races can be seen as a model of pedestrian movement under confined conditions. This work used data of the 2011 Chicago Marathon event for modeling the dynamics of the marathon pack from the corral zone to the finish line. By considering the marathon pack as a set of particles moving along the race course, the dynamics are modeled as a convection-diffusion partial differential equation with position-dependent mean velocity and diffusion coefficient. A least-squares problem is posed and solved with optimization techniques for fitting field data from the 2011 Chicago Marathon. It was obtained that the mean pack velocity decreases while the diffusion coefficient increases with distance. This means that the dispersion rate of the initially compact marathon pack increases as the marathon race evolves along the race course.

  7. Case study: nutrition challenges of a marathon runner with a gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    A new type of athlete is appearing in the offices of sports dietitians: formerly obese people who have undergone gastric bypass surgery and now aspire to be marathoners, triathletes, and other types of endurance athletes. The standard nutrition advice offered to bypass patients is contrary to the standard sports advice given to athletes. Bypass athletes need to limit carbohydrates, fluids, and energy intake and consume a protein-based diet. This case study describes the sport nutrition concerns of a woman who, after having gastric bypass surgery, trained to run a marathon (42 km). Because of her limited ability to consume food and fluids, she experienced difficulty preventing fatigue and dehydration during her long training runs and the marathon itself. She learned through trial and error how to survive the nutritional challenges and complete the marathon. Health professionals need to be aware of the potential medical risks associated with endurance exercise in gastric bypass patients. Research is needed to determine the best sports nutrition practices for bypass patients. Only then can sport dietitians better educate this small but growing contingent of endurance athletes so the athletes can meet their training and performance goals and reduce their risk of experiencing serious health consequences.

  8. Case Report: Hyponatremia in a Marathoner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul B; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first reported case of hyponatremia from participation in endurance running of marathon distance is discussed. Nine earlier cases occurring in subjects who endured greater distances are summarized. Symptoms and treatment of the 21-year-old subject of this case report are presented and preventive measures recommended for endurance-event…

  9. Evaluatie TCS Amsterdam marathon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter Verhoogt; Marije Baart de la Faille Deutekom

    2014-01-01

    Op zondag 19 oktober 2014 vond de 39ste editie plaats van de TCS Amsterdam Marathon. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil organisator Le Champion graag een beter onderbouwd inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van de TCS Amsterdam Marathon. Zij heeft de Hogeschool van

  10. Aging, Fitness, and Marathon Times in a 91 Year-old Man Who Competed in 627 Marathons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Odessa; Steinbrenner, Gregory; Goldberg, Andrew P; Katzel, Leslie I

    Aging is associated with a decline in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) that may be attenuated by chronic endurance exercise. This case study chronicles the changes in marathon times in a 91 year old man who completed 627 marathons and 117 ultramarathons over 42 years. He began running marathons at age 48. His yearly best times remained fairly constant at ~240 minutes from age 50 - 64 years and then gradually rose to about 260 minutes in his early seventies followed by a curvilinear deterioration as he approached his ninth decade. His times plateaued at ~ 600 minutes in his late eighties. Between ages 68 and 89 his VO2max declined from 43 to 20 ml/kg/min. His marathon times were highly correlated with his VO2max (r(2)=0.87). The decline in marathons times and VO2max may reflect the contributions of biological aging, changes in exercise training volume and intensity, injuries, and comorbid disease.

  11. Palm cooling does not improve running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, C M; Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Devor, S T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a combination of exercise and environmental heat stress. Twelve subjects completed two randomly ordered time-to-exhaustion runs at 75% VO2max, 30 °C, and 50% relative humidity with and without palm cooling. Time to exhaustion runs started once the warm-up had elicited a core temperature of 37.5 °C. Heart rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Feeling Scale, and core temperature were recorded at 2-min intervals during each run. Time to exhaustion was longer in control than treatment (46.7±31.1 vs. 41.3±26.3 min, respectively, prate-of-rise of core temperature was not different between control and treatment (0.047 vs. 0.048 °C · min-1, respectively). The use of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a run in hot conditions did not eliminate or even attenuate the rise in core temperature. Exercise time in hot conditions did not increase with the use of the palm cooling device and time to exhaustion was reduced. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects - a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Luke, Anthony [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Family and Community Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ma, C.B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of knee abnormalities was found in marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences. (orig.)

  13. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners.

  15. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  16. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in Run I and Initial Run II Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run I, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x1033 cm-2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and preliminary results of the new muon str...

  17. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in Run I and Initial Run II Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run I, the instantaneous luminosity reached $7.7\\times10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and the average number of interactions that occur in the same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this challenging environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. The performance of muon triggers during the Large Hadron Collider Run I data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and pre...

  18. Can cycle power predict sprint running performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Jacobs, R; de Koning, J J

    1991-01-01

    A major criticism of present models of the energetics and mechanics of sprint running concerns the application of estimates of parameters which seem to be adapted from measurements of running during actual competitions. This study presents a model which does not perpetuate this solecism. Using data obtained during supra-maximal cycle ergometer tests of highly trained athletes, the kinetics of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways were modelled. Internal power wasted in the acceleration and deceleration of body limbs and the power necessary to overcome air friction was calculated from data in the literature. Assuming a mechanical efficiency as found during submaximal cycling, a power equation was constructed which also included the power necessary to accelerate the body at the start of movement. The differential equation thus obtained was solved through simulation. The model appeared to predict realistic times at 100 m (10.47 s), 200 m (19.63 s) and 400 m (42.99 s) distances. By comparison with other methods it is argued that power equations of locomotion should include the concept of mechanical efficiency.

  19. Fatigue during dynamic muscle contractions in male sprinters and marathon runners: relationships between performance, electromyographic activity, muscle cross-sectional area and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzon, R; Johansson, C; Sjöström, M; Fagerlund, M; Fugl-Meyer, A R

    1988-04-01

    Knee extensor fatigue and endurance during repeated maximum isokinetic manoeuvres were studied in five sprinters and five marathon runners, all males. Fatigue and endurance were expressed in terms of output (contractional work, CW) and input (integrated electromyograms, iEMG), and was related to muscle fibre composition of m. vastus lateralis and to cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps. The initially performed contractional work was positively related to the calculated absolute type II fibre area of m. vastus lateralis, but not to the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps. During the first 25 contractions, sprinters fatigued, with a slope of decline in contractional work that was correlated to the absolute type II fibre area, also after correction of performed work for CSA of m. quadriceps. As the electromyographic activity decreased less than the contractional work, a drastic fall in the CW/iEMG ratio was found in the sprinter group. Three out of five sprinters could perform less than 50 knee extensions, due to subjective discomfort in tested thighs. In contrast, all marathon runners could, after a minor similar decline in electromyographic activity and contractional work during the first part of the experiment, maintain a steady-state endurance level of CW and iEMG throughout the test (200 knee extensions). In conclusion, fatigue during isokinetic maximal knee extensions is closely related to the muscle structure of m. vastus lateralis.

  20. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P economy and 5-km running performance.

  2. Neuromuscular consequences of an extreme mountain ultra-marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Y Millet

    Full Text Available We investigated the physiological consequences of one of the most extreme exercises realized by humans in race conditions: a 166-km mountain ultra-marathon (MUM with 9500 m of positive and negative elevation change. For this purpose, (i the fatigue induced by the MUM and (ii the recovery processes over two weeks were assessed. Evaluation of neuromuscular function (NMF and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation were performed before and immediately following (n = 22, and 2, 5, 9 and 16 days after the MUM (n = 11 in experienced ultra-marathon runners. Large maximal voluntary contraction decreases occurred after MUM (-35% [95% CI: -28 to -42%] and -39% [95% CI: -32 to -46%] for KE and PF, respectively, with alteration of maximal voluntary activation, mainly for KE (-19% [95% CI: -7 to -32%]. Significant modifications in markers of muscle damage and inflammation were observed after the MUM as suggested by the large changes in creatine kinase (from 144 ± 94 to 13,633 ± 12,626 UI L(-1, myoglobin (from 32 ± 22 to 1,432 ± 1,209 µg L(-1, and C-Reactive Protein (from <2.0 to 37.7 ± 26.5 mg L(-1. Moderate to large reductions in maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude, high-frequency doublet force, and low frequency fatigue (index of excitation-contraction coupling alteration were also observed for both muscle groups. Sixteen days after MUM, NMF had returned to initial values, with most of the recovery process occurring within 9 days of the race. These findings suggest that the large alterations in NMF after an ultra-marathon race are multi-factorial, including failure of excitation-contraction coupling, which has never been described after prolonged running. It is also concluded that as early as two weeks after such an extreme running exercise, maximal force capacities have returned to baseline.

  3. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run 2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run 1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run 2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  4. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run1 and Prospects for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  5. Run For Fun : Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippin, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We use data from the 24-hours Belluno run which has the unique characteristic that participants are affiliated with teams and run for an hour. This allows us not only to study the individual relationship between age and performance but also to study group dynamics in terms of accessions to

  6. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Tim W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Humans run faster by increasing a combination of stride length and stride frequency. In slow and medium-paced running, stride length is increased by exerting larger support forces during ground contact, whereas in fast running and sprinting, stride frequency is increased by swinging the legs more rapidly through the air. Many studies have investigated the mechanics of human running, yet little is known about how the individual leg muscles accelerate the joints and centre of mass during this task. The aim of this study was to describe and explain the synergistic actions of the individual leg muscles over a wide range of running speeds, from slow running to maximal sprinting. Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds. For speeds up to 7 m s(-1), the ankle plantarflexors, soleus and gastrocnemius, contributed most significantly to vertical support forces and hence increases in stride length. At speeds greater than 7 m s(-1), these muscles shortened at relatively high velocities and had less time to generate the forces needed for support. Thus, above 7 m s(-1), the strategy used to increase running speed shifted to the goal of increasing stride frequency. The hip muscles, primarily the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus and hamstrings, achieved this goal by accelerating the hip and knee joints more vigorously during swing. These findings provide insight into the strategies used by the leg muscles to maximise running performance and have implications for the design of athletic training programs.

  7. Biological maturity influences running performance in junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary; Cook, Jill

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of biological maturity on measures of running fitness and running performance in both training and competition in junior Australian football. Cross sectional observational. Fifty-two male junior players from five age groups (U11-U19) participated. Biological maturity was self-assessed based on Tanner's description of five pubertal stages (P1-P5) as well as objectively estimated from anthropometric measures and expressed as years to and from peak height velocity (Y-PHV). Running speed and aerobic fitness were measured using a 20m sprint and 20m multi-stage shuttle run respectively. Running movements during training and competition were analysed (n=197) using global positioning system technology, including total distance, peak speed, high-intensity running (HIR>14.4km/h) distance and number of sprints (>23km/h). Age groups included participants from a range of pubertal stages (U11: P1-2; U13: P2-4; U15: P2-5; U17: P4-5; U19: P5). Y-PHV was significantly correlated with 20m shuttle run (r=0.647), 20m sprint time (r=-0.773) and all distance and high intensity running variables (r=0.417-0.831). Incremental improvements across pubertal stages for speed, aerobic fitness and most GPS derived running variables were observed. Within age group comparisons between less and more mature players found significant differences for standing and sitting height, peak speed in training, and total distance, HIR and peak speed in matches. Functional running fitness and running performance in both training and competition environments improved with increasing biological maturity. More mature players in an age group, either chronologically, biologically or a combination of both, are at a performance advantage to those less mature. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prior Design for Dependent Dirichlet Processes: An Application to Marathon Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie F Pradier

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners' performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons.

  9. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  10. Run 1 legacy performance: Tracking, flavour tagging, muons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Moyse, EJW; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, the run 1 legacy performance of the tracking, heavy-flavor tagging and muon reconstruction in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The two speakers should try to enlight the differences of performances between the two experiments, and explain what worked better/worse than planned, as well as the lessons for the run 2.

  11. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Scott; Harber, Matthew; Creer, Andrew; Gallagher, Philip; Slivka, Dustin; Minchev, Kiril; Whitsett, David

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of marathon training on single muscle fiber contractile function in a group of recreational runners. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of seven individuals (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 3 cm, and 68 +/- 2 kg) before, after 13 wk of run training, and after 3 wk of taper. Slow-twitch myosin heavy chain [(MHC) I] and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers were analyzed for size, strength (P(o)), speed (V(o)), and power. The run training program led to the successful completion of a marathon (range 3 h 56 min to 5 h 35 min). Oxygen uptake during submaximal running and citrate synthase activity were improved (P 60% increase (P twitch and fast-twitch muscle fiber size but that it maintained or improved the functional profile of these fibers. A taper period before the marathon further improved the functional profile of the muscle, which was targeted to the fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  12. Basic ATLAS TRT performance studies of Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This document compares the results of basic performance studies of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) for data recorded during the 2011 and 2012 LHC running to the corresponding detector simulation studies. Electrons and muons from $Z$ and $J/\\psi$ decays are used to characterize important performance aspects of the TRT as straw efficiency, drift-time accuracy, tracking and particle identification performance.

  13. The ATLAS Trigger in Run-2: Design, Menu, and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high- level trigger. It has successfully operated during the first part of Run-2 (2015/2016) at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. A comprehensive review of the ATLAS trigger design, menu, and performance in Run-2 is presented in these proceedings, as well as an overview of the intensive preparation towards the second part of Run-2 (2017/2018).

  14. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance : Run 1 and initial Run 2.

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, Kota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance: Run 1 and Initial Run 2 Performance

Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run 1, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x10^33 cm -2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. 
The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns i...

  15. Effects of music interventions on emotional States and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the

  16. Predicting intermittent running performance: critical velocity versus endurance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Laursen, P B; Millet, G P; Pactat, F; Ahmaidi, S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest (30/30). Runs were performed until exhaustion at three intensities (100, 95 and 90 % of the speed reached at the end of the 30 - 15 intermittent fitness test, V (IFT)) to calculate i) CV from the slope of the linear relationship between the total covered distance and exhaustion time (ET) (iCV); ii) anaerobic distance capacity from the Y-intercept of the distance/duration relationship (iADC); and iii) EI from the relationship between the fraction of V (IFT) at which the runs were performed and the log-transformed ET (iEI). Anaerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the final velocity achieved during the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (VMART). ET was longer for 15/15 than for 30/30 runs at similar intensities. iCV (15/15) and iCV (30/30) were not influenced by changes in ET and were highly dependent on V (IFT). Neither iADC (15/15) nor iADC (30/30) were related to VMART. In contrast, iEI (15/15) was higher than iEI (30/30), and corresponded with the higher ET. In conclusion, only iEI estimated endurance capacity during repeated intermittent running.

  17. EFFECTS OF MUSIC INTERVENTIONS ON EMOTIONAL STATES AND RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65 who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2 to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running

  18. Run 1 legacy performance: Jet/ETMiss/Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Sumida, Toshi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The run 1 legacy performance of jet, missing transverse energy and tau reconstruction in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The differences of performances between the two experiments will be enlightened. (Talk to be given at Physics at the LHC and Beyond, Quy-Nhon, Vietnam, August 10-17, 2014)

  19. The ATLAS Trigger algorithms upgrade and performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Title: The ATLAS Trigger algorithms upgrade and performance in Run 2 (TDAQ) The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken impr...

  20. The Russians Are the Fastest in Marathon Cross-Country Skiing: The “Engadin Ski Marathon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” All athletes (n=197,125 who finished the “Engadin Ski Marathon” between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%, Grisons (19.2%, and Berne (10.3%. Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the “Engadin Ski Marathon.” Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.

  1. Test of the classic model for predicting endurance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James E; Howley, Edward T; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2010-05-01

    To compare the classic physiological variables linked to endurance performance (VO2max, %VO2max at lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (RE)) with peak treadmill velocity (PTV) as predictors of performance in a 16-km time trial. Seventeen healthy, well-trained distance runners (10 males and 7 females) underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RE, percentage of maximal oxygen uptake at the LT (%VO2max at LT), running velocity at LT, and PTV. Velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) was calculated from RE and VO2max. Three stepwise regression models were used to determine the best predictors (classic vs treadmill performance protocols) for the 16-km running time trial. Simple Pearson correlations of the variables with 16-km performance showed vVO2max to have the highest correlation (r = -0.972) and %VO2max at the LT the lowest (r = 0.136). The correlation coefficients for LT, VO2max, and PTV were very similar in magnitude (r = -0.903 to r = -0.892). When VO2max, %VO2max at LT, RE, and PTV were entered into SPSS stepwise analysis, VO2max explained 81.3% of the total variance, and RE accounted for an additional 10.7%. vVO2max was shown to be the best predictor of the 16-km performance, accounting for 94.4% of the total variance. The measured velocity at VO2max (PTV) was highly correlated with the estimated velocity at vVO2max (r = 0.8867). Among well-trained subjects heterogeneous in VO2max and running performance, vVO2max is the best predictor of running performance because it integrates both maximal aerobic power and the economy of running. The PTV is linked to the same physiological variables that determine vVO2max.

  2. The ATLAS Dataflow System in Run-2: Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Dataflow system is composed of distributed hardware and software responsible for buffering and transporting event data from the Readout system to the High Level Trigger and to the event storage. By building on the experience gained during the successful first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been simplified and upgraded to take advantage of state of the art technologies resulting in a maximized efficiency and improved performance. This proceeding describes the new architecture of the ATLAS DAQ system and highlights its performance during Run-2 of the LHC.

  3. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p football match play.

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Detector in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, Nicoletta; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV and ATLAS has taken 3.2 fb-1 of data at the new energy in 2015. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed. Furthermore, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tagging have been improved for Run-2. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. The performance of the upgraded detector and the new reconstruction algorithms measured using these data taken in 2015 will be discussed.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS detector in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV and ATLAS has taken 3.2 fb-1 of data at the new energy in 2015. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed. Furthermore, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tagging have been improved for Run-2. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. The performance of the upgraded detector and the new reconstruction algorithms measured using these data taken in 2015 will be discussed.

  6. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms Upgrade and Performance in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up which are the result of the almost doubling of the center-of-mass collision energy and the increase in the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken improvements resulted in more pile-up robust selection efficiencies and event ra...

  7. Sprint running performance: comparison between treadmill and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Sève, Pierrick

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the differences in performance between 100-m sprints performed on a sprint treadmill recently validated versus on a standard track. To date, studies comparing overground and treadmill running have mainly focused on constant and not maximal "free" running speed, and compared running kinetics and kinematics over a limited number of steps, but not overall sprint performance. Eleven male physical education students including two sprinters performed one 100-m on the treadmill and one on a standard athletics track in a randomized order, separated by 30 min. Performance data were derived in both cases from speed-time relationships measured with a radar and with the instrumented sprint treadmill, which allowed subjects to run and produce speed "freely", i.e. with no predetermined belt speed imposed. Field and treadmill typical speed-distance curves and data of maximal and mean speed, 100-m time and acceleration/deceleration time constants were compared using t tests and field-treadmill correlations were tested. All the performance parameters but time to reach top speed and deceleration time constant differed significantly, by about 20% on average, between field and treadmill (e.g. top speed of 8.84 ± 0.51 vs. 6.90 ± 0.39 m s(-1)). However, significant correlations were found (r > 0.63; P 100-m sprint performances are different, despite the fact that subjects could freely accelerate the belt. However, the significant correlations found make it possible to investigate and interpret inter-individual differences in field performance from treadmill measurements.

  8. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerdá Alberich, L., E-mail: lcerdaal@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010–2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  9. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  10. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground, 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude, 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race, 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music. Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.

  11. LHCb Vertex Locator: Performance and radiation damage in LHC Run 1 and preparation for Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumlak, T.; Obła˛kowska-Mucha, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 μm thick half-disc silicon sensors with R- and Φ-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 ×1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2 during the first LHC run. Silicon type-inversion has been observed in regions close to the interaction point. The preparations for LHC Run 2 are well under way and the VELO has already recorded tracks from injection line tests. The current status and plans for new operational procedures addressing the non-uniform radiation damage are shortly discussed.

  12. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Thomas Rosemann1, Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceBackground: The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes.Methods: Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001 and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001 were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8 = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes.Conclusion: These results suggest

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00354209; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established through beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~\\ifb of proton-proton collision data were collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~\\ifb of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in the first year. We present a summary of the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale...

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range |η|<4.9. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb−1 of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb−1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformit...

  15. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance : Run 1 and initial Run 2.

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, Kota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run 1, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x10^33 cm -2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. 
The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and preliminary results of the new muo...

  16. Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Brown, Lee E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wistocki, David R; Davis, Gregory S; Naimo, Marshall A; Zito, Gina A; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    It is previously demonstrated that static stretching was associated with a decrease in running economy and distance run during a 30-minute time trial in trained runners. Recently, the detrimental effects of static stretching on economy were found to be limited to the first few minutes of an endurance bout. However, economy remains to be studied for its direct effects on performance during shorter endurance events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance, electromyography (EMG), ground contact time (GCT), and flexibility. Ten trained male distance runners aged 24 ± 5 years with an average VO2max of 64.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 were recruited. Subjects reported to the laboratory on 3 separate days interspersed by 72 hours. On day 1, anthropometrics and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were determined on a motor-driven treadmill. On days 2 and 3, subjects performed a 5-minute treadmill warm-up and either performed a series of 6 lower-body stretches for three 30-second repetitions or sat still for 10 minutes. Time to complete a 1-mile run under stretching and nonstretching conditions took place in randomized order. For the performance run, subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible at a set incline of 5% until a distance of 1 mile was completed. Flexibility from the sit and reach test, EMG, GCT, and performance, determined by time to complete the 1-mile run, were recorded after each condition. Time to complete the run was significantly less (6:51 ± 0:28 minutes) in the nonstretching condition as compared with the stretching condition (7:04 ± 0:32 minutes). A significant condition-by-time interaction for muscle activation existed, with no change in the nonstretching condition (pre 91.3 ± 11.6 mV to post 92.2 ± 12.9 mV) but increased in the stretching condition (pre 91.0 ± 11.6 mV to post 105.3 ± 12.9 mV). A significant condition-by-time interaction for GCT was also present, with no changes in

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s${^-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. The calibration and performance of the LAr calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the LAr calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as we...

  18. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Tau Trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Tau leptons are used in a range of important ATLAS physics analyses, including the measurement of the SM Higgs boson coupling to fermions and searches for Higgs boson partners or heavy resonances decaying into pairs of tau leptons. Events for analyses are provided by a number of single and di-tau triggers, as well as triggers requiring tau lepton in combination with other objects. As the luminosity of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is going to exceed the design of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in Run 2, the tau trigger strategies have to become more sophisticated than in Run 1. Topological selections at the first trigger level, fast tracking algorithms and improved identification requirements are the main developments to allow a large program of physics analyses with tau leptons. The performance of the ATLAS tau trigger during the 2015 and early 2016 data taking will be presented, together with the plans for further developments envisaged during the Run 2.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Tau Trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Tau leptons are used in a range of important ATLAS physics analyses, including the measurement of the SM Higgs boson coupling to fermions, searches for Higgs boson partners, and heavy resonances that decay into pairs of tau leptons. Events for analyses are provided by a number of single and di-tau triggers, as well as triggers requiring tau lepton in combination with other objects. As the luminosity of proton--proton collisions at the LHC is going to exceed the design value of $10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ in Run 2, the tau trigger strategies have become more sophisticated than in Run 1. Topological selections at the first trigger level, fast tracking algorithms and improved identification requirements are the main developments to allow a large program of physics analyses with tau leptons. The performance of the ATLAS tau trigger during the 2015 and early 2016 data taking is discussed, as well as plans for further developments envisaged during Run 2.

  1. ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm−2 s−1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of 27 fb−1 has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV between year of 2010 to 2012. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started with approximately 3.9 fb-1 and 35.6 fb-1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In order to realize the level-1 acceptance rate of 100 kHz in Run-2 data taking, number of read-out samples for the energy and the time measurement has been modified from five to four with keeping the expected performance. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Ar...

  2. LAr Calorimeter Performance and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Spettel, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of $8 \\times 10^{33} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. During the next run, peak luminosities of $1.5 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$ and even higher are expected at a 25ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminos...

  3. LHCb : LHCbVELO: Performance and Radiation Damage in LHC Run I and Preparationfor Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 um thick half-disc silicon sensors with R-measuring and Phi-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 um is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 x 10...

  4. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Chris J; Murray, Kelly A; Parry, David A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 - 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 - 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr(-1). 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.

  5. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. McManus, Kelly A. Murray, David A. Parry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2 and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19. Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.

  6. HEART RATE RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE AND NEURAL REGULATION OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN 30-40 YEAR OLD FEMALE MARATHON RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endurance training on heart rate (HR recovery after exercise and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls. Six female marathon runners (M group aged 32-40 years and eight age-matched untrained females (C group performed a maximum-effort treadmill running exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was measured during the exercise with a gas analyzer connected to subjects through a face mask. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the exercise. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE to the exercise was obtained immediately after the exercise. Holter ECG was recorded and analyzed with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV to investigate the cardiac ANS modulation. The M group had significantly higher VO2max, faster HR recovery after exercise, higher Mean RR, SDRR, HF power and lower LF/HF ratio at rest compared with the C group. The M group also presented greater percent decrease of blood pressure after exercise, although their blood pressure after exercise was higher than the C group. It is suggested that endurance training induced significant alterations in cardiac ANS modulation at rest and significant acceleration of HR recovery after exercise in female marathon runners. Faster HR recovery after exercise in the female marathon runners should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise compared with untrained controls.

  7. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  8. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System: Design, Performance and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes the trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. In the LHC Run-2 starting from in 2015, the LHC operates at centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV providing a luminosity up to $1.2 \\cdot 10^{34} {\\rm cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this paper, the ATLAS trigger system for LHC Run-2 is reviewed. Secondly, the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy is shown. Electron, muon and photon triggers covering trans...

  9. Duration specific Running performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Hughes, Brian; Collins, Kieran

    2017-04-25

    The aim of the current investigation was to determine the position and duration specific running performance of elite Gaelic football players through the use of a moving average method. Global positioning system data (4-Hz, VX Sport, New-Zealand) were collected from thirty-five (n = 35) elite Gaelic football players across a two season period. A total of 32 competitive matches were analysed with 300 full match play data samples obtained for final analysis. Players were categorised based on positional groups; full-back, half-back, midfield, half- forward and full-forward. The velocity-time curve was analysed for each position using a rolling average method, where maximal values were calculated for ten different time durations (1-10 min) using total distance (m·min), high-speed (m·min) and sprint distance (m·min) across each match. There were large differences between the 1 and 2 min rolling averages and all other rolling average durations. Smaller differences were observed for rolling averages of a greater duration. Midfielders covered significantly more relative total, high speed and sprint distance than other positions across all time periods (p football fluctuates across match-play. These data provide further knowledge of the running requirements of Gaelic football competition and this information can be used to aide coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  10. 长跑、马拉松以及体育的哲学向往--从村上春树《当我谈跑步时我谈些什么》谈起%Running,Marathon,and the Aspire of Sport Philosophy---Talking about Haruki Murakami ’s What I Talk about When I Talk about Running

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易剑东; 任慧涛

    2014-01-01

    Taking Haruki Murakami’s what I talk about when I talk about running as a clue ,this article tries to figure out the path‐way of philosophical body thought from Plato ,Aristotle to Sartre ,Camus .Taking Haruki Murakami’s consciousness to sublimate as nodes ,this paper explicate the desire of human want to be weightless ,the process of ‘body does exist now’ ,and how to structure relationship of sports with other social mimicry space .Conclusion :1)the long -distance running ,Marathon and other sports are the modernity ‘Dhyana’ .2) sports philosophy is‘born in the crevices of enthusiasm’ ,the target localization that philosophy foundation of human movement studises will be more useful for ‘Soul to’ .3)sports will be an important way for everybody to be acquainted with philosophy .%以村上春树对长跑的思考为线索,贯通了从古希腊柏拉图、亚里士多德到近代萨特、加缪哲学的身体思想理路;以村上春树的意识升华为节点,解释了无重力愿望对人之意识影响、“当时在”的身体觉醒进程、体育社会拟态空间构建等。并认为:1)长跑、马拉松等体育方式是现代性的“禅”;2)体育哲学是“生于罅隙中的热情”,体育学的哲学奠基这一定位更有助于其学科的“灵魂转向”;3)通过体育运动“体悟”式地理解形而上问题,是哲学亲近普通人的重要桥梁。

  11. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from runners (N=200) who officially ran half-marathon road ... Department of Sport Science, School of Physiotherapy, Sport Science and ..... Van Mechelen W. Running injuries: A review of the epidemiological literature.

  12. CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter performance during the 2011 LHC run

    CERN Document Server

    Montanino, Damiana

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a high resolution, fine-grained calorimeter devised to measure photons and electrons at the LHC. Built of lead tungstate crystals, it plays a crucial role in the search for new physics as well as in precision measurements of the Standard Model. A pre-shower detector composed of sandwiches of lead and silicon strips improves pi0/gamma separation in the forward region. The operation and performance of the ECAL during the 2011 run at the LHC, with pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV will be reviewed. Pure samples of electrons and photons from decays of known resonances have been exploited to improve and verify the trigger efficiency, the reconstruction algorithms, the detector calibration and stability, and the particle identification efficiency. A review of all these aspects will be given.

  13. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  14. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  15. Rhodiola rosea exerts anti-viral activity in athletes following a competitive marathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eAhmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea, a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties, has recently been reported to contain active compounds with antimicrobial activity. The goal of this study was to measure the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of Rhodiola rosea in the serum of experienced marathon runners following supplementation. Marathon runners, randomly divided into two group, ingested 600mg/day of Rhodiola rosea (n=24, 6 female, 18 male or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male for 30 days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood serum samples were collected the day before, 15 minutes post- and 1.5 hours post-marathon. Serum from Rhodiola rosea supplemented runners collected after marathon running did not attenuate the marathon-induced susceptibility of HeLa cells to killing by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. However, the use of Rhodiola rosea induced antiviral activity at early times post-infection by delaying an exercise-dependent increase in virus replication (P=0.013 compared to placebo. Serum from both groups collected 15 minutes post-marathon significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli in culture as compared to serum collected the day before the marathon (P=0.003, all subjects. Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea did not display antibacterial properties at any time point as indicated by a lack of group differences immediately (P=0.785 or 1.5 hours (P=0.633 post-marathon. These results indicate that bioactive compounds in the serum of subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea may exert protective effects against virus replication following intense and prolonged exercise by inducing antiviral activity.

  16. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  17. Marathon Runner with Acute Hyponatremia: A Neurological Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kormann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an athletic 49-year-old female who has run the 2011 Marathon of Paris and was addressed to the hospital for a confusion. The investigations revealed a cerebral edema complicating a severe hyponatremia secondary to an exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH. Using 3% hypertonic saline solution, the evolution the patient rapidly improve allowing discharge after 7 days. We then discuss the importance of EAH in long-term efforts.

  18. Crystalluria in marathon runners. 1. Standard marathon--males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; Rodgers, A L; Swartz, L

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that marathon runners have a higher incidence of renal stone formation than occurs in the general population. Since crystalluria and stone disease are thought to be related, we subjected urine samples from a group of marathon runners to particle counting and sizing in a Coulter Counter equipped with a population accessory unit. The volume-size distribution curves so obtained were bimodal with one peak occurring in the 2-5 micron diameter range and a second in the 15-32 micron diameter range - a pattern that is remarkably similar to the distributions reported for recurrent idiopathic stone formers and distinctly different to those recorded for control subjects. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction revealed other features which are regarded as typical of stone formers' crystalluria. These physicochemical data indicate that marathon runners may be at increased risk of urinary stone formation.

  19. Reduction in Post-Marathon Peak Oxygen Consumption: Sign of Cardiac Fatigue in Amateur Runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ana Paula Rennó; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Francisco, Ricardo Contesini; Barretto, Rodrigo Bellios de Mattos; Sierra, Carlos Anibal; Meneghelo, Romeu Sergio; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; Ghorayeb, Nabil; Stein, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged aerobic exercise, such as running a marathon, produces supraphysiological stress that can affect the athlete's homeostasis. Some degree of transient myocardial dysfunction ("cardiac fatigue") can be observed for several days after the race. Objective To verify if there are changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity, and cardiac inotropy and lusitropy in amateur marathoners after running a marathon. Methods The sample comprised 6 male amateur runners. All of them underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) one week before the São Paulo Marathon, and 3 to 4 days after that race. They underwent echocardiography 24 hours prior to and immediately after the marathon. All subjects were instructed not to exercise, to maintain their regular diet, ingest the same usual amount of liquids, and rest at least 8 hours a day in the period preceding the CPET. Results The athletes completed the marathon in 221.5 (207; 250) minutes. In the post-marathon CPET, there was a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and peak oxygen pulse compared to the results obtained before the race (50.75 and 46.35 mL.kg-1 .min-1; 19.4 and 18.1 mL.btm, respectively). The echocardiography showed a significant reduction in the s' wave (inotropic marker), but no significant change in the E/e' ratio (lusitropic marker). Conclusions In amateur runners, the marathon seems to promote changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity identified within 4 days after the race, with a reduction in the cardiac contractility. Such changes suggest that some degree of "cardiac fatigue" can occur. PMID:26760783

  20. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

    2003-02-24

    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  1. Effects of heavy strength training on performance determinants and performance in cycling and running

    OpenAIRE

    Vikmoen, Olav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents data from one large research project resulting in four research papers. The main aim of the project was to examine the effects of adding heavy strength training to female endurance athletes’ normal endurance training on performance in cycling and running, factors affecting performance, and possible mechanisms behind changes in performance and performance determinants. The secondary aim of the thesis was to compare strength related adaptations after a streng...

  2. Using Physiological Principles to Explain Sex Differences in Running and Swimming Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrated sex differences in physical characteristics are used to know the performance differences between first-placed males and females from latest world championships in swimming and running. The performance comparisons (PCs) reveal smaller differences between males and females in running sprint events than longer distance running and the…

  3. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Performance in Run 1 and Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286685; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ . Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region $\\eta < 3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $\\eta = 1.5$ to $\\eta = 4.9$. In the first LHC run a total luminosity of $27$ fb$^{−1}$ has been collected at center-of-mass energies of 7-8 TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately $3.9$ fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded in this year. The well calibrated and highly granular Liquid Argon Calorimeter achieved its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution, which was a main ingredient for the successful discovery of a Higgs boson in the di-photon decay channel. This contribution will give ...

  4. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang

    2016-09-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing cluster with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. During the LHC shutdown from 2013 to 2015, the HLT farm was redesigned to run in a single HLT stage, rather than in two stages (Level 2 and Event Filter) as was used in Run 1. This allowed for a redesign of the HLT ID tracking algorithm, which aims to satisfy the challenging demands of the higher collision energy of the LHC in Run 2 and is essential for tracking of different charged particles in the ATLAS detector. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the initial Run 2 data is discussed for electrons, muons and other charged particles. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy is made and demonstrates the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run1 and Prospects for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays at ATLAS is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. Among those are the measurement of the Higgs boson in the di-tau final state and multiple searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In 2015 the trigger strategies will become more important than ever for physics analyses. Under the demanding high luminosity scenario of the LHC Run 2, with instantaneous luminosities up to 2x10^34 cm^-2s^-1, one of the major challenges will be to sustain high efficiencies and background rejection in events with up to 50 overlapping interactions. In this environment single-tau triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the sophisticated algorithms that are used in the tau identification. Hence, new algorithms with improved resolution, multi-variate selection techniques, and new topolog...

  6. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System: Design, Performance and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes the trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC (Run-1) between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. In the second run of LHC (Run-2) starting from 2015, the LHC operates at centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and provides a higher luminosity of collisions. Also, the number of collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing increases. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this talk, first we will review the ATLAS trigger ...

  7. RHIC Performance with Polarized Protons in Run-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, S.; Brown, K. A.; Brennan, J. M.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; DeLong, J.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Hahn, H.; Hayes, T.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Sandberg, J.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The RHIC polarized proton run (Run-6) in 2006 started on February 1 and continued for 21 weeks. The Run-6 included the machine operation at different beam energies and with different orientation of beam polarization at the collision points. The machine operation at 100GeV and 31.2 GeV provided physics data of polarized proton collisions to the STAR, PHENIX and BRAHMS experiments. Record levels of the luminosity (up to 3.5ṡ1031 cm-2 s-1 peak) and proton beam polarization (up to 65%) were achieved during the 100GeV operation. The beam polarization was preserved during the acceleration by using Siberian Snakes, based on helical magnets. The polarization orientation at STAR and PHENIX experiments was controlled with helical spin rotators. During different stages of the run the physics data were provided with longitudinal, vertical and horizontal orientations of the beam polarization at the collision points. Total luminosity integrals of 45 pb-1 at 100 GeV and 0.35 pb-1 at 31.2 GeV were delivered to the experiments.

  8. The ATLAS Trigger in Run-2 - Design, Menu and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. Taken together constitute the trigger menu, which reflects the physics goals of the collaboration while taking into account available data taking resources. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and number of interactions per bunch crossing (pileup) which are the result of the...

  9. Characterization of Electrocardiogram Changes Throughout a Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Clifton; Salcido, David; McEntire, Serina; Roth, Ronald; Hostler, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There are few data examining cardiovascular physiology throughout a marathon. This study was devised to characterize electrocardiographic activity continuously throughout a marathon. Methods Cardiac activity was recorded from 19 subjects wearing a Holter monitor during a marathon. The 19 subjects (14 men and 5 women) were aged 39 ± 16 years (mean ± SD) and completed a marathon in 4:32:16 ± 1:23:35. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), T-wave amplitude, T-wave amplitude variability, and T-wave alternans (TWA) were evaluated continuously throughout the marathon. Results Averaged across all subjects, HRV, T-wave amplitude variability, and TWA increased throughout the marathon. Increased variability in T-wave amplitude occurred in 86% of subjects, characterized by complex oscillatory patterns and TWA. Three minutes after the marathon, HR was elevated and HRV was suppressed relative to the pre-marathon state. Conclusion HRV and T-wave amplitude variability, especially in the form of TWA, increase throughout a marathon. Increasing TWA as a marathon progresses likely represents a physiologic process as no arrhythmias or cardiac events were observed. PMID:24832192

  10. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Penc, Ondrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. The redesign of the ID trigger, which took place during the 2013-15 long shutdown, in order to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation is described. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for nearly all trigger signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the early Run 2 data for the different trigger signatures is presented, including the detailed timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  11. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Penc, Ondrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. The redesign of the ID trigger, which took place during the 2013-15 long shutdown, in order to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation is described. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for nearly all trigger signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the early Run 2 data for the different trigger signatures is presented, including the detailed timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  12. The effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 10km running performance in well-trained triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Garry

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC), PC+15% (fast cadence) and PC-15% (slow cadence). Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD). Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001) without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω(2) = 0.006) (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s(-1) for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges usually used by triathletes. Key PointsCompared with an isolated run, completion of a cycling event impairs the performance of a subsequent run independently of the pedalling cadence.The choice of cadence within triathletes' usual range does not seem to influence the performance of a 10km run.The results

  13. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% Psprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone.

  14. Results on CASTOR Performance during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The intercalibration of the gains of the fine mesh PMT's using beam-halo muons is discussed, this in combination with results of a study on the noise and baseline. Two methods on obtaining gain correction factors for reweighing the gains between different high voltage settings are compared. Results on the efficiency of a CASTOR jet trigger are compared for LHC Run 2 collision data and Monte Carlo event generator predictions.

  15. The effect of graduated compression tights, compared with running shorts, on counter movement jump performance before and after submaximal running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Stuart; Sternlicht, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing graduated compression tights, compared with loose fitting running shorts, would increase and or help sustain counter movement jump (CMJ) height after submaximal running. Fourteen competitive runners (6 women and 8 men) participated in this study. The subjects' mean (±SD) for age, height, body mass, percent body fat, resting heart rate, and maximal heart rate were 28.2 ± 14.0 years, 174.7 ± 8.6 cm, 70.2 ± 14.9 kg, 15.5 ± 8.1%, 67.2 ± 7.4 b.min, and 186.5 ± 9.5 b.min, respectively. During testing, subjects wore a Polar RS400 heart rate monitor. Each trial consisted of 15 minutes of continual treadmill running with 5 minutes performed at 50%, 70%, and 85% of the subject's heart rate reserve. Using a Vertec vertical leaper, each subject performed 3 CMJ, both pre- and postrun trials, with the mean value used to measure relative leg power. In addition to the CMJ height data, each subject rated their level of perceived exertion (RPE), and their comfort level, after the postrun trials. The mean postrun CMJ height in graduated compression tights of 60.3 ± 19.4 cm was significantly greater (at the p increase) and the postrun running shorts of 57.7 ± 19.6 cm (4.5% increase). In addition, the subjects reported a significantly lower level of perceived exertion and greater comfort values while wearing the graduated compression tights. The results of the present study support the use of graduated compression tights for maintenance of lower limb muscle power after submaximal endurance running.

  16. Blood lactate thresholds and walking/running economy are determinants of backpack-running performance in trained soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Pollonini, Luca; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2017-01-01

    We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers.

  17. Effects of individual aerobic performance on finish time in mountain running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Dieter; Burtscher, Johannes; Burtscher, Martin

    2012-06-01

    It was hypothesized that for each mountain running competition, there is a certain individual performance level below which running times increase dramatically. The running times of 869 finishers of 3 international mountain running competitions have been analysed. A hyperbolic association was demonstrated between finish times in mountain running competitions and individual performance at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT(Race)). Due to the non-linear association, there is an increasing effect on both the finish time and the change of finish time with decreasing aerobic performance. In all three competitions, the change of finish time is about 7 times more pronounced in mountain runners with the lowest VO2ATL,, compared to those with the highest values of VO2AT(Race). Both athletes and organizers should keep in mind these effects of decreasing aerobic performance on running times and potentially associated risks.

  18. LHCb Run II tracking performance and prospects for the Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three tracking stations, using either straw-tubes or silicon strip detectors, behind the magnet. This system allows to reconstruct charged particles with a high efficiency (typically > 95% for particles with momentum > 5 GeV) and an excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with momentum < 20 GeV). The high momentum resolution results in very narrow mass peaks, leading to a very good signal-to-background ratio in such key channels as $B_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$. Furthermore an optimal decay time resolution is an essential element in the studies of time dependent CP violation. For Run II a novel reconstruction strategy was adopted, allowing to run the same track reconstruction in the software trigger as offline. This convergence was possible due to a staged approach in the track reconstruction and a large reduction in the processing tim...

  19. The Effect of Cycling Cadence on Subsequent 10km Running Performance in Well-Trained Triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tew, Garry A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax wh...

  20. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ben; Hong, Tae Min; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrade are presented for the hardware-based level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) for the ATLAS Experiment. This trigger has a latency of about 2.2 microseconds to make a decision to help ATLAS select about 100 kHz of the most interesting collisions from the nominal LHC rate of 40 MHz. We summarize the upgrade after Run-1 (2009-2012) and discuss its performance in Run-2 (2015-current). We also outline the on-going Phase-1 upgrade for the next run (2021-2024) and its expected performance.

  1. THE EFFECT OF CYCLING CADENCE ON SUBSEQUENT 10KM RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry A. Tew

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km, and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run. During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC, PC+15% (fast cadence and PC-15% (slow cadence. Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD. Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001 without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω2 = 0.006 (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s-1 for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD. However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the slow cadence condition was associated with a significantly lower HR (p = 0.012 and VE (p = 0.026 during cycling than in the fast cadence condition. The results confirm the deterioration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges

  2. KINEMATIC CHANGES DURING A MARATHON FOR FAST AND SLOW RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Chan-Roper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during an actual marathon. We hypothesized that (1 certain running kinematic measures would change between kilometres 8 and 40 (miles 5 and 25 of a marathon and (2 fast runners would demonstrate smaller changes than slow runners. Subjects (n = 179 were selected according to finish time (Range = 2:20:47 to 5:30:10. Two high-speed cameras were used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at kilometres 8 and 40 of the marathon. The dependent variables were stride length, contact time, peak knee flexion during support and swing, and peak hip flexion and extension during swing. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to compare dependent variables between kilometres 8 and 40 for all subjects, and regression analyses were used to determine whether faster runners exhibited smaller changes (between miles 5 and 25 than slower runners. For all runners, every dependent variable changed significantly between kilometres 8 and 40 (p < 0.001. Stride length increased 1.3%, contact time increased 13.1%, peak knee flexion during support decreased 3.2%, and peak hip extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion during swing decreased 27.9%, increased 4.3%, and increased 7.4%, respectively (p < 0.001. Among these significant changes, all runners generally changed the same from kilometres 8 and 40 except that fast runners decreased peak knee flexion during support less than the slow runners (p < 0.002. We believe that these changes, for all runners (fast and slow, were due to fatigue. The fact that fast runners maintained knee flexion during support more consistently might be due to their condition on the race day. Strengthening of knee extensor muscles may facilitate increased knee flexion during support throughout a marathon

  3. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the High Level Trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. During the 2013-15 LHC shutdown, the HLT farm was redesigned to run in a single HLT stage, rather than the two-stage (Level 2 and Event Filter) used in Run 1. This allowed a redesign of the HLT ID tracking algorithms, essential for nearly all physics signatures in ATLAS. The redesign of the ID trigger, required in order to satisfy the challenging demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation, is described. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the initial Run 2 data is discussed, for the different physics signatures. This includes both the physics object reconstruction and timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy is made and demonstrates the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  4. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. During the 2013-15 LHC shutdown, the HLT farm was redesigned to run in a single HLT stage, rather than the two-stage (Level 2 and Event Filter) used in Run 1. This allowed a redesign of the HLT ID tracking algorithms, essential for nearly all physics signatures in ATLAS. The redesign of the ID trigger, required in order to satisfy the challenging demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation, is described. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the initial Run 2 data is discussed, for the different physics signatures. This includes both the physics object reconstruction and timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  5. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Bourdin, Muriel; Edouard, Pascal; Peyrot, Nicolas; Samozino, Pierre; Lacour, Jean-René

    2012-11-01

    Sprint mechanics and field 100-m performances were tested in 13 subjects including 9 non-specialists, 3 French national-level sprinters and a world-class sprinter, to further study the mechanical factors associated with sprint performance. 6-s sprints performed on an instrumented treadmill allowed continuous recording of step kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and belt velocity and computation of mechanical power output and linear force-velocity relationships. An index of the force application technique was computed as the slope of the linear relationship between the decrease in the ratio of horizontal-to-resultant GRF and the increase in velocity. Mechanical power output was positively correlated to mean 100-m speed (P 100-m performance (r (s) > 0.683; P 100-m performance (positively for the former, negatively for the two latter, all P  0.21). Last, anthropometric data of body mass index and lower-limb-to-height ratio showed no significant correlation with 100-m performance. We concluded that the main mechanical determinants of 100-m performance were (1) a "velocity-oriented" force-velocity profile, likely explained by (2) a higher ability to apply the resultant GRF vector with a forward orientation over the acceleration, and (3) a higher step frequency resulting from a shorter contact time.

  6. Sprint Running Performance Monitoring: Methodological and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas; Buchheit, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate methodological concerns associated with sprint performance monitoring, more specifically the influence and magnitude of varying external conditions, technology and monitoring methodologies not directly related to human physiology. The combination of different starting procedures and triggering devices can cause up to very large time differences, which may be many times greater than performance changes caused by years of conditioning. Wind, altitude, temperature, barometric pressure and humidity can all combine to yield moderate time differences over short sprints. Sprint performance can also be affected by the athlete's clothing, principally by its weight rather than its aerodynamic properties. On level surfaces, the track compliance must change dramatically before performance changes larger than typical variation can be detected. An optimal shoe bending stiffness can enhance performance by a small margin. Fully automatic timing systems, dual-beamed photocells, laser guns and high-speed video are the most accurate tools for sprint performance monitoring. Manual timing and single-beamed photocells should be avoided over short sprint distances (10-20 m) because of large absolute errors. The validity of today's global positioning systems (GPS) technology is satisfactory for long distances (>30 m) and maximal velocity in team sports, but multiple observations are still needed as reliability is questionable. Based on different approaches used to estimate the smallest worthwhile performance change and the typical error of sprint measures, we have provided an assessment of the usefulness of speed evaluation from 5 to 40 m. Finally, we provide statistical guidelines to accurately assess changes in individual performance; i.e. considering both the smallest worthwhile change in performance and the typical error of measurement, which can be reduced while repeating the number of trials.

  7. Overview talk on detector performances in run II (CMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Borrello, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC successfully collected data in 2015 during proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center of mass energy and lead-lead collision at 5.02 TeV/nucleon. An intense activity has been performed to further improve the detector and the trigger before the LHC restart in 2016. Report on the performance of the trigger, on the commissioning of the main detector components and on the physics objects will be presented based on the latest collected data.

  8. T-shirts from "Run for 32"

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Two views of t-shirts with "Run for 32" written on them The "Run for 32" race team, sponsored by TechSideline.com, participated in the SunTrust Rock 'n' Roll Half-Marathon, September 2, 2007. Shirt is inscribed with the names of the victims.; Compound Object

  9. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\mbox{ TeV}$ is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  10. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS muon reconstruction performance in early 2015 data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV is presented. The muon reconstruction and isolation efficiencies are measured using dimuon resonances ($Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ and $J\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$) as a function of the muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The muon momentum corrections are also evaluated using the same dataset.

  11. Setup and performance of RHIC for the 2008 run with deuteron-gold collisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner,C.; Abreu, N.P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bai, M.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    This year (2008) deuterons and gold ions were collided in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the first time since 2003. The setup and performance of the collider for the 2008 run is reviewed with a focus on improvements that have led to an order of magnitude increase in luminosity over that achieved in the 2003 run.

  12. Adjustment and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between IMF-World Bank stabilisation-cum-structural adjustment programs and long-run economic performance in 18 African countries on a country-specific basis for the period 1960-2009. We employ a structural break approach to study the impact on long-run growth...

  13. Ischemic Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in a Marathon Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Mast

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis due to pancreatic ischemia is a rare condition. Case report In this case report we describe a 57-year-old male who developed an acute necrotizing pancreatitis after running a marathon and visiting a sauna the same evening, with an inadequate fluid and food consumption during both events. Conclusions Pancreatic ischemia imposed by mechanical and physical stress and dehydration can induce the development of acute pancreatitis. Separately, these factors are rare causes of ischemic acute pancreatitis. But when combined, as in this particular case, the risk of an acute necrotizing pancreatitis cannot be neglected

  14. Combustion and Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Running with Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfa, Belachew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types, biodiesel fraction and physical properties on the combustion and performance characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four -stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharg...

  15. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial caesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved...clock, rubidium fountain, operational atomic fountain (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction: beyond caesiums ...and masers The performance of atomic clocks has improved more than seven orders of magnitude since the first caesium clock was demonstrated by Essen

  16. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-06-28

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GMAT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GMAT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, PGMAT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Continuously Running Atomic Fountains

    CERN Document Server

    Peil, Steven; Swanson, Thomas B; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble of rubidium atomic fountain clocks has been put into operation at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). These fountains are used as continuous clocks in the manner of commercial cesium beams and hydrogen masers for the purpose of improved timing applications. Four fountains have been in operation for more than two years and are included in the ensemble used to generate the USNO master clock. Individual fountain performance is characterized by a white-frequency noise level below $2\\times 10^{-13}$ and fractional-frequency stability routinely reaching the low $10^{-16}$s. The highest performing pair of fountains exhibits stability consistent with each fountain integrating as white frequency noise, with Allan deviation surpassing $6\\times 10^{-17}$ at $10^7$~s, and with no relative drift between the fountains at the level of $7.5 \\times 10^{-19}$/day. As an ensemble, the fountains generate a timescale with white-frequency noise level of $1\\times 10^{-13}$ and long-term frequency stability consistent wit...

  18. Muon reconstruction performance in ATLAS at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Arthur; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the first LHC dataset recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ and $Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to $99\\%$ over most of the covered phase space ($|\\eta| 2.2$, the $p_{\\text{T}}$ resolution for a typical muon from $Z\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays is $2.9\\%$ while the precision on the momentum scale for low-$p_{\\text{T}}$ muons from $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ decays is about $0.2\\%$.

  19. The CMS RPC detector performance during Run-2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region), and Resistive Plate Chambers (both in the central and forward regions). The RPCs are designed mainly as a trigger detector but they contribute also to the muon reconstruction. Thus the monitoring and the analysis of the system performance are necessary and essential for the final data quality. The main detector characteristics and the hit efficiency and cluster size will be presented in the paper. The stability of the system in the conditions of high instantaneous luminosity and high number of PU events will be presented in a view of history monitoring and stable trend.

  20. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  1. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  2. EFFECTS OF LISTENING TO PREFERENTIAL MUSIC ON SEX DIFFERENCES IN ENDURANCE RUNNING PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Zachary; Maeda, Hotaka

    2015-10-01

    Music is a common accompaniment to exercise, but some running environments do not allow for personalized control over the music stimulus. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of listening to preferred versus non-preferred music on sex differences in running performance. The sample consisted of 20 women and 15 men (M = 20.7 yr., SD = 2.3) who reported running at least once per week over the previous year. The participants completed three 12-min. Cooper Tests (i.e., aerobic fitness test) accompanied by preferred, non-preferred, or no music in randomized order. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the effect of music preference and sex on endurance running performance while controlling for the distance run with no music. Women ran further in the preferred music condition. However, music selection did not significantly change running performance for men. Listening to preferred instead of non-preferred music had a larger effect on the endurance running performance of women than men.

  3. Yo-Yo IR1 vs. incremental continuous running test for prediction of 3000-m performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Klose, Andreas; Schelleckes, Katrin; Jekat, Charlotte M; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare physiological responses during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) Test and an incremental continuous running field Test (ICRT) and to analyze their predictive value on 3000-m running performance. Forty moderately trained individuals (18 females) performed the ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test to exhaustion. The ICRT was performed as graded running test with an increase of 2.0 km·h-1 after each 3 min interval for lactate diagnostic. In both tests, blood lactate levels were determined after the test and at 2 and 5 min of recovery. Heart rate (HR) was recorded to monitor differences in HR slopes and HR recovery. Comparison revealed a correlation between ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test performance (R2=0.83, Prunning time (R2=0.77, Prunning performances such as 3000-m runs but maximum HR and blood lactate values differ significantly. The ICRT may have higher predictive power for middle- to long- distance running performance such as 3000-m runs offering a reliable test for coaches in the recruitment of athletes or supervision of training concepts.

  4. Will women outrun men in ultra-marathon road races from 50 km to 1,000 km?

    OpenAIRE

    Zingg, Matthias,; Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; It has been assumed that women would be able to outrun men in ultra-marathon running. The present study investigated the sex differences in running speed in ultra-marathons held worldwide from 50 km to 1,000 km. Changes in running speeds and the sex differences in running speeds in the annual fastest finishers in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km events held worldwide from 1969-2012 were analysed using linear, non-linear and multi-level regression analyses. For the an...

  5. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d(-1), 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance.

  6. Lack of influence of muscular performance parameters on spatio-temporal adaptations with increased running velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Seruendo, Luis E; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Haicaguerre, Joana; Bataller-Cervero, Ana V; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-02-08

    This study aimed to analyse the influence of muscular performance parameters on spatio-temporal gait characteristics during running when gradually increasing speed. 51 recreationally trained male endurance runners (age: 28 ± 8 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed a battery of jumping tests (squat jump, countermovement jump, and 20 cm drop jump), and after that, the subjects performed an incremental running test (10 to 20 km/h) on a motorized treadmill. Spatio-temporal parameters were measured using the OptoGait system. Cluster k-means analysis grouped subjects according to the jumping test performance, by obtaining a group of good jumpers (GJ, n = 19) and a group of bad jumpers (BJ, n = 32). With increased running velocity, contact time was shorter, flight time and step length longer, whereas cadence and stride angle were greater (p adaptations between those runners with good jumping ability and those with poor jumping ability. Based on that, it seems that muscular performance parameters do not play a key role in spatio-temporal adaptations experienced by recreational endurance runners with increased velocity. However, taken into consideration the well-known relationship between running performance and neuromuscular performance, the authors suggest that muscular performance parameters would be much more determinant in the presence of fatigue (exhausted condition), or in the case of considering other variables such as running economy or kinetic.

  7. Running Performance While Wearing a Heat Dissipating Compression Garment in Male Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoz-Abaurrea, Iker; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grobler, Lara; Engelbrecht, Louise; Aguado-Jiménez, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Leoz-Abaurrea, I, Santos-Concejero, J, Grobler, L, Engelbrecht, L, and Aguado-Jiménez, R. Running performance while wearing a heat dissipating compression garment in male recreational runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3367-3372, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a heat dissipating compression garment (CG) during a running performance test. Ten male recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 55.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min) completed 2 identical sessions wearing either CG or conventional t-shirt (CON). Each trial included a 45-minute run at 60% of the peak treadmill speed (PTS) followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) run at 80% of the PTS and a 10-minute recovery period. During the tests, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses were monitored. Participants wearing the CG displayed an impaired running performance (508 ± 281 vs. 580 ± 314 seconds, p = 0.046; effect size [ES] = 0.24). In addition, a higher respiratory exchange ratio (1.06 ± 0.04 vs. 1.02 ± 0.07, p = 0.01; ES = 0.70) was observed at TTE when wearing the CG in comparison to CON. Changes in core temperature did not differ between garments after the 45-minute run (p = 0.96; ES = 0.03) or TTE (1.97 ± 0.32 vs. 1.98 ± 0.38° C; p = 0.93; ES = 0.02) for CG and CON, respectively. During recovery, significantly higher heart rate and blood lactate values were observed when wearing CG (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the use of a heat dissipating CG may not improve running performance in male recreational runners during a running performance test to exhaustion.

  8. Timing influence of carbohydrate-protein ingestion on muscle soreness and next-day running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Price, Anna; Jones, Brett

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates timing effects of a carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PROT) beverage on indicators of muscle damage and next day running performance. Nine trained subjects completed three trials of a 30 min downhill run, followed by a 1.5 mile treadmill running time trial 24 hr later in a blinded, crossover design. Either a CHO-PROT or noncaloric placebo beverage was given 30 and 5 min prior to, at the 15 min mark during, immediately after, and 30 min after the downhill running protocol. In the first treatment (T1), a total of 360 kilocalories were given 30 and 5 min prior to downhill running, as well as at the 15 min mark, with placebos used at other time points. In the second treatment (T2), an isocaloric amount was given but only immediately after and 30 min after downhill running, with placebos used at other time points. In the placebo treatment, a placebo was given at all time points. There were no significant differences in the 1.5 mile time trial or soreness between trials (p > .05). Regardless of timing, the ingestion of a CHO-PROT beverage had no effect on next day running performance or muscular soreness versus a placebo.

  9. Validity of Treadmill-Derived Critical Speed on Predicting 5000-Meter Track-Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmerichter, Alfred; Novak, Nina; Triska, Christoph; Prinz, Bernhard; Breese, Brynmor C

    2017-03-01

    Nimmerichter, A, Novak, N, Triska, C, Prinz, B, and Breese, BC. Validity of treadmill-derived critical speed on predicting 5,000-meter track-running performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 706-714, 2017-To evaluate 3 models of critical speed (CS) for the prediction of 5,000-m running performance, 16 trained athletes completed an incremental test on a treadmill to determine maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and 3 randomly ordered runs to exhaustion at the [INCREMENT]70% intensity, at 110% and 98% of MAS. Critical speed and the distance covered above CS (D') were calculated using the hyperbolic speed-time (HYP), the linear distance-time (LIN), and the linear speed inverse-time model (INV). Five thousand meter performance was determined on a 400-m running track. Individual predictions of 5,000-m running time (t = [5,000-D']/CS) and speed (s = D'/t + CS) were calculated across the 3 models in addition to multiple regression analyses. Prediction accuracy was assessed with the standard error of estimate (SEE) from linear regression analysis and the mean difference expressed in units of measurement and coefficient of variation (%). Five thousand meter running performance (speed: 4.29 ± 0.39 m·s; time: 1,176 ± 117 seconds) was significantly better than the predictions from all 3 models (p distances of 5,000 m.

  10. Performance of the Cathode Strip Chamber endcap muon detectors in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wulsin, H Wells

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of Run 1 of the LHC in 2012, the outermost ring has been added to the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) endcap muon detector, and the readout electronics of the innermost ring of CSCs have been upgraded to accommodate the larger luminosity and collision energy anticipated in Run 2. A major effort was required to build, install, and commission these new chambers and electronics. This talk summarizes the improvements made during this upgrade and presents the performance of the CSC detector during the early stages of Run 2.

  11. Relation of diet to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in middle-aged marathon runners, joggers, and inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, G H; Foreyt, J P; Mitchell, R E; Vlasek, I; Gotto, A M

    1980-02-14

    We investigated the effect of diet on high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 59 healthy middle-aged marathon runners, 85 joggers, and 74 inactive men. Marathon runners and joggers reported eating less red meat (P less than 0.0001), bacon (P less than 0.05), and sausage (P less than 0.01) than did the inactive men, although meat consumption was not significantly correlated with HDL. Results suggest that HDL differences (marathon runners, 65 mg per deciliter; joggers, 58 mg per deciliter; inactive men, 43 mg per deciliter) among the three groups were primarily the result of distance run, not dietary factors. Distance run was also the best predictor of the HDL:total cholesterol ratio and of total cholesterol (a negative correlation), and it was second only to weight in predicting triglyceride levels.

  12. Effects of bicycle frame ergonomics on triathlon 10-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, I; Doran, D A

    2000-10-01

    It is perceived that, during the triathlon or duathlon, cycling with a steep (> 76 degrees) rather than a shallow (run disciplines and improve subsequent 10-km running performance. This is based on anecdotal testimony from athletes purporting to have experienced improved performance; no empirical evidence exists. To evaluate this view, eight male triathletes completed a counterbalanced, 40-km cycle ride at two frame geometries (73 degrees and 81 degrees) at approximately 70% VO2peak. Immediately after completion of each 40-km cycle, a self-paced 10-km treadmill time trial was undertaken, during which physiological, kinematic and performance variables were measured. The 10-km run performance (mean +/- s: 42:55 +/- 4:19 vs 46:15 +/- 4:52 min; Prun performance (1:45:49 +/- 5:45 vs 1:50:33 +/- 6:08; Prun (21:41 +/- 2:15 vs 24:15 +/- 2:31 min in the 81 degrees and 73 degrees conditions respectively). These improvements were not evident during the second 5 km of the run. No differences in physiological variables were noted, although heart rate, stride length and stride frequency were increased during the 81 degrees condition (P run performance. These improvements in performance might relate to alterations during the cycling phase, which minimizes the 'residual effect' of this (i.e. the adverse changes in substrate availability, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and biomechanical factors felt immediately after transition from cycling to running) and attenuates negative changes in physiological and kinematic responses during the 10-km run.

  13. RFID data processing in a real-time monitoring system for marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Joolrat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In all marathon events, an organizer needs to determine the winners. However, this is a complicated process in a marathon event that has many participants and starting points with limited space. In such condition, runners cannot start running concurrently and thus the runners who cross the finish line first are not always the winners. To judge the top runners with accuracy and fairness, the organizer needs to acquire a net time in ranking participants. The net time, which is the difference between the time recorded at the finish line minus the time recorded at the start, can be calculated for each runner. Currently, the advances in RFID technology are widely used to record times and determine awarded runners in several marathon events. However, most RFID-based solutions in marathon events are commercially available and licensed on a yearly basis. The cost of a commercial product can be as high as 2,000,000 Baht. This article presents an implementation of RFID technology for a marathon organizer to determine the winners by recording times of the check in point, the start point, the checkpoint, and the finish point. Furthermore, the developed system also reports the results of the marathon series in real-time via a web application that can be viewed on any online electronic device. The proposed solution estimated cost is about 200,000 Baht and can reduce the processing time from one hour to just five minutes which is about one-tenth of that of a commercial product.

  14. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Samozino, Pierre; Descombe, Fabrice; Pinay, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Pasqualini, Marion; Rupp, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy) were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness) were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness) were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS) were assessed using visual analog scales. Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i) higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii) with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii) with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale) with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p running but significantly changed running biomechanics and lower limb muscle functional capabilities toward a more dynamic behavior compared to control session

  15. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  16. Impact of seated and standing bicycle riding position on subsequent running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Randall L Jensen; Ewers, Brendon J.; Cunniffe, Brian; PHELAN, BRIAN; Harrison, Andrew J; Shafat, Amir

    2008-01-01

    peer-reviewed This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride ...

  17. RHIC Performance as a 100 GeV Polarized Proton Collider in Run-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hahn, H.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Menga, P.M.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Pozdeyev, E.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    During the second half of Run-9, the Relativisitc Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided polarized proton collisions at two interaction points. The spin orientation of both beams at these collision points was controlled by helical spin rotators, and physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. Recent developments and improvements will be presented, as well as luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-9.

  18. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  19. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  20. Accumulated oxygen deficit and shuttle run performance in physically active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, R; Nevill, M E; Nevill, A M; Hazeldine, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the validity of using shuttle run performance over 20 m to predict accumulated oxygen deficit. A new high-intensity shuttle run test (HIST) was devised, during which subjects ran to exhaustion at a speed equivalent to 120% of their performance attained during a progressive shuttle run test. The reliability of the new test was examined and found to be acceptable for 18 subjects who performed the test twice on separate days (r = 0.84, P sprint- and eight endurance-trained athletes at 120% of their respective progressive shuttle run performances (615 +/- 111 vs 273 +/- 84 m, P < 0.01, study II). The strongest predictor of accumulated oxygen deficit for 27 subjects was found to be the geometric mean of the performances on the new test and on the progressive shuttle run test (r = 0.74, study III). The regression equation for this relationship was then used to estimate the accumulated oxygen deficit for a second group of 16 subjects (study IV). The correlation between the estimated and measured accumulated oxygen deficits was significant (r = 0.79, P < 0.01). The results from studies III and IV were therefore combined with the data from six new subjects to give a regression equation for predictive purposes based on 49 subjects.

  1. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Moreno-Pérez, Diego; Cardona, Claudia A; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Muñoz, Iker; Sellés, Sergio; Cejuela, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k) and the Ironman (IM) training in recreational trained athletes. Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO2max max, or endurance training experience (p > 0.05). They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k). Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs) training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9), and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118) were significantly higher in IM (p Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8) (p training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k (p Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5), (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0). Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  2. Leptin and endocrine parameters in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, T; Mai, K; Brechtel, L; Schulte, H M; Weger, B; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J; Diederich, S

    2012-03-01

    Endurance training may lead to different hormonal alterations e. g., exercised induced hypothalamic ovarian/testicular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to reveal new connections between physical exercise, leptin and hormonal responses. 36 male participants of the Berlin-Marathon had their blood samples taken 2 days before the marathon. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and leptin were correlated with the training status and the achieved marathon time. Leptin correlated with the achieved marathon time after being adjusted for age and BMI (r=0.607, p<0.001) and was lowest in the best trained runners. Additionally, when the group was divided into quartiles of their achieved marathon time, significantly increased cortisol, fT4, cortisol/DHEAS ratio and decreased IGF-1 levels were observed in the slowest group. In the better trained group, a decrease of testosterone/DHT ratio and an increase of testosterone/cortisol ratio were observed. Our study supports the thesis of a linear relationship between physical fitness and leptin variations in the physiological range. We found an increased anabolic hormonal response in well trained marathon runners and hormonal reactions of increased stress in less trained runners. As the stress-induced neuroendocrine adaptations in our study group are associated with more higher leptin values, the pathophysiological role of decreased leptin values seems to be limited to overtrained athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The repeated bout effect of traditional resistance exercises on running performance across 3 bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Leicht, Anthony Scott; Heilbronn, Brian Edward; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the repeated bout effect of 3 typical lower body resistance-training sessions on maximal and submaximal effort running performance. Twelve resistance-untrained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 1.81 ± 0.10 m; body mass, 79.3 ± 10.9 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 48.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 6-repetition maximum squat, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg) undertook 3 bouts of resistance-training sessions at 6-repetitions maximum. Countermovement jump (CMJ), lower-body range of motion (ROM), muscle soreness, and creatine kinase (CK) were examined prior to and immediately, 24 h (T24), and 48 h (T48) after each resistance-training bout. Submaximal (i.e., below anaerobic threshold (AT)) and maximal (i.e., above AT) running performances were also conducted at T24 and T48. Most indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., CMJ, ROM, and muscle soreness) and submaximal running performance were significantly improved (P resistance-training bout compared with the second bout. Whilst maximal running performance was also improved following the third bout (P 0.05). In conclusion, the initial bout induced the greatest change in CK; however, at least 2 bouts were required to produce protective effects on other indirect muscle damage markers and submaximal running performance measures. This suggests that submaximal running sessions should be avoided for at least 48 h after resistance training until the third bout, although a greater recovery period may be required for maximal running sessions.

  4. EFFECTS OF RUN-UP VELOCITY ON PERFORMANCE, KINEMATICS, AND ENERGY EXCHANGES IN THE POLE VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps. A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased

  5. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON SPRINT RUNNING KINEMATICS AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Paradisis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12 into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d-1, 3 times a week on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT. Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance

  6. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngrïmsson, Sigurbjörn A; Petitt, Darby S; Stueck, Matthew G; Jorgensen, Dennis K; Cureton, Kirk J

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether a cooling vest worn during an active warm-up enhances 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners (9 men, maximal oxygen uptake = 66.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); 8 women, maximal oxygen uptake = 58.0 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed two simulated 5-km runs on a treadmill after a 38-min active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt (C) or a vest filled with ice (V) in a hot, humid environment (32 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly (P run, esophageal, rectal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures averaged 0.3, 0.2, 1.8, and 0.4 degrees C lower; HR averaged 11 beats/min lower; and perception of thermal discomfort (5-point scale) averaged 0.6 point lower in V than C. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run, and these variables were not different at the end. The 5-km run time was significantly lower (P faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. We conclude that a cooling vest worn during active warm-up by track athletes enhances 5-km run performance in the heat. Reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain and perception of thermal discomfort in the early portion of the run appear to permit a faster pace later in the run.

  7. Influence of an Enforced Fast Start on 10-km-Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Everton C; Barroso, Renato; Renfree, Andrew; Gil, Saulo; Tricoli, Valmor

    2016-09-01

    The effects of an enforced fast start on long-distance performance are controversial and seem to depend on the athlete's capacity to delay and tolerate metabolic disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an enforced start on 10-km-running performance and the influence of the some physiological and performance variables on the ability to tolerate an enforced fast start during the running. Fifteen moderately trained runners performed two 10-km time trials (TTs): free pacing (FP-TT) and fast start (FS-TT). During FS-TT, speed during the first kilometer was 6% higher than in FP-TT. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak velocity (PV), velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy at 10 and 12 km/h and FP-TT average velocity (AV-10 km) were individually determined. There were no differences between FP-TT and FS-TT performance (45:01 ± 4:08 vs 45:11 ± 4:46 min:s, respectively, P = .4). Eight participants improved (+2.2%) their performance and were classified as positive responders (PR) and 7 decreased (-3.3%) performance and were classified as negative responders (NR). Running speed was significantly higher for PR between 6 and 9.2 km (P performance also presented higher vVO2max and PV, suggesting a possible association between these variables and response to the strategy adopted.

  8. The effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussana, A; Galy, O; Hue, O; Matecki, S; Varray, A; Ramonatxo, M; Le Gallais, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance during a cycle-run succession as performed in the triathlon. We hypothesized that despite the moderate intensity of exercise and the absence of exhaustion, the crouched cycling position would induce a decrease in respiratory muscle performance that would be reversed by the successive vertical run position. Ten male triathletes (22.6 +/- 1.1 yr) performed a four-trial protocol: (1) an incremental cycle test to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), (2) 20 min of cycling (C), (3) 20 min of running (R), and (4) 20 min of cycling followed by 20 min of running (C-R). Trials 2, 3 and 4 were performed at the same metabolic intensity, i. e., 75 % of VO2max. Respiratory muscle force was assessed by measuring maximal expiratory (P(Emax)) and inspiratory (P(Imax)) pressures from the functional residual capacity (FRC) before and 10 min after C, R, and C-R. Respiratory muscle endurance was assessed one day before and 30 min after C, R, and C-R, by measuring the time limit (T(lim)), which corresponds to the length of time a respiratory load can be sustained before the process of fatigue develops sufficiently to cause task failure. The results showed a similar significant decrease in P(Imax) (132.4 +/- 4.9 versus 125.7 +/- 5.6 cm H2O, p 0.05). We concluded that moderate intensity exercise not performed to exhaustion induced a decrease in respiratory muscle performance. Moreover, the respiratory muscle fatigue induced by prior cycling was maintained, and neither reversed nor worsened, by the successive run.

  9. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  10. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  11. Effects of Short or Long Warm-up on Intermediate Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Vatten, Tormod; von Heimburg, Erna

    2017-01-01

    van den Tillaar, R, Vatten, T, and von Heimburg, E. Effects of short or long warm-up on intermediate running performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 37-44, 2017-The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) and a short warm-up (specific) on intermediate running performance (3-minute run). Thirteen experienced endurance-trained athletes (age 23.2 ± 2.3 years, body mass 79.8 ± 8.2 kg, body height 1.82 ± 0.05 m) conducted 2 types of warm-ups in a crossover design with 1 week in between: a long warm-up (10 minutes, 80% maximal heart rate, and 8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between) and a short warm-up (8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between). Each warm-up was followed by a 3-minute running test on a nonmotorized treadmill. Total running distance, running velocity at each 30 seconds, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, and rate of perceived exertion were measured. No significant differences in running performance variables and physiological parameters were found between the 2 warm-up protocols, except for the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate, which were higher after the long warm-up and after the 3-minute running test compared with the short warm-up. It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up for intermediate performance. Therefore, athletes can choose for themselves if they want to include a general part in their warm-up routines, even though it would not enhance their running performance more compared with only using a short, specific warm-up. However, to increase efficiency of time for training or competition, these short, specific warm-ups should be performed instead of long warm-ups.

  12. Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen D; Gray, Susan C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on performance after prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 d apart. On each occasion, participants completed five 15-min periods of intermittent variable-speed running, interspersed with periods of walking (Part A), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (Part B). Participants consumed either a CHO gel or placebo (PLA) immediately before exercise (0.89 mL/kg body mass [BM]) and every 15 min thereafter (0.35 mL/kg BM). In addition, water was consumed at a rate of 5 mL/kg BM before and 2 mL/kg BM every 15 min during exercise. Blood glucose levels were higher (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60 min of exercise and at exhaustion in CHO than in PLA. During Part B, run time to exhaustion was longer (P < 0.05) in the CHO trial (CHO 6.1 +/- 1.3 min vs. PLA 4.2 +/- 1.2 min). These results indicate that ingesting a CHO gel, along with water, improves performance after prolonged intermittent running in healthy male subjects, possibly by maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise.

  13. Detecting Outliers in Marathon Data by Means of the Andrews Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, Milan; Wald, Helmut; Bielik, Viktor; Petrovič, Juraj

    2011-09-01

    For an optimal race performance, it is important, that the runner keeps steady pace during most of the time of the competition. First time runners or athletes without many competitions often experience an "blow out" after a few kilometers of the race. This could happen, because of strong emotional experiences or low control of running intensity. Competition pace of half marathon of the middle level recreational athletes is approximately 10 sec quicker than their training pace. If an athlete runs the first third of race (7 km) at a pace that is 20 sec quicker than is his capacity (trainability), he would experience an "blow out" in the last third of the race. This would be reflected by reducing the running intensity and inability to keep steady pace in the last kilometers of the race and in the final time as well. In sports science, there are many diagnostic methods ([3], [2], [6]) that are used for prediction of optimal race pace tempo and final time. Otherwise there is lacking practical evidence of diagnostics methods and its use in the field (competition, race). One of the conditions that needs to be carried out is that athletes have not only similar final times, but it is important that they keep constant pace as much as possible during whole race. For this reason it is very important to find outliers. Our experimental group consisted of 20 recreational trained athletes (mean age 32,6 years±8,9). Before the race the athletes were instructed to run on the basis of their subjective feeling and previous experience. The data (running pace of each kilometer, average and maximal heart rate of each kilometer) were collected by GPS-enabled personal trainer Forerunner 305.

  14. Habituation Training Improves Locomotor Performance in a Forced Running Wheel System in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toval, Angel; Baños, Raúl; De la Cruz, Ernesto; Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Pallarés, Jesús G.; Ayad, Abdelmalik; Tseng, Kuei Y.; Ferran, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that physical activity promotes mental health; and regular exercise may confer positive effects in neurological disorders. There is growing number of reports that requires the analysis of the impact of physical activity in animal models. Exercise in rodents can be performed under voluntary or forced conditions. The former presents the disadvantage that the volume and intensity of exercise varies from subject to subject. On the other hand, a major challenge of the forced training protocol is the low level of performance typically achieved within a given session. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gradual increasing of the volume and intensity (training habituation protocol) to improve the locomotor performance in a forced running-wheel system in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a group that received an exercise training habituation protocol, or a control group. The locomotor performance during forced running was assessed by an incremental exercise test. The experimental results reveal that the total running time and the distance covered by habituated rats was significantly higher than in control ones. We conclude that the exercise habituation protocol improves the locomotor performance in forced running wheels. PMID:28337132

  15. High-speed running performance: a new approach to assessment and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Matthew W; Hoyt, Reed W; Weyand, Peter G

    2003-11-01

    We hypothesized that all-out running speeds for efforts lasting from a few seconds to several minutes could be accurately predicted from two measurements: the maximum respective speeds supported by the anaerobic and aerobic powers of the runner. To evaluate our hypothesis, we recruited seven competitive runners of different event specialties and tested them during treadmill and overground running on level surfaces. The maximum speed supported by anaerobic power was determined from the fastest speed that subjects could attain for a burst of eight steps (approximately 3 s or less). The maximum speed supported by aerobic power, or the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake, was determined from a progressive, discontinuous treadmill test to failure. All-out running speeds for trials of 3-240 s were measured during 10-13 constant-speed treadmill runs to failure and 4 track runs at specified distances. Measured values of the maximum speeds supported by anaerobic and aerobic power, in conjunction with an exponential constant, allowed us to predict the speeds of all-out treadmill trials to within an average of 2.5% (R2 = 0.94; n = 84) and track trials to within 3.4% (R2 = 0.86; n = 28). An algorithm using this exponent and only two of the all-out treadmill runs to predict the remaining treadmill trials was nearly as accurate (average = 3.7%; R2 = 0.93; n = 77). We conclude that our technique 1) provides accurate predictions of high-speed running performance in trained runners and 2) offers a performance assessment alternative to existing tests of anaerobic power and capacity.

  16. Pacing, packing and sex-based differences in Olympic and IAAF World Championship marathons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pacing profiles and packing behaviours of athletes in Olympic and World Championship marathons. Finishing and split times were collated for 673 men and 549 women across nine competitions. The mean speeds for each intermediate 5 km and end 2.2 km segments were calculated. Medallists of both sexes maintained even-paced running from 10 km onwards whereas slower finishers dropped off the lead pack at approximately half-distance. Athletes who ran with the same opponents throughout slowed the least in the second half (P medal positions. Marathon runners are advised to identify rivals with similar abilities and ambitions to run alongside provided they start conservatively. Coaches should note important sex-based differences in tactics adopted and design training programmes accordingly.

  17. Does Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Running Improve Performance? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Wilson, PB. Does carbohydrate intake during endurance running improve performance? A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3539-3559, 2016-Previous review articles assessing the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise have not focused on running. Given the popularity of distance running and the widespread use of carbohydrate supplements, this article reviewed the evidence for carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running. The criteria for inclusion were (a) experimental studies reported in English language including a performance task, (b) moderate-to-high intensity exercise >60 minutes (intermittent excluded), and (c) carbohydrate ingestion (mouth rinsing excluded). Thirty studies were identified with 76 women and 505 men. Thirteen of the 17 studies comparing a carbohydrate beverage(s) with water or a placebo found a between-condition performance benefit with carbohydrate, although heterogeneity in protocols precludes clear generalizations about the expected effect sizes. Additional evidence suggests that (a) performance benefits are most likely to occur during events >2 hours, although several studies showed benefits for tasks lasting 90-120 minutes; (b) consuming carbohydrate beverages above ad libitum levels increases gastrointestinal discomfort without improving performance; (c) carbohydrate gels do not influence performance for events lasting 16-21 km; and (d) multiple saccharides may benefit events >2 hours if intake is ≥1.3 g·min Given that most participants were fasted young men, inferences regarding women, adolescents, older runners, and those competing in fed conditions are hampered. Future studies should address these limitations to further elucidate the role of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running.

  18. SETUP AND PERFORMANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTOR ACCELERATORS FOR THE 2005 RUN WITH COPPER IONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AHRENS, L.; ALESSI, J.; GARDNER, C.J.

    2005-05-16

    Copper ions for the 2005 run [1] of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of these accelerators with copper are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  20. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, M. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Hansen, L. S.; Knudsen, T.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  1. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  2. JOINT EFFECT OF STRIDE LENGTH AND STRIDE WIDTH ON RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Naushad Waheed Ansari*

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe joint effect of stride length and stride width on running performance of 100m sprinters and 5000m distance runners during completion. Twenty runners (Ten100m sprinters & Ten 5000m distance) from All India Athletic Meet were selected for the study. The aged ranged from 18-25years, height ranged from 1.56-1.85 m, body weight ranged from 49 - 75 kg were of subjects. The subject’s running motion was recorded using two Synchronised video cameras. One wa...

  3. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  4. ATLAS High-Level Trigger performance for calorimeter-based algorithms in LHC Run-I

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During Run-I of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the ATLAS detector recorded more than 26 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision events. One of the key components of the ATLAS detector is its trigger system. In order to keep up with the fast-paced evolution of the beam conditions during Run-I, the trigger selection had to be constantly adapted. For most of the calorimeter-based triggers only modest modifications of the thresholds had to be made, given the change in instantaneous luminosity of five orders of magnitude. This was achieved by various improvements in the High-Level Trigger algorithms, in several places abandoning the original RoI-based concept and introducing new features to overcome previous limitations. The excellent performance of both ATLAS and the LHC made possible the discovery of a new particle already during Run-I, the long-sought Higgs boson.

  5. RAPPORT: running scientific high-performance computing applications on the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy; Filippis, Ioannis; Woodbridge, Mark; Bauer, Daniela; Hong, Neil Chue; Jackson, Mike; Butcher, Sarah; Colling, David; Darlington, John; Fuchs, Brian; Harvey, Matt

    2013-01-28

    Cloud computing infrastructure is now widely used in many domains, but one area where there has been more limited adoption is research computing, in particular for running scientific high-performance computing (HPC) software. The Robust Application Porting for HPC in the Cloud (RAPPORT) project took advantage of existing links between computing researchers and application scientists in the fields of bioinformatics, high-energy physics (HEP) and digital humanities, to investigate running a set of scientific HPC applications from these domains on cloud infrastructure. In this paper, we focus on the bioinformatics and HEP domains, describing the applications and target cloud platforms. We conclude that, while there are many factors that need consideration, there is no fundamental impediment to the use of cloud infrastructure for running many types of HPC applications and, in some cases, there is potential for researchers to benefit significantly from the flexibility offered by cloud platforms.

  6. RHIC PERFORMANCE DURING THE FY10 200 GeV Au+Au HEAVY ION RUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.; Bruno, D.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; de Maria, R.; D’Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.; Gassner, D.; Glenn, J.W.; Hao, Y.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Satogata, T.; Severino, F.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Theisen, C.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    Since the last successful RHIC Au+Au run in 2007 (Run-7), the RHIC experiments have made numerous detector improvements and upgrades. In order to benefit from the enhanced detector capabilities and to increase the yield of rare events in the acquired heavy ion data a significant increase in luminosity is essential. In Run-7 RHIC achieved an average store luminosity of = 12 x 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} by operating with 103 bunches (out of 111 possible), and by squeezing to {beta}* = 0.85 m. This year, Run-10, we achieved = 20 x 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which put us an order of magnitude above the RHIC design luminosity. To reach these luminosity levels we decreased {beta}* to 0.75 m, operated with 111 bunches per ring, and reduced longitudinal and transverse emittances by means of bunched-beam stochastic cooling. In addition we introduced a lattice to suppress intra-beam scattering (IBS) in both RHIC rings, upgraded the RF control system, and separated transition crossing times in the two rings. We present an overview of the changes and the results of Run-10 performance.

  7. Impact of Seated and Standing Bicycle Riding Position on Subsequent Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L; Ewers, Brendon J; Cunniffe, Brian; Phelan, Brian; Harrison, Andrew J; Shafat, Amir

    This study examined the effects of cycling posture on subsequent running performance similar to the transition phase of a triathlon. Experienced, non-elite triathletes completed two trials of a cycle-run transition. During the last three minutes of a 30 minute cycling bout, at power output equal to lactate threshold, subjects either remained seated (SEAT), or alternated seated and standing cycling (30 s at a time; ALT). Heart rate, RPE, minimum and maximum knee angle, stride frequency and length, and onset and duration of quadriceps and hamstrings activity were obtained at the end of a three-minute control run and at minutes 0, 2, & 4, of running after cycling transition. Repeated Measures ANOVA (condition X minute; p = 0.05) found control was significantly different than minute 0 for stride frequency and length, but not for minimum or maximum knee angle. EMG duration at minute 4 was less than all other time points for both quadriceps and hamstrings. Onset of muscle activity was not different for hamstring or quadriceps. Heart rate and RPE both increased over 15 minutes after transition and were higher for SEAT than ALT, however, there was no interaction (minute by position) for either variable. Results indicated changes in stride rate and length following cycling occur, but disappear within two minutes after the transition to running and do not differ between postures. Changes in duration of muscle activity may be related to changes in stride. Also HR and RPE differ between the SEAT and ALT cycling positions and over time.

  8. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms Upgrade and Performance in Run-2 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00211450

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for the online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger; it reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. The excellent performance of the ATLAS trigger has been vital for the ATLAS physics program of Run-2, selecting interesting collision events for a wide variety of physics signatures with high efficiency. The trigger selection capabilities have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and pile-up during Run-2. At the Level-1 trigger the undertaken improvements resulted in more pile-up robust selection efficiencies and event rates and in a reduction of fake candidate particles. A new hardware system, designed to analyze event-topologies, supports a more refined event selecti...

  9. The effect of 6 h of running on brain activity, mood, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Schneider, Stefan; Martin, Lisa Anne; Kerhervé, Hugo A; Klein, Timo; Solomon, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Long-duration exercise has been linked with the psychological model of flow. It is expected that the flow experience is characterized by specific changes in cortical activity, especially a transient hypofrontality, which has recently been connected with an increase in cognitive performance post-exercise. Nevertheless, data on neuro-affective and neuro-cognitive effects during prolonged exercise are rare. The cognitive performance, mental state, flow experience, and brain cortical activity of 11 ultramarathon runners (6 female, 5 male) were assessed before, several times during, and after a 6-h run. A decrease in cortical activity (beta activity) was measured in the frontal cortex, whereas no changes were measured for global beta, frontal or global alpha activity. Perceived physical relaxation and flow state increased significantly after 1 h of running but decreased during the following 5 h. Perceived physical state and motivational state remained stable during the first hour of running but then decreased significantly. Cognitive performance as well as the underlying neurophysiological events (recorded as event-related potentials) remained stable across the 6-h run. Despite the fact that women reported significant higher levels of flow, no further gender effects were noticeable. Supporting the theory of a transient hypofrontality, a clear decrease in frontal cortex activity was noticeable. Interestingly, this had no effect on cognitive performance. The fact that self-reported flow experience only increased during the first hour of running before decreasing, leads us to assume that changes in cortical activity, and the experience of flow may not be linked as previously supposed.

  10. Fluctuations in running and skill-related performance in elite rugby union match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Chris

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated end-game and transient changes in running activities and whether these were concomitantly associated with reductions in skill-related performance in senior international rugby union match-play. Altogether, 18 official matches were analysed (322 individual observations) using computerised video-based tracking and event coding (Amisco Pro(®), SUP, Nice, France). In forwards and backs, trivial to small reductions (% difference: -2.1, ±1.3 to -10.0, ±4.0%) in total distance and that covered at high speeds (>18.0 km h(-1)) occurred in the second- versus the first-half while there were trivial differences in skill-related performance measures (-2.3, ±4.5 to 7.5, ±14.0%). In both positions, small to moderate declines (-42, ±10 to -21, ±7%) occurred in high-speed running in the final 10-min and 5-min periods versus mean values for all other 10-min and 5-min periods throughout the game while only small changes (-18, ±51 to 13, ±41%) in skill-related performance were observed. Trivial changes in running and skill-related performance (-11, ±74 to 7, ±39%) were observed in the 5-min period immediately following the most intense 5-minute periods of play compared to mean performance over the other 5-min periods. These findings suggest that international rugby union players were generally able to maintain skill-related performance over the course of match-play even when declines in running performance occurred.

  11. Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a primary care sports medicine doctor at Christus Trinity Mother Frances Health System in Tyler, Texas. ... Fieseler, M.D., primary care sports medicine physician, Christus Trinity Mother Frances Health System, Tyler, Texas; Peter ...

  12. EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF MASSAGE ON LEG STRENGTH, SWELLING, AND PAIN FOLLOWING A HALF-MARATHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Tiidus

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female completed a half marathon (21.1 km road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p 0.05. All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12 participants perceived that the massaged leg felt better upon recovery.

  13. Achieving the optimal performance of the CMS ECAL in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Menglei

    2016-01-01

    Many physics analyses using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the LHC require accurate, high resolution electron and photon energy measurements. Particularly important are decays of the Higgs boson resulting in electromagnetic particles in the final state. Di-photon events in CMS are also a very important channel in the search for Higgs boson production in association with other particles or in the search for possible new resonances of higher mass. The requirement for high performance electromagnetic calorimetry therefore remains high during LHC Run II. Following the excellent performance achieved in Run~I at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) started operating at the LHC in Spring 2015 with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC during Run~II is expected to exceed the levels achieved in Run I, using 25 ns bunch spacing. The average number of concurrent proton-proton collisions per bu...

  14. Glucose-fructose likely improves gastrointestinal comfort and endurance running performance relative to glucose-only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P B; Ingraham, S J

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether glucose-fructose (GF) ingestion, relative to glucose-only, would alter performance, metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and psychological affect during prolonged running. On two occasions, 20 runners (14 men) completed a 120-min submaximal run followed by a 4-mile time trial (TT). Participants consumed glucose-only (G) or GF (1.2:1 ratio) beverages, which supplied ∼ 1.3 g/min of carbohydrate. Substrate use, blood lactate, psychological affect [Feeling Scale (FS)], and GI distress were measured. Differences between conditions were assessed using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Participants completed the TT 1.9% (-1.9; -4.2, 0.4) faster with GF, representing a likely benefit. FS ratings were possibly higher and GI symptoms were possibly-to-likely lower with GF during the submaximal period and TT. Effect sizes for GI distress and FS ratings were relatively small (Cohen's d = ∼0.2 to 0.4). GF resulted in possibly higher fat oxidation during the submaximal period. No clear differences in lactate were observed. In conclusion, GF ingestion - compared with glucose-only - likely improves TT performance after 2 h of submaximal running, and GI distress and psychological affect are likely mechanisms. These results apply to runners consuming fluid at 500-600 mL/h and carbohydrate at 1.0-1.3 g/min during running at 60-70% VO2peak .

  15. Achieving the optimal performance of the CMS ECAL in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Menglei

    2016-01-01

    Many physics analyses using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the LHC require accurate, high resolution electron and photon energy measurements. Particularly important are decays of the Higgs boson resulting in electromagnetic particles in the final state. Di-photon events in CMS are also a very important channel in the search for Higgs boson production in association with other particles or in the search for possible new resonances of higher mass. The requirement for high performance electromagnetic calorimetry therefore remains high during LHC Run II. Following the excellent performance achieved in Run~I at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) started operating at the LHC in Spring 2015 with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC during Run~II is expected to exceed the levels achieved in Run I, using 25 ns bunch spacing. The average number of concurrent proton-proton collisions per bu...

  16. Parallelization and Performance of the NIM Weather Model Running on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govett, Mark; Middlecoff, Jacques; Henderson, Tom; Rosinski, James

    2014-05-01

    The Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) is a global weather prediction model being developed to run on the GPU and MIC fine-grain architectures. The model dynamics, written in Fortran, was initially parallelized for GPUs in 2009 using the F2C-ACC compiler and demonstrated good results running on a single GPU. Subsequent efforts have focused on (1) running efficiently on multiple GPUs, (2) parallelization of NIM for Intel-MIC using openMP, (3) assessing commercial Fortran GPU compilers now available from Cray, PGI and CAPS, (4) keeping the model up to date with the latest scientific development while maintaining a single source performance portable code, and (5) parallelization of two physics packages used in the NIM: the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) used operationally, and the widely used Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model physics. The presentation will touch on each of these efforts, but highlight improvements in parallel performance of the NIM running on the Titan GPU cluster at ORNL, the ongong parallelization of model physics, and a recent evaluation of commercial GPU compilers using the F2C-ACC compiler as the baseline.

  17. Impact of acute sodium citrate ingestion on endurance running performance in a warm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaher, Ivi; Timpmann, Saima; Aedma, Martin; Ööpik, Vahur

    2015-04-01

    Dietary supplements inducing alkalosis have been shown to be ergogenic during intense endurance exercise in temperate environments, but there is lack of data regarding the efficacy of these substances in the heat. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion on 5,000-m running performance in a warm environment. Sixteen non-heat-acclimated endurance-trained males (age 25.8 ± 4.4 years, VO2peak 56.9 ± 4.7 mL kg min) completed two 5,000-m self-paced treadmill runs with preceding CIT or placebo (wheat flour; PLC) ingestion in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner in a climatic chamber (air temperature 32 °C, relative humidity 50 %). CIT ingestion (500 mg kg(-1) body mass) compared to PLC induced increases in water retention, body mass and plasma volume (P rate, heart rate and 5,000-m running time (18.92 ± 2.05 min in CIT, 19.11 ± 2.38 min in PLC; 66 % likelihood of benefit, d = -0.09) were similar (P > 0.05) in the two trials. Post-exercise blood lactate concentration was higher (P 0.05). Acute CIT ingestion induces alkalosis, water retention, plasma volume expansion and an increase in post-exercise blood lactate concentration, but does not improve 5,000-m running performance in a warm environment in non-heat-acclimated endurance-trained males.

  18. Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Mujika, I

    2014-08-01

    Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness.

  19. Medical and Disaster Preparedness of US Marathons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Rixe, Jeffrey; Spurkeland, Nancy; Brady, Jodi; Silvis, Matthew; Olympia, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Despite the events that occurred at the 2013 Boston Marathon (Boston, Massachusetts USA), there are currently no evidence-based guidelines or published data regarding medical and disaster preparedness of marathon races in the United States. Purpose To determine the current state of medical disaster preparedness of marathons in the US and to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from January through May of 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to race directors of US road and trail marathons, as identified by a comprehensive internet database. One hundred twenty-three questionnaires were available for analysis (19% usable response rate). Marathon races from all major regions of the US were represented. Runner medical information was not listed on race bibs in 53% of races. Only 45% of races held group training and planning sessions prior to race day. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were immediately available on 50% of courses, and medications such as albuterol (30%), oxygen (33%), and IV fluids (34%) were available less frequently. Regarding medical emergencies, 55% of races did not have protocols for the assessment of dehydration, asthma, chest pain, syncope, or exercise-induced cramping. With regard to disaster preparedness, 50% of races did not have protocols for the management of disasters, and 21% did not provide security personnel at start/finish lines, aid stations, road crossings, and drop bag locations. Areas for improvement in the preparedness of US marathons were identified, such as including printed medical information on race bibs, increasing pre-race training and planning sessions for volunteers, ensuring the immediate availability of certain emergency equipment and medications, and developing written protocols for specific emergencies and disasters.

  20. Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.

  1. Thoraco-abdominal coordination and performance during uphill running at altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Eva; Pratali, Lorenza; Mandolesi, Gaia; Spiridonova, Maria; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Cogo, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Running races on mountain trails at moderate-high altitude with large elevation changes throughout has become increasingly popular. During exercise at altitude, ventilatory demands increase due to the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia. Aim To investigate the relationships between thoraco-abdominal coordination, ventilatory pattern, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and endurance performance in runners during high-intensity uphill exercise. Methods Fifteen participants (13 males, mean age 42±9 yrs) ran a “Vertical Kilometer,” i.e., an uphill run involving a climb of approximately 1000 m with a slope greater than 30%. The athletes were equipped with a portable respiratory inductive plethysmography system, a finger pulse oximeter and a global positioning unit (GPS). The ventilatory pattern (ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR), and VE/VT ratio), thoraco-abdominal coordination, which is represented by the phase angle (PhA), and SpO2 were evaluated at rest and during the run. Before and after the run, we assessed respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength and the occurrence of interstitial pulmonary edema by thoracic ultrasound. Results Two subjects were excluded from the respiratory inductive plethysmography analysis due to motion artifacts. A quadratic relationship between the slope and the PhA was observed (r = 0.995, p = 0.036). When the slope increased above 30%, the PhA increased, indicating a reduction in thoraco-abdominal coordination. The reduced thoraco-abdominal coordination was significantly related to reduced breathing efficiency (i.e., an increased VE/VT ratio; r = 0.961, p = 0.038) and SpO2 (r = -0.697, pabdominal coordination and consequent reduction in SpO2 were associated with interstitial pulmonary edema. Conclusion Reductions in thoraco-abdominal coordination are associated with a less efficient ventilatory pattern and lower SpO2 during uphill running. This fact could have a negative effect on performance

  2. Performance of the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction 
in the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oide, Hideyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC has provided new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosity leading to increasingly high-multiplicity environments and boosted, highly-collimated physics objects. The Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer, which was inserted in the innermost region of ATLAS during the long shutdown of the LHC. We will present results showing the performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms using Run-2 data at the LHC and discuss some of the challenges encountered during commissioning. Recent improvements include a factor of three reduction in the reconstruction time, optimisation for the expected conditions, novel techniques to enhance the performance in dense jet cores and time-dependent alignment of sub-detectors. Moreover, data-driven methods to evaluate vertex resolution, fake rates, track reconstruction inefficiencies in dense environments, and track parameter resolution and biases will be shown.

  3. Precision, Accuracy, and Performance Outcomes of Perceived Exertion vs. Heart Rate Guided Run-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan C; Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Ellis, Lindsay A; Maresh, Carl M; Pescatello, Linda S; Ganio, Matthew S; Lee, Elaine C; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2017-03-01

    Johnson, EC, Pryor, RR, Casa, DJ, Ellis, LA, Maresh, CM, Pescatello, LS, Ganio, MS, Lee, EC, and Armstrong, LE. Precision, accuracy, and performance outcomes of perceived exertion vs. heart rate guided run-training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 630-637, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to compare run-prescription by heart rate (HR) vs. rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during 6 weeks to determine which is superior for consistent achievement of target intensities and improved performance. Forty untrained men participated in this laboratory-controlled and field-controlled trial. Participants were divided into heart rate (HRTG) and rating of perceived exertion training groups (RPETG). All underwent maximal-graded exercise testing and a 12-minute run test before and after training. Intensity was prescribed as either a target HR or RPE that corresponded to 4 relative intensity levels: 45, 60, 75, and 90% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 reserve (V[Combining Dot Above]O2R). Mean exercise intensity over the 6 weeks did not differ between HRTG (65.6 ± 7.2%HRR) and RPETG (61.9 ± 9.0%HRR). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (+4.1 ± 2.5 ml·kg·min) and 12 minutes run distance (+240.1 ± 150.1 m) improved similarly in HRTG and RPETG (p > 0.05). HRTG displayed lower coefficients of variation (CV) (5.9 ± 4.1%, 3.3 ± 3.8%, and 3.0 ± 2.2%) and %error (4.1 ± 4.7%, 2.3 ± 4.1% and 2.6 ± 3.2%) at 45, 60, and 75% V[Combining Dot Above]O2R compared with RPETG (CV 11.1 ± 5.0%, 7.7 ± 4.1% and 5.6 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.005) %error (15.7 ± 9.2%, 10.6 ± 9.2% and 6.7 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.001), respectively. Overall, HR-prescribed and RPE-prescribed run-training resulted in similar exercise intensity and performance outcomes over 6 weeks. Differences in the CV and %error suggest use of HR monitoring for individuals that are new to running as it improves precision and accuracy but does not increase performance improvements across 6 weeks.

  4. "Functional" Inspiratory and Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2016-10-01

    Tong, TK, McConnell, AK, Lin, H, Nie, J, Zhang, H, and Wang, J. "Functional" inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2942-2951, 2016-We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whereas under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training (IMT)-"functional" IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Before the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week program of "foundation" IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets per day, 6 days per week). The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase consisted of 3-4 sessions per week. In addition, the ICT group undertook 4 inspiratory-loaded core exercises (10 repetitions per set, 2 sets per day, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0) immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. After the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT) performance, respectively. Compared with CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and 1-hour running performance (3.04% vs. 1.57%, p ≤ 0.05). The changes in these variables were interindividually correlated (r ≥ 0.57, n = 16, p ≤ 0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program on endurance running performance and that this may be

  5. Physical growth and changes in intermittent endurance run performance in young male Basque soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José António; Amado, Markos; Figueiredo, António J; Gil, Susana M

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined physical growth and development of intermittent endurance run performance in young Basque soccer players aged 10-15 years applying multilevel regression modeling. Anthropometry, predicted adult stature and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) of players from the under-11 teams from the Athletic Club of Bilbao were measured at pre- and end-season (two measurements per year of study, n = 33 considered for analysis). A non-linear effect of age on intermittent endurance run was observed, with significantly higher increases in Yo-Yo IR1 between 10-11 year-old and 14-15 year-old players. The development of Yo-Yo IR1 performance in all the years of the study was influenced positively by training exposure during the seasons (P 0.05). The steady development of intermittent endurance run performance during pubertal years in adolescent Basque soccer players is partially influenced by training exposure.

  6. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  7. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Hammerling

    Full Text Available The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA, and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish. The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method, though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  8. Kinesiological Analysis of Stationary Running Performed in Aquatic and Dry Land Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Alberton Cristine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the electromyographic (EMG signals of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, semitendinosus (ST and short head of the biceps femoris (BF during the performance of stationary running at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. The sample consisted of 12 female volunteers who performed the stationary running exercise in aquatic and dry land environments at a submaximal cadence (80 beats·min-1 controlled by a metronome and at maximal velocity, with EMG signal measurements from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles. The results showed a distinct pattern between environments for each muscle examined. For the submaximal cadence of 80 beats·min-1, there was a reduced magnitude of the EMG signal in the aquatic environment, except for the ST muscle, the pattern of which was similar in both environments. In contrast to the submaximal cadence, the pattern of the EMG signal from all of the muscles showed similar magnitudes for both environments and phases of movement at maximal velocity, except for the VL muscle. Therefore, the EMG signals from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles of women during stationary running had different patterns of activation over the range of motion between aquatic and dry land environments for different intensities. Moreover, the neuromuscular responses of the lower limbs were optimized by an increase in intensity from submaximal cadence to maximal velocity.

  9. Differences in horizontal vs. uphill running performance in male and female Swiss world-class orienteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Sandra; Wehrlin, Jon P; Marti, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    In orienteering, athletes must choose the quickest route from point to point, considering if they want to run a longer flat distance rather than a shorter distance with an incline to reach the next point. Our aim was therefore, to determine an athlete's equivalence factor (EF, ratio between horizontal and uphill running performance) enabling coaches to provide individual route choice recommendations during orienteering competition. Ten male and 8 female orienteers performed 1 horizontal (MST(horizontal); 0% incline) and 1 uphill (MST(uphill); 22% incline) maximal running stage test to exhaustion on a treadmill in randomized order. The EFs were calculated based on maximal speeds achieved in both tests (MRV(horizontal/uphill)). In addition, VO2peak was measured. MRV(horizontal) was 20.4 ± 0.6 and 17.3 ± 0.8 km · h, and MRV(uphill) was 8.8 ± 0.7 and 7.2 ± 0.5 km · h (men and women). The EF was 6.3 ± 0.7 and ranged between 5.2 and 7.4. Relative VO2peak(uphill) was 69.2 ± 5.7 and 59.1 ± 3.7 m l · kg · min, whereas VO2peak(horizontal) was lower 66.4 ± 3.5 (p orienteering competition.

  10. The comparison of OPC performance and run time for dense versus sparse solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Amr; Stobert, Ian; Viswanathan, Ramya; Burns, Ryan; Herold, Klaus; Kallingal, Chidam; Meiring, Jason; Oberschmidt, James; Mansfield, Scott

    2008-03-01

    The lithographic processes and resolution enhancement techniques (RET) needed to achieve pattern fidelity are becoming more complicated as the required critical dimensions (CDs) shrink. For technology nodes with smaller devices and tolerances, more complex models and proximity corrections are needed and these significantly increase the computational requirements. New simulation techniques are required to address these computational challenges. The new simulation technique we focus on in this work is dense optical proximity correction (OPC). Sparse OPC tools typically require a laborious, manual and time consuming OPC optimization approach. In contrast, dense OPC uses pixel-based simulation that does not need as much manual setup. Dense OPC was introduced because sparse simulation methodology causes run times to explode as the pattern density increases, since the number of simulation sites in a given optical radius increases. In this work, we completed a comparison of the OPC modeling performance and run time for the dense and the sparse solutions. The analysis found the computational run time to be highly design dependant. The result should lead to the improvement of the quality and performance of the OPC solution and shed light on the pros and cons of using dense versus sparse solution. This will help OPC engineers to decide which solution to apply to their particular situation.

  11. ATLAS jet and missing energy reconstruction, calibration and performance in LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the reconstruction and calibration of the jet energy scale and missing transverse energy scale with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is a key component to realize the ATLAS full physics potential, both in the searches for new physics and in precision measurements. New algorithms used for the reconstruction and calibration of jets and missing energy with the ATLAS detector during LHC run 2 are presented. Measurements of the performance and uncertainties are derived from data. The results from the 2016 pp collision data set at sqrt(s)=13 TeV are reported.

  12. Performance of boosted object and jet substructure techniques in Run 1 and 2 ATLAS data

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic decays of heavy particles with momenta much larger than their mass result in their decay products being reconstructable as a single large-radius jet. The study of the substructure of these jets allows the separation of these boosted decays with respect to more common jets from light-quarks and gluons. Several techniques have been developed by the phenomenology and experimental community to identify jets coming from hadronic decays of boosted top quarks, W, Z and Higgs bosons. The performance of several such techniques have been studied in ATLAS using fully-simulated Monte Carlo events, and validated on data using pure samples of top quarks, W bosons from top decays and dijet events. Results of these studies will be presented for Run 1 as well as Run 2 of the LHC.

  13. Performance of the LHCb RICH detectors during the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00261218; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb RICH system provides hadron identification over a wide momentum range $(2–100 ~\\text{GeV}/c)$. This detector system is key to LHCb’s precision flavour physics programme, which has unique sensitivity to physics beyond the standard model. This paper reports on the performance of the LHCb RICH in Run II, following significant changes in the detector and operating conditions. The changes include the refurbishment of significant number of photon detectors, assembled using new vacuum technologies, and the removal of the aerogel radiator. The start of Run II of the LHC saw the beam energy increase to $6.5 ~\\text{TeV}$ per beam and a new trigger strategy for LHCb with full online detector calibration. The RICH information has also been made available for all trigger streams in the High Level Trigger for the first time.

  14. The Upgrade of the ATLAS Electron and Photon Triggers towards LHC Run 2 and their Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers are essential for a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses. For example, final states including leptons and photons had key role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs particle properties. Dedicated triggers are also used for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based (L1) and a software-based High Level Trigger (HLT). Both were upgraded during the long shutdown of the LHC in preparation for data taking in 2015 to cope with the increasing luminosity, the more challenging pile-up conditions and higher center-of-mass energy. The trigger selection has also been optimised to further control the rates while keeping efficiencies high. Performance of the the run~2 triggers measured with early run~2 data are shown.

  15. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzubov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Denisov, D. [Fermilab; Evdokimov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Lipaev, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Shchukin, A. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Vasilyev, I. [Serpukhov, IHEP

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  16. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  17. A Comparison of Mixed-Method Cooling Interventions on Preloaded Running Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher J; Bennett, Kyle J M; Sculley, Dean V; Callister, Robin; Taylor, Lee; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-03-01

    Stevens, CJ, Bennett, KJM, Sculley, DV, Callister, R, Taylor, L, and Dascombe, BJ. A comparison of mixed-method cooling interventions on preloaded running performance in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 620-629, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of combining practical methods to cool the body on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven trained male runners completed 4 randomized, preloaded running time trials (20 minutes at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and a 3 km time trial) on a nonmotorized treadmill in the heat (33° C). Trials consisted of precooling by combined cold-water immersion and ice slurry ingestion (PRE), midcooling by combined facial water spray and menthol mouth rinse (MID), a combination of all methods (ALL), and control (CON). Performance time was significantly faster in MID (13.7 ± 1.2 minutes; p < 0.01) and ALL (13.7 ± 1.4 minutes; p = 0.04) but not PRE (13.9 ± 1.4 minutes; p = 0.24) when compared with CON (14.2 ± 1.2 minutes). Precooling significantly reduced rectal temperature (initially by 0.5 ± 0.2° C), mean skin temperature, heart rate and sweat rate, and increased iEMG activity, whereas midcooling significantly increased expired air volume and respiratory exchange ratio compared with control. Significant decreases in forehead temperature, thermal sensation, and postexercise blood prolactin concentration were observed in all conditions compared with control. Performance was improved with midcooling, whereas precooling had little or no influence. Midcooling may have improved performance through an attenuated inhibitory psychophysiological and endocrine response to the heat.

  18. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  19. Energy costs and performance of transfemoral amputees and non-amputees during walking and running: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkoch, Larry J; Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason

    2017-10-01

    Limited information is available concerning the effects of prosthetic foot components on energy costs and ambulatory performance for transfemoral amputees. Compare energy costs (VO2; gait economy) and ambulatory performance (self-selected walking speeds, self-selected running speeds, peak running speeds) differences during walking and running for transfemoral amputees and matched, non-amputee runners. Repeated measures. Transfemoral amputees were accommodated and tested with three prosthetic feet: conventional foot, solid-ankle cushioned heel (SACH); energy storing and return foot, Renegade; and running-specific energy storing and return foot, Nitro. During walking, VO2 was similar between transfemoral amputees but was increased compared to controls. Self-selected walking speeds were slower for SACH compared to Renegade and Nitro. For transfemoral amputees, gait economy was decreased and self-selected walking speeds were slower compared to controls. During fixed running speeds, transfemoral amputees ran using Nitro, and VO2 was greater compared to controls. Transfemoral amputees ran at self-selected running speeds using Renegade and Nitro. Self-selected running speeds were slower for Renegade compared to Nitro. For transfemoral amputees, gait economy was decreased and self-selected running speeds were slower compared to controls. VO2 peak was similar between transfemoral amputees and controls, but controls achieved greater peak running speeds and % grade. Energy costs were greater and ambulatory performance was lower for transfemoral amputees compared to matched, non-amputee controls for all prosthetic foot conditions. Clinical relevance Both types of energy storing and return feet may improve walking performance for transfemoral amputees by providing faster self-selected walking speeds. For transfemoral amputees interested in performing vigorous running (exercise and running competition), clinicians should recommend a running-specific energy storing and return

  20. Improved performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker in LHC Run 2 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    d'Argent, Ph.; Grillo, L.; de Vries, J.A.; Ukleja, A.; Aaij, R.; Archilli, F.; Bachmann, S.; Berninghoff, D.; Birnkraut, A.; Blouw, J.; de Cian, M.; Ciezarek, G.; Färber, Ch.; Demmer, M.; Dettori, F.; Gersabeck, E.; Grabowski, J.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Khanji, B.; Kolpin, M.; Kucharczyk, M.; Malecki, B.P.; Merk, M.; Mulder, M.; Müller, J.; Mueller, V.; Pellegrino, A.; Pikies, M.; Rachwal, B.; Schmelzer, T.; Spaan, B.; Szczekowski, M.; van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of $5\\times 6 m^2$ with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The performance of the detector is presented based on data of the LHC Run 2 running period from 2015 and 2016. Occupancies and operational experience for data collected in $p p$, pPb and PbPb collisions are described. An updated study of the ageing effects is presented showing no signs of gain deterioration or other radiation damage effects. In addition several improvements with respect to LHC Run 1 data taking are introduced. A novel real-time calibration of the time-alignment of the detector and the alignment of the single monolayers composing detector modules are presented, improving the drift-time and position resolution of the detector by 20\\%. Finally, a potential use of the improved resolution for the timing of charged tracks is described, showing the possibility to identify low-momentum hadrons with their time-of-flight.

  1. Maximizing run time performance of deployed data flow graphs on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.; Hunt, Peter D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses a practical solution for supporting the deployment of data flow graphs onto the Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc. vector processing multi-processor architecture. It outlines the support software (both workstation hosted and target system hosted) that is required to design, debug, and maximize deployed data flow graph performance on the multiprocessor architecture. The deployment process guarantees real-time deadlines, minimizes run time scheduling overhead, and minimizes designer partitioning input. It is known that determining effective run time data flow graph node schedules for multi-processor architectures is an NP-complete class of problem not well suited to real-time systems. Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc.'s vector processing toolset recognizes this problem and this paper discusses a prescheduling and pre-assignment approach for partitioning data flow graphs to available hardware resources. In particular the toolset components (which are based upon an enhanced data flow graph language) of workstation pre-assignment, prescheduling, run time gross allocation and local compute element dispatching are discussed in detail.

  2. The Upgrade and Performance of the ATLAS Tau Triggers towards Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Karamaoun, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Upgrade and Performance of the ATLAS Tau Triggers towards Run 2 Tau triggers are used in a variety of highly anticipated ATLAS physics analyses, including the measurement of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions and searches for Higgs boson partners or heavy resonances decaying into pairs of tau leptons. As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10^34cm^ -2s-1, the strategies for triggering have become more sophisticated than in Run 1. In these conditions single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the advancements in algorithms used in the tau identification. Further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main developments to allow a large program of physics analysis. In Run 2 topological criteria can be applied already at the first trigger level, due to the addition of the L1 topological processor. This makes it possible to use detailed information from sub-detectors in order to apply real-time event topology cuts...

  3. Run II performance of luminosity and beam condition monitors at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The BRIL (Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) system of CMS consists of instrumentation to measure the luminosity online and offline, and to monitor the LHC beam conditions inside CMS. An accurate luminosity measurement is essential to the CMS physics program, and measurement of the beam background is necessary to ensure safe operation of CMS. Many of the BRIL subsystems have been upgraded and others have been added for LHC Run II to complement the existing measurements. The beam condition monitor (BCM) consists of several sets of diamond sensors used to measure online luminosity and beam background with a single-bunch-crossing resolution. The BCM also detects when beam conditions become unfavorable for CMS running and may trigger a beam abort to protect the detector. The beam halo monitor (BHM) uses quartz bars to measure the background of the incoming beams at larger radii. The pixel luminosity telescope (PLT) consists of telescopes of silicon sensors designed to provide a CMS online and offline luminosity measurement. In addition, the forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) delivers an independent luminosity measurement, making the whole system robust and allowing for cross-checks of the systematics. An overview of the performance during 2015 LHC running for the new/updated BRIL subsystems will be given, including the uncertainties of the luminosity measurements.

  4. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1 an incremental test; 2 three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3 two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4 an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029; subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037. Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025. In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  5. History and prevalence of doping in the marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2007-01-01

    Anti-doping activism represents the mainstream of the current anti-doping campaign and includes both an ethical critique of doping and a call for the sharpening of sanctions. At the same time, evolving evidence indicates that systemic doping in some sports has existed on a larger scale than most observers thought possible. Doping has historical roots in the physiological demands of extreme endurance sport. The Victorian philosophy of sportsmanship and fair competition that emphasises the importance of a capacity for self-restraint and expresses a code of honour, once associated with the gentleman ideal, is the basis of the current anti-doping movement. The problem with this focus is the assumption that there is a contradiction between high-performance endurance sports and doping practices that is not found in the historical record. Compared with the hundreds of professional cyclists who have tested positive for banned substances in recent decades, the list of offenders in the marathon is very short. At the same time, the low number of positive tests is an inadequate basis for estimating the extent of doping among elite marathon runners today. A better understanding of this phenomenon would require something like anthropological fieldwork conducted in this subculture.

  6. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Methods Using Williams and Folland’s model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise. PMID:28257486

  7. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  8. Effects of hip flexor training on sprint, shuttle run, and vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Russell S; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kim A

    2005-08-01

    Although hip flexion is integral in sports, hip flexion exercises are seldom emphasized in strength and conditioning for sports performance. This study aimed to determine whether a hip flexor resistance-training program could improve performance on a variety of tasks. Thirteen men and 11 women completed an 8-week hip flexion resistance-training program. Eleven men and 13 women served as controls. Isometric hip flexion strength, 40-yd dash time and the time for the first 10-yds, 4 x 5.8-m shuttle run time, and vertical jump height were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and control period. Improvements were observed in the training group but not in the control group. Individuals in the training group improved hip flexion strength by 12.2% and decreased their 40-yd and shuttle run times by 3.8% and 9.0%, respectively. An increase in hip flexion strength can help to improve sprint and agility performance for physically active, untrained individuals.

  9. Preliminary performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Trigger during initial Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, Marilea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The physics program of the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) includes the search for the Higgs Boson and the measurements of its properties, searches for new physics and precision measurements of the Standard Model. Events with high momentum muons in the final state are an important signature of many of these physics topics, then an efficient muon trigger and a deep understanding of its performance are crucial. During Run 1 the ATLAS muon trigger was successfully adapted to the challenging environment, thus reaching an excellent performance. During Run 2 ~100 pb-1 of data with 50 ns bunch spacing have been already collected, while the collection of data with 25 ns bunch spacing is currently ongoing. As the data taking proceeds, the muon trigger performance is being constantly monitored. The muon trigger efficiency, studied both with respect to offline muon reconstruction and with Tag&Probe method applied to the Z decays in muon pairs, is presented here as a function of different kinem...

  10. Operation and performance of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers during LHC run II

    CERN Document Server

    Eysermans, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The Resitive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provide redundancy to the Drift Tubes in the barrel and Cathode Strip Chambers in the endcap regions. Consisting of 1056 double gap RPC chambers, the main detector parameters and environmental conditions are carefully monitored during the data taking period. At a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, the luminosity reached record levels which was challenging from the operational and performance point of view. In this work, the main operational parameters are discussed and the overall performance of the RPC system is reported for the LHC run II data taking period. With a low amount of inactive chambers, a good and stable detector performance was achieved with high efficiency.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters and Commissioning for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Valerio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta| < 4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformity and time resolution. These results demonstrate that the LAr and Tile calorimeters perform excellently within their design requirements. The calorimetry system thu...

  12. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed skating technique. Therefore, athletes would benefit from a focus on technique training in the subsequent period.

  13. The effect of strength training, recreational soccer and running exercise on stretch-shortening cycle muscle performance during countermovement jumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    production, indicating a more explosive-type SSC muscle performance. No effects were detected in CMJ performance after continuous running, high-intensity interval running and recreational soccer, despite an increased muscle fiber CSA and quadriceps muscle activity in SOC. Enhanced neuromuscular activity......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrasting training modalities on mechanical muscle performance and neuromuscular activity during maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycle) countermovement jumps (CMJ). Bilateral countermovement jumping, surface electromyography (EMG......) and muscle fiber size (CSA) were studied in untrained individuals (n=49, 21-45yrs) pre and post 12weeks of progressive heavy-resistance strength training (ST, n=8), recreational soccer training (SOC, n=15), high-intensity interval running (INT, n=7), continuous running (RUN, n=9) or continuation...

  14. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P inspiratory pressure was unchanged. Running economy improved by 6 (9)% in CFB following training (P swimmers.

  15. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  16. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  17. Crystalluria in marathon runners. II. Ultra-marathon--males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A L; Greyling, K G; Irving, R A; Noakes, T D

    1988-01-01

    Particle-volume size distribution curves for the urines of a group of male ultra-marathon runners have been recorded and show the same features as those reported in an earlier study involving standard marathon runners. It is again suggested that these features indicate risk of urinary stone formation although this does not appear to be increased by the more stressful ultra-marathon. Distribution curves obtained for female runners closely resemble those recorded for controls, thus rendering it impossible to assess their risk profile. A commonly observed feature of both the male and female urines was the presence of various urinary salts. Profuse calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals were detected in some samples 11 days after the race. It is suggested that entrapment sites within the urinary tract have a selective specificity for these crystals while urinary salts pass through unhindered.

  18. A Final Review of the Performance of the CDF Run II Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The CDF Collider Detector at Fermilab ceased data collection on September 30, 2011 after over twenty five years of operation. We review the performance of the CDF Run II data acquisition systems over the last ten of these years while recording nearly 10 fb-1 of proton-antiproton collisions with a high degree of efficiency. Technology choices in the online control and configuration systems and front-end embedded processing have impacted the efficiency and quality of the data accumulated by CDF, and have had to perform over a large range of instantaneous luminosity values and trigger rates. We identify significant sources of problems and successes. In particular, we present our experience computing and acquiring data in a radiation environment, and attempt to correlate system technical faults with radiation dose rate and technology choices.

  19. Numerical study on the aerodynamic performance and safe running of high-speed trains in sandstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bing XIONG; Wen-guang YU; Da-wei CHEN; Xue-ming SHAO

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sandstorms on train aerodynamic performance and safe running was studied in response to the frequent occurrence of sandstorm weather in north China.An Eulerian two-phase model in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software FLUENT,validated with published data,was used to solve the gas-solid multiphase flow of a sandstorm around a train.The train aerodynamic performance under different sandstorm levels and no sand conditions was then simulated.Results showed that in sandstorm weather,the drag,lift,side forces and overturning moment increase by variable degrees.Based on a numerical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics,an equation of train stability was also derived using the theory of moment balance from the view of dynamics.A recommended speed limit of a train under different sandstorm levels was calculated based on the stability analysis.

  20. Optimization of the Performance of Single-Phase Capacitor-Run Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi S. Alshamasin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to suggest optimal solution for the impact of harmonics on the performance of Capacitor-Run Motor (CRM, the most commonly used single-phase motor. Therefore, investigations were carried out over the entire slip from no-load condition up to the locked-rotor condition, for harmonics of various orders in the case of using Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM speed control. The investigations gave the ability to optimize the performance of CRM by choosing the appropriate parameters of the PWM inverter. Mathematical model for CRM supplied from voltage source contained harmonics was presented. The work was conducted by using a digital computer simulation (MATLAB software.

  1. Performance of the CASTOR calorimeter at CMS during Run II of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Van De Klundert, Merijn H F

    2016-01-01

    The detector has pseudorapidity borders at -5.2 and -6.6. An overview is presented on the various aspects of CASTOR's performance and their relations during LHC Run 2. The equalisation of CASTOR's channels is performed using beam-halo muons. Thereafter, CASTOR's pedestal spectrum is studied. It is shown that noise estimates which are extracted using a fit, give on average a 10\\% lower threshold than statistical estimates. Gain correction factors, which are needed for the intercalibration, are obtained using a statistical, in-situ applicable method. The results of this method are shown to be reasonably consistent with laboratory measurements. Penultimately the absolute calibration is discussed, with emphasis on the relation between the scale uncertainty and CASTOR's alignment. It is shown that the alignment's contribution to the systematic uncerta...

  2. The Design and Performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Trigger for Run 2 LHC Collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kilby, Callum; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the LHC Run 2 data with collisions at both 50 ns and 25 ns are discussed. The HLT ID tracking algorithms are essential for the identification of nearly all physics signatures in the ATLAS trigger. In order to deal with the expected higher rates for LHC Run 2, the ID trigger was redesigned during the 2013-15 long shutdown to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC operation. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the Run 2 data taken so far for the different trigger signatures in terms of both efficiency, and resolution is presented. The online processing times for running trigger tracking for the different trigger signatures are discussed in detail. Where appropriate, comparison of the new strategy for Run 2, with that adopted in Run 1 are made to demonstrate successful application and superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  3. The LHC Run 2 ATLAS trigger system: design, performance and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Nedden, M.

    2017-03-01

    In many high-energy physics experiments, online selection is vital to collect the most interesting collisions out of the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes a trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of around 1000 Hz. In Run 2 of the LHC, started in spring 2015, the LHC is operating at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV providing an instantaneous luminosity up to 1.4 ṡ 1034 cm‑2s‑1 so far. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or improving upon the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this paper, the ATLAS trigger system for the LHC Run 2 is reviewed. Secondly, the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy is shown. Electron, muon and photon triggers covering transverse energies from a few GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model (SM) processes and to search for new phenomena. Finally, further developments planned for the rest of the LHC Run 2 are discussed. These include two new hardware subsystems for topological selections at L1 and full-scan tracking at the input to the HLT.

  4. Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorimaa, Timo; Virlander, Rami; Kurkilahti, Pasi; Vasankari, Tommi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated acute changes in muscle activation and muscular power performance after three different running exercises in elite long-distance runners. Twenty-two nationally and internationally ranked long-distance runners performed first an incremental treadmill running test until exhaustion (MR) and then 40 min continuous (TR) and intermittent (2 min run/2 min rest) (IR) running exercises at an intensity of 80 and 100% of the velocity associated with VO(2max), respectively. Muscle activation and muscular power performance tests (counter-movement jumps, CMJ, and a set of ten maximal half squats from the static starting position with an extra load of 35% of the subjects, one repetition maximum) were performed before and immediately after the runs. The average mechanical power (P) of the half squats was calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was recorded simultaneously during the half squat performances. The results showed an acute exercise-induced increase in P (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000) together with a reduction in EMGrms of the knee extensor muscles (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000). However, mechanical P expressed as a relative change within the set decreased after MR. In TR the improvement in P correlated positively with the maximal running performance of the runners (P muscles, and may lead to a different coordination strategy in leg extension exercises performed into the vertical direction. After continuous type of running the power improvement correlates positively with maximal endurance running capacity, whereas after intermittent type of running it correlates negatively.

  5. Effects of body-mapping-designed clothing on heat stress and running performance in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Li, Yi; Yao, Lei; Chen, Yajun; Guo, Yueping; Wong, Stephen H S; Ng, Frency S F; Hu, Junyan

    2017-10-01

    To investigate clothing-induced differences in human thermal response and running performance, eight male athletes participated in a repeated-measure study by wearing three sets of clothing (CloA, CloB, and CloC). CloA and CloB were body-mapping-designed with 11% and 7% increased capacity of heat dissipation respectively than CloC, the commonly used running clothing. The experiments were conducted by using steady-state running followed by an all-out performance running in a controlled hot environment. Participants' thermal responses such as core temperature (Tc), mean skin temperature ([Formula: see text]), heat storage (S), and the performance running time were measured. CloA resulted in shorter performance time than CloC (323.1 ± 10.4 s vs. 353.6 ± 13.2 s, p = 0.01), and induced the lowest [Formula: see text], smallest ΔTc, and smallest S in the resting and running phases. This study indicated that clothing made with different heat dissipation capacities affects athlete thermal responses and running performance in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: A protocol that simulated the real situation in running competitions was used to investigate the effects of body-mapping-designed clothing on athletes' thermal responses and running performance. The findings confirmed the effects of optimised clothing with body-mapping design and advanced fabrics, and ensured the practical advantage of developed clothing on exercise performance.

  6. Effects of Explosive Type Strength Training on Selected Physical and Technical Performance Characteristics in Middle Distance Running - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maćkała Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Distance running performance is a simple function of developing high speeds and maintaining this speed as long as possible. Thus a correct running technique becomes an important component of performance. Technique is effective if the competitor can reach a better performance result with the same or lower energy consumption. The purpose of this investigation was to examine a six weeks application explosive type strength training on lower extremities power and maximum speed performance improvement in order to facilitate running technique in sub-elite male middle-distance runner. Material and methods. A sub-elite runner performed twice a week special exercises and running drills. He completed a pre and post-training jumping (SJ, CMJ, standing long jump, standing five jump and speed (20 m from standing and flying start field tests. For kinematical analysis, a video (SIMI Motion System of a 10 m sprint from a 20 m flying start was collected. Results. Improvement occurred in all measurements but strong changes were evident in the 10 m from 20 flying start and in stride frequency from 3.90 to 4.01 Hz, due to decreasing of ground contact time from 160 to 156 ms. No strong evidence in the participant's running technique changes. Conclusion. This proved that six weeks of dynamic type strength program seems to improve neuromuscular characteristics of running speed and explosive power and no changes in running technique.

  7. Impact of polyphenols on physiological stress and cardiac burden in marathon runners - results from a substudy of the BeMAGIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Sebastian; Scherr, Johannes; Hanley, Alan; Schneider, Jens; Klier, Ina; Lackermair, Korbinian; Hoster, Eva; Vogeser, Michael; Nieman, David C; Halle, Martin; Nickel, Thomas

    2017-01-16

    Introduction Both physiologic stress and chronic heart disease are associated with increased systemic levels of chromogranin A (CGA) and NT-proBNP. Marathon running causes physiological stress and imposes a significant cardiac burden. Polyphenol-rich Mediterranean and Asian diets have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we investigated whether pretreatment with a polyphenol beverage could attenuate the physiological and cardiac stress associated with a marathon. Methods In the BeMaGIC trial 277 athletes were randomized into two groups in a double-blinded fashion receiving 1-1.5 L/day of the same beverages either with (study beverage) or without (placebo) polyphenol enrichment (about 400 mg of gallic acid equivalents per day of a complex mixture of polyphenols).Blood samples were taken three weeks before (V1), one day before (V2), and immediately (V3), 24 hours (V4) and 72 hours (V5) after running a marathon. In our current sub-study CGA and NT-proBNP levels were analyzed by ELISA in the fastest 18 and the slowest 22 runners. Results CGA and NT-proBNP levels increased significantly after the marathon (V3) and returned to baseline 72 hours after the marathon (V5). Neither CGA nor NT-proBNP differed significantly between athletes receiving study beverage versus placebo. Separating our cohort into fast and slow runners did not reveal any significant difference regarding CGA or NT-proBNP levels between groups. Conclusion Our study provides no evidence that polyphenol supplementation attenuates marathon running induced physiological stressor cardiac burden in fast or slow runners.

  8. Environment and scheduling effects on sprint and middle distance running performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Haïda

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Achievement of athletes' performances is related to several factors including physiological, environmental and institutional cycles where physical characteristics are involved. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance achieved in professional sprint and middle-distance running events (100 m to 1500 m depending on the organization of the annual calendar of track events and their environmental conditions. METHODS: From 2002 to 2008, all performances of the Top 50 international athletes in the 100 m to 1500 m races (men and women are collected. The historical series of world records and the 10 best annual performances in these events, amounted to a total of 26,544 performances, are also included in the study. RESULTS: Two periods with a higher frequency of peak performances are observed. The first peak occurs around the 27.15(th ±0.21 week (first week of July and the second peak around 34.75(th ±0.14 week (fourth week of August. The second peak tends to be the time of major international competitions (Olympic Games, World Championships, and European Championships and could be characterized as an institutional moment. The first one, however, corresponds to an environmental optimum as measured by the narrowing of the temperature range at the highest performance around 23.25±3.26°C. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that there are two performance peaks at a specific time of year (27th and 34th weeks in sprint and middle distance. Both institutional and ecophysiological aspects contribute to performance in the 100 m to 1500 m best performances and define the contours of human possibilities. Sport institutions may take this into account in order to provide ideal conditions to improve the next records.

  9. Reliability and stability of performances in 400-m swimming and 1500-m running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Graham J; Archer, David T; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Thompson, Kevin G

    2014-07-01

    To assess the reliability and stability of 400-m swimming and 1500-m running competitions to establish the number of samples needed to obtain a stable pacing profile. Coaches, athletes, and researchers can use these methods to ensure that sufficient data are collected before training and race strategies are constructed or research conclusions are drawn. Lap times were collected from 5 world and European championship finals between 2005 and 2011, resulting in the capture of data from 40 swimmers and 55 runners. A cumulative mean for each lap was calculated, starting with the most recent data, and the number of races needed for this to stabilize to within 1% was reported. Typical error for each lap was calculated for athletes who had competed in more than 1 final. International swimmers demonstrated more reproducible performances than runners in 3 of the 4 laps of the race (P swimming. Researchers and athletes can be more certain about the pacing information collected from 400-m swimming than 1500-m running races, as the swimming data are less variable, despite both events being of similar duration.

  10. Operation and Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter and Topological Triggers in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Sebastian Mario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 2 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS detector uses a two-level trigger system to reduce the event rate from the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz to the event storage rate of 1 kHz, while preserving interesting physics events. The first step of the trigger system, Level-1, reduces the event rate to 100 kHz within a latency of less than $2.5$ $\\mu\\text{s}$. One component of this system is the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), which uses coarse-granularity information from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to identify regions of interest corresponding to electrons, photons, taus, jets, and large amounts of transverse energy and missing transverse energy. In these proceedings, we discuss improved features and performance of the L1Calo system in the challenging, high-luminosity conditions provided by the LHC in Run 2. A new dynamic pedestal correction algorithm reduces pile-up effects and the use of variable thresholds and isolation criteria for electromagnetic objects allows for opt...

  11. The Upgrade and Performance of the ATLAS Tau Trigger towards Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Karamaoun, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Tau triggers are used in a variety of highly anticipated ATLAS physics analyses, including the measurement of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions and searches for Higgs boson partners or heavy resonances decaying into pairs of tau leptons. As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10 34 cm −2 s −1 , the strategies for triggering have become more sophisticated than in Run 1. In these conditions single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the advancements in algorithms used in the tau identification. Further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main developments to allow a large program of physics analysis. In Run 2, topological criteria can be applied already at the first trigger level, due to the addition of the L1 topological processor. This makes it possible to use detailed information from sub-detectors in order to apply real-time event topology cuts. The evolution of the ATLAS tau trigger and its performance...

  12. Predicting changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance with acute responses to short jump rope workouts in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza; Beigi, Hamid Taghi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to 1) examine whether individual HR and RPE responses to a jump rope workout could be used to predict changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance in young athletes, and 2...

  13. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber endcap muon detectors in Run 2 and first results with 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC's) are located in the CMS endcap and record muons in the region of absolute pseudorapidity between 0.9 and 2.4. The first performance results of the CSC's in Run 2 are shown.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela

    2017-01-01

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton--proton, proton--lead and lead--lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected for different data-taking conditions in proton--proton, proton--lead and lead--lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. These studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for the two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities.

  15. Thermoregulation, hydration and performance over 6 days of trail running in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, O; Henri, S; Baillot, M; Sinnapah, S; Uzel, A P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate thermal response, hydration and performance over a 6-day, 142-km trail running race in tropical conditions. 9 participants competed in the 2011 Gwadarun (30°C±2.4 °C and 82±4% RH). Data were collected on days 1, 4 and 6. Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) and heart rate (HR) were measured using portable telemetry units, whereas blood samples were collected for hematocrit, osmolarity, plasma concentrations, alkaline reserves and creatine phosphokinase. The performances expressed in speed were correlated with both total body water and body mass loss per hour (TBWL.h(-1) and ∆BM.h(-1)), HR and changes in Tgi per hour (∆Tgi.h(-1)): the more water and mass the participants lost, the higher the HR and the greater the Tgi change, and the better the performance. The ∆ Tgi.h(-1) was significantly correlated with ∆BM.h(-1), and the participants who lost the most mass had the greatest increases in Tgi. None of the blood parameters demonstrated significant changes. The present study showed that well-trained acclimated runners performing a 6-day trail race in a tropical environment and drinking ad libitum did not demonstrate heat-related illness or severe dehydration. Moreover, high performance was associated with increases in Tgi, TBW and BM losses per hour.

  16. Performance and calibration of b-tagging with the ATLAS experiment at LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Connelly, Ian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The identification of $b$-flavoured jets is key to many physics analyses at the LHC, including measurements involving Higgs bosons or top quarks, and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The capacity of ATLAS to efficiently tag $b$-jets has been enhanced for Run-2 with the addition of the Insertable B Layer (IBL), and improvements in the tracking and $b$-tagging algorithms. In the algorithm optimisation special emphasis has been placed in improving the performance for reconstructing high-pt $b$-jets, addressing the challenges posed by track and vertex reconstruction in such an environment. The efficiency and rejection power of these algorithms have been calibrated on data taken in 2015, in particular by exploiting the copious production of $b$-jets in top quark decays, complemented by studies in multi-jet events.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 muon barrel trigger during the Run 2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range |η| < 1.05 for a total surface of more than 4000 m 2 and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates according to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 μs. The measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking are here presented.

  18. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger: Initial Run-2 Strategy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Mark Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10 34cm-2s-1, and a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. In these conditions, single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. Presented here is the strategy for Run-2 data-taking and the initial performance of the ATLAS tau trigger with a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 78.3 pb-1 of 13TeV.

  19. Performance deterioration and durability issues while running a diesel engine with crude palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    Short-term performance tests using crude palm oil (CPO) as fuel for a diesel engine showed CPO to be a suitable substitute, with a peak pressure about 5 per cent higher and an ignition delay about 3 deg shorter compared with diesel. Emissions of NO and CO were about 29 and 9 per cent higher respectively for CPO. However, prolonged use of CPO as fuel caused the engine performance to deteriorate. After 500 h cumulative running with CPO, the maximum power was reduced by about 20 per cent and the minimum brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) was increased by about 26 per cent. Examination of the different parts after the engine was dismantled revealed heavy carbon deposits in the combustion chamber; traces of wear on the piston rings, the plunger and the delivery valve of the injection pump; slight scuffing of the cylinder liner; and uneven spray from the nozzles. The affected parts were installed in a new identical engine one by one to evaluate the performance of each respectively. Tests revealed that the main reason for engine performance deterioration was 'valve sticking', caused by carbon deposits on the valve seats and stems. This resulted in leakage during the compression and power strokes and a reduced effective compression ratio and subsequently affected the power and fuel economy. Valve sticking alone contributed about 18 and 23 per cent to the deterioration in maximum power and minimum b.s.f.c. respectively. (Author)

  20. Variations in Hypoxia Impairs Muscle Oxygenation and Performance during Simulated Team-Sport Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Rodriguez, Ramón F; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of acute hypoxia on muscle oxygenation and power during simulated team-sport running. Methods: Seven individuals performed repeated and single sprint efforts, embedded in a simulated team-sport running protocol, on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (sea-level), and acute normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of 2,000 and 3,000 m). Mean and peak power was quantified during all sprints and repeated sprints. Mean total work, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, and quadriceps muscle deoxyhaemoglobin concentration (assessed via near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured over the entire protocol. A linear mixed model was used to estimate performance and physiological effects across each half of the protocol. Changes were expressed in standardized units for assessment of magnitude. Uncertainty in the changes was expressed as a 90% confidence interval and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Results: Mean total work was reduced at 2,000 m (-10%, 90% confidence limits ±6%) and 3,000 m (-15%, ±5%) compared with sea-level. Mean heart rate was reduced at 3,000 m compared with 2,000 m (-3, ±3 min(-1)) and sea-level (-3, ±3 min(-1)). Blood oxygen saturation was lower at 2,000 m (-8, ±3%) and 3,000 m (-15, ±2%) compared with sea-level. Sprint mean power across the entire protocol was reduced at 3,000 m compared with 2,000 m (-12%, ±3%) and sea-level (-14%, ±4%). In the second half of the protocol, sprint mean power was reduced at 3,000 m compared to 2,000 m (-6%, ±4%). Sprint mean peak power across the entire protocol was lowered at 2,000 m (-10%, ±6%) and 3,000 m (-16%, ±6%) compared with sea-level. During repeated sprints, mean peak power was lower at 2,000 m (-8%, ±7%) and 3,000 m (-8%, ±7%) compared with sea-level. In the second half of the protocol, repeated sprint mean power was reduced at 3,000 m compared to 2,000 m (-7%, ±5%) and sea-level (-9%, ±5%). Quadriceps muscle deoxyhaemoglobin concentration

  1. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-09

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model.

  2. Performance of the CMS precision electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC Run II and prospects for high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a high-performance calorimeter wich will operate also at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This talk will describe the strategies that have been employed to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run 2. Performance results from the 2015-2016 data taking periods will be shown and an outlook on the expected Run 2 performance in the years to come will be provided. The status and plans for the upgraded ECAL barrel electronics for the HL-LHC will be presented, based on recent results from simulations, laboratory tests, and test beam measurements of prototype devices.

  3. Shoe cleat position during cycling and its effect on subsequent running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viker, Tomas; Richardson, Matt X

    2013-01-01

    Research with cyclists suggests a decreased load on the lower limbs by placing the shoe cleat more posteriorly, which may benefit subsequent running in a triathlon. This study investigated the effect of shoe cleat position during cycling on subsequent running. Following bike-run training sessions with both aft and traditional cleat positions, 13 well-trained triathletes completed a 30 min simulated draft-legal triathlon cycling leg, followed by a maximal 5 km run on two occasions, once with aft-placed and once with traditionally placed cleats. Oxygen consumption, breath frequency, heart rate, cadence and power output were measured during cycling, while heart rate, contact time, 200 m lap time and total time were measured during running. Cardiovascular measures did not differ between aft and traditional cleat placement during the cycling protocol. The 5 km run time was similar for aft and traditional cleat placement, at 1084 ± 80 s and 1072 ± 64 s, respectively, as was contact time during km 1 and 5, and heart rate and running speed for km 5 for the two cleat positions. Running speed during km 1 was 2.1% ± 1.8 faster (P < 0.05) for the traditional cleat placement. There are no beneficial effects of an aft cleat position on subsequent running in a short distance triathlon.

  4. Performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in Run II and its role in the measurement of the Higgs boson properties

    CERN Document Server

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The characterisation of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 around 125 GeV, and confirmed with the data collected in Run II, requires the precise determination of its mass, width and couplings. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is crucial for measurements in the highest resolution channels, $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H\\to 4$ leptons. In particular the energy resolution, the scale uncertainty and the position resolution for electrons and photons are required to be as good as possible.During Run II the LHC is continuously operating with 25 ns bunch spacing and increasing instantaneous luminosity. The calorimeter reconstruction algorithm has been adapted to cope with increasing levels of pile-up and the calibration and monitoring strategy have been optimised to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run II. We show first performance results from the Run II data taking periods, achieved through energy calibrations using physics events, with...

  5. LHCb : Performance of the LHCb tracking system in Run I of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three tracking stations, using either straw-tubes or silicon strip detectors, behind the magnet. This system allows to reconstruct charged particles with a high efficiency (typically > 95% for particles with momentum > 5 GeV) and an excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with momentum mu mu. Furthermore an optimal decay time resolution is an essential element in the studies of time dependent CP violation. Thanks to the excellent performance of the tracking system, a decay time resolution of ~50 fs is obtained, allowing to resolve the fast B0s oscillation with a mixing frequency of 17.7 ps-1. In this talk, we will give an overview of the track reconstruction in LHCb and review its performance in Run I of the LHC. We will highlight the challenges and improvements of the track reconstruction for the data taking period from 2015 ...

  6. Effect of a Wide Stance on Block Start Performance in Sprint Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of widened stance width at the set position during the block start phase in sprint running on kinematics and kinetics at the hip joint and block-induced power. Fourteen male sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. They performed three block-start trials with a normal stance width (25 ± 1 cm, normal condition) and a widened stance width (45 ± 2 cm, widened condition) at the set position. The block start movements were recorded at 250 Hz with high-speed cameras and the ground reaction forces at 1250 Hz with force plates. During the block phase in the widened condition, the hip abduction and external rotation angles in both legs were significantly larger and smaller, respectively, than those in the normal condition. The positive peak value of the hip power in the rear leg was significantly greater in the widened condition than that in the normal condition. However, no significant difference was seen in the normalized block-induced power between the widened and normal conditions. We conclude that a widened stance width at the set position affects the hip-joint kinematics and rear hip power generation during the block start phase, but no effect on the block-induced power when considering sprinting performance during the whole block start phase. PMID:26544719

  7. Effect of pre-performance lower-limb massage on thirty-meter sprint running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jon E; Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Lockey, Richard A; McInnes, Gillian

    2007-11-01

    Massage is a commonly utilized therapy within sports, frequently intended as an ergogenic aid prior to performance. However, evidence as to the efficacy of massage in this respect is lacking, and massage may in some instances reduce force production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of massage on subsequent 30-m sprint running performance. Male university level repeat sprint sports players volunteered for the study (n = 37). After each of 3 treatment conditions, subjects completed a standardized warm-up followed by three 30-m sprint trials in a counterbalanced crossover design. Treatment conditions were 15 minutes of lower-limb massage (M), 15 minutes of placebo ultrasound (PU), and rest (R). Thirty-meter sprint times were recorded (including 10-m split times) for the 3 trials under each condition. Best times at 10 m (M: 1.85 +/- 0.09 seconds, PU: 1.84 +/- 0.11 seconds, R: 1.83 +/- 0.10 seconds) and 30 m (M: 4.41 +/- 0.27 seconds, PU: 4.39 +/- 0.28 seconds, R: 4.39 +/- 0.28 seconds) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). There was no significant treatment, trial, or interaction effect for 10- or 30-m sprint times (p > 0.05). No difference was seen in the location of subjects' best times across the 3 trials (p > 0.05). Relative to placebo or control, the results of this study showed that a controlled 15-minute lower-limb massage administered prior to warm-up had no significant effect on subsequent 30-m sprint performance. Massage remains indicated prior to performance where other benefits, such as reduced muscle spasm and psychological stress, might be served to the athlete.

  8. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen K

    2012-02-01

    The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. The purpose of this study was to compare different sprint start positions and to generate correction factors between popular timing triggering methods on 40-m/40-yd sprint time. Fourteen female athletes (17 ± 1 years), personal best 100 m: 13.26 (±0.68) seconds and 11 male athletes (20 ± 5 years), personal best 100 m: 11.58 (±0.74) seconds participated. They performed 2 series of 3 40-m sprints in randomized order: (a) start from the block, measured by means of Brower audio sensor (BAS) and Dartfish video timing (DVT), (b) 3-point start, measured by using hand release pod (HR) and DVT, and (c) standing start, triggered by both photocell across starting line (SFC), and foot release (FR) plus DVT. Video analysis was performed by 2 independent observers and averaged. Simultaneous measurements at national athletics competitions demonstrated that DVT and BAS were equivalent to Omega Timing within the limits of precision of video timing (±0.01 seconds). Hand and floor timer triggering showed small but significant biases compared with movement captured from video (0.02-0.04 seconds), presumably because of sensitivity of pressure thresholds. Coefficient of variation for test-retest timing using different starting positions ranged from 0.7 to 1.0%. Compared with block starts reacting to gunfire, HR, SFC, and FR starts yielded 0.17 ± 0.09, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.69 ± 0.11 second faster times, respectively, over 40 m (all p sprint performances.

  9. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Trigger for Run 2 LHC collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Miano, Fabrizio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    LHC Run 2 presents challenging high rate conditions for data analysis and processing within the ATLAS trigger systems. The ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger implements the algorithms used for identification of tracks in nearly all physics signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The ID trigger was updated and redesigned during the 2013-2015 long shutdown to meet the challenging conditions of Run 2. As well, for Run 2 a new pixel detector layer was added in very close proximity to the beam pipe, which enhances the ID Trigger performance. The redesigned ID trigger algorithms for Run 2 are described, illustrating the significant improvements gained by the new tracking strategies adopted to deal with the increased rate. Performance of the ID trigger in Run 2 is shown in terms of algorithm timing, efficiency and resolution, using data collected by ATLAS in Run 2. The ID trigger continues to show excellent performance, with efficiencies greater than 99%, and track reconstruction times well within the required latency b...

  10. ANALÝZA PŘÍNOSU BĚŽECKÝCH ZÁVODŮ PRAGUE INTERNATIONAL MARATHON PRO CESTOVNÍ RUCH

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the assessment of the sporting events impact. The main aim is to assess the impact of the running races organized by Prague International Marathon objectively and to verify the hypothesis that organizing sporting events can have a positive impact on tourism of the country. The theoretical part explains the basic approaches of sport tourism and deals with the typology of the sporting events. The practical part analyses the impact of the PIM running races on tourism. The a...

  11. Comparison of Sprint and Run Times with Performance on the Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male volunteers were studied to examine the relationship between the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and sprint-run times and to determine the influence of age and weight. Results indicate the WAnT is a moderate predictor of dash and run times but becomes a stronger predictor when adjusted for body weight. (Author/MT)

  12. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Jakub; Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-07-25

    Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors' accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running.

  13. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors’ accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. Objective The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. Methods A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. Results OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. Conclusions The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running. PMID:28743682

  14. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part I: The Fixed Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pieralisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy. In this context, this paper presents a fixed electromagnetic infrastructure to equip a standard running racetrack in order to help a blind athlete to safely run without the presence of a sighted guide. The athlete runs inside an invisible hallway, just wearing a light and a comfortable sensor unit. The patented system has been homemade, designed, realized and finally tested by a blind Paralympic marathon champion with encouraging results and interesting suggestions for technical improvements. In this paper (Part I, the transmitting unit, whose main task is to generate the two magnetic fields that delimit the safe hallway, is presented and discussed.

  15. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part I: The Fixed Infrastructure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy. In this context, this paper presents a fixed electromagnetic infrastructure to equip a standard running racetrack in order to help a blind athlete to safely run without the presence of a sighted guide. The athlete runs inside an invisible hallway, just wearing a light and a comfortable sensor unit. The patented system has been homemade, designed, realized and finally tested by a blind Paralympic marathon champion with encouraging results and interesting suggestions for technical improvements. In this paper (Part I), the transmitting unit, whose main task is to generate the two magnetic fields that delimit the safe hallway, is presented and discussed. PMID:28216570

  16. The impact of a pre-loaded multi-ingredient performance supplement on muscle soreness and performance following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Ward, Emery G; Bach, Christopher W; Arciero, Paul J; McKune, Andrew J; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) on perceived soreness, strength, flexibility and vertical jump performance following eccentric exercise are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single bout of downhill running (DHR) on muscle soreness and performance. Trained male runners (n = 20) were stratified by VO2max, strength, and lean mass into two groups; MIPS (n = 10) ingested one serving daily of NO-Shotgun® for 28 days and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits, Control (CON; n = 10) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner as MIPS. Perceived soreness and performance measurements (strength, flexibility, and jump height) were tested on 6 occasions; 28 days prior to DHR, immediately before DHR (PRE), immediately post (POST) DHR, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-DHR. Perceived soreness significantly increased (p < 0.05) post DHR compared to PRE at all time-points, with no difference between groups. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased over time (p < 0.001) with no group x time interactions (p = 0.236 and p = 0.535, respectively). Significant time effects were measured for strength (p = 0.001), flexibility (p = 0.025) and vertical jump (p < 0.001). There were no group x time interactions for any performance measurements. Consumption of MIPS for 4 weeks prior to a single bout of DHR did not affect perceived soreness, muscle damage, strength, flexibility, or jump performance compared to an isocaloric placebo in trained male runners following a single bout of DHR.

  17. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-12-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key pointsThe RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes.During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or

  18. The ATLAS Data Flow system in Run2: Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector uses a real time selective triggering system to reduce the high interaction rate from 40 MHz to its data storage capacity of 1 kHz. A hardware first level trigger limits the rate to 100 kHz and a software high level trigger selects events for offline analysis. By building on the experience gained during the successful first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system has been simplified and upgraded to take advantage of state of the art technologies. The Dataflow element of the system is composed of distributed hardware and software responsible for buffering and transporting event data from the Readout system to the High Level Trigger and to the event storage. This system has been reshaped in order to maximize the flexibility and efficiency of the data selection process. The updated dataflow is different from the previous implementation both in terms of architecture and performance. The biggest difference is within the high level trigger, where the merger of region-of-inte...

  19. Differences in 200-m sprint running performance between outdoor and indoor venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Amelia; Floria, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Athletes' times in 200-m indoor races are greater than in outdoor races. The purpose of this study was to determine which 50-m sections were slower indoors than outdoors in 200-m sprint events and by how much. Using 2-dimensional photogrammetric techniques, a 50-m split-time analysis was made of the performance of 17 men and 16 women, all well-trained athletes, at 4 national competitions held over 5 years. The time taken to run the 0- to 50-m section was longer indoors than outdoors in women (6.89 ± 0.12 vs. 6.75 ± 0.04 seconds; p 100- to 150-m section indoors (6.03 ± 0.15 vs. 5.84 ± 0.06 seconds; p 100 and 150-200 m in either sex. In both categories, the relative average velocity (RAV), percentage of average velocity relative to the maximum velocity reached in the fastest section (50-100 m), was about 3% lower indoors than outdoors in 100- to 150-m section. The athletes' lower capacity to develop speed indoors could be caused specifically, by the curved 0- to 50-m and 100- to 150-m sections of the indoor track. Coaches could use these data as reference values there being few published data from high-level competitions. The RAV could be used by coaches to compare results among athletes of different levels and sexes.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Track Reconstruction Algorithms in Dense Environments in LHC run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: With the increase in energy of the Large Hadron Collider to a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV for Run 2, events with dense environments, such as in the cores of high-energy jets, became a focus for new physics searches as well as measurements of the Standard Model. These environments are characterized by charged-particle separations of the order of the tracking detectors sensor granularity. Basic track quantities are compared between 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS experiment and simulation of proton-proton collisions producing high-transverse-momentum jets at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The impact of charged-particle separations and multiplicities on the track reconstruction performance is discussed. The efficiency in the cores of jets with transverse momenta between 200 GeV and 1600 GeV is quantified using a novel, data-driven, method. The method uses the energy loss, dE/dx, to identify pixel clusters originating from two charged particles. Of the charged particles creating the...

  1. Performances of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon barrel trigger during the Run-II data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range $|\\eta|<1.05$ for a total surface of more than $4000\\ m^2$ and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates with respect to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing number. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 $\\mu s$. The detailed measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and of the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking is here presented.

  2. Ischemic Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis in a Marathon Runner. Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Matthias Löhr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir we read the contribution by Mast et al. with great interest [1]. They report on this unfortunate gentleman who developed acute pancreatitis after running marathon and taking a sauna. Although this combination of physical activities is not so uncommon in the Nordic countries, particularly during winter time, no such experience or reports exist on pancreatitis. Morbidity and mortality of sauna bathing is rather low [2], despite the fact that there is a readiness to combine sauna with alcohol intake. The more this case report appears worth publishing, even though we should have appreciated some more data on the level of hemoconcentration in this runner and sauna bather Furthermore, as it is routine in our pancreas clinic these days, we would have searched also for one of the known genetic factors contributing to the development of pancreatitis such as mutations in PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR and CTRC genes [3]. Even more though in a patient who does not have one of the known or obvious causes such as alcohol, gallstones or hyperlipidemia. Further, despite his obvious physical condition, the presence of atherosclerotic microangiopathy would be worth knowing in a 57-year-old man, since most of the ischemic etiologies are thought to be associated with atherosclerotic disease [4].

  3. Effect of endurance training on performance and muscle reoxygenation rate during repeated-sprint running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Ufland, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an 8-week endurance training program on repeated-sprint (RS) performance and post-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate in 18 moderately trained males (34 ± 5 years). Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 10 km running and RS (2 × 15-s shuttle-sprints, interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery) performance were assessed before and after the training intervention. Total distance covered (TD) and the percentage of distance decrement (%Dec) were calculated for RS. Between-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate (Reoxy rate) was assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy during RS before and after training. After training, MAS (+9.8 ± 5.8%, with 100% chances to observe a substantial improvement), 10 km time (-6.2 ± 5.3%, 99%), TD (+9.6 ± 7.7%, 98%), %Dec (-25.6 ± 73.6%, 93%) and Reoxy rate (+152.4 ± 308.1%, 95%) were improved. The improvement of Reoxy rate was largely correlated with improvements in MAS [r = 0.63 (90% CL, 0.31;-0.82)] and %Dec [r = -0.52 (-0.15;-0.76)]. Present findings confirm the beneficial effect of endurance training on post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate, which is likely to participate in the improvement of repeated-sprint ability after training. These data also confirm the importance of aerobic conditioning in sports, where repeating high-intensity/maximal efforts within a short time-period are required.

  4. Energy Drinks Improve Five-Kilometer Running Performance in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Philip J; Goss, Fredric L; Nagle, Elizabeth F; Beals, Kim; Robertson, Robert J; Lovalekar, Mita T; Welton, Gary L

    2016-11-01

    Prins, PJ, Goss, FL, Nagle, EF, Beals, K, Robertson, RJ, Lovalekar, MT, and Welton, GL. Energy drinks improve five-kilometer running performance in recreational endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2979-2990, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate exercise performance time and related physiological and perceptual responses of recreational endurance runners after they had ingested a commercially available energy drink (Red Bull, Red Bull GmbH, Fuschl am See, Austria) containing caffeine, glucose, and taurine. Recreational endurance runners (n = 18; 13 men and 5 women; age: 20.39 ± 3.27 years; weight: 71.25 ± 17.17 kg; height: 178.00 ± 7.57 cm; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 55.94 ± 7.66 ml·kg·min) participated in a double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures study where they were randomized to supplement with 500 ml of the commercially available energy drink Red Bull and a noncaffeinated, sugar-free placebo (PLA) 60 minutes before completing a 5-km time trial on a treadmill, separated by 7 days. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (RPE-Overall; RPE-Chest; RPE-Legs), and affect were recorded at rest, 1 hour before ingestion, at 5-minute intervals during the 5-km time trial, and immediately after exercise. Session RPE and session affect were obtained 5 minutes after completion of the 5-km time trial. The distance covered at each 5-minute interval during the 5-km time trial was recorded. Performance improved with the energy drink compared with placebo (Red Bull: 1,413.2 ± 169.7 vs. PLA: 1,443.6 ± 179.2 seconds; p = 0.016), but there were no differences in RPE, affect, session RPE, session affect, or the distance covered at 5-minute splits between the two 5-km time trials (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that consuming a commercially available energy drink before exercise can improve 5-km performance. These results may have application for altering pre-exercise nutritional strategies in recreational runners.

  5. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dickinson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA, 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800 or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600. During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s. Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1 and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1 were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement.

  6. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter Møller; Larsen, Sonni

    2014-01-01

    -Yo IR2 test (706±97 vs. 491±65 m) improved (Peconomy (189±4 vs. 195±4 ml/kg/km), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P..., content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, leads to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well...

  7. A Study on Selection Performance for High Energy Photons in CMS towards the 13 TeV LHC Run

    CERN Document Server

    Scerri, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The 13 TeV run for the LHC is expected to occur in the beginning of 2015 with a higher number of interactions per bunch crossing and a reduced bunch crossing time spacing. These harsher conditions are expected to affect the photon selection performance especially for high energy photons involved in BSM processes like the Graviton decay. This work summarizes a preliminary study of this performance using 13 TeV Monte Carlo Randall Sundrum Graviton samples with different pileup scenarios corresponding to the coming 13 TeV run conditions. Especially the efficiency for the selection and the energy resolution are investigated.

  8. Running the running

    CERN Document Server

    Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\pm0.013$ at $68\\%\\,\\mathrm{CL}$, suggesting the presence of a running of the running at the level of two standard deviations. We find no significant correlation between $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}}$ and foregrounds parameters, with the exception of the point sources amplitude at $143\\,\\mathrm{GHz}$, $A^{PS}_{143}$, which shifts by half sigma when the running of the running is considered. We further study the cosmological implications of this anomaly by including in the analysis the lensing amplitude $A_L$, the curvature parameter ...

  9. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Pincrease self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  10. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  11. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  12. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cejka Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+] and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4% (p +] increased by 1.2% (p p = 0.0005. The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05. Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p r = 0.54, p +] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142. Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036 and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236. The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227. The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129 and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028. Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

  13. Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C J; Thoseby, B; Sculley, D V; Callister, R; Taylor, L; Dascombe, B J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a cooling strategy designed to predominately lower thermal state with a strategy designed to lower thermal sensation on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven moderately trained male runners completed familiarization and three randomized, crossover 5-km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill in hot conditions (33 °C). The trials included ice slurry ingestion before exercise (ICE), menthol mouth rinse during exercise (MEN), and no intervention (CON). Running performance was significantly improved with MEN (25.3 ± 3.5 min; P = 0.01), but not ICE (26.3 ± 3.2 min; P = 0.45) when compared with CON (26.0 ± 3.4 min). Rectal temperature was significantly decreased with ICE (by 0.3 ± 0.2 °C; P < 0.01), which persisted for 2 km of the run and MEN significantly decreased perceived thermal sensation (between 4 and 5 km) and ventilation (between 1 and 2 km) during the time trial. End-exercise blood prolactin concentration was elevated with MEN compared with CON (by 25.1 ± 24.4 ng/mL; P = 0.02). The data demonstrate that a change in the perception of thermal sensation during exercise from menthol mouth rinse was associated with improved endurance running performance in the heat. Ice slurry ingestion reduced core temperature but did not decrease thermal sensation during exercise or improve running performance.

  14. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  15. 5000 Meter Run Performance is not Enhanced 24 Hrs After an Intense Exercise Bout and Cold Water Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Stenson, Matthew R. Stenson, Tracey D. Matthews, Vincent J. Paolone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold water immersion (CWI is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS, range of motion (ROM, thigh circumference (TC, and perceived exertion (RPE. Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO2peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session. CWI was performed for 12 min at 12 degrees Celsius on the legs. Recovery treatments were performed in a counterbalanced design. Run time for 5000 m was not different between the CWI and control trials (CWI = 1317.33 ± 128.33 sec, control = 1303.44 ± 105.53 sec; p = 0.48. PMS increased significantly from baseline to immediately post exercise (BL = 1.17 ± 0.22, POST = 2.81 ± 0.52; p = 0.02 and remained elevated from baseline to 24 hrs post exercise (POST24 = 2.19 ± 0.32; p = 0.02, but no difference was observed between the treatments. No differences were observed for the interaction between time and treatment for TC (λ = 0.73, p = 0.15 and ROM (λ = 0.49; p = 0.10. CWI performed immediately following an interval training exercise bout did not enhance subsequent 5000 m run performance or reduce PMS. CWI may not provide a recovery or performance advantage when athletes are accustomed to the demands of the prior exercise bout.

  16. Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000779, the Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  17. Static stretching alters neuromuscular function and pacing strategy, but not performance during a 3-km running time-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara V Damasceno

    Full Text Available Previous studies report that static stretching (SS impairs running economy. Assuming that pacing strategy relies on rate of energy use, this study aimed to determine whether SS would modify pacing strategy and performance in a 3-km running time-trial.Eleven recreational distance runners performed a a constant-speed running test without previous SS and a maximal incremental treadmill test; b an anthropometric assessment and a constant-speed running test with previous SS; c a 3-km time-trial familiarization on an outdoor 400-m track; d and e two 3-km time-trials, one with SS (experimental situation and another without (control situation previous static stretching. The order of the sessions d and e were randomized in a counterbalanced fashion. Sit-and-reach and drop jump tests were performed before the 3-km running time-trial in the control situation and before and after stretching exercises in the SS. Running economy, stride parameters, and electromyographic activity (EMG of vastus medialis (VM, biceps femoris (BF and gastrocnemius medialis (GA were measured during the constant-speed tests.The overall running time did not change with condition (SS 11:35±00:31 s; control 11:28±00:41 s, p = 0.304, but the first 100 m was completed at a significantly lower velocity after SS. Surprisingly, SS did not modify the running economy, but the iEMG for the BF (+22.6%, p = 0.031, stride duration (+2.1%, p = 0.053 and range of motion (+11.1%, p = 0.0001 were significantly modified. Drop jump height decreased following SS (-9.2%, p = 0.001.Static stretch impaired neuromuscular function, resulting in a slow start during a 3-km running time-trial, thus demonstrating the fundamental role of the neuromuscular system in the self-selected speed during the initial phase of the race.

  18. Futsal match-related fatigue affects running performance and neuromuscular parameters but not finishing kick speed or accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milioni, Fabio; Vieira, Luiz H P; Barbieri, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially p...

  19. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  20. Repo Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Skeie, D.; von Thadden, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of financial institutions that borrow short- term and invest into long-term marketable assets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to runs. We endogenize the profits of the intermediary and derive distinct liquidity and

  1. A STUDY OF THE MEDIAN RUN LENGTH (MRL PERFORMANCE OF THE EWMA t CHART FOR THE MEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin, W. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA chart is effective in detecting small shifts. However, the EWMA chart is not robust enough to prevent errors in estimating the process standard deviation or a changing standard deviation. To overcome this problem, Zhang et al. suggested the EWMA t chart in 2009. The existing optimal design of the EWMA t chart is based on the average run length (ARL criterion. This paper proposes that the optimal design of the EWMA t chart be based on the median run length (MRL. The MRL performances of the optimal EWMA and optimal EWMA t charts are compared.

  2. ATLAS Distributed Computing Experience and Performance During the LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing during LHC Run-1 was challenged by steadily increasing computing, storage and network requirements. In addition, the complexity of processing task workflows and their associated data management requirements led to a new paradigm in the ATLAS computing model for Run-2, accompanied by extensive evolution and redesign of the workflow and data management systems. The new systems were put into production at the end of 2014, and gained robustness and maturity during 2015 data taking. ProdSys2, the new request and task interface; JEDI, the dynamic job execution engine developed as an extension to PanDA; and Rucio, the new data management system, form the core of the Run-2 ATLAS distributed computing engine. One of the big changes for Run-2 was the adoption of the Derivation Framework, which moves the chaotic CPU and data intensive part of the user analysis into the centrally organized train production, delivering derived AOD datasets to user groups for final analysis. The effectiveness of...

  3. ATLAS Distributed Computing experience and performance during the LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing during LHC Run-1 was challenged by steadily increasing computing, storage and network requirements. In addition, the complexity of processing task workflows and their associated data management requirements led to a new paradigm in the ATLAS computing model for Run-2, accompanied by extensive evolution and redesign of the workflow and data management systems. The new systems were put into production at the end of 2014, and gained robustness and maturity during 2015 data taking. ProdSys2, the new request and task interface; JEDI, the dynamic job execution engine developed as an extension to PanDA; and Rucio, the new data management system, form the core of the Run-2 ATLAS distributed computing engine. One of the big changes for Run-2 was the adoption of the Derivation Framework, which moves the chaotic CPU and data intensive part of the user analysis into the centrally organized train production, delivering derived AOD datasets to user groups for final analysis. The effectiveness of...

  4. Operation and Performance of the Upgraded CMS Calorimeter Trigger in LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071552

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is preparing for the physics program for Run 2. The center-of-mass energy has risen from 8 to 13 TeV and the instantaneous luminosity will increase for both proton and heavy-ion running. This will make it more challenging to trigger on interesting events since the number of interactions per crossing (pile-up) and the overall trigger rate will be significantly larger than LHC Run 1. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has installed a two-stage upgrade to their Calorimeter Trigger to ensure that the trigger rates can be controlled and the thresholds can stay low, so that physics data collection will not be compromised. The first-stage upgrade is installed and includes new electronics and duplicated optical links so that the LHC Run 1 CMS calorimeter trigger is still functional and algorithms can be developed while data taking continues. The second-stage will fully replace the calorimeter trigger at CMS with AMC form-factor boards and an optical link system, and...

  5. No Positive Influence of Ingesting Chia Seed Oil on Human Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Runners (n = 24 reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg−1 chia seed oil (random order, provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max. Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA during the chia seed oil (337% versus water trial (35% (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL−1, respectively, p < 0.001, run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively. No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER (0.92 ± 0.01, oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-10 (IL-10, and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures.

  6. Computer Security: the security marathon, part 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Do you recall our latest article on the “Security Marathon” (see here) and why it’s wrong to believe that computer security is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug-fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is a good idea, that once you are secure, your life is cosy?   In fact, security is a marathon for us too. Again and again, we have felt comfortable with the security situation at CERN, with dedicated protections deployed on individual hosts, with the security measures deployed by individual service managers, with the attentiveness and vigilance of our users, and with the responsiveness of the Management. Again and again, however, we subsequently detect or receive reports that this is wrong, that protections are incomplete, that security measures are incomplete, that security awareness has dropped. Thus, unfortunately, we often have to go back to square one and address similar issues over and over...

  7. Shell Eco-marathon Europe 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Royal Dutch Shell plc

    2015-01-01

    El UPCT Solar Team ha mejorado su prototipo y compitió a el 21 de mayo, jueves, en la Shall Eco-marathon Europe, que se disputó en el circuito de Rotterdam. Es la segunda vez que el equipo participa en esta carrera y, según el jefe del equipo, Miguel Ángel García, este año “vamos a por todas”. De igual forma piensa el profesor que coordina el equipo, Antonio Guerrero, que se ha mostrado muy satisfecho del trabajo realizado por los alumnos. “Este año ha mejorado el equipo a nivel de competició...

  8. The age-related performance decline in Ironman triathlon starts earlier in swimming than in cycling and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Ilja; Rüst, Christoph A; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-02-21

    In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015. Split and overall race times of 329,066 (80%) male and 81,815 (20%) female athletes competing in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analysed. The number of finishers increased in all age groups with exception of women in age group 75-79 years. In pro athletes, performance improved in all disciplines. In age group athletes, performance improved in younger age groups for running (18-24 to 40-44 years) and older age groups for swimming (50-54 to 65-69 years) and cycling (35-39 to 55-59 years), while it impaired in younger age groups for swimming (18-24 to 45-49 years) and cycling (18-24 to 30-34), and older age groups in running (45-49 to 70-74 years). The age-related performance decline started in women in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 30-34 years in cycling, running and overall race time, whereas it started in men in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 35-39 years in cycling, running and overall race time. For athletes and coaches, performance improved in younger age groups for running and older age groups for swimming and cycling and the age-related decline in performance started earlier in swimming than in cycling and running. In summary, women should start competing in Ironman triathlon before the age of 30 years and men before the age of 35 years to achieve their personal best Ironman race time.

  9. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  10. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V̇O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners.

  11. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into "telescopes", each consisting of three planes. It was installed during LS1 at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. In this talk, we will present results from 2016 running and preliminary 2017 results, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Va...

  12. Graded shuttle run performance by playing positions in elite female basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane

    2015-03-01

    A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.

  13. The Tourism Market of Australia – A Model of Managerial Performance in Running an Exotic Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the performance management that government decision-making bodies involve in organizing tourism in Australia. The proposed quantitative indicators evaluate the managerial performance in running this system: macroeconomic indicators of domestic and international tourist flows and their impact on the Australian economy. The conclusion is that the national tourism development strategy adopted in Australia, through its objectives and identified strategic options, offers the potential to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism industry. The interim results of its implementation demonstrate its effectiveness: in Australia, tourism has become the real driver of socioeconomic progress, thus a model of performance management in running a potentially valuable tourist destinations.

  14. MathRun: An Adaptive Mental Arithmetic Game Using A Quantitative Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L.; Tang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogy and the way children learn are changing rapidly with the introduction of widely accessible computer technologies, from mobile apps to interactive educational games. Digital games have the capacity to embed many learning supports using the widely accredited VARK (visual, auditory, reading, and kinaesthetic) learning style. In this paper, we present a mathematics educational game MathRun for children age between 7-11 years old to practice mental arithmetic. We build the game as an inte...

  15. Run Faster for Your Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹凤

    2011-01-01

    The name Marathon comes from the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek messenger. The legend states that he was sent from the battlefield of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon (in which he had just fough

  16. No positive influence of ingesting chia seed oil on human running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Meaney, Mary Pat; Dew, Dustin A

    2015-05-15

    Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg-1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL(-1), respectively, p Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures.

  17. Operational Experience, Improvements, and Performance of the CDF Run II Silicon Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Calancha, C; Carron, S.; Cihangir, S.; Corbo, M.; Clark, D.; Di Ruzza, B.; Eusebi, R.; Fernandez, J.P.; Freeman, J.C.; Garcia, J.E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Grinstein, S.; Hartz, M.; Herndon, M.; Hill, C.; Hocker, A.; Husemann, U.; Incandela, J.; Issever, C.; Jindariani, S.; Junk, T.R.; Knoepfel, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.; Merkel, P; Mondragon, M.N.; Moore, R.; Mumford, J.R.; Nahn, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nelson, T.K.; Pavlicek, V.; Pursley, J.; Redondo, I.; Roser, R.; Schultz, K.; Spalding, J.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Stuart, D.; Sukhanov, A.; Tesarek, R.; Treptow, K.; Wallny, R.; Worm, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) pursues a broad physics program at Fermilab's Tevatron collider. Between Run II commissioning in early 2001 and the end of operations in September 2011, the Tevatron delivered 12 fb-1 of integrated luminosity of p-pbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Many physics analyses undertaken by CDF require heavy flavor tagging with large charged particle tracking acceptance. To realize these goals, in 2001 CDF installed eight layers of silicon microstrip detectors around its interaction region. These detectors were designed for 2--5 years of operation, radiation doses up to 2 Mrad (0.02 Gy), and were expected to be replaced in 2004. The sensors were not replaced, and the Tevatron run was extended for several years beyond its design, exposing the sensors and electronics to much higher radiation doses than anticipated. In this paper we describe the operational challenges encountered over the past 10 years of running the CDF silicon detectors, the preventive measures undertaken, an...

  18. The Reliability of Running Performance in a 5 km Time Trial on a Non-motorized Treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C J; Hacene, J; Sculley, D V; Taylor, L; Callister, R; Dascombe, B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability of performance and physiological responses during a self-paced 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill. 17 male runners (age: 32±13 years, height: 177±7 cm, body mass: 71±9 kg, sum of 7 skinfolds: 55±21 mm) performed familiarization then 2 separate maximal 5 km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill. Physiological responses measured included heart rate, oxygen uptake, expired air volume, blood lactate concentration, tissue saturation index and integrated electromyography. Running time (1,522±163 s vs. 1,519±162 s for trials 1 and 2, respectively) demonstrated a low CV of 1.2% and high ICC of 0.99. All physiological variables had CVs of less than 4% and ICCs of >0.92, with the exception of blood lactate concentration (7.0±2 mmol·L(-1) vs. 6.5±1.5 mmol·L(-1) for trials 1 and 2, respectively; CV: 12%, ICC: 0.83) and the electromyography measures (CV: 8-27%, ICC: 0.71-0.91). The data demonstrate that performance time in a 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill is a highly reliable test. Most physiological responses measured across the 5 km run also demonstrated good reliability.

  19. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records.

  20. An Overview of the Running Performance of Athletes with Lower-Limb Amputation at the Paralympic Games 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the performances of lower-limb amputees in the 100, 200 and 400 m running events from the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games. In this paper, four hypotheses are pursued. In the first, it investigates whether the running performance of lower-limb amputees over three consecutive Paralympic Games has changed. In the second, it asks whether a bi-lateral amputee has a competitive advantage over a uni-lateral amputee. In the third, the effect of blade classification has been considered and we attempt to see whether amputees in various classifications have different level of performance. Finally, it is considered whether the final round of competition obtains different levels of performance in comparison to the qualification heats. Based on the outcomes of these investigations, it is proposed that future amputee-based running events should be undertaken with separate and not combined events for the T42, T43 and T44 classifications at the Paralympic Games.

  1. Selected psychological characteristics and health behaviors of aging marathon runners: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W P; Costill, D L

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the health behaviors and psychological characteristics of fifteen male marathon runners who were first tested in 1969 (N = 8) and 1976 (N = 7). The participants in this study averaged 29 years of age at the outset, and the mean age at the time of follow-up was 50 years. These subjects were found to score in the normal range on all of the psychological variables, and they were characterized by the "iceberg" profile described earlier for elite athletes in various sports. This profile includes scores that fall below the population average on mood states such as tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion along with above average scores on vigor. Also, the psychological traits of these former runners have been remarkably stable across the past two decades, with the exception that a uniform decline has been observed for the neuroticism measure. Earlier research by Eysenck has shown that neuroticism decreases with age. These former marathon runners continue to be moderately active, and it is noteworthy that they first became involved as runners while in high school. All but one of the participants had attended college, and each had participated in competitive running while in college. Training for marathon competition took place following the college years. It is likely that much of the early success enjoyed by this group was governed to a substantial degree by heredity. This sample possessed an average aerobic power of 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 along with a unique somatotype when first tested, and these factors are known to have a substantial heritability component. The health behaviors studied in this group were uniformly positive. They were found to be physically active, and their physical self-esteem fell above that of other men in their age group. The subjects reported moderate use of alcohol, no insomnia, few physical problems and good overall mood. The sample of former marathon runners described in this report is unique in a number of respects

  2. Monitoring the dynamic behaviors of the Bosporus Bridge by GPS during Eurasia Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Erdoğan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering structures, like bridges, dams and towers are designed by considering temperature changes, earthquakes, wind, traffic and pedestrian loads. However, generally, it can not be estimated that these structures may be affected by special, complex and different loads. So it could not be known whether these loads are dangerous for the structure and what the response of the structures would be to these loads. Such a situation occurred on the Bosporus Bridge, which is one of the suspension bridges connecting the Asia and Europe continents, during the Eurasia Marathon on 2 October 2005, in which 75 000 pedestrians participated. Responses of the bridge to loads such as rhythmic running, pedestrian walking, vehicle passing during the marathon were observed by a real-time kinematic (RTK Global Positioning System (GPS, with a 2.2-centimeter vertical accuracy. Observed responses were discussed in both time domain and frequency domain by using a time series analysis. High (0.1–1 Hz and low frequencies (0.00036–0.01172 Hz of observed bridge responses under 12 different loads which occur in different quantities, different types and different time intervals were calculated in the frequency domain. It was seen that the calculated high frequencies are similar, except for the frequencies of rhythmic running, which causes a continuously increasing vibration. Any negative response was not determined, because this rhythmic effect continued only for a short time. Also when the traffic load was effective, explicit changes in the bridge movements were determined. Finally, it was seen that bridge frequencies which were calculated from the observations and the finite element model were harmonious. But the 9th natural frequency value of the bridge under all loads, except rhythmic running could not be determined with observations.

  3. Monitoring the dynamic behaviors of the Bosporus Bridge by GPS during Eurasia Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoǧan, H.; Akpınar, B.; Gülal, E.; Ata, E.

    2007-08-01

    Engineering structures, like bridges, dams and towers are designed by considering temperature changes, earthquakes, wind, traffic and pedestrian loads. However, generally, it can not be estimated that these structures may be affected by special, complex and different loads. So it could not be known whether these loads are dangerous for the structure and what the response of the structures would be to these loads. Such a situation occurred on the Bosporus Bridge, which is one of the suspension bridges connecting the Asia and Europe continents, during the Eurasia Marathon on 2 October 2005, in which 75 000 pedestrians participated. Responses of the bridge to loads such as rhythmic running, pedestrian walking, vehicle passing during the marathon were observed by a real-time kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS), with a 2.2-centimeter vertical accuracy. Observed responses were discussed in both time domain and frequency domain by using a time series analysis. High (0.1-1 Hz) and low frequencies (0.00036-0.01172 Hz) of observed bridge responses under 12 different loads which occur in different quantities, different types and different time intervals were calculated in the frequency domain. It was seen that the calculated high frequencies are similar, except for the frequencies of rhythmic running, which causes a continuously increasing vibration. Any negative response was not determined, because this rhythmic effect continued only for a short time. Also when the traffic load was effective, explicit changes in the bridge movements were determined. Finally, it was seen that bridge frequencies which were calculated from the observations and the finite element model were harmonious. But the 9th natural frequency value of the bridge under all loads, except rhythmic running could not be determined with observations.

  4. Supramaximal intermittent running performance in relation to age and locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine supramaximal intermittent running performance in highly-trained young soccer players, with regard to age and locomotor profile. Twenty-seven Under 14, 19 U16 and 16 U18 highly-trained soccer players performed an incremental intermittent running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) to assess supramaximal intermittent running performance (VIFT), an incremental running test to estimate maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) and a 40-m sprint to estimate maximal sprinting speed (MSS). U16 and U18 presented very likely greater VIFT (19.2 ± 0.9, 19.7 ± 1.0 vs. 17.4 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) and VVam-Eval (16.2 ± 0.9, 16.7 ± 1.0 vs. 14.6 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) than U14, while there was no clear difference between U16 and U18. MSS (25.1 ± 1.6, 29.3 ± 1.6 and 31.0 ± 1.1 km · h(-1) for U14, U16 and U18) was very likely different between all groups. When data were pooled together, VIFT was very largely correlated with VVam-Eval and MSS (overall r =0.89, partial r = 0.74 and 0.29, respectively). Within-age group correlations showed that the older the players, the greater the magnitude of the correlations between VIFT and VVam-Eval (r = 0.67, 0.73 and 0.87). In conclusion, the major predictors of VIFT were, in order of importance, VVam-Eval and MSS; however, the older the players, the greater the correlations with VVam-Eval.

  5. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  6. The ATLAS Muon Trigger - Experience and Performance in the first 3 years of LHC pp runs

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods form 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analysis involving mu...

  7. Low energy availability in the marathon and other endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    Energy availability is the amount of dietary energy remaining after exercise training for all other metabolic processes. Excessively low energy availability impairs reproductive and skeletal health, although genetics and age may alter an individual's initial conditions and sensitivity when low energy availability is imposed. Many marathon runners and other endurance athletes reduce energy availability either (i) intentionally to modify body size and composition for improving performance; (ii) compulsively in a psychopathological pattern of disordered eating; or (iii) inadvertently because there is no strong biological drive to match energy intake to activity-induced energy expenditure. Inadvertent low energy availability is more extreme when consuming a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. Low energy availability, reproductive disorders, low bone mineral density and stress fractures are more common in female than male athletes. Functional menstrual disorders caused by low energy availability should be diagnosed by excluding diseases that also disrupt menstrual cycles. To determine energy availability (in units of kilocalories or kilojoules per kilogram of fat-free mass), athletes can record their diets and use diet analysis software to calculate energy intake, measure energy expenditure during exercise using a heart monitor and measure fat-free mass using a bioelectrical impedance body composition scale. All are commercially available at consumer prices.

  8. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  9. Predicting changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance with acute responses to short jump rope workouts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza; Beigi, Hamid Taghi

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to 1) examine whether individual HR and RPE responses to a jump rope workout could be used to predict changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance in young athletes, and 2) examine the effect of using different methods to determine a smallest worthwhile change (SWC) on the interpretation of group-average and individual changes in the variables. Before and after an 8-week high-intensity training program, 13 children athletes (10.6 ± 0.9 yr) performed a high-intensity running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test, VIFT) and three jump rope workouts, where HR and RPE were collected. The SWC was defined as either 1/5(th) of the between-subjects standard deviation or the variable typical error (CV). After training, the large ~9% improvement in VIFT was very likely, irrespective of the SWC. Standardized changes were greater for RPE (very likely-to-almost certain, ~30-60% changes, ~4-16 times >SWC) than for HR (likely-to-very likely, ~2-6% changes, ~1-6 times >SWC) responses. Using the CV as the SWC lead to the smallest and greatest changes for HR and RPE, respectively. The predictive value for individual performance changes tended to be better for HR (74-92%) than RPE (69%), and greater when using the CV as the SWC. The predictive value for no-performance change was low for both measures (jump rope workouts can predict substantial improvements in high-intensity running performance at the individual level. Using the CV of test measures as the SWC might be the better option. Key pointsDecreased HR and RPE responses to short jump rope workouts can be confidently used to track improvements in high-intensity intermittent running performance in children familiarized with this exercise mode. Rope jumping is a particularly convenient exercise, since it can be performed in a restricted space and allows the testing of a large number of athletes simultaneously.We recommend using the CV of the measures (i.e., 3 and 4% for HR and RPE

  10. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  11. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger Initial Run-2 Strategy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Mark Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10^34cm^ -2s-1, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. In these conditions single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitations, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we utilised faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques. In Run II topological criteria can now be applied already at the first trigger level, due to the addition of the L1 topological. This makes it possible to use detail...

  12. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the massive background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. A trigger menu is a compilation of these triggers which specifies the physics algorithms to be used during data taking and the bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and limitations from the...

  13. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y.

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparative performance of seven long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Seven long-running telemedicine networks were surveyed. The networks provided humanitarian services (clinical and educational) in developing countries, and had been in operation for periods of 5-15 years. The number of experts serving each network ranged from 15 to 513. The smallest network had a total of 10 requesters and the largest one had more than 500 requesters. The networks operated in nearly 60 countries. The seven networks managed a total of 1857 cases in 2011, i.e. an average of 265 cases per year per network. There was a significant growth in total activity, amounting to 100.3 cases per year during the 15 year study period. In 2011, network activity was 50-700 teleconsultations per network. There were clear differences in the patterns of activity, with some networks managing an increasing caseload, and others managing a slowly reducing caseload. The seven networks had published a total of 44 papers listed in Medline which summarized the evidence resulting from the delivery of services by telemedicine. There was a dearth of information about clinical and cost-effectiveness. Nevertheless, the services were widely appreciated by referring doctors, considered to be clinically useful, and there were indications that clinical outcomes for telemedicine patients were often improved. Despite a lack of formal evidence, the present study suggests that telemedicine can provide clinically useful services in developing countries.

  15. Effects of High Velocity Elastic Band versus Heavy Resistance Training on Hamstring Strength, Activation, and Sprint Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusevicius, Donatas; Snieckus, Audrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Silinskas, Viktoras; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2017-06-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions. Pre- and posttraining tests included hamstring strength on a hamstring-curl apparatus, concentric knee extension-flexion at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s, eccentric knee flexion at 60°/s and 240°/s, hamstring and quadriceps coactivation, knee flexion and extension frequency in the prone position, and 30-m sprint running speed from a stationary start and with a running start. Knee flexor torque increased significantly by 21.1% ± 8.1% in the RTC group and 16.2% ± 4.2% in the RT group (p training at high velocities is superior to traditional heavy resistance training for increasing knee flexor strength at high velocities, movement frequency, and sprint running performance. These findings also indicate that traditional training approaches are effective for increasing knee flexor strength and reducing knee extensor coactivation, but this outcome is limited to low and moderate speeds.

  16. Eye injuries in the extreme environment ultra-marathon runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Thomas Adam; Kropelnicki, Anna

    2015-06-02

    We present the case of an ultra-marathon runner who developed a painful irritated eye due to prolonged exposure to high wind speed and sub-zero temperatures causing transient freezing and subsequent abrasion of the cornea. We recommend that all ultra-marathon runners racing in windy or exposed conditions should wear wrap-around eye protection or goggles. If runners present to checkpoints or after the race to primary care or the emergency department with ocular pain, corneal freezing and abrasions should be considered. Management should include ocular examination and withdrawing the runner from harmful conditions.

  17. Muscle metabolism and performance improvement after two training programmes of sprint running differing in rest interval duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraslanidis, Ploutarchos; Petridou, Anatoli; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Galanis, Nikiforos; Tsalis, George; Kellis, Spiros; Mougios, Vassilis

    2011-08-01

    Repeated-sprint training often involves short sprints separated by inadequate recovery intervals. The effects of interval duration on metabolic and performance parameters are unclear. We compared the effects of two training programmes, differing in rest interval duration, on muscle (vastus lateralis) metabolism and sprint performance. Sixteen men trained three times a week for 8 weeks, each training session comprising 2-3 sets of two 80-m sprints. Sprints were separated by 10 s (n = 8) or 1 min (n = 8). Both training programmes improved performance in the 100-, 200-, and 300-m sprints, but the improvement was greater in the 10-s group during the final 100 m of the 200- and 300-m runs. Independent of interval duration, training mitigated the drop of muscle ATP after two 80-m sprints. The drop in phosphocreatine and the increases in glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate after two 80-m sprints were greater in the 10-s group. In conclusion, training with a limited number of repeated short sprints (≤10 s) may be more effective in improving speed maintenance in 200- and 300-m runs when performed with a 1:1 rather than a 1:6 exercise-to-rest ratio. This may be due to a greater activation of glycolysis caused, in part, by the limited resynthesis of phosphocreatine during the very short rest interval.

  18. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  19. Match running performance and skill execution improves with age but not the number of disposals in young Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Tangalos, Christie; Torres, Lorena; Robertson, Sam

    2017-01-05

    This study investigated age-related differences in maturity, physical and functional characteristics and playing performance in youth Australian Football (AF). Young male players (n = 156) were recruited from 12 teams across 6 age groups (U10-U15) of a recreational AF club. All players were tested for body size, maturity and fitness. Player performance was assessed during a match in which disposals (kicks and handballs) and their effectiveness were coded from a video recording and match running performance measured using Global Positioning System. Significant main effects (P skill execution outcome (i.e., effectiveness), are useful to assess performance and to track player development over time. Differences between age groups, and probably variability within age groups, are strongly associated with chronological age and maturity.

  20. Participative Appraisal of Student Performance + Effective Communication Skills = Long-Run Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Carol M; Taylor, G. Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that, although students need clear, direct feedback about their performance to improve their communication skills, evaluators often find it difficult to provide such feedback. Discusses a performance appraisal system specifically designed for classroom use, including a discussion of communication techniques appropriate for providing…

  1. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, K; Zahra, JC; Stensel, DJ

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake ...

  2. Comparing the performance of SIMD computers by running large air pollution models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J.; Hansen, Per Christian; Wasniewski, J.

    1996-01-01

    To compare the performance and use of three massively parallel SIMD computers, we implemented a large air pollution model on these computers. Using a realistic large-scale model, we gained detailed insight about the performance of the computers involved when used to solve large-scale scientific...... problems that involve several types of numerical computations. The computers used in our study are the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5, and the MasPar MP-2216...

  3. Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghy, Mark A; Brown, Peter I

    2016-08-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise in physically demanding occupations is typically characterised by periods of low-intensity steady-state exercise and short duration, high-intensity exercise while carrying an external mass in a backpack; this form of exercise is also known as LC exercise. This induces inspiratory muscle fatigue and reduces whole-body performance. Accordingly we investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT, 50% maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (PImax) twice daily for six week) upon running time-trial performance with thoracic LC. Nineteen healthy males formed a pressure threshold IMT (n = 10) or placebo control group (PLA; n = 9) and performed 60 min LC exercise (6.5 km h(-1)) followed by a 2.4 km running time trial (LCTT) either side of a double-blind six week intervention. Prior to the intervention, PImax was reduced relative to baseline, post-LC and post-LCTT in both groups (pooled data: 13 ± 7% and 16 ± 8%, respectively, p  .05). In IMT only, heart rate and perceptual responses were reduced post-LC (p inspiratory muscles due to improved inspiratory muscle strength. These findings have real-world implications for occupational contexts.

  4. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.

  5. ATLAS Inner Tracker Performance at the beginning of LHC Run-2.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, Ewa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment performs studies of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Inner Detector is a part of the ATLAS apparatus placed nearest the interaction point, designed to measure charged particles momenta and their trajectories, and to reconstruct vertices of decays of physics objects created in the collisions. During the LHC technical stop 2013-2015, the Inner Detector underwent several upgrades and improvements, most notably an additional Pixel Detector layer was installed. This document describes the improvements done in the Inner Detector and its combined performance in the first year of data taking after the LHC restart in 2015.

  6. Knee kinematics and kinetics during shuttle run cutting: comparison of the assessments performed with and without the point cluster technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ida, Hirofumi; Fukubayashi, Toru; Maruyama, Takeo

    2011-07-07

    The differences between the assessments performed with and without the point cluster technique (PCT) for knee joint motions during the high-risk movements associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have not been reported. This study aims to examine the differences between PCT and non-PCT assessments for knee joint angles and moments during shuttle run cutting. Fourteen high school athletes performed a maximal effort shuttle run cutting task. Motion data were collected by an 8-camera motion analysis system at 200 Hz, and ground reaction force data were recorded using a force plate at 1000 Hz. In both PCT and non-PCT approaches, the knee joint angles were calculated using Euler angle rotations, and the knee joint moments were obtained by solving the Newton-Euler equations using an inverse dynamics technique. For the extension/flexion angle, good agreement was measured between PCT and non-PCT assessments. The abduction angle obtained in the non-PCT assessment was smaller than that obtained with the PCT. An internal rotation angle was obtained in the PCT assessment, whereas a small external rotation angle was obtained in the non-PCT assessment. For the knee joint moments, good agreement between PCT and non-PCT assessments was observed for all the components. The differences in the knee joint angles were attributed in part to the differences in the position of the medial femoral epicondyle. The results suggest that the ACL injury risk during shuttle run cutting is estimated lower in the non-PCT assessment than in the PCT assessment.

  7. The design and performance of the ATLAS inner detector trigger for Run-2 LHC collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Miano, Fabrizio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider presents challenging high rate conditions for data analysis and processing within the ATLAS trigger system. The ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger implements the algorithms used for identification of tracks for all physics signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The ID trigger was updated and redesigned during the 2013-2015 long shutdown to meet the challenging conditions of Run-2. As well, for Run-2 a new pixel detector layer was added in very close proximity to the beam pipe, to enhance the ID Trigger performance. The redesigned ID trigger algorithms for Run-2 are described, illustrating the significant improvements gained by the new tracking strategies adopted to deal with the increased rate. The performance of the ID trigger in Run-2 is shown in terms of efficiency and resolution, using data collected from the 25 ns bunch spacing data collected in 2015. The ID trigger continues to show excellent performance, with efficiencies greater than 99%.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Small-Scale Turbojet Engine Running on Palm Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abu Talib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental and simulated performance of an Armfield CM4 turbojet engine was investigated for palm oil methyl ester biodiesel (PME and its blends with conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The volumetric blends of PME with Jet A-1 are 20, 50, 70, and 100% (B20, B50, B70, and B100. Fuel heating values (FHV of each fuel mixture were obtained by calorimetric analysis. The experimental tests included performance tests for Jet A-1 and B20, while the performances of B50 to B100 were simulated using GasTurb 11 analytical software. In terms of maximum measured thrust, Jet A-1 yielded the highest value of 216 N, decreasing by 0.77%, 4%, 8%, and 12% with B20, B50, B70, and B100. It was found that B20 produced comparable results compared to the benchmark Jet A-1 tests, particularly with thrust and thermal efficiency. Slight performance penalties occurred due to the lower energy content of the biodiesel blends. The efficiency of the combustor improved with the addition of biodiesel while the other component efficiencies remained collectively consistent. This research shows that, at least for larger gas turbines, PME is suitable for use as an additive to Jet A-1 within 50% blends.

  9. Predicting Benefit from a Gestalt Therapy Marathon Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Dowd, E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Tested the utility of the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Girona Affect Scale in predicting the outcomes of a marathon Gestalt therapy workshop. Signigicant predictive equations were generated that use the POI to predict gains on the Girona Affect Scale. (Author/RC)

  10. Predictors of cardiac troponin release after a marathon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hoogerwerf, M.D.; Maessen, M.F.; Seeger, J.P.; George, K.P.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise leads to an increase in cardiac troponin I in healthy, asymptomatic athletes after a marathon. Previous studies revealed single factors to relate to post-race cardiac troponin I levels. Integrating these factors into our study, we aimed to identify independent predictors for the

  11. How Three Japanese City Marathon Brands Overcame Double Jeopardy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Go (Frank); C-K. Chen (Chin-Kuang); R. Beek (Remco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines whether sport events contribute towards place marketing, urban development, and city re-imaging. In particular, non-elite sport events such as city marathons have a participatory character that also contributes to social cohesion and a healthier population. However, m

  12. How Three Japanese City Marathon Brands Overcame Double Jeopardy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Go (Frank); C-K. Chen (Chin-Kuang); R. Beek (Remco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines whether sport events contribute towards place marketing, urban development, and city re-imaging. In particular, non-elite sport events such as city marathons have a participatory character that also contributes to social cohesion and a healthier population. However,

  13. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter at LHC in Run I and planned upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider, a key detector for the measurements of hadrons, jets tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. After an initial setting of the absolute energy scale in test beams with particles of well-defined momentum, the calibrated scale was transferred to the rest of the detector via the response to radioactive sources. The calibrated scale was validated in situ with muons and single hadrons and the timing performance with muons and jets as detailed in this contribution. The data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking and the evolution of the detector status are exposed. The energy and the time reconstruction performance...

  15. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; 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    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  16. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    Science.gov (United States)

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    2017-07-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  17. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

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