WorldWideScience

Sample records for mapping land form

  1. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  2. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  3. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Land subsidence is a global problem, but a global land subsidence map is not available yet. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence, as land subsidence causes extensive damage (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). With the global land subsidence map

  4. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  5. Land use map, Finney County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, S. A. (Principal Investigator); Williams, D. L.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Methods for the mapping of land use in agricultural regions are developed and applied to preparation of a land use map of Finney County, Kanas. Six land use categories were identified from an MSS-5 image. These categories are: (1) large field irrigation; (2) small field irrigation; (3) dryland cultivation; (4) rangeland; (5) cultural features; and (6) riverine land. The map is composed of basically homogeneous regions with definable mixtures of the six categories. Each region is bounded by an ocularly evident change in land use.

  6. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  7. The Interpretation of Urban Land Use Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Roger J.

    1973-01-01

    Three steps in urban land use analysis, fieldwork mapping, processing of data, and classification and delimitation of zones in an urban area, are described. An appendix presents a classification of buildings by function. (KM)

  8. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  9. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated land surface form classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe . A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Since land surface forms strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, they are one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. After extensive investigation into various land surface form mapping methodologies, the decision was made to use the methodology developed by the Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership (MoRAP). MoRAP made modifications to Hammond's land surface form classification, which allowed the use of 30-meter source data and a 1-km2 window for analyzing the data cell and its surrounding cells (neighborhood analysis). While Hammond's methodology was based on three topographic variables, slope, local relief, and profile type, MoRAP's methodology uses only slope and local relief. Using the MoRAP method, slope is classified as gently sloping when more than 50 percent of the area in a 1-km2 neighborhood has slope less than 8 percent, otherwise the area is considered moderately sloping. Local relief, which is the difference between the maximum and minimum elevation in a neighborhood, is classified into five groups: 0-15 m, 16-30 m, 31-90 m, 91-150 m, and >150 m. The land surface form classes are derived by combining slope and local relief to create eight landform classes: flat plains (gently sloping and local relief = 90 m), low hills (not gently sloping and local relief = 150 m). However, in the USGS application of the MoRAP methodology, an additional local relief group was used (> 400 m) to capture additional local topographic variation. As a result, low

  10. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...

  11. Land survey map of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1996-01-01

    The first step toward finding a solution to the problems with air pollution is the realization of a land survey map of polluters and a constant acquisition of data from periodical controls of emission of harmful materials, which will be carried out with a determined dynamic. Such a land survey map is not a project which should be finished within a strict time limit, but is intended to create all conditions for a periodical monitoring of emission of harmful materials from registered polluters in order to make a periodical, exact picture of the quantity of harmful materials, which are conveyed by polluters in certain city, a part of the state or the whole country. (author). 4 ills

  12. A remote sensing evaluation for agronomic land use mapping in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become essential to prepare land use maps because these are recognized as necessary tools for the preparation of land capability, land classification and land suitability maps which in turn provide guidelines for the regional planning, development and future orientation of agriculture in the regional system.

  13. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly becau...... challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research....... we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major...

  14. Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems - Volume 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ. Develop......Introduction of digital mapping techniques in the 28 counties of Latvia related to the offices of the national mapping agency (State Land Service). Major components are: Training of regional staff, procurement of hard- and software, training of technical staff from State Land Service, HQ...

  15. New GIS approaches to wild land mapping in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen Fritz; Steve Carver; Linda See

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines modifications and new approaches to wild land mapping developed specifically for the United Kingdom and European areas. In particular, national level reconnaissance and local level mapping of wild land in the UK and Scotland are presented. A national level study for the UK is undertaken, and a local study focuses on the Cairngorm Mountains in...

  16. Land use and land cover mapping: City of Palm Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, D. D.; Pierce, R.

    1977-01-01

    Two different computer systems were compared for use in making land use and land cover maps. The Honeywell 635 with the LANDSAT signature development program (LSDP) produced a map depicting general patterns, but themes were difficult to classify as specific land use. Urban areas were unclassified. The General Electric Image 100 produced a map depicting eight land cover categories classifying 68 percent of the total area. Ground truth, LSDP, and Image 100 maps were all made to the same scale for comparison. LSDP agreed with the ground truth 60 percent and 64 percent within the two test areas compared and Image 100 was in agreement 70 percent and 80 percent.

  17. LAND PRICE MAPPING OF JABODETABEK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisti Madella Elmanisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Land provision is one of the biggest challenges for development in urban area. Most of the available urban land will be the object of speculation to be resold at a higher price when the time is right. In Jabodetabek, where the pace of urban development is faster than other parts of Indonesia, the prices of land show an abnormal increase; they seem to rise too fast. This paper discusses the increasing land prices in Jabodetabek area and argues that the increasing land price has encourages the private developer to bank the land in the area. Based on land price survey in Jabodetabek, urban activity is moving to south Jakarta. The highest land prices were found at East Kuningan, Setiabudi, and South Jakarta. By constrast, the lowest prices were observed in Sumur Batu and Cimuning (Bantar Gebang, Bekasi.It can be concluded that the land price increase also triggered land banking practice in Jabodetabek reaching in total approximately 60% of total area of Jakarta.

  18. Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Celerýn, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    I chose for my diploma thesis the theme which is called "Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms". The aim of the work is to give complex and complete description of basic legal forms of acquiring ownership right to land. The presented work is divided into ten chapters. The first part (second chapter) of the diploma thesis determines the concepts of "ownership", "real estate", "land", "plot" etc. According to Czech law concept of "real estate" means mainly under groun...

  19. Open Land-Use Map: A Regional Land-Use Mapping Strategy for Incorporating OpenStreetMap with Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The southeastern United States has high landscape heterogeneity, withheavily managed forestlands, highly developed agriculture lands, and multiple metropolitan areas. Human activities are transforming and altering land patterns and structures in both negative and positive manners. A land-use map for at the greater scale is a heavy computation task but is critical to most landowners, researchers, and decision makers, enabling them to make informed decisions for varying objectives. There are two major difficulties in generating the classification maps at the regional scale: the necessity of large training point sets and the expensive computation cost-in terms of both money and time-in classifier modeling. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) opens a new era in mapping and visualizing our world, where the platform is open for collecting valuable georeferenced information by volunteer citizens, and the data is freely available to the public. As one of the most well-known VGI initiatives, OpenStreetMap (OSM) contributes not only road network distribution, but also the potential for using this data to justify land cover and land use classifications. Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a platform designed for cloud-based mapping with a robust and fast computing power. Most large scale and national mapping approaches confuse "land cover" and "land-use", or build up the land-use database based on modeled land cover datasets. Unlike most other large-scale approaches, we distinguish and differentiate land-use from land cover. By focusing our prime objective of mapping land-use and management practices, a robust regional land-use mapping approach is developed by incorporating the OpenstreepMap dataset into Earth observation remote sensing imageries instead of the often-used land cover base maps.

  20. A Continuously Updated, Global Land Classification Map, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate a fully automatic capability for generating a global, high resolution (30 m) land classification map, with continuous updates from...

  1. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  2. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  3. FORMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND LAND TENURE AS IMPROVEMENT TOOLS OF land use planning IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak A.M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transformations which take place now in the the economy of Ukraine, and in particular in agriculture considerably exacerbated organizational and legal problems and organizational and territorial forms of local agricultural enterprises, protection of land ownership rights. Transformation of land relations violated the the traditional forms of organization of agricultural production, reduced the efficiency of capital investmenst in improvement of using and protection of land. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of agricultural land use in conditions of formation of market economy, general urgent of time is an in-depth analysis of the types and forms of land use which have found their consolidation at the legislative level. Land management is carried out throughout the country. It enveloped lands irrespective of unequivocal purpose, ownership and the character of using. But goals and objectives of land management, it’s content may be different. An important feature of land management are and it’s types. The current Land Code of Ukraineas the the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management" don’t contain legislative provisions on division of land management for certain types. Meanwhile, it should be noted, that normative and legal acts on land management of the Soviet period (Fundamentals of land legislation of the USSR and the United Republics 1968. Land codes 1978., 1990, 1992 there are two separate types of it - intereconomic (Modern terminology of A.M. Tretyak - territorial and internaleconomic. Modern practice of the actions in the field of land management as evidenced by about the existence of another and a third type of land management – separational. Each of them is characterized by a specific purpose, carried out at different levels. It would therefore be appropriate, hat separate species of land management und their consolidation and in legislation level. Given that the process of implementation of land management for the object of land

  4. Carbon Assessment of Hawaii Land Cover Map (CAH_LandCover)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — While there have been many maps produced that depict vegetation for the state of Hawai‘i only a few of these display land cover for all of the main Hawaiian Islands,...

  5. Land use, forest density, soil mapping, erosion, drainage, salinity limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassoglou, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of analyses show that it is possible to obtain information of practical significance as follows: (1) A quick and accurate estimate of the proper use of the valuable land can be made on the basis of temporal and spectral characteristics of the land features. (2) A rather accurate delineation of the major forest formations in the test areas was achieved on the basis of spatial and spectral characteristics of the studied areas. The forest stands were separated into two density classes; dense forest, and broken forest. On the basis of ERTS-1 data and the existing ground truth information a rather accurate mapping of the major vegetational forms of the mountain ranges can be made. (3) Major soil formations are mapable from ERTS-1 data: recent alluvial soils; soil on quarternary deposits; severely eroded soil and lithosol; and wet soils. (4) An estimation of cost benefits cannot be made accurately at this stage of the investigation. However, a rough estimate of the ratio of the cost for obtaining the same amount information from ERTS-1 data and from conventional operations would be approximately 1:6 to 1:10, in favor of the ERTS-1.

  6. Land User and Land Cover Maps of Europe: a Webgis Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Fahl, F. C.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the methods and implementation processes of a WebGIS platform designed to publish the available land use and land cover maps of Europe at continental scale. The system is built completely on open source infrastructure and open standards. The proposed architecture is based on a server-client model having GeoServer as the map server, Leaflet as the client-side mapping library and the Bootstrap framework at the core of the front-end user interface. The web user interface is designed to have typical features of a desktop GIS (e.g. activate/deactivate layers and order layers by drag and drop actions) and to show specific information on the activated layers (e.g. legend and simplified metadata). Users have the possibility to change the base map from a given list of map providers (e.g. OpenStreetMap and Microsoft Bing) and to control the opacity of each layer to facilitate the comparison with both other land cover layers and the underlying base map. In addition, users can add to the platform any custom layer available through a Web Map Service (WMS) and activate the visualization of photos from popular photo sharing services. This last functionality is provided in order to have a visual assessment of the available land coverages based on other user-generated contents available on the Internet. It is supposed to be a first step towards a calibration/validation service that will be made available in the future.

  7. Improving Land Cover Mapping: a Mobile Application Based on ESA Sentinel 2 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, M. T.; Dessì, F.; Loddo, P.; La Mantia, C.; Da Pelo, S.; Deflorio, A. M.; Ghiglieri, G.; Hailu, B. T.; Kalegele, K.; Mwasi, B. N.

    2018-04-01

    The increasing availability of satellite data is a real value for the enhancement of environmental knowledge and land management. Possibilities to integrate different source of geo-data are growing and methodologies to create thematic database are becoming very sophisticated. Moreover, the access to internet services and, in particular, to web mapping services is well developed and spread either between expert users than the citizens. Web map services, like Google Maps or Open Street Maps, give the access to updated optical imagery or topographic maps but information on land cover/use - are not still provided. Therefore, there are many failings in the general utilization -non-specialized users- and access to those maps. This issue is particularly felt where the digital (web) maps could form the basis for land use management as they are more economic and accessible than the paper maps. These conditions are well known in many African countries where, while the internet access is becoming open to all, the local map agencies and their products are not widespread.

  8. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  9. A hierarchical approach of hybrid image classification for land use and land cover mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahdari Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing data analysis can provide thematic maps describing land-use and land-cover (LULC in a short period. Using proper image classification method in an area, is important to overcome the possible limitations of satellite imageries for producing land-use and land-cover maps. In the present study, a hierarchical hybrid image classification method was used to produce LULC maps using Landsat Thematic mapper TM for the year of 1998 and operational land imager OLI for the year of 2016. Images were classified using the proposed hybrid image classification method, vegetation cover crown percentage map from normalized difference vegetation index, Fisher supervised classification and object-based image classification methods. Accuracy assessment results showed that the hybrid classification method produced maps with total accuracy up to 84 percent with kappa statistic value 0.81. Results of this study showed that the proposed classification method worked better with OLI sensor than with TM. Although OLI has a higher radiometric resolution than TM, the produced LULC map using TM is almost accurate like OLI, which is because of LULC definitions and image classification methods used.

  10. Mapping of land cover in Northern California with simulated HyspIRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (i.e., full range) of the spectrum have shown improved capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a full-range hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA (hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov). A hyperspectral satellite, such as HyspIRI, will provide detailed spectral and temporal information at global scales that could greatly improve our ability to map land cover with greater class detail and spatial and temporal accuracy than possible with conventional multispectral satellites. The broad goal of our research is to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping across a range of environmental and anthropogenic gradients in California. In this study, we mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 30,000 km2 in Northern California using multi-temporal HyspIRI imagery simulated from the AVIRIS airborne sensor. The Random Forests classification was applied to predictor variables derived from the multi-temporal hyperspectral data and accuracies were compared to that from Landsat 8 OLI. Results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different forest life-form types, such as mixed conifer and broadleaf forests and open- and closed-canopy forests.

  11. The Regional Land Cover Monitoring System: Building regional capacity through innovative land cover mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Tenneson, K.; Hanh, Q. N.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Aung, K. S.; Goldstein, J.; Cutter, P. G.; Maus, P.; Markert, K. N.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Ate, P.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Vadrevu, K.; Potapov, P.; Phongsapan, K.; Chishtie, F.; Clinton, N.; Ganz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, products, and services are vital to support the environmental decision making by governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and the general public. At the heart of environmental decision making is the monitoring land cover and land use change (LCLUC) for land resource planning and for ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and resilience to climate change. A major challenge for monitoring LCLUC in developing regions, such as Southeast Asia, is inconsistent data products at inconsistent intervals that have different typologies across the region and are typically made in without stakeholder engagement or input. Here we present the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (RLCMS), a novel land cover mapping effort for Southeast Asia, implemented by SERVIR-Mekong, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries. The RLCMS focuses on mapping biophysical variables (e.g. canopy cover, tree height, or percent surface water) at an annual interval and in turn using those biophysical variables to develop land cover maps based on stakeholder definitions of land cover classes. This allows for flexible and consistent land cover classifications that can meet the needs of different institutions across the region. Another component of the RLCMS production is the stake-holder engagement through co-development. Institutions that directly benefit from this system have helped drive the development for regional needs leading to services for their specific uses. Examples of services for regional stakeholders include using the RLCMS to develop maps using the IPCC classification scheme for GHG emission reporting and developing custom annual maps as an input to hydrologic modeling/flood forecasting systems. In addition to the implementation of this system and the service stemming from the RLCMS in Southeast Asia, it is

  12. South African National Land-Cover Change Map | Schoeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, countries face a changing environment due to population growth, increase in agricultural production, increasing demand on natural resources, climate change and resultant degradation of the natural environment. One means of monitoring this changing scenario is through land-cover change mapping. Modern ...

  13. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Pengra, Bruce; Long, J.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m–1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (∼30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  14. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  15. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  16. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...... spatial configuration with rectangular parcels contained significantly more vegetation and less impervious surfaces per parcel than newer Radburn-inspired configurations with more quadratic parcels. Correlation analysis showed size of paved access ways to be positively correlated with distance from road...

  17. UAS Mapping as an alternative for land surveying techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Devriendt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a UAS mapping technique compete with standard surveying techniques? Since the boom in different RPAS (remotely piloted air system, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAS (unmanned aerial system, this is one of the crucial questions when it comes to UAS mappings. Not the looks and feels are important but the reliability, ease-to-use, and accuracy that you get with a system based on hardware and corresponding software. This was also one of the issues that the Dutch Land Registry asked a few months ago aimed at achieving an effective and usable system for updating property boundaries in new-build districts. Orbit GT gave them a ready-made answer: a definitive outcome based on years of research and development in UAS mapping technology and software.

  18. Land-Use and Land-Cover Mapping Using a Gradable Classification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Kitada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional spectral-based classification methods have significant limitations in the digital classification of urban land-use and land-cover classes from high-resolution remotely sensed data because of the lack of consideration given to the spatial properties of images. To recognize the complex distribution of urban features in high-resolution image data, texture information consisting of a group of pixels should be considered. Lacunarity is an index used to characterize different texture appearances. It is often reported that the land-use and land-cover in urban areas can be effectively classified using the lacunarity index with high-resolution images. However, the applicability of the maximum-likelihood approach for hybrid analysis has not been reported. A more effective approach that employs the original spectral data and lacunarity index can be expected to improve the accuracy of the classification. A new classification procedure referred to as “gradable classification method” is proposed in this study. This method improves the classification accuracy in incremental steps. The proposed classification approach integrates several classification maps created from original images and lacunarity maps, which consist of lacnarity values, to create a new classification map. The results of this study confirm the suitability of the gradable classification approach, which produced a higher overall accuracy (68% and kappa coefficient (0.64 than those (65% and 0.60, respectively obtained with the maximum-likelihood approach.

  19. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  20. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road.

  1. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road

  2. Its4land - Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Innovative Geospatial Tools for Fit-For-Purpose Land Rights Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeva, M.N.; Crommelinck, S.; Stöcker, Claudia; Crompvoets, J.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping millions of unrecorded land rights in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. The results of many existing ICT-based approaches for recording these rights have often proven to be inappropriate; therefore, a new generation of tools needs to be developed to map land rights

  3. Developing Land Use Land Cover Maps for the Lower Mekong Basin to Aid SWAT Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation discusses research to develop Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps for the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). Funded by a NASA ROSES Disasters grant, the main objective was to produce updated LULC maps to aid the Mekong River Commission's (MRC's) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model. In producing needed LULC maps, temporally processed MODIS monthly NDVI data for 2010 were used as the primary data source for classifying regionally prominent forest and agricultural types. The MODIS NDVI data was derived from processing MOD09 and MYD09 8-day reflectance data with the Time Series Product Tool, a custom software package. Circa 2010 Landsat multispectral data from the dry season were processed into top of atmosphere reflectance mosaics and then classified to derive certain locally common LULC types, such as urban areas and industrial forest plantations. Unsupervised ISODATA clustering was used to derive most LULC classifications. GIS techniques were used to merge MODIS and Landsat classifications into final LULC maps for Sub-Basins (SBs) 1-8 of the LMB. The final LULC maps were produced at 250-meter resolution and delivered to the MRC for use in SWAT modeling for the LMB. A map accuracy assessment was performed for the SB 7 LULC map with 14 classes. This assessment was performed by comparing random locations for sampled LULC types to geospatial reference data such as Landsat RGBs, MODIS NDVI phenologic profiles, high resolution satellite data from Google Map/Earth, and other reference data from the MRC (e.g., crop calendars). LULC accuracy assessment results for SB 7 indicated an overall agreement to reference data of 81% at full scheme specificity. However, by grouping 3 deciduous forest classes into 1 class, the overall agreement improved to 87%. The project enabled updated LULC maps, plus more specific rice types were classified compared to the previous LULC maps. The LULC maps from this project should improve the use of SWAT for modeling

  4. Using Backcast Land-Use Change and Groundwater Travel-Time Models to Generate Land-Use Legacy Maps for Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Pijanowski; Deepak K. Ray; Anthony D. Kendall; Jonah M. Duckles; David W. Hyndman

    2007-01-01

    We couple two spatial-temporal models, a backcast land-use change model and a groundwater flow model, to develop what we call "land-use legacy maps." We quantify how a land-use legacy map, created from maps of past land use and groundwater travel times, differs from a current land-use map. We show how these map differences can affect land-use planning and watershed management decisions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Our approach demonstrates that land-use legacy maps provide a m...

  5. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, Claudia [DIRC Sustainable Urban Areas, Section of Material Science and Sustainable Construction, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: c.basta@citg.tudelft.nl; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M. [Land Use Planning, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Postbus 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jeroen.neuvel@wur.nl; Zlatanova, Sisi [Section GISt, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 9, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.zlatanova@otb.tudelft.nl; Ale, Ben [Safety Science Group, TBM Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-06-25

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given.

  6. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, Claudia; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M.; Zlatanova, Sisi; Ale, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given

  7. Mapping urban environmental noise: a land use regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2011-09-01

    Forecasting and preventing urban noise pollution are major challenges in urban environmental management. Most existing efforts, including experiment-based models, statistical models, and noise mapping, however, have limited capacity to explain the association between urban growth and corresponding noise change. Therefore, these conventional methods can hardly forecast urban noise at a given outlook of development layout. This paper, for the first time, introduces a land use regression method, which has been applied for simulating urban air quality for a decade, to construct an urban noise model (LUNOS) in Dalian Municipality, Northwest China. The LUNOS model describes noise as a dependent variable of surrounding various land areas via a regressive function. The results suggest that a linear model performs better in fitting monitoring data, and there is no significant difference of the LUNOS's outputs when applied to different spatial scales. As the LUNOS facilitates a better understanding of the association between land use and urban environmental noise in comparison to conventional methods, it can be regarded as a promising tool for noise prediction for planning purposes and aid smart decision-making.

  8. Analysis of spatial distribution of land cover maps accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, R.; Mountrakis, G.; Stehman, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Land cover maps have become one of the most important products of remote sensing science. However, classification errors will exist in any classified map and affect the reliability of subsequent map usage. Moreover, classification accuracy often varies over different regions of a classified map. These variations of accuracy will affect the reliability of subsequent analyses of different regions based on the classified maps. The traditional approach of map accuracy assessment based on an error matrix does not capture the spatial variation in classification accuracy. Here, per-pixel accuracy prediction methods are proposed based on interpolating accuracy values from a test sample to produce wall-to-wall accuracy maps. Different accuracy prediction methods were developed based on four factors: predictive domain (spatial versus spectral), interpolation function (constant, linear, Gaussian, and logistic), incorporation of class information (interpolating each class separately versus grouping them together), and sample size. Incorporation of spectral domain as explanatory feature spaces of classification accuracy interpolation was done for the first time in this research. Performance of the prediction methods was evaluated using 26 test blocks, with 10 km × 10 km dimensions, dispersed throughout the United States. The performance of the predictions was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Relative to existing accuracy prediction methods, our proposed methods resulted in improvements of AUC of 0.15 or greater. Evaluation of the four factors comprising the accuracy prediction methods demonstrated that: i) interpolations should be done separately for each class instead of grouping all classes together; ii) if an all-classes approach is used, the spectral domain will result in substantially greater AUC than the spatial domain; iii) for the smaller sample size and per-class predictions, the spectral and spatial domain

  9. Modification to the MAPS interview process and electronic form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Based on the first year of experience with e-MAPS and the feedback from departmental users, a number of modifications to the MAPS interview process and the form have been introduced for the 2006 exercise. Definition of signatories The top of the form now also shows the name of the group leader and department head. This is especially useful in cases of detachment. Corrections can be made via the MAPS Coordinator. 'Send back' facility The possibility to send the MAPS report one step backwards is only available to the MAPS coordinators, i.e., from group leader to supervisor, from staff member to group leader, and from group leader to staff member. The form should only be sent back to correct factual errors or oversights, and any send backs will be tracked. Link 'training' part to 'training' application When entering a training objective for 2006, a search menu allows selection from various CERN internal training courses or from conferences. It remains important however to first read the description of the...

  10. Modification to the MAPS interview process and electronic form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Based on the first year of experience with e-MAPS and the feedback from departmental users, a number of modifications to the MAPS interview process and form have been introduced for the 2006 exercise. Definition of signatories The top of the form now also shows the name of the Group Leader and Department Head. This is especially useful in cases of detachment. Corrections can be made via the MAPS Coordinator. 'Send back' facility The possibility to send the MAPS report one step backwards, i.e. from Group Leader to supervisor, from Staff Member to Group Leader, and from Group Leader to Staff Member is only available to the MAPS coordinators. The form should only be sent back to correct factual errors or oversights, and any send- backs will be recorded. Link between 'training' part and 'training' application When entering a training objective for 2006, a search menu allows selection from various CERN internal training courses or from conferences. It is still important, however, to first read the descri...

  11. Geographic Information System For The Mapping Of Value Land Zone Of District Bengkong Based On AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Astutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the value of land in Indonesia is still very minimal and difficult to be known by the public, particularly in the area of Bengkong, it also results in the presence of new activity for land speculators who want to grab a great adventage in providing price and land value pricing-related information. The purpose of this research are to create the value land zone map (VLZ that illustrates the value of land is relatively the same as delivering lines and different colors on each value owned and accompanied the factors whisch affected it, as well as presenting a price comparison between the village and the land on map in the form of the web. Spatial analysis and AHP can be used for weighting for the most influential parameters and has no effect, so that the AHP can be useful to assist in decision making. VLZ obtained by observation in the field using a questionnaire and interview against the respondent. Observation and interviews done with the technique of sampling purposisive namely the selection of the sample with the groups in the number of smallest unit of score. Samples taken as many as 25 in order to achieve an accurate data. The value of the acquired land price is the current value of land prices. The result of the research in the form of web map VLZ with 6 classification of land price, the prices that Bengkong area concertrated settlement areas as Rp 3.500.000/sqm for the land prices are the highest in the village of Sadai and Rp 327.000/sqm for the lowest land price was in the village of Tanjung Buntung.

  12. Assessment of the thematic accuracy of land cover maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    were applied (‘Decision Tree’ and ‘Support Vector Machine’) using only two attributes (height above ground and normalized difference vegetation index) which both are derived from the images. The assessment of the thematic accuracy applied a stratified design and was based on accuracy measures...... methods perform equally for five classes. Trees are classified with a much better accuracy and a smaller confidence interval by means of the decision tree method. Buildings are classified by both methods with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%) using independent 3D checkpoints. The average width......Several land cover maps are generated from aerial imagery and assessed by different approaches. The test site is an urban area in Europe for which six classes (‘building’, ‘hedge and bush’, ‘grass’, ‘road and parking lot’, ‘tree’, ‘wall and car port’) had to be derived. Two classification methods...

  13. The USGS role in mapping the nation's submerged lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Bill; Haines, John

    2004-01-01

    The seabed provides habitat for a diverse marine life having commercial, recreational, and intrinsic value. The habitat value of the seabed is largely a function of the geological structure and related geological, biological, oceanologic, and geochemical processes. Of equal importance, the nation's submerged lands contain energy and mineral resources and are utilized for the siting of offshore infrastructure and waste disposal. Seabed character and processes influence the safety and viability of offshore operations. Seabed and subseabed characterization is a prerequisite for the assessment, protection, and utilization of both living and non-living marine resources. A comprehensive program to characterize and understand the nation's submerged lands requires scientific expertise in the fields of geology, biology, hydrography, and oceanography. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has long experience as the Federal agency charged with conducting geologic research and mapping in both coastal and offshore regions. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) leads the nation in expertise related to characterization of seabed and subseabed geology, geological processes, seabed dynamics, and (in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and international partners) habitat geoscience. Numerous USGS studies show that sea-floor geology and processes determine the character and distribution of biological habitats, control coastal evolution, influence the coastal response to storm events and human alterations, and determine the occurrence and concentration of natural resources.

  14. Evaluation of hot forming effects mapping for CAE analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoerr, L.; Faath, T.; Dykeman, J.; Malcolm, S.

    2016-08-01

    Hot forming has grown significantly in the manufacturing of structural components within the vehicle Body-In-White construction. The superior strength of press hardened steels not only guarantee high resistance to deformation, it also brings a significant weight saving compared to conventional cold formed products. However, the benefit of achieving ultrahigh strength with hot stamping, comes with a reduction in ductility of the press hardened part. This will require advanced material modeling to capture the predicted performances accurately. A technique to optically measure and map the thinning distribution after hot stamping has shown to improve numerical analysis for fracture prediction. The proposed method to determine the forming effects and mapping to CAE models can be integrated into the Vehicle Development Process to shorten the time to production.

  15. Mapping of forest types confined to the lay of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles for the formation of forest typological classification and outlines promising areas for development, allowing to solve problems of not only inventory and forest management, but also mapping forest types are discussed in the paper. The analysis is performed by interpreting the concept of «natural regularity» proposed by D. L. Armand (1975. It is shown when the left side of the pattern is a set of indicators of site condition, structure of forest typological constructions will take into account not only the static indicators of the stands, but also their location, the origin and direction of the succession. For relatively similar climatic conditions, the indicators of the lay of land mainly limit the environment of formation of vegetation cover. The method of mapping forest types provides for consideration of site condition and indicators of stands of forest types. Testing is conducted on a test axis West-Sayan forest district, located in the mountains of southern Siberia. Conjugation types of forests, indicators of the topography revealed through the analysis of literary sources and characteristics of forest types accompanying diagnostic table (Smagin et al., 1980. The work is done in a GIS environment using DEM SRTM and Landsat space images. For indexing locations, the inputs are accepted: altitude (gradation 100 m, flat location, slope up to 20° and 20° slopes with northern and southern exposure. Classification of pixels of satellite images is conducted by the method of unsupervised classification separately for each scene, the high-altitude zone and location, which allows increase of the quality of interpretation, because the types of forests are confined to the topography. However completely avoiding mistakes is not possible. The main reasons are an inaccuracy of the DEM and the hit in one class of spectral brightness of different objects of interpretation. The map legend includes characteristics of the terrain, description

  16. High-Precision Land-Cover-Land-Use GIS Mapping and Land Availability and Suitability Analysis for Grass Biomass Production in the Aroostook River Valley, Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzeng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-precision land-cover-land-use GIS mapping was performed in four major townships in Maine’s Aroostook River Valley, using on-screen digitization and direct interpretation of very high spatial resolution satellite multispectral imagery (15–60 cm and high spatial resolution LiDAR data (2 m and the field mapping method. The project not only provides the first-ever high-precision land-use maps for northern Maine, but it also yields accurate hectarage estimates of different land-use types, in particular grassland, defined as fallow land, pasture, and hay field. This enables analysis of potential land availability and suitability for grass biomass production and other sustainable land uses. The results show that the total area of fallow land in the four towns is 7594 hectares, which accounts for 25% of total open land, and that fallow plots equal to or over four hectares in size total 4870, or 16% of open land. Union overlay analysis, using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil data, indicates that only a very small percentage of grassland (4.9% is on “poorly-drained” or “very-poorly-drained” soils, and that most grassland (85% falls into the “farmland of state importance” or “prime farmland” categories, as determined by NRCS. It is concluded that Maine’s Aroostook River Valley has an ample base of suitable, underutilized land for producing grass biomass.

  17. Comparison and assessment of coarse resolution land cover maps for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Olga N. Krankina; Warren B. Cohen; Mark A. Friedl; Damien Sulla-Menashe; Robert E. Kennedy; Peder Nelson; Tatiana V. Loboda; Tobias Kuemmerle; Egor Dyukarev; Vladimir Elsadov; Viacheslav I. Kharuk

    2011-01-01

    Information on land cover at global and continental scales is critical for addressing a range of ecological, socioeconomic and policy questions. Global land cover maps have evolved rapidly in the last decade, but efforts to evaluate map uncertainties have been limited, especially in remote areas like Northern Eurasia. Northern Eurasia comprises a particularly diverse...

  18. A procedure to obtain a refined European land use/cover map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batista e Silva, F.; Lavalle, C.; Koomen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Available land use/cover maps differ in their spatial extent and in their thematic, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Due to the costs of producing such maps, there is usually a trade-off between spatial extent and resolution. The only European-wide, consistent, and multi-temporal land use/cover

  19. Toward accountable land use mapping: Using geocomputation to improve classification accuracy and reveal uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Clarke, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of satellite imagery into land use/cover maps is a major challenge in the field of remote sensing. This research aimed at improving the classification accuracy while also revealing uncertain areas by employing a geocomputational approach. We computed numerous land use maps by

  20. Mapping the global depth to bedrock for land surface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, W.; Hengl, T.; Yuan, H.; Dai, Y. J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Depth to bedrock serves as the lower boundary of land surface models, which controls hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. This paper presents a framework for global estimation of Depth to bedrock (DTB). Observations were extracted from a global compilation of soil profile data (ca. 130,000 locations) and borehole data (ca. 1.6 million locations). Additional pseudo-observations generated by expert knowledge were added to fill in large sampling gaps. The model training points were then overlaid on a stack of 155 covariates including DEM-based hydrological and morphological derivatives, lithologic units, MODIS surfacee reflectance bands and vegetation indices derived from the MODIS land products. Global spatial prediction models were developed using random forests and Gradient Boosting Tree algorithms. The final predictions were generated at the spatial resolution of 250m as an ensemble prediction of the two independently fitted models. The 10-fold cross-validation shows that the models explain 59% for absolute DTB and 34% for censored DTB (depths deep than 200 cm are predicted as 200 cm). The model for occurrence of R horizon (bedrock) within 200 cm does a good job. Visual comparisons of predictions in the study areas where more detailed maps of depth to bedrock exist show that there is a general match with spatial patterns from similar local studies. Limitation of the data set and extrapolation in data spare areas should not be ignored in applications. To improve accuracy of spatial prediction, more borehole drilling logs will need to be added to supplement the existing training points in under-represented areas.

  1. Land-cover mapping using multitemporal, dual-frequency polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    during the growing season acquired a lot of data over a Danish agricultural site. The data acquisitions were co-ordinated with ground surveys to obtain a detailed land cover map. The test area contains a large number of different land cover classes, such as more than 10 different crop types, deciduous......The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) is, in collaboration with the Danish mapping agency, conducting a study on topographic mapping using SAR data, and land cover mapping results are presented. The Danish EMISAR system (an L- and C-band, fully polarimetric, airborne SAR) have in 1994 to 1999...

  2. Mapping land use changes in the carboniferous region of Santa Catarina, report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator); Bitencourtpereira, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques applied to MSS-LANDSAT data in the land-use mapping of Criciuma region (Santa Catarina state, Brazil) are presented along with the results of a classification accuracy estimate tested on the resulting map. The MSS-LANDSAT data digital processing involves noise suppression, features selection and a hybrid classifier. The accuracy test is made through comparisons with aerial photographs of sampled points. The utilization of digital processing to map the classes agricultural lands, forest lands and urban areas is recommended, while the coal refuse areas should be mapped visually.

  3. Geovisualization of land use and land cover using bivariate maps and Sankey flow diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Georgianna; Mesev, Victor; Thornton, Benjamin; Jerez, Marjorie; Tricarico, Thomas; McAlear, Tyler

    2018-05-01

    The terms `land use' and `land cover' typically describe categories that convey information about the landscape. Despite the major difference of land use implying some degree of anthropogenic disturbance, the two terms are commonly used interchangeably, especially when anthropogenic disturbance is ambiguous, say managed forestland or abandoned agricultural fields. Cartographically, land use and land cover are also sometimes represented interchangeably within common legends, giving with the impression that the landscape is a seamless continuum of land use parcels spatially adjacent to land cover tracts. We believe this is misleading, and feel we need to reiterate the well-established symbiosis of land uses as amalgams of land covers; in other words land covers are subsets of land use. Our paper addresses this spatially complex, and frequently ambiguous relationship, and posits that bivariate cartographic techniques are an ideal vehicle for representing both land use and land cover simultaneously. In more specific terms, we explore the use of nested symbology as ways to represent graphically land use and land cover, where land cover are circles nested with land use squares. We also investigate bivariate legends for representing statistical covariance as a means for visualizing the combinations of land use and cover. Lastly, we apply Sankey flow diagrams to further illustrate the complex, multifaceted relationships between land use and land cover. Our work is demonstrated on data representing land use and cover data for the US state of Florida.

  4. Globalland30 Mapping Capacity of Land Surface Water in Thessaly, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Manakos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC produced Global Land Cover (GlobalLand30 maps with 30 m spatial resolution for the years 2000 and 2009–2010, responding to the need for harmonized, accurate, and high-resolution global land cover data. This study aims to assess the mapping accuracy of the land surface water layer of GlobalLand30 for 2009–2010. A representative Mediterranean region, situated in Greece, is considered as the case study area, with 2009 as the reference year. The assessment is realized through an object-based comparison of the GlobalLand30 water layer with the ground truth and visually interpreted data from the Hellenic Cadastre fine spatial resolution (0.5 m orthophoto map layer. GlobCover 2009, GlobCorine 2009, and GLCNMO 2008 corresponding thematic layers are utilized to show and quantify the progress brought along with the increment of the spatial resolution, from 500 m to 300 m and finally to 30 m with the newly produced GlobalLand30 maps. GlobalLand30 detected land surface water areas show a 91.9% overlap with the reference data, while the coarser resolution products are restricted to lower accuracies. Validation is extended to the drainage network elements, i.e., rivers and streams, where GlobalLand30 outperforms the other global map products, as well.

  5. Application of Google Maps API service for creating web map of information retrieved from CORINE land cover databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilibarda Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Google Maps API application based on Ajax technology as standard web service; facilitate users with publication interactive web maps, thus opening new possibilities in relation to the classical analogue maps. CORINE land cover databases are recognized as the fundamental reference data sets for numerious spatial analysis. The theoretical and applicable aspects of Google Maps API cartographic service are considered on the case of creating web map of change in urban areas in Belgrade and surround from 2000. to 2006. year, obtained from CORINE databases.

  6. Values mapping with Latino forest users: Contributing to the dialogue on multiple land use conflict management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny; Rebecca J. McLain

    2014-01-01

    Participatory mapping of landscape values is gaining ground as a method for engaging communities and stakeholders in natural resource management. Socio-spatial mapping allows the public to identify places of economic, social, cultural, or personal importance. In addition to providing data for planning and land management, the mapping process can open dialogue about...

  7. Updating the Geologic Maps of the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Ostrach, L. R.; Petro, N. E.; Cohen, B. A.

    2018-06-01

    Our team is funded through NASA's Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program to produce two new USGS Special Investigation Maps (SIM) for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions: a regional map (1:200K) and a landing-site map (1:24K).

  8. South African National Land-Cover Change Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fritz Schoeman

    monitoring land-cover change at a national scale over time using EO data. 2. .... assist with final results reporting and analysis on a sub-national level. ..... South African Land-Cover Characteristics Database: A synopsis of the landscape.

  9. Generation and Assessment of Urban Land Cover Maps Using High-Resolution Multispectral Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Höhle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a unique method for the automatic generation of urban land cover maps. In the present paper, imagery of a new medium-format aerial camera and advanced geoprocessing software are applied to derive normalized digital surface models and vegetation maps. These two intermediate products then become input...... to a tree structured classifier, which automatically derives land cover maps in 2D or 3D. We investigate the thematic accuracy of the produced land cover map by a class-wise stratified design and provide a method for deriving necessary sample sizes. Corresponding survey adjusted accuracy measures...... and their associated confidence intervals are used to adequately reflect uncertainty in the assessment based on the chosen sample size. Proof of concept for the method is given for an urban area in Switzerland. Here, the produced land cover map with six classes (building, wall and carport, road and parking lot, hedge...

  10. Error and Uncertainty in the Accuracy Assessment of Land Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Pedro Alexandre Reis

    Traditionally the accuracy assessment of land cover maps is performed through the comparison of these maps with a reference database, which is intended to represent the "real" land cover, being this comparison reported with the thematic accuracy measures through confusion matrixes. Although, these reference databases are also a representation of reality, containing errors due to the human uncertainty in the assignment of the land cover class that best characterizes a certain area, causing bias in the thematic accuracy measures that are reported to the end users of these maps. The main goal of this dissertation is to develop a methodology that allows the integration of human uncertainty present in reference databases in the accuracy assessment of land cover maps, and analyse the impacts that uncertainty may have in the thematic accuracy measures reported to the end users of land cover maps. The utility of the inclusion of human uncertainty in the accuracy assessment of land cover maps is investigated. Specifically we studied the utility of fuzzy sets theory, more precisely of fuzzy arithmetic, for a better understanding of human uncertainty associated to the elaboration of reference databases, and their impacts in the thematic accuracy measures that are derived from confusion matrixes. For this purpose linguistic values transformed in fuzzy intervals that address the uncertainty in the elaboration of reference databases were used to compute fuzzy confusion matrixes. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a case study in which the accuracy assessment of a land cover map for Continental Portugal derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is made. The obtained results demonstrate that the inclusion of human uncertainty in reference databases provides much more information about the quality of land cover maps, when compared with the traditional approach of accuracy assessment of land cover maps. None

  11. Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix form the harrison-perkins-scott form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) form. These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector. The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary (thus maximally T-violating) and to have a strength in energy scale no greater (but perhaps smaller) than the muon mass. As we shall show,it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tau lepton deviate by no more than O((m μ /m τ ) 2 ) ≅ 3.5 x 10 -3 from their HPS values. Assuming that(m μ /m τ ) 2 can be neglected, we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters θ12, θ23, θ31, and δ of the mapping matrix. These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix. We also show that the e and μ parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters α and β; any deviation of order m μ /m τ can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters. (authors)

  12. Land-use mapping for the State of Kuwait using the Geographical Information System (Gigs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.A.S.; Misak, R.; Minkarah, H.; King, P.; Kwarting, A.; Abo-Rizq, H.; Roy, W.

    2001-01-01

    A land-use survey was undertaken at a scale 1:100000 for the State of Kuwait. Land use is classified into 19 map units based on field survey and interpretation of Landsat imagery. The latest topographic map coverage for the State of Kuwait was used as a base map. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for the storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data. Summary statistics of total areas of each map unit are presented in nine 1:100.000map sheets and percentage areas of different land uses were identified. Land use is dominated by rangeland (75.12%) which is used primarily for grazing activities, and also recreational activities such as spring camping and hunting. Oil fields (7%) include areas of existing development of wells and associated infrastructure. Water reservoir areas represent the surficial extent of aquifers and natural water fields. Military areas (4%) are scattered throughout the country. Other significant land uses include the build-up areas of Kuwait city (3.5%), quarries, borrow pits and dumps of building debris, communication facilities, cemeteries, parkland, encampments, power stations, race tracks and unused land (7%). Land use information can be used as the basis for future land use planning applications. (author)

  13. Comparison of satellite imagery and infrared aerial photography as vegetation mapping methods in an arctic study area: Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf; Mosbech, Anders

    1994-01-01

    Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland......Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland...

  14. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail

  15. Using indigenous knowledge to link hyper-temporal land cover mapping with land use in the Venezuelan Amazon: "The Forest Pulse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Ferri, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Lobo, Jorge M; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Á; Romero, David; Real, Raimundo

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. Amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. Integrating TEK into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. In this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the Western Guyana Shield (Venezuela) based on remote sensing, and used TEK to validate its relevance for indigenous livelihoods and land uses. We first employed a hyper-temporal remotely sensed vegetation index to derive a land classification system. During a 1 300 km, eight day fluvial expedition in roadless areas in the Amazonas State (Venezuela), we visited six indigenous communities who provided geo-referenced data on hunting, fishing and farming activities. We overlaid these TEK data onto the land classification map, to link land classes with indigenous use. We characterized land classes using patterns of greenness temporal change and topo-hydrological information, and proposed 12 land-cover types, grouped into five main landscapes: 1) water bodies; 2) open lands/forest edges; 3) evergreen forests; 4) submontane semideciduous forests, and 5) cloud forests. Each land cover class was identified with a pulsating profile describing temporal changes in greenness, hence we labelled our map as "The Forest Pulse". These greenness profiles showed a slightly increasing trend, for the period 2000 to 2009, in the land classes representing grassland and scrubland, and a slightly decreasing trend in the classes representing forests. This finding is consistent with a gain in carbon in grassland as a consequence of climate warming, and also with some loss of vegetation in the forests. Thus, our classification shows potential to assess future effects of climate change on landscape. Several classes were significantly connected with agriculture, fishing

  16. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  17. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  18. Fast mapping of novel word forms traced neurophysiologically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury eShtyrov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised with the novel word forms, the early (~100 ms fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralised perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon.

  19. Mapping Land Management Regimes in Western Ukraine Using Optical and SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for agricultural products is surging due to population growth, more meat-based diets, and the increasing role of bioenergy. Three strategies can increase agricultural production: (1 expanding agriculture into natural ecosystems; (2 intensifying existing farmland; or (3 recultivating abandoned farmland. Because agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental trade-offs, intensification and recultivation are currently gaining increasing attention. Assessing where these strategies may be pursued, however, requires improved spatial information on land use intensity, including where farmland is active and fallow. We developed a framework to integrate optical and radar data in order to advance the mapping of three farmland management regimes: (1 large-scale, mechanized agriculture; (2 small-scale, subsistence agriculture; and (3 fallow or abandoned farmland. We applied this framework to our study area in western Ukraine, a region characterized by marked spatial heterogeneity in management intensity due to the legacies from Soviet land management, the breakdown of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the recent integration of this region into world markets. We mapped land management regimes using a hierarchical, object-based framework. Image segmentation for delineating objects was performed by using the Superpixel Contour algorithm. We then applied Random Forest classification to map land management regimes and validated our map using randomly sampled in-situ data, obtained during an extensive field campaign. Our results showed that farmland management regimes were mapped reliably, resulting in a final map with an overall accuracy of 83.4%. Comparing our land management regimes map with a soil map revealed that most fallow land occurred on soils marginally suited for agriculture, but some areas within our study region contained considerable potential for recultivation. Overall, our study highlights the potential for an improved

  20. Urban Land Use Mapping by Combining Remote Sensing Imagery and Mobile Phone Positioning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use is of great importance for urban planning, environmental monitoring, and transportation management. Several methods have been proposed to obtain land use maps of urban areas, and these can be classified into two categories: remote sensing methods and social sensing methods. However, remote sensing and social sensing approaches have specific disadvantages regarding the description of social and physical features, respectively. Therefore, an appropriate fusion strategy is vital for large-area land use mapping. To address this issue, we propose an efficient land use mapping method that combines remote sensing imagery (RSI and mobile phone positioning data (MPPD for large areas. We implemented this method in two steps. First, a support vector machine was adopted to classify the RSI and MPPD. Then, the two classification results were fused using a decision fusion strategy to generate the land use map. The proposed method was applied to a case study of the central area of Beijing. The experimental results show that the proposed method improved classification accuracy compared with that achieved using MPPD alone, validating the efficacy of this new approach for identifying land use. Based on the land use map and MPPD data, activity density in key zones during daytime and nighttime was analyzed to illustrate the volume and variation of people working and living across different regions.

  1. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation techniques in the Tennessee Valley. [land use and soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of delineating major soil associations and land uses through computerized analyses is discussed. Useful and potential applications in detecting landscape change and land use mapping are described. Recommendations for improving the data processing effort in a multidisciplinary program are presented.

  2. Analysis of multi-temporal SPOT NDVI images for small-scale land-use mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de C.A.J.M.; Khan, M.R.; Smakhtin, V.U.; Venus, V.; Weir, M.J.C.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Land-use information is required for a number of purposes such as to address food security issues, to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources and to support decisions regarding food trade and crop insurance. Suitable land-use maps often either do not exist or are not readily available. This

  3. Map-based multicriteria analysis to support interactive land use allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arciniegas Lopez, G.A.; Janssen, R.; Omtzigt, A.Q.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of map-based multicriteria analysis to develop a negotiation support tool for land use allocation. Spatial multicriteria analysis is used to make explicit trade-offs between objectives and to provide guidance and feedback on the land use changes negotiated by the

  4. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  5. Mapping land cover gradients through analysis of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Scarrott, R.G.; Hamad, A.A.; Venus, V.; Lymberakis, P.

    2013-01-01

    The green cover of the earth exhibits various spatial gradients that represent gradual changes in space of vegetation density and/or in species composition. To date, land cover mapping methods differentiate at best, mapping units with different cover densities and/or species compositions, but

  6. Procedure for deriving qualitative contaminant attenuation maps from land type data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sililo, OTN

    2001-01-15

    Full Text Available A procedure is presented for deriving qualitative contaminant attenuation maps from available soils information. Unfortunately, in South Africa, no soil map with national coverage exists at a scale larger than 1:2 500 000. However, 1:250 000 land...

  7. Soil mapping and processes modelling for sustainable land management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley; Smetanova, Anna; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil maps and models are fundamental for a correct and sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). They are an important in the assessment of the territory and implementation of sustainable measures in urban areas, agriculture, forests, ecosystem services, among others. Soil maps represent an important basis for the evaluation and restoration of degraded areas, an important issue for our society, as consequence of climate change and the increasing pressure of humans on the ecosystems (Brevik et al. 2016; Depellegrin et al., 2016). The understanding of soil spatial variability and the phenomena that influence this dynamic is crucial to the implementation of sustainable practices that prevent degradation, and decrease the economic costs of soil restoration. In this context, soil maps and models are important to identify areas affected by degradation and optimize the resources available to restore them. Overall, soil data alone or integrated with data from other sciences, is an important part of sustainable land management. This information is extremely important land managers and decision maker's implements sustainable land management policies. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. References Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. (2016) Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. (2016) Mapping Ecosystem Services in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Smetanova, A., Depellegrin, D., Misiune, I., Novara, A., Cerda, A. (2017) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B

  8. Soil Carbon Mapping in Low Relief Areas with Combined Land Use Types and Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wu, Z. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Wang, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate mapping of soil carbon in low relief areas is of great challenge because of the defect of conventional "soil-landscape" model. Efforts have been made to integrate the land use information in the modelling and mapping of soil organic carbon (SOC), in which the spatial context was ignored. With 256 topsoil samples collected from Jianghan Plain, we aim to (i) explore the land-use dependency of SOC via one-way ANOVA; (ii) investigate the "spillover effect" of land use on SOC content; (iii) examine the feasibility of land use types and percentages (obtained with a 200-meter buffer) for soil mapping via regression Kriging (RK) models. Results showed that the SOC of paddy fields was higher than that of woodlands and irrigated lands. The land use type could explain 20.5 % variation of the SOC, and the value increased to 24.7 % when the land use percentages were considered. SOC was positively correlated with the percentage of water area and irrigation canals. Further research indicated that SOC of irrigated lands was significantly correlated with the percentage of water area and irrigation canals, while paddy fields and woodlands did not show similar trends. RK model that combined land use types and percentages outperformed the other models with the lowest values of RMSEC (5.644 g/kg) and RMSEP (6.229 g/kg), and the highest R2C (0.193) and R2P (0.197). In conclusions, land use types and percentages serve as efficient indicators for the SOC mapping in plain areas. Additionally, irrigation facilities contributed to the farmland SOC sequestration especially in irrigated lands.

  9. GENERATION OF 2D LAND COVER MAPS FOR URBAN AREAS USING DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects...... of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes ‘building’ (99%, 95% CI: 95%-100%) and ‘road and parking lot’ (90%, 95% CI: 83%-95%). Some...

  10. Towards automated statewide land cover mapping in Wisconsin using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, B.L.; Lillesand, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to an initial research project being performed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Environmental Remote Sensing Center in conjunction with seven local, state, and federal agencies to implement automated statewide land cover mapping using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The basis, progress, and future research needs for this mapping program are presented. The research efforts are directed toward strategies that integrate satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in the generation of land cover data for multiple users of land cover information. The project objectives are to investigate methodologies that integrate satellite data with other imagery and spatial data resident in emerging GISs in the state for particular program needs, and to develop techniques that can improve automated land cover mapping efficiency and accuracy. 10 refs

  11. Mapping Ecosystem Services for Land Use Planning, the Case of Central Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  12. Mapping environmental land use conflict potentials and ecosystem services in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkwon; Arnhold, Sebastian

    2018-07-15

    In mountainous watersheds, agricultural land use cause changes in ecosystem services, with trade-offs between crop production and erosion regulation. Management of these watersheds can generate environmental land use conflicts among regional stakeholders with different interests. Although several researches have made a start in mapping land use conflicts between human activities and conservation, spatial assessment of land use conflicts on environmental issues and ecosystem service trade-offs within agricultural areas has not been fully considered. In this study, we went further to map land use conflicts between agricultural preferences for crop production and environmental emphasis on erosion regulation. We applied an agricultural land suitability index, based on multi-criteria analysis, to estimate the spatial preference of agricultural activities, while applying the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to reflect the environmental importance of soil erosion. Then, we classified the agricultural catchment into four levels of land use conflicts (lowest, low, high and highest) according to preference and importance of farmland areas, and we compared the classes by crop type. Soil loss in agricultural areas was estimated as 45.1thayr, and agricultural suitability as 0.873; this indicated that land use conflicts in the catchment could arise between severe soil erosion (environmental importance) and agricultural suitability (land preferences). Dry-field farms are mainly located in areas of low land use conflict level, where land preference outweighs environmental importance. When we applied farmland management scenarios with consideration of services, conversion to highest-conflict areas (Scenario 1) as 7.5% of the total area could reduce soil loss by 24.6%, while fallow land management (Scenario 2) could decrease soil loss 19.4% more than the current scenario (Business as usual). The result could maximize land management plans by extracting issues of spatial

  13. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, B.; Bogner, C.; Poppenborg, P.; Martin, E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Jun, M.; Koellner, T.; Reineking, B.; Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed data on land use and land cover constitute important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly; however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in the agricultural mosaic catchment Haean in South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice. In this paper we introduce the data, their collection and the post-processing protocol. Furthermore, because it is important to quantitatively evaluate available land use and land cover products, we compared our data with the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1). During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. Compared to our data, the forested area was underrepresented and the agricultural area overrepresented in MCD12Q1. In addition, linear landscape elements such as waterbodies were missing in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research. The data are available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:110.1594/PANGAEA.823677).

  14. The application of remote sensing in detail land use mapping of RDE site, Puspiptek Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Habib Subagio

    2016-01-01

    Land cover mapping and its development has been performed in a detail scale (1:5000) within the radius of 5 km from the center of Experimental Power Reactor (RDE) site at Kawasan Nuklir Serpong (KNS), PUSPIPTEK Serpong. The objective of this study is to establish land cover database in a detail scale 1:5000 as part of the preparation toward RDE development plan and also to complete the land cover map of a scale 1:10.000. The research method is accomplished in several stages, namely data collection and processing of high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs, field surveys, land use analysis within the radius of 300 - 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km from the RDE site as well as analysis of land use change by 2014-2015. Satellite image processing is carried out at Center for Land Mapping and Atlas, Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG). Data processing is done by using ArcGis and Er Mapper software, whereas the satellite image analysis is executed by using Image Analysis as one of tool in ArcGis software. The result shows that KNS land cover outside the radius of 3 km is a dense residential in many places. Analysis of land use change by year 2014- 2015 shows that vast development of residential has occur which demonstrated by the increase of residential area in North-East of PUSPIPTEK. (author)

  15. Techniques for the creation of land use maps and tabulations from Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, G. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for creating color thematic maps and land use tabulations, employing both Landsat imagery and computer image processing, are discussed. The system, the Multiple Input Land Use System (MILUS) has been tested in the metropolitan section of Dayton, Ohio. Training areas for land use were first digitized by coordinates and then transformed onto an image of white lines on a black background. This image was added to a Landsat image of the same area. Then multispectral classification was performed. A tape of digitized census tract boundaries was computer interfaced to yield an image of tract boundaries on a background registered to the thematic land-use map. Using a data management system, the data were then used to produce figures for the area and percent of land use in each tract. Future work is expected to convert most of the steps into interactive processing. This would greatly reduce the time needed to edit and register the data sets.

  16. Taking potential probability function maps to the local scale and matching them with land use maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    Source-Receptor models have been developed using different methods. Residence-time weighted concentration back trajectory analysis and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) are the two most popular techniques for identification of potential sources of a substance in a defined geographical area. Both techniques use back trajectories calculated using global models and assign values of probability/concentration to various locations in an area. These values represent the probability of threshold exceedances / the average concentration measured at the receptor in air masses with a certain residence time over a source area. Both techniques, however, have only been applied to regional and long-range transport phenomena due to inherent limitation with respect to both spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of the of back trajectory calculations. Employing the above mentioned concepts of residence time weighted concentration back-trajectory analysis and PSCF, we developed a source-receptor model capable of identifying local and regional sources of air pollutants like Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2 and VOCs. We use 1 to 30 minute averages of concentration values and wind direction and speed from a single receptor site or from multiple receptor sites to trace the air mass back in time. The model code assumes all the atmospheric transport to be Lagrangian and linearly extrapolates air masses reaching the receptor location, backwards in time for a fixed number of steps. We restrict the model run to the lifetime of the chemical species under consideration. For long lived species the model run is limited to 180 trees/gridsquare); moderate concentrations for agricultural lands with low tree density (1.5-2.5 ppbv for 250 μg/m3 for traffic hotspots in Chandigarh City are observed. Based on the validation against the land use maps, the model appears to do an excellent job in source apportionment and identifying emission hotspots. Acknowledgement: We thank the IISER

  17. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  18. Testing the accuracy of remote sensing land use maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L.; Lock, B. F.; Vass, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the main aspects that need to be considered in a remote sensing sampling design are: (1) the frequency that any one land use type (on the ground) is erroneously attributed to another class by the interpreter; (2) the frequency that the wrong land use (as observed on the ground) is erroneously included in any one class by the remote sensing interpreter; (3) the proportion of all land (as determined in the field) that is mistakenly attributed by the interpreter; and (4) the determination of whether the mistakes are random (so that the overall proportions are approximately correct) or subject to a persistent bias. A sampling and statistical testing procedure is presented which allows an approximate answer to each of these aspects. The concept developed and described incorporates the probability of making incorrect interpretations at particular prescribed accuracy levels, for a certain number of errors, for a particular sample size. It is considered that this approach offers a meaningful explanation of the interpretation accuracy level of an entire remote sensing land use survey.

  19. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    land cover information such as developing countries. In this study, we look at GlobeLand30 of 2010 for Iran in order to find out the accuracy of this dataset as well as its implications. By having looked at 6 selected study sites around larger cities representing dissimilar eco-regions covering rural...

  20. Well location and land-use mapping in the Columbia Plateau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, J.; Foote, H.; Coburn, V.

    1979-10-01

    Irrigation wells in a 41,000-square mile area located in Washington and northern Oregon were the subject of this study. Approximately 30,000 square miles of the area were mapped within the boundary of the Columbia Plateau, which covers some 48,200 square miles in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Advanced state-of-the-art computer analysis techniques for processing Landsat digital multispectral data were used for mapping the area into ten land-use classes. Specially designed computer programs were used for mapping the locations of 1476 irrigation wells located in 13 counties. Six thematic color-encoded maps were prepared which show additional land-use types and relative areal distribution. Three maps depict the location of irrigation wells

  1. Land subsidence susceptibility and hazard mapping: the case of Amyntaio Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzampoglou, P.; Loupasakis, C.

    2017-09-01

    Landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping has been applying for more than 20 years succeeding the assessment of the landslide risk and the mitigation the phenomena. On the contrary, equivalent maps aiming to study and mitigate land subsidence phenomena caused by the overexploitation of the aquifers are absent from the international literature. The current study focuses at the Amyntaio basin, located in West Macedonia at Florina prefecture. As proved by numerous studies the wider area has been severely affected by the overexploitation of the aquifers, caused by the mining and the agricultural activities. The intensive ground water level drop has triggered extensive land subsidence phenomena, especially at the perimeter of the open pit coal mine operating at the site, causing damages to settlements and infrastructure. The land subsidence susceptibility and risk maps were produced by applying the semi-quantitative WLC (Weighted Linear Combination) method, especially calibrated for this particular catastrophic event. The results were evaluated by using detailed field mapping data referring to the spatial distribution of the surface ruptures caused by the subsidence. The high correlation between the produced maps and the field mapping data, have proved the great value of the maps and of the applied technique on the management and the mitigation of the phenomena. Obviously, these maps can be safely used by decision-making authorities for the future urban safety development.

  2. A Joint Land Cover Mapping and Image Registration Algorithm Based on a Markov Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisit Eiumnoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, image registration of multi-modal and multi-temporal images is performed satisfactorily before land cover mapping. However, since multi-modal and multi-temporal images are likely to be obtained from different satellite platforms and/or acquired at different times, perfect alignment is very difficult to achieve. As a result, a proper land cover mapping algorithm must be able to correct registration errors as well as perform an accurate classification. In this paper, we propose a joint classification and registration technique based on a Markov random field (MRF model to simultaneously align two or more images and obtain a land cover map (LCM of the scene. The expectation maximization (EM algorithm is employed to solve the joint image classification and registration problem by iteratively estimating the map parameters and approximate posterior probabilities. Then, the maximum a posteriori (MAP criterion is used to produce an optimum land cover map. We conducted experiments on a set of four simulated images and one pair of remotely sensed images to investigate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Our results show that, with proper selection of a critical MRF parameter, the resulting LCMs derived from an unregistered image pair can achieve an accuracy that is as high as when images are perfectly aligned. Furthermore, the registration error can be greatly reduced.

  3. Digital soil mapping in assessment of land suitability for organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Kentchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Jolokhava, Tamar; Meskhi, Tea

    2017-04-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) is a fast-developing sub discipline of soil science which gets more importance along with increased availability of spatial data. DSM is based on three main components: the input in the form of field and laboratory observational methods, the process used in terms of spatial and non-spatial soil inference systems, and the output in the form of spatial soil information systems, which includes outputs in the form of rasters of prediction along with the uncertainty of prediction. Georgia is one of the countries who are under the way of spatial data infrastructure development, which includes soil related spatial data also. Therefore, it is important to demonstrate the capacity of DSM technics for planning and decision making process, in which assessment of land suitability is a major interest for those willing to grow agricultural crops. In that term land suitability assessment for establishing organic farms is in high demand as market for organically produced commodities is still increasing. It is the first attempt in Georgia to use DSM to predict areas with potential for organic farming development. Current approach is based on risk assessment of soil pollution with toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr) and prediction of bio-availability of those elements to plants on example of the region of Western Georgia, where detailed soil survey was conducted and spatial database of soil was created. The results of the study show the advantages of DSM at early stage assessment and depending on availability and quality of the input data, it can achieve acceptable accuracy.

  4. Land use mapping and change detection using ERTS imagery in Montgomery County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 for mapping land use and detecting land use change was investigated. Land use information was gathered from 1964 air photo mosaics and from 1972 ERTS data. The 1964 data provided the basis for comparison with ERTS-1 imagery. From this comparison, urban sprawl was quite evident for the city of Montgomery. A significant trend from forestland to agricultural was also discovered. The development of main traffic arteries between 1964 and 1972 was a vital factor in the development of some of the urban centers. Even though certain problems in interpreting and correlating land use data from ERTS imagery were encountered, it has been demonstrated that remotely sensed data from ERTS is useful for inventorying land use and detecting land use change.

  5. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  6. Terrain classification and land hazard mapping in Kalsi-Chakrata area (Garhwal Himalaya), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.; Litoria, Pradeep K.

    Terrain classification and land system mapping of a part of the Garhwal Himalaya (India) have been used to provide a base map for land hazard evaluation, with special reference to landslides and other mass movements. The study was based on MSS images, aerial photographs and 1:50,000 scale maps, followed by detailed field-work. The area is composed of two groups of rocks: well exposed sedimentary Precambrian formations in the Himalayan Main Boundary Thrust Belt and the Tertiary molasse deposits of the Siwaliks. Major tectonic boundaries were taken as the natural boundaries of land systems. A physiographic terrain classification included slope category, forest cover, occurrence of landslides, seismicity and tectonic activity in the area.

  7. Towards Innovative Geospatial Tools for Fit-For Land Rights Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeva, M.; Bennett, R.; Gerke, M.; Crommelinck, S.; Stöcker, C.; Crompvoets, J.; Ho, S.; Schwering, A.; Chipofya, M.; Schultz, C.; Zein, T.; Biraro, M.; Alemie, B.; Wayumba, R.; Kundert, K.

    2017-09-01

    In large parts of sub Saharan Africa it remains an ongoing challenging to map millions of unrecognized land rights. Existing approaches for recognizing these rights have proven inappropriate in many cases. A new generation of tools needs to be developed to support faster, cheaper, easier, and more responsible land rights mapping. This is the main goal of its4land, an European Commission Horizon 2020 project that aims to develop innovative tools inspired by the continuum of land rights, fit-for-purpose land administration, and cadastral intelligence. its4land is using strategic collaboration between the EU and East Africa to deliver innovative, scalable, and transferrable ICT solutions. The innovation process incorporates a broad range of stakeholders and emergent geospatial technologies, including smart sketchmaps, UAVs, automated feature extraction, as well as geocloud services. The aim is to combine innovative technologies, capture the specific needs, market opportunities and readiness of end-users in the domain of land tenure information recording in Eastern Africa. The project consists of a four year work plan, € 3.9M funding, and eight consortium partners collaborating with stakeholders from six case study locations in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Rwanda. The major tasks include tool development, prototyping, and demonstration for local, national, regional, and international interest groups. The case locations cover different land uses such as: urban, peri-urban, rural smallholder, and (former) pastoralist. This paper describes the project's activities within the first 18 months and covers barriers discovered, lessons learned and results achieved.

  8. Regional Geological Mapping in the Graham Land of Antarctic Peninsula Using LANDSAT-8 Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Park, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Geological investigations in Antarctica confront many difficulties due to its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions. In this study, the applications of Landsat-8 data were investigated to extract geological information for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies in inaccessible domains such in Antarctica. The north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected in this study to conduct a satellite-based remote sensing mapping technique. Continuum Removal (CR) spectral mapping tool and Independent Components Analysis (ICA) were applied to Landsat-8 spectral bands to map poorly exposed lithologies at regional scale. Pixels composed of distinctive absorption features of alteration mineral assemblages associated with poorly exposed lithological units were detected by applying CR mapping tool to VNIR and SWIR bands of Landsat-8.Pixels related to Si-O bond emission minima features were identified using CR mapping tool to TIR bands in poorly mapped andunmapped zones in north-eastern Graham Land at regional scale. Anomaly pixels in the ICA image maps related to spectral featuresof Al-O-H, Fe, Mg-O-H and CO3 groups and well-constrained lithological attributions from felsic to mafic rocks were detectedusing VNIR, SWIR and TIR datasets of Landsat-8. The approach used in this study performed very well for lithological andalteration mineral mapping with little available geological data or without prior information of the study region.

  9. Improved land use classification from Landsat and Seasat satellite imagery registered to a common map base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the case of Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) data, ambiguities in spectral signature can arise in urban areas. A study was initiated in the belief that Seasat digital SAR could help provide the spectral separability needed for a more accurate urban land use classification. A description is presented of the results of land use classifications performed on Landsat and preprocessed Seasat imagery that were registered to a common map base. The process of registering imagery and training site boundary coordinates to a common map has been reported by Clark (1980). It is found that preprocessed Seasat imagery provides signatures for urban land uses which are spectrally separable from Landsat signatures. This development appears to significantly improve land use classifications in an urban setting for class 12 (Commercial and Services), class 13 (Industrial), and class 14 (Transportation, Communications, and Utilities).

  10. A multi-temporal analysis approach for land cover mapping in support of nuclear incident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shagan; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; McKeown, Donald M.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Remote sensing can be used to rapidly generate land use maps for assisting emergency response personnel with resource deployment decisions and impact assessments. In this study we focus on constructing accurate land cover maps to map the impacted area in the case of a nuclear material release. The proposed methodology involves integration of results from two different approaches to increase classification accuracy. The data used included RapidEye scenes over Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station (Oswego, NY). The first step was building a coarse-scale land cover map from freely available, high temporal resolution, MODIS data using a time-series approach. In the case of a nuclear accident, high spatial resolution commercial satellites such as RapidEye or IKONOS can acquire images of the affected area. Land use maps from the two image sources were integrated using a probability-based approach. Classification results were obtained for four land classes - forest, urban, water and vegetation - using Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances as metrics. Despite the coarse resolution of MODIS pixels, acceptable accuracies were obtained using time series features. The overall accuracies using the fusion based approach were in the neighborhood of 80%, when compared with GIS data sets from New York State. The classifications were augmented using this fused approach, with few supplementary advantages such as correction for cloud cover and independence from time of year. We concluded that this method would generate highly accurate land maps, using coarse spatial resolution time series satellite imagery and a single date, high spatial resolution, multi-spectral image.

  11. Mapping Deforestation and Land Use in Amazon Rainforest Using SAR-C Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alves, Diogenes Salas

    1996-01-01

    Land use changes and deforestation in tropical rainforests are among the major factors affecting the overall function of the global environment. To routinely assess the spatial extend and temporal dynamics of these changes has become an important challenge in several scientific disciplines such as climate and environmental studies. In this paper, the feasibility of using polarimetric spaceborne SAR data in mapping land cover types in the Amazon is studied.

  12. Generation of Land Cover Maps Using High-Resolution Multispectral Aerial Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    . The classification had an overall accuracy of 79%. Suggestions for the improvements in the applied methodology are made. The potential of land cover maps lies in updating of topographic databases, quality control of maps, studies of town development, and other geo-spatial domain applications. The automatic...... for classification of land cover. A high degree of automation can be achieved. The obtained results of a practical example are checked with reference values derived from ortho-images in natural colour and from colour images using stereo-vision. An error matrix is applied in the evaluation of the results...

  13. Uncertainty in Historical Land-Use Reconstructions with Topographic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaim Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2 and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2 based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005 all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.

  14. Tropical land use land cover mapping in Pará (Brazil) using discriminative Markov random fields and multi-temporal TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagensieker, Ron; Roscher, Ribana; Rosentreter, Johannes; Jakimow, Benjamin; Waske, Björn

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing satellite data offer the unique possibility to map land use land cover transformations by providing spatially explicit information. However, detection of short-term processes and land use patterns of high spatial-temporal variability is a challenging task. We present a novel framework using multi-temporal TerraSAR-X data and machine learning techniques, namely discriminative Markov random fields with spatio-temporal priors, and import vector machines, in order to advance the mapping of land cover characterized by short-term changes. Our study region covers a current deforestation frontier in the Brazilian state Pará with land cover dominated by primary forests, different types of pasture land and secondary vegetation, and land use dominated by short-term processes such as slash-and-burn activities. The data set comprises multi-temporal TerraSAR-X imagery acquired over the course of the 2014 dry season, as well as optical data (RapidEye, Landsat) for reference. Results show that land use land cover is reliably mapped, resulting in spatially adjusted overall accuracies of up to 79% in a five class setting, yet limitations for the differentiation of different pasture types remain. The proposed method is applicable on multi-temporal data sets, and constitutes a feasible approach to map land use land cover in regions that are affected by high-frequent temporal changes.

  15. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  16. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  17. Spaceborne Radar for Mapping Forest and Land Use Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha Pankaj

    Degradation (REDD+). The implementation and effectiveness of such mechanisms relies partially on continuous observations of forests using satellite technology and partially on ground-based measurements of forest aboveground volume/biomass (AGV/AGB), carbon density and changes therein. Together, these means...... of forest monitoring enable the development of policies and measures to alter current trends in global forest and biodiversity loss. This thesis investigates the use of long wavelength (~23 cm, L-band) spaceborne radar, which has all-weather and canopy-penetration capabilities, acquired by the Advanced Land...... Observing Satellite (ALOS) for forest monitoring. Using a combination of local expert knowledge, plot inventories, and data from lidar and optical sensors, it aims to understand (1) whether forest disturbance dynamics may be detected with radar, and (2) what physical and macroecological properties influence...

  18. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Web mapping application of Roman Catholic Church administration in the Czech lands in the early modern period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Seemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of historical spatial relationships is still a topical issue in historical geography. In this respect, the Church history has not been well explored. The parish administration in the Czech lands is evolving since the advent of Christianity in 863, and a number of reforms have passed over the centuries. Significant changes in the administration also underwent during recatholisation of the Czech lands in the 17th and 18thcentury. From this Baroque era, there are written sources which have been preserved, so they can be utilized to reconstruct historical Church administration in the form of web mapping application. The paper briefly introduces methods which were used to build a spatial database filled with historical data. However, the main outcome of this paper is to describe the creation of the web mapping application that provides visualisation of this data. Discussed are topics like cartographic project, choice of map symbols, data generalization for different levels of detail and placement of annotations. Display of cartographic data were performed using the ArcGIS platform, through a combination of map tiles and feature services that are bundled into the application template created in Web AppBuilder.

  20. Detection and Mapping of Land Use and Land Cover Classes of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Cover Classes of a Developing City in Southeastern. Region of Nigeria .... The emergence of small and medium sized agro-husbandry industries in the peripheral, semi- ..... lack of spatial specialization a hindrance to integrated land management and development .... Journal of Applied Sciences Asian Network for Scientific ...

  1. Mapping the Land: Aerial Imagery for Land Use Information. Resource Publications in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James B.

    Intended for geography students who are enrolled in, or who have completed, an introductory course in remote sensing; for geography researchers; and for professors; this publication focuses specifically on those general issues regarding the organization and presentation of land use information derived from aerial imagery. Many of the ideas…

  2. Combining land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, F. C.; Brandner, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    A method currently used to derive agrophysical units (APUs), i.e., geographical areas having definable/comparable agronomic and physical parameters which reflect a range in agricultural use and management, is discussed with reference to results obtained for South Dakota and an area in China. The method consists of combining agricultural land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data. The resulting map units are soil associations characterized by cropland use intensity, and they can be used to identify major cropland areas and to develop a rating reflecting the relative potential of the soils in the delineated area for crop production, as well as to update small-scale soil maps.

  3. Land degradation mapping based on hyperion data in desertification region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Penggen; Wu, Jian; Ouyang, Ping; He, Ting

    2008-10-01

    Desertification is an alarming sign of land degradation in Henshan county of northwest china. Due to the considerable costs of detailed ground surveys of this phenomenon, remote sensing is an appropriate alternative for analyzing and evaluating the risks of the expansion of land degradation. Degradation features can be detected directly or indirectly by using image data. In this paper, based on the Hyperion images of Hengshan desertification region of northwest china, a new algorithm aimed at land degradation mapping, called Land Degradation Index (LDI), was put forward. This new algorithm is based on the classified process. We applied the linear spectral unmixing algorithm with the training samples derived from the formerly classified process so as to find out new endmembers in the RMS error imagine. After that, using neutral net mapping with new training samples, the classified result was gained. In addition, after applying mask processing, the soils were grouped to 3 types (Kappa =0.90): highly degraded soils, moderately degraded soils and slightly degraded soils. By analyzing 3 mapping methods: mixture-classification, the spectral angle mapper and mixturetuned matched filtering, the results suggest that the mixture-classification has the higher accuracy (Kappa=0.7075) than the spectral angle mapper (Kappa=0.5418) and the mixture-tuned matched filter (Kappa=0.6039). As a result, the mixture-classification is selected to carry out Land Degradation Index analysis.

  4. The Influence of Built-Form and Land Use on Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Michael; Landis, John

    2003-01-01

    Although land use planning and urban design are increasingly touted as powerful tools for influencing transportation behavior, only modest empirical evidence for this relationship exists. Here, the results from a two-day activity diary are combined with innovative GIS-based measures of urban form and land use pattern to statistically test potential influences on non-commute home-based mode choice. Local measurement at multiple scales is promoted as a realistic means of quantifying an individu...

  5. Effects of Land Use on Concentrations and Chemical Forms of Phosphorus in Different-Size Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, E. H.; Demisie, W.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land use has been recognized as an important driver of environmental change on all spatial and temporal scales. This study was conducted to determine the effects of land uses on phosphorus concentration in bulk soil and in water-stable aggregates in different soils. The study was conducted on three soil types (Ferrosols, Cambosols, and Primosols), which were collected from three different locations from southeast China and under three land uses (Uncultivated, Vegetable and forest land) the region is characterized as a hill and plain area. Accordingly, a total of 24 soil samples were collected. The results showed that average contents of total P were 0.55-1.55 g/kg, 0.28-1.03 g/kg and 0.14-0.8 g/kg for the soils: Cambosols, Ferrosols and Primosols respectively. Vegetable and forest land led to higher total phosphorus contents in these soils than in the uncultivated land. An aggregate fraction of >2 mm under forest land made up the largest percentage (30 up to 70%), whereas the size fraction phosphorus, organic phosphorus and Olsen P and phosphorus forms in the soils. It implies that the conversion of natural ecosystem to vegetable land increased the phosphorus proportion in the soils, which could have negative impact on the environmental quality.

  6. Some integrable maps and their Hirota bilinear forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, A. N. W.; Kouloukas, T. E.; Quispel, G. R. W.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a two-parameter family of birational maps, which reduces to a family previously found by Demskoi, Tran, van der Kamp and Quispel (DTKQ) when one of the parameters is set to zero. The study of the singularity confinement pattern for these maps leads to the introduction of a tau function satisfying a homogeneous recurrence which has the Laurent property, and the tropical (or ultradiscrete) analogue of this homogeneous recurrence confirms the quadratic degree growth found empirically by Demskoi et al. We prove that the tau function also satisfies two different bilinear equations, each of which is a reduction of the Hirota-Miwa equation (also known as the discrete KP equation, or the octahedron recurrence). Furthermore, these bilinear equations are related to reductions of particular two-dimensional integrable lattice equations, of discrete KdV or discrete Toda type. These connections, as well as the cluster algebra structure of the bilinear equations, allow a direct construction of Poisson brackets, Lax pairs and first integrals for the birational maps. As a consequence of the latter results, we show how each member of the family can be lifted to a system that is integrable in the Liouville sense, clarifying observations made previously in the original DTKQ case.

  7. Land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saldaña, Gerardo; Quaife, Tristan; Clifford, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    MELODIES is an FP7 funded project to develop innovative and sustainable services, based upon Open Data, for users in research, government, industry and the general public in a broad range of societal and environmental benefit areas. Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A land cover product was created for 2003 to 2015 and a bayesian approach was created to identified land cover changes. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the land cover and land cover changes products.

  8. Mapping Urban Green Infrastructure: A Novel Landscape-Based Approach to Incorporating Land Use and Land Cover in the Mapping of Human-Dominated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dennis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Common approaches to mapping green infrastructure in urbanised landscapes invariably focus on measures of land use or land cover and associated functional or physical traits. However, such one-dimensional perspectives do not accurately capture the character and complexity of the landscapes in which urban inhabitants live. The new approach presented in this paper demonstrates how open-source, high spatial and temporal resolution data with global coverage can be used to measure and represent the landscape qualities of urban environments. Through going beyond simple metrics of quantity, such as percentage green and blue cover, it is now possible to explore the extent to which landscape quality helps to unpick the mixed evidence presented in the literature on the benefits of urban nature to human well-being. Here we present a landscape approach, employing remote sensing, GIS and data reduction techniques to map urban green infrastructure elements in a large U.K. city region. Comparison with existing urban datasets demonstrates considerable improvement in terms of coverage and thematic detail. The characterisation of landscapes, using census tracts as spatial units, and subsequent exploration of associations with social–ecological attributes highlights the further detail that can be uncovered by the approach. For example, eight urban landscape types identified for the case study city exhibited associations with distinct socioeconomic conditions accountable not only to quantities but also qualities of green and blue space. The identification of individual landscape features through simultaneous measures of land use and land cover demonstrated unique and significant associations between the former and indicators of human health and ecological condition. The approach may therefore provide a promising basis for developing further insight into processes and characteristics that affect human health and well-being in urban areas, both in the United

  9. Analytical Retrieval of Global Land Surface Emissivity Maps at AMSR-E passive microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Land emissivity is a crucial boundary condition in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling. Land emissivity is also a key indicator of land surface and subsurface properties. The objective of this study, supported by NOAA-NESDIS, is to develop global land emissivity maps using AMSR-E passive microwave measurements along with several ancillary data. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database has been used to obtain several inputs for the proposed approach such as land surface temperature, cloud mask and atmosphere profile. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to estimate upwelling and downwelling atmospheric contributions. Although it is well known that correction of the atmospheric effect on brightness temperature is required at higher frequencies (over 19 GHz), our preliminary results have shown that a correction at 10.7 GHz is also necessary over specific areas. The proposed approach is based on three main steps. First, all necessary data have been collected and processed. Second, a global cloud free composite of AMSR-E data and corresponding ancillary images is created. Finally, monthly composting of emissivity maps has been performed. AMSR-E frequencies at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz have been used to retrieve the emissivity. Water vapor information obtained from ISCCP (TOVS data) was used to calculate upwelling, downwelling temperatures and atmospheric transmission in order to assess the consistency of those derived from the CRTM model. The frequent land surface temperature (LST) determination (8 times a day) in the ISCCP database has allowed us to assess the diurnal cycle effect on emissivity retrieval. Differences in magnitude and phase between thermal temperature and low frequencies microwave brightness temperature have been noticed. These differences seem to vary in space and time. They also depend on soil texture and thermal inertia. The proposed methodology accounts for these factors and

  10. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  11. TOWARDS INNOVATIVE GEOSPATIAL TOOLS FOR FIT-FOR-PURPOSE LAND RIGHTS MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In large parts of sub Saharan Africa it remains an ongoing challenging to map millions of unrecognized land rights. Existing approaches for recognizing these rights have proven inappropriate in many cases. A new generation of tools needs to be developed to support faster, cheaper, easier, and more responsible land rights mapping. This is the main goal of its4land, an European Commission Horizon 2020 project that aims to develop innovative tools inspired by the continuum of land rights, fit-for-purpose land administration, and cadastral intelligence. its4land is using strategic collaboration between the EU and East Africa to deliver innovative, scalable, and transferrable ICT solutions. The innovation process incorporates a broad range of stakeholders and emergent geospatial technologies, including smart sketchmaps, UAVs, automated feature extraction, as well as geocloud services. The aim is to combine innovative technologies, capture the specific needs, market opportunities and readiness of end-users in the domain of land tenure information recording in Eastern Africa. The project consists of a four year work plan, € 3.9M funding, and eight consortium partners collaborating with stakeholders from six case study locations in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Rwanda. The major tasks include tool development, prototyping, and demonstration for local, national, regional, and international interest groups. The case locations cover different land uses such as: urban, peri-urban, rural smallholder, and (former pastoralist. This paper describes the project’s activities within the first 18 months and covers barriers discovered, lessons learned and results achieved.

  12. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  13. Identification of land degradation evidences in an organic farm using probability maps (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Bogunovic, Igor; Estebaranz, Ferran

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a biophysical process with important impacts on society, economy and policy. Areas affected by land degradation do not provide services in quality and with capacity to full-field the communities that depends on them (Amaya-Romero et al., 2015; Beyene, 2015; Lanckriet et al., 2015). Agricultural activities are one of the main causes of land degradation (Kraaijvanger and Veldkamp, 2015), especially when they decrease soil organic matter (SOM), a crucial element for soil fertility. In temperate areas, the critical level of SOM concentration in agricultural soils is 3.4%. Below this level there is a potential decrease of soil quality (Loveland and Weeb, 2003). However, no previous work was carried out in other environments, such as the Mediterranean. The spatial distribution of potential degraded land is important to be identified and mapped, in order to identify the areas that need restoration (Brevik et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2017). The aim of this work is to assess the spatial distribution of areas with evidences of land degradation (SOM bellow 3.4%) using probability maps in an organic farm located in Croatia. In order to find the best method, we compared several probability methods, such as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Universal Kriging (UK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area is located on the Istria peninsula (45°3' N; 14°2' E), with a total area of 182 ha. One hundred eighty-two soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected during July of 2015 and SOM was assessed using wet combustion procedure. The assessment of the best probability method was carried out using leave one out cross validation method. The probability method with the lowest Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most accurate. The results showed that the best method to predict the probability of potential land degradation was SK with an RMSE of 0.635, followed by DK (RMSE=0.636), UK (RMSE=0.660), OK (RMSE

  14. Land cover change map comparisons using open source web mapping technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Lindblom; Ian Housman; Tony Guay; Mark Finco; Kevin. Megown

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is evaluating the status of current landscape change maps and assessing gaps in their information content. These activities have been occurring under the auspices of the Landscape Change Monitoring System (LCMS) project, which is a joint effort between USFS Research, USFS Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC), USGS Earth Resources...

  15. Land Area Change and Fractional Water Maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following Hurricane Rita (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the changes in land and water coverage of a 1,961-square-kilometer (km2) area in Louisiana's Chenier Plain. The study area is roughly centered on the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, which was impacted by Hurricane Rita on September 24, 2005. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide pre- and post-Hurricane Rita moderate-resolution (30-meter (m)) fractional water maps based upon multiple source images, and (2) to quantify land and water coverage changes due to Hurricane Rita.

  16. Trajectory analysis of land use and land cover maps to improve spatial-temporal patterns, and impact assessment on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomlot, Z.; Verbeiren, B.; Huysmans, M.; Batelaan, O.

    2017-11-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) change is a consequence of human-induced global environmental change. It is also considered one of the major factors affecting groundwater recharge. Uncertainties and inconsistencies in LULC maps are one of the difficulties that LULC timeseries analysis face and which have a significant effect on hydrological impact analysis. Therefore, an accuracy assessment approach of LULC timeseries is needed for a more reliable hydrological analysis and prediction. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of land use uncertainty and to improve the accuracy of a timeseries of CORINE (coordination of information on the environment) land cover maps by using a new approach of identifying spatial-temporal LULC change trajectories as a pre-processing tool. This ensures consistency of model input when dealing with land-use dynamics and as such improves the accuracy of land use maps and consequently groundwater recharge estimation. As a case study the impact of consistent land use changes from 1990 until 2013 on groundwater recharge for the Flanders-Brussels region is assessed. The change trajectory analysis successfully assigned a rational trajectory to 99% of all pixels. The methodology is shown to be powerful in correcting interpretation inconsistencies and overestimation errors in CORINE land cover maps. The overall kappa (cell-by-cell map comparison) improved from 0.6 to 0.8 and from 0.2 to 0.7 for forest and pasture land use classes respectively. The study shows that the inconsistencies in the land use maps introduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge estimation in a range of 10-30%. The analysis showed that during the period of 1990-2013 the LULC changes were mainly driven by urban expansion. The results show that the resolution at which the spatial analysis is performed is important; the recharge differences using original and corrected CORINE land cover maps increase considerably with increasing spatial resolution. This study indicates

  17. Achieving a Sustainable Urban Form through Land Use Optimisation: Insights from Bekasi City’s Land-Use Plan (2010–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Trias Handayanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide have been trying to achieve a sustainable urban form to handle their rapid urban growth. Many sustainable urban forms have been studied and two of them, the compact city and the eco city, were chosen in this study as urban form foundations. Based on these forms, four sustainable city criteria (compactness, compatibility, dependency, and suitability were considered as necessary functions for land use optimisation. This study presents a land use optimisation as a method for achieving a sustainable urban form. Three optimisation methods (particle swarm optimisation, genetic algorithms, and a local search method were combined into a single hybrid optimisation method for land use in Bekasi city, Indonesia. It was also used for examining Bekasi city’s land-use-plan (2010–2030 after optimising current (2015 and future land use (2030. After current land use optimisation, the score of sustainable city criteria increased significantly. Three important centres of land use (commercial, industrial, and residential were also created through clustering the results. These centres were slightly different from centres of the city plan zones. Additional land uses in 2030 were predicted using a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input. Three scenarios were used for allocating these additional land uses including sustainable development, government policy, and business-as-usual. Future land use allocation in 2030 found that the sustainable development scenario showed better performance compared to government policy and business-as-usual scenarios.

  18. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  19. New closed-form approximation for skin chromophore mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Tuchin, Valery; Alander, Jarmo

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of blood and melanin in skin can be estimated based on the reflectance of light. Many models for this estimation have been built, such as Monte Carlo simulation, diffusion models, and the differential modified Beer-Lambert law. The optimization-based methods are too slow for chromophore mapping of high-resolution spectral images, and the differential modified Beer-Lambert is not often accurate enough. Optimal coefficients for the differential Beer-Lambert model are calculated by differentiating the diffusion model, optimized to the normal skin spectrum. The derivatives are then used in predicting the difference in chromophore concentrations from the difference in absorption spectra. The accuracy of the method is tested both computationally and experimentally using a Monte Carlo multilayer simulation model, and the data are measured from the palm of a hand during an Allen's test, which modulates the blood content of skin. The correlations of the given and predicted blood, melanin, and oxygen saturation levels are correspondingly r = 0.94, r = 0.99, and r = 0.73. The prediction of the concentrations for all pixels in a 1-megapixel image would take ∼ 20 min, which is orders of magnitude faster than the methods based on optimization during the prediction.

  20. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  1. Mapping land cover change over continental Africa using Landsat and Google Earth Engine cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Holl, Felix; Savory, David J; Andrade-Pacheco, Ricardo; Gething, Peter W; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J W

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of the global land cover is critical for better understanding many of the Earth's land surface processes. However, the lack of regularly updated, continental-scale, and high spatial resolution (30 m) land cover data limit our ability to better understand the spatial extent and the temporal dynamics of land surface changes. Despite the free availability of high spatial resolution Landsat satellite data, continental-scale land cover mapping using high resolution Landsat satellite data was not feasible until now due to the need for high-performance computing to store, process, and analyze this large volume of high resolution satellite data. In this study, we present an approach to quantify continental land cover and impervious surface changes over a long period of time (15 years) using high resolution Landsat satellite observations and Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform. The approach applied here to overcome the computational challenges of handling big earth observation data by using cloud computing can help scientists and practitioners who lack high-performance computational resources.

  2. Normal forms for Poisson maps and symplectic groupoids around Poisson transversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejlich, Pedro; Mărcuț, Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Poisson transversals are submanifolds in a Poisson manifold which intersect all symplectic leaves transversally and symplectically. In this communication, we prove a normal form theorem for Poisson maps around Poisson transversals. A Poisson map pulls a Poisson transversal back to a Poisson transversal, and our first main result states that simultaneous normal forms exist around such transversals, for which the Poisson map becomes transversally linear, and intertwines the normal form data of the transversals. Our second result concerns symplectic integrations. We prove that a neighborhood of a Poisson transversal is integrable exactly when the Poisson transversal itself is integrable, and in that case we prove a normal form theorem for the symplectic groupoid around its restriction to the Poisson transversal, which puts all structure maps in normal form. We conclude by illustrating our results with examples arising from Lie algebras.

  3. A large-area, spatially continuous assessment of land cover map error and its impact on downstream analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon; Chen, Peng; Debats, Stephanie; Evans, Tom; Ferreira, Stefanus; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Ragazzo, Gabrielle; Sheffield, Justin; Wolf, Adam; Wood, Eric; Caylor, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess (1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and (2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, and then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security. We also evaluated maps' spatial accuracy based on how precisely they could be used to locate specific landscape features. We found that cropland maps can have substantial biases and poor accuracy at all resolutions (e.g., at 1 km resolution, up to ∼45% underestimates of cropland (bias) and nearly 50% mean absolute error (MAE, describing accuracy); at 100 km, up to 15% underestimates and nearly 20% MAE). National-scale maps derived from higher-resolution imagery were most accurate, followed by multi-map fusion products. Constraining mapped values to match survey statistics may be effective at minimizing bias (provided the statistics are accurate). Errors in downstream analyses could be substantially amplified or muted, depending on the values ascribed to cropland-adjacent covers (e.g., with forest as adjacent cover, carbon map error was 200%-500% greater than in input cropland maps, but ∼40% less for sparse cover types). The average locational error was 6 km (600%). These findings provide deeper insight into the causes and potential consequences of land cover map error, and suggest several recommendations for land

  4. Types of Cadastral Maps in Slovak Republic and Accuracy of the Land Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidlová Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical progress has affected in all parts of science. This paper is reflecting the changes of creation and accuracy of the maps, used for tax purposes from Austria-Hungary to present. From the precision of coordinates of the break points, which are defining the running of boundary, depends the precision of the parcel area as well. This information is more important because of the prices of land in present.

  5. MX Siting Investigation. MX System Siting Summary Report. Land Acquisition Application Package Map Sheets. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-18

    Environmental Impact Statement DMA Defense Mapping Agency DOPAA Description of Proposed Actions and Alternatives DTA Designated Training Area DTN Designated...Transportation Network EIS Environmental Impact Statement FLPMA Federal Land Policy Management Act FNI Fugro National, Inc. FSED Full Scale Engineering...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Cr+e wec - r Tniz. Q6 cr-% e rL!: Pktcxim Nat*’v

  6. Land area change and fractional water maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, M.; Kranenburg, C.; Brock, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a fractional water map at 30-m resolution scale using QuickBird and/or IKONOS high-resolution imagery as dependent variable to investigate the impact of hurricane Rita in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana. Eleven different indices were tested to obtain a high-resolution land / water classification on QuickBird (acquired on 05/23/2003) and IKONOS (acquired on 03/25/2006) images. The percent area covered by water in the high resolution images varied from 22 to 26% depending on the index used , with the simple ratio index (red band / NIR band) accounting for the lowest percent and the blue ratio index (blue band / sum(all bands)) for the highest percent. Using the ERDAS NLCD (National Land Cover Data) Mapping tool module, 100, 000 stratified random sample points with minimum 1000 points per stratum were selected from the high resolution dependent variable as training information for the independent variable layers. The rules for the regression tree were created using the data mining software Rulequest Cubist v. 2.05. This information was used to generate a fractional water map for the entire Landsat scene. The increase in water areas of about 10 - 15% between 2003 to 2006, as well as temporary changes in the water - land configurations are attributed to remnant flooding and removal of aquatic vegetation caused by hurricane Rita, and water level variations caused by tidal and / or meteorological variations between the acquisition dates of the satellite images. This analysis can assist in monitoring post-hurricane wetland recovery and assess trends in land loss due to extreme storm events, although estimation of permanent land loss cannot be made until wetland areas have the opportunity to recover from hurricane impacts.

  7. Plant life form based habitat monitoring in a European landscape framework for early warning of changes in land cover and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin; Bloch-Petersen, Margit

    and habitat composition and quality. The focus on essential features of the habitat that can be expressed easily and quantitatively for identification and mapping of small but significant changes at a landscape level has resulted in the reintroduction of Raunkiaers plant life form concept from 1907...... of agricultural land use, general land cover and tree and shrub cover of small biotopes), it has not been difficult to integrate the BioHab framework in the SBMP-monitoring system, thus permitting the monitoring system to deliver an additional important European perspective with only very limited extra resources...

  8. Mapping soil total nitrogen of cultivated land at county scale by using hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Li Yan; Shu, Meiyan; Yang, Guijun

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring total nitrogen content (TNC) in the soil of cultivated land quantitively and mastering its spatial distribution are helpful for crop growing, soil fertility adjustment and sustainable development of agriculture. The study aimed to develop a universal method to map total nitrogen content in soil of cultivated land by HSI image at county scale. Several mathematical transformations were used to improve the expression ability of HSI image. The correlations between soil TNC and the reflectivity and its mathematical transformations were analyzed. Then the susceptible bands and its transformations were screened to develop the optimizing model of map soil TNC in the Anping County based on the method of multiple linear regression. Results showed that the bands of 14th, 16th, 19th, 37th and 60th with different mathematical transformations were screened as susceptible bands. Differential transformation was helpful for reducing the noise interference to the diagnosis ability of the target spectrum. The determination coefficient of the first order differential of logarithmic transformation was biggest (0.505), while the RMSE was lowest. The study confirmed the first order differential of logarithm transformation as the optimal inversion model for soil TNC, which was used to map soil TNC of cultivated land in the study area.

  9. Land cover mapping after the tsunami event over Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Mohd. Saleh, N.; Wong, C. J.; Surbakti, M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Remote sensing offers an important means of detecting and analyzing temporal changes occurring in our landscape. This research used remote sensing to quantify land use/land cover changes at the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Nad) province, Indonesia on a regional scale. The objective of this paper is to assess the changed produced from the analysis of Landsat TM data. A Landsat TM image was used to develop land cover classification map for the 27 March 2005. Four supervised classifications techniques (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance-to- Mean, Parallelepiped and Parallelepiped with Maximum Likelihood Classifier Tiebreaker classifier) were performed to the satellite image. Training sites and accuracy assessment were needed for supervised classification techniques. The training sites were established using polygons based on the colour image. High detection accuracy (>80%) and overall Kappa (>0.80) were achieved by the Parallelepiped with Maximum Likelihood Classifier Tiebreaker classifier in this study. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This indicates that land cover mapping can be carried out using remote sensing classification method of the satellite digital imagery.

  10. Open land cover from OpenStreetMap and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Voss, Janek; Auer, Michael; Carter, Sarah; Zipf, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) tags were used to produce a global Open Land Cover (OLC) product with fractional data gaps available at osmlanduse.org. Data gaps in the global OLC map were filled for a case study in Heidelberg, Germany using free remote sensing data, which resulted in a land cover (LC) prototype with complete coverage in this area. Sixty tags in the OSM were used to allocate a Corine Land Cover (CLC) level 2 land use classification to 91.8% of the study area, and the remaining gaps were filled with remote sensing data. For this case study, complete are coverage OLC overall accuracy was estimated 87%, which performed better than the CLC product (81% overall accuracy) of 2012. Spatial thematic overlap for the two products was 84%. OLC was in large parts found to be more detailed than CLC, particularly when LC patterns were heterogeneous, and outperformed CLC in the classification of 12 of the 14 classes. Our OLC product represented data created in different periods; 53% of the area was 2011-2016, and 46% of the area was representative of 2016-2017.

  11. Multiscale mapping of species diversity under changed land use using imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Caras, Tamir; Herrmann, Ittai; Shachak, Moshe; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-07-01

    Land use changes are one of the most important factors causing environmental transformations and species diversity alterations. The aim of the current study was to develop a geoinformatics-based framework to quantify alpha and beta diversity indices in two sites in Israel with different land uses, i.e., an agricultural system of fruit orchards, an afforestation system of planted groves, and an unmanaged system of groves. The framework comprises four scaling steps: (1) classification of a tree species distribution (SD) map using imaging spectroscopy (IS) at a pixel size of 1 m; (2) estimation of local species richness by calculating the alpha diversity index for 30-m grid cells; (3) calculation of beta diversity for different land use categories and sub-categories at different sizes; and (4) calculation of the beta diversity difference between the two sites. The SD was classified based on a hyperspectral image with 448 bands within the 380-2500 nm spectral range and a spatial resolution of 1 m. Twenty-three tree species were classified with high overall accuracy values of 82.57% and 86.93% for the two sites. Significantly high values of the alpha index characterize the unmanaged land use, and the lowest values were calculated for the agricultural land use. In addition, high values of alpha indices were found at the borders between the polygons related to the "edge-effect" phenomenon, whereas low alpha indices were found in areas with high invasion species rates. The beta index value, calculated for 58 polygons, was significantly lower in the agricultural land use. The suggested framework of this study succeeded in quantifying land use effects on tree species distribution, evenness, and richness. IS and spatial statistics techniques offer an opportunity to study woody plant species variation with a multiscale approach that is useful for managing land use, especially under increasing environmental changes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Closed-form expressions for integrals of MKdV and sine-Gordon maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Peter H van der; Rojas, O; Quispel, G R W

    2007-01-01

    We present closed-form expressions for approximately N integrals of 2N-dimensional maps. The maps are obtained by travelling wave reductions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and of the sine-Gordon equation, respectively. We provide the integrating factors corresponding to the integrals. Moreover we show how the integrals and the integrating factors relate to the staircase method

  13. Image analysis for facility siting: a comparison of low- and high-altitude image interpretability for land use/land cover mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borella, H.M.; Estes, J.E.; Ezra, C.E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both are-weighted and by-class accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs

  14. Image Analysis for Facility Siting: a Comparison of Lowand High-altitude Image Interpretability for Land Use/land Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, H. M.; Estes, J. E.; Ezra, C. E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both 'area-weighted' and 'by-class' accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was more accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs.

  15. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st military mapping (1764-1787, second (2nd military mapping (1807-1869, and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957. The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping and the last (concurrent land use monitoring time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  16. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, P.; Rončák, P.; Maliariková, M.; Behan, Š.

    2016-12-01

    The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st) military mapping (1764-1787), second (2nd) military mapping (1807-1869), and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957). The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping) and the last (concurrent land use monitoring) time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  17. Mapping 2000 2010 Impervious Surface Change in India Using Global Land Survey Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panshi; Huang, Chengquan; Brown De Colstoun, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the environmental impacts of global urbanization requires better urban datasets. Continuous field impervious surface change (ISC) mapping using Landsat data is an effective way to quantify spatiotemporal dynamics of urbanization. It is well acknowledged that Landsat-based estimation of impervious surface is subject to seasonal and phenological variations. The overall goal of this paper is to map 200-02010 ISC for India using Global Land Survey datasets and training data only available for 2010. To this end, a method was developed that could transfer the regression tree model developed for mapping 2010 impervious surface to 2000 using an iterative training and prediction (ITP) approach An independent validation dataset was also developed using Google Earth imagery. Based on the reference ISC from the validation dataset, the RMSE of predicted ISC was estimated to be 18.4%. At 95% confidence, the total estimated ISC for India between 2000 and 2010 is 2274.62 +/- 7.84 sq km.

  18. Mapping of the Land Cover Spatiotemporal Characteristics in Northern Russia Caused by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidi, E.; Tsepelev, V.; Torlopova, N.; Bobkov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover) dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass). We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  19. A Review of Land-Cover Mapping Activities in Coastal Alabama and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    -based land-use classifications. Aerial photography is typically selected for smaller landscapes (watershed-basin scale), for greater definition of the land-use categories, and for increased spatial resolution. Disadvantages of using photography include time-consuming digitization, high costs for imagery collection, and lack of seasonal data. Recently, the availability of high-resolution satellite imagery has generated a new category of LULC data product. These new datasets have similar strengths to the aerial-photo-based LULC in that they possess the potential for refined definition of land-use categories and increased spatial resolution but also have the benefit of satellite-based classifications, such as repeatability for change analysis. LULC classification based on high-resolution satellite imagery is still in the early stages of development but merits greater attention because environmental-monitoring and landscape-modeling programs rely heavily on LULC data. This publication summarizes land-use and land-cover mapping activities for Alabama and Mississippi coastal areas within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project boundaries. Existing LULC datasets will be described, as well as imagery data sources and ancillary data that may provide ground-truth or satellite training data for a forthcoming land-cover classification. Finally, potential areas for a high-resolution land-cover classification in the Alabama-Mississippi region will be identified.

  20. Structural knowledge learning from maps for supervised land cover/use classification: Application to the monitoring of land cover/use maps in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoudh, Meriam; Roux, Emmanuel; Richard, Gilles; Nock, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The number of satellites and sensors devoted to Earth observation has become increasingly elevated, delivering extensive data, especially images. At the same time, the access to such data and the tools needed to process them has considerably improved. In the presence of such data flow, we need automatic image interpretation methods, especially when it comes to the monitoring and prediction of environmental and societal changes in highly dynamic socio-environmental contexts. This could be accomplished via artificial intelligence. The concept described here relies on the induction of classification rules that explicitly take into account structural knowledge, using Aleph, an Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, combined with a multi-class classification procedure. This methodology was used to monitor changes in land cover/use of the French Guiana coastline. One hundred and fifty-eight classification rules were induced from 3 diachronic land cover/use maps including 38 classes. These rules were expressed in first order logic language, which makes them easily understandable by non-experts. A 10-fold cross-validation gave significant average values of 84.62%, 99.57% and 77.22% for classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our methodology could be beneficial to automatically classify new objects and to facilitate object-based classification procedures.

  1. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  2. Using risk maps to link land value damage and risk as basis of flexible risk management for brownfield redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-02-01

    Brownfield redevelopment involves numerous uncertain financial risks associated with market demand and land value. To reduce the uncertainty of the specific impact of land value and social costs, this study develops small-scale risk maps to determine the relationship between population risk (PR) and damaged land value (DLV) to facilitate flexible land reutilisation plans. This study used the spatial variability of exposure parameters in each village to develop the contaminated site-specific risk maps. In view of the combination of risk and cost, risk level that most affected land use was mainly 1.00×10(-6) to 1.00×10(-5) in this study area. Village 2 showed the potential for cost-effective conversion with contaminated land development. If the risk of remediation target was set at 5.00×10(-6), the DLV could be reduced by NT$15,005 million for the land developer. The land developer will consider the net benefit by quantifying the trade-off between the changes of land value and the cost of human health. In this study, small-scale risk maps can illuminate the economic incentive potential for contaminated site redevelopment through the adjustment of land value damage and human health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Multi-Cropped Land Use to Estimate Water Demand Using the California Pesticide Reporting Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, W.; Baillie, M. N.; Martin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed and dynamic land-use data is one of the biggest data deficiencies facing food and water security issues. Better land-use data results in improved integrated hydrologic models that are needed to look at the feedback between land and water use, specifically for adequately representing changes and dynamics in rainfall-runoff, urban and agricultural water demands, and surface fluxes of water (e.g., evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration). Currently, land-use data typically are compiled from annual (e.g., Crop Scape) or multi-year composites if mapped at all. While this approach provides information about interannual land-use practices, it does not capture the dynamic changes in highly developed agricultural lands prevalent in California agriculture such as (1) dynamic land-use changes from high frequency multi-crop rotations and (2) uncertainty in sub-annual crop distribution, planting times, and cropped areas. California has collected spatially distributed data for agricultural pesticide use since 1974 through the California Pesticide Information Portal (CalPIP). A method leveraging the CalPIP database has been developed to provide vital information about dynamic agricultural land use (e.g., crop distribution and planting times) and water demand issues in Salinas Valley, California, along the central coast. This 7 billion dollar/year agricultural area produces up to 50% of U.S. lettuce and broccoli. Therefore, effective and sustainable water resource development in the area must balance the needs of this essential industry, other beneficial uses, and the environment. This new tool provides a way to provide more dynamic crop data in hydrologic models. While the current application focuses on the Salinas Valley, the methods are extensible to all of California and other states with similar pesticide reporting. The improvements in representing variability in crop patterns and associated water demands increase our understanding of land-use change and

  4. Urban Land Cover Mapping Accuracy Assessment - A Cost-benefit Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, T.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important components in urban land cover mapping is mapping accuracy assessment. Many statistical models have been developed to help design simple schemes based on both accuracy and confidence levels. It is intuitive that an increased number of samples increases the accuracy as well as the cost of an assessment. Understanding cost and sampling size is crucial in implementing efficient and effective of field data collection. Few studies have included a cost calculation component as part of the assessment. In this study, a cost-benefit sampling analysis model was created by combining sample size design and sampling cost calculation. The sampling cost included transportation cost, field data collection cost, and laboratory data analysis cost. Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Modified Systematic Sampling (MSS) methods were used to design sample locations and to extract land cover data in ArcGIS. High resolution land cover data layers of Denver, CO and Sacramento, CA, street networks, and parcel GIS data layers were used in this study to test and verify the model. The relationship between the cost and accuracy was used to determine the effectiveness of each sample method. The results of this study can be applied to other environmental studies that require spatial sampling.

  5. Mapping project on land use changes in the carboniferous region of Santa Catarina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D.; Pereira, M. D. B.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing data for monitoring land use changes by means of digital image analysis is described. The following data were utilized: LANDSAT data from September 4, 1975, April 24, 1978, and September 8, 1981; LANDSAT paper photography data; area IV color photographs; IBGE topography maps, and auxiliary data about the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Three kinds of analyses of digital images were carried out. The project identified and mapped major classes of land use areas including urban areas, coal deposits, agricultural areas, forests, lakes, and flood plains. Five areas directly affected by coal exploration southeast of Santa Catarina are identified and described. In addition, the classification system used for organizing data about land cover in a hierarchical arrangement is presented. The project made use of two remote sensing data sources: data of MSS spectral (Mulitspectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT on a scale of 1:100,000 with approximately 80 m resolution, and infrared color aerial photographs on a scale of 1:45,000 with approximately 5 m resolution. Therefore, the classification system included three levels, two selected to be compatible with aerial photography data and the third to conform to the resolution of MSS/LANDSAT.

  6. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven State survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  7. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven-state survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  8. Effects of Different Forms of Concept-Map Representation on Nursing Students’ Critical Thinking Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yuan Lai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Representation is important for problem solving. This study examined the effects of different forms of concept maps on nursing students’ performances of conceptualizing psychiatric patients’ problems. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted to investigate the effects. The participants were two classes of fourth-year students who were enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course in a nursing college. One class with 48 students served as the experimental group, and used web-based concepts map to represent patients’ problem. The other class with 50 students served as the control group, and used the traditional hierarchical concept mapping method. The results indicated that the concept maps drawn by the experimental group showed more nursing problem, supporting evidence, and relationships between nursing problems than those drawn by the control group. The web-based concept maps helped expand students’ thinking and promoted their causality reasoning. Different concept-map representation tools affected the process of students’ problem solving. The experimental learning activities promoted students’ understanding of concepts and ways of psychiatric patients’ care taking. To understand the effects of other types of concept maps, future research may guide students in using different forms of concept maps throughout the stages of nursing process.

  9. Grid-based modeling for land use planning and environmental resource mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.

    1999-08-04

    Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used by land managers and natural resource planners for examining resource distribution and conducting project planning, often by visually interpreting spatial data representing environmental or regulatory variables. Frequently, many variables influence the decision-making process, and modeling can improve results with even a small investment of time and effort. Presented are several grid-based GIS modeling projects, including: (1) land use optimization under environmental and regulatory constraints; (2) identification of suitable wetland mitigation sites; and (3) predictive mapping of prehistoric cultural resource sites. As different as the applications are, each follows a similar process of problem conceptualization, implementation of a practical grid-based GIS model, and evaluation of results.

  10. A high-resolution land-use map; Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gil Anaya, Claudia Z.; Diaz Arcos, Israel; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    The cities of Nogales, Sonora, and Nogales, Arizona, are located in the Ambos Nogales Watershed, a topographically irregular bowl-shaped area with a northward gradient. Throughout history, residents in both cities have been affected by flooding. Currently, the primary method for regulating this runoff is to build a series of detention basins in Nogales, Sonora. Additionally, the municipality also is considering land-use planning to help mitigate flooding. This paper describes the production of a 10-meter resolution land-use map, derived from 2008 aerial photos of the Nogales, Sonora Watershed for modeling impacts of the detention basin construction and in support of an ?Early Warning Hazard System? for the region.

  11. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture. [land use, crop identification, and soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstede, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of 1972 single-date coverage indicated that a complete crop classification was not attainable at the test sites. Good multi-date coverage during 1973 indicates that many of the problems encountered in 1972 will be minimized. In addition, the compilation of springtime imagery covering the entire state of Iowa has added a new dimension to interpretation of Iowa's natural resources. ERTS-1 has provided data necessary to achieve the broad synoptic view not attainable through other means. This should provide soils and crop researchers and land use planners a base map of Iowa. Granted and due to the resolution of ERTS-1, not all details are observable for many land use planning needs, but this gives a general and current view of Iowa.

  12. Map showing areas of visible land disturbances caused by two military training operations in the Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prose, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This map shows areas that retain visible land disturbances produced during two military armored-vehicle training operations in the Mojave Desert, California. The map documents the lasting visual effects these operations have on this arid region and provides a data base for monitoring changes in the extent of visual disturbances in the future.

  13. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, M D H; Mahmud, M; Reba, M N M; S, L W

    2014-01-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  14. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

    2014-02-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  15. Utility of Mobile phones to support In-situ data collection for Land Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, P.; Omondi, S.; Wahome, A.; Mugo, R. M.; Flores, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the compelling need to create better monitoring tools for our landscapes to enhance better decision making processes, it becomes imperative to do so in much more sophisticated yet simple ways. Making it possible to leverage untapped potential of our "lay men" at the same time enabling us to respond to the complexity of the information we have to get out. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa has developed a mobile app that can be utilized with very little prior knowledge or no knowledge at all to collect spatial information on land cover. This set of in-situ data can be collected by masses because the tools is very simple to use, and have this information fed in classification algorithms than can then be used to map out our ever changing landscape. The LULC Mapper is a subset of JiMap system and is able to pull the google earth imagery and open street maps to enable user familiarize with their location. It uses phone GPS, phone network information to map location coordinates and at the same time gives the user sample picture of what to categorize their landscape. The system is able to work offline and when user gets access to internet they can push the information into an amazon database as bulk data. The location details including geotagged photos allows the data to be used in development of a lot of spatial information including land cover data. The app is currently available in Google Play Store and will soon be uploaded on Appstore for utilization by a wider community. We foresee a lot of potential in this tool in terms of making data collection cheaper and affordable. Taking advantage of the advances made in phone technology. We envisage to do a data collection campaign where we can have the tool used for crowdsourcing.

  16. Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G.; Burkhard, B.; Römer, H.; Sangkaew, S.; Graterol, R.; Haitook, T.; Sterr, H.; Sakuna-Schwartz, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused damages to coastal ecosystems and thus affected the livelihoods of the coastal communities who depend on services provided by these ecosystems. The paper presents a case study on evaluating and mapping the spatial and temporal impacts of the tsunami on land use and land cover (LULC) and related ecosystem service supply in the Phang Nga province, Thailand. The method includes local stakeholder interviews, field investigations, remote-sensing techniques, and GIS. Results provide an ecosystem services matrix with capacity scores for 18 LULC classes and 17 ecosystem functions and services as well as pre-/post-tsunami and recovery maps indicating changes in the ecosystem service supply capacities in the study area. Local stakeholder interviews revealed that mangroves, casuarina forest, mixed beach forest, coral reefs, tidal inlets, as well as wetlands (peat swamp forest) have the highest capacity to supply ecosystem services, while e.g. plantations have a lower capacity. The remote-sensing based damage and recovery analysis showed a loss of the ecosystem service supply capacities in almost all LULC classes for most of the services due to the tsunami. A fast recovery of LULC and related ecosystem service supply capacities within one year could be observed for e.g. beaches, while mangroves or casuarina forest needed several years to recover. Applying multi-temporal mapping the spatial variations of recovery could be visualised. While some patches of coastal forest were fully recovered after 3 yr, other patches were still affected and thus had a reduced capacity to supply ecosystem services. The ecosystem services maps can be used to quantify ecological values and their spatial distribution in the framework of a tsunami risk assessment. Beyond that they are considered to be a useful tool for spatial analysis in coastal risk management in Phang Nga.

  17. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  18. A Simple Map Between Fokker-Planck Equation and its Fractional form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple map between Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE) and its fractional form (FFPE), which recently formulates to describe sub diffusive processes, has been suggested. This connection based on a relation between k-orders for moments of ordinary time domain of FPE and the moments associated with fractional time domain of FFPE . Two classes of special interest of FFPE has been considered to outline this map

  19. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  20. Using IKONOS and Aerial Videography to Validate Landsat Land Cover Maps of Central African Tropical Rain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Laporte, N. T.

    2003-12-01

    Compared to the traditional validation methods, aerial videography is a relatively inexpensive and time-efficient approach to collect "field" data for validating satellite-derived land cover map over large areas. In particular, this approach is valuable in remote and inaccessible locations. In the Sangha Tri-National Park region of Central Africa, where road access is limited to industrial logging sites, we are using IKONOS imagery and aerial videography to assess the accuracy of Landsat-derived land cover maps. As part of a NASA Land Cover Land Use Change project (INFORMS) and in collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society in the Republic of Congo, over 1500km of aerial video transects were collected in the Spring of 2001. The use of MediaMapper software combined with a VMS 200 video mapping system enabled the collection of aerial transects to be registered with geographic locations from a Geographic Positioning System. Video frame were extracted, visually interpreted, and compared to land cover types mapped by Landsat. We addressed the limitations of accuracy assessment using aerial-base data and its potential for improving vegetation mapping in tropical rain forests. The results of the videography and IKONOS image analysis demonstrate the utility of very high resolution imagery for map validation and forest resource assessment.

  1. Mapping Decadal Land Cover Changes in the Woodlands of North Eastern Namibia from 1975 to 2014 Using the Landsat Satellite Archived Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Wingate

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Woodlands and savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to subsistence and intensive agriculture or urbanized. This study investigates changes in land cover over four administrative regions of North Eastern Namibia within the Kalahari woodland savannah biome, covering a total of 107,994 km2. Land cover is mapped using multi-sensor Landsat imagery at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method. The dominant change observed was a reduction in the area of woodland savannah due to the expansion of agriculture, primarily in the form of small-scale cereal and pastoral production. More specifically, woodland savannah area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2004, and then increased to 86% in 2014, while agricultural land increased from 6% to 12% between 1975 and 2014. We assess land cover changes in relation to towns, villages, rivers and roads and find most changes occurred in proximity to these. In addition, we find that most land cover changes occur within land designated as communally held, followed by state protected land. With widespread changes occurring across the African continent, this study provides important data for understanding drivers of change in the region and their impacts on the distribution of woodland savannahs.

  2. An automated land-use mapping comparison of the Bayesian maximum likelihood and linear discriminant analysis algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Bayesian maximum likelihood parametric classifier has been tested against the data-based formulation designated 'linear discrimination analysis', using the 'GLIKE' decision and "CLASSIFY' classification algorithms in the Landsat Mapping System. Identical supervised training sets, USGS land use/land cover classes, and various combinations of Landsat image and ancilliary geodata variables, were used to compare the algorithms' thematic mapping accuracy on a single-date summer subscene, with a cellularized USGS land use map of the same time frame furnishing the ground truth reference. CLASSIFY, which accepts a priori class probabilities, is found to be more accurate than GLIKE, which assumes equal class occurrences, for all three mapping variable sets and both levels of detail. These results may be generalized to direct accuracy, time, cost, and flexibility advantages of linear discriminant analysis over Bayesian methods.

  3. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, M H M; Ahmad, B

    2014-01-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest

  4. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  5. Applying parcel-specific land-use data to map conflicts and convergences between agriculture and biodiversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Provision of semi-natural habitats is an important service of agricultural ecosystems. Quality and extent of semi-natural habitats is closely linked with intensity of agricultural management. Grass-dominated habitat types often depend on extensive management in terms of grazing or mowing. Lack...... compositions of semi-natural habitats disappear. For Denmark, we apply parcel-specific data on agricultural land use to map convergences and conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity. We group land-uses into intensive and extensive and overlay these with a map of grass-dominated semi-natural habitats. 61...... % of habitats overlap with extensively managed land, indicating convergence between agriculture and biodiversity. In contrast, 13 % of habitats overlap with intensively managed land, pointing at severe conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity. 27 % of habitats are located outside any agricultural land...

  6. The Application of Remote Sensing Data to GIS Studies of Land Use, Land Cover, and Vegetation Mapping in the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    A land cover-vegetation map with a base classification system for remote sensing use in a tropical island environment was produced of the island of Hawaii for the State of Hawaii to evaluate whether or not useful land cover information can be derived from Landsat TM data. In addition, an island-wide change detection mosaic combining a previously created 1977 MSS land classification with the TM-based classification was produced. In order to reach the goal of transferring remote sensing technology to State of Hawaii personnel, a pilot project was conducted while training State of Hawaii personnel in remote sensing technology and classification systems. Spectral characteristics of young island land cover types were compared to determine if there are differences in vegetation types on lava, vegetation types on soils, and barren lava from soils, and if they can be detected remotely, based on differences in pigments detecting plant physiognomic type, health, stress at senescence, heat, moisture level, and biomass. Geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assist in image rectification and classification. GIS was also used to produce large-format color output maps. An interactive GIS program was written to provide on-line access to scanned photos taken at field sites. The pilot project found Landsat TM to be a credible source of land cover information for geologically young islands, and TM data bands are effective in detecting spectral characteristics of different land cover types through remote sensing. Large agriculture field patterns were resolved and mapped successfully from wildland vegetation, but small agriculture field patterns were not. Additional processing was required to work with the four TM scenes from two separate orbits which span three years, including El Nino and drought dates. Results of the project emphasized the need for further land cover and land use processing and research. Change in vegetation

  7. Effect of land-use on the P forms of an Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henríquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of agricultural land use on the forms of P in a Typic Hapludand was evaluated. An area of 8.4 ha composed of 3 adjacent lots, dedicated for over 20 years to secondary forest and plantings of sugarcane and coffee, was chosen at Juan Viñas, Costa Rica. Soil samples were taken using an 8x6 grid layout of sampling points, spaced at 40 m. Soil samples were analyzed with the P fractionation methodology proposed by Hedley et ál. (1982. Total P varied between 936 and 2516 mg.kg-1. Both coffee and sugar cane lots (1934 y 1754 mg.kg-1 respectively, showed the highest values of total-P compared with the forest (1419 mg.kg- 1, suggesting a positive overall balance of P due to its accumulation through the years. The coffee area showed the highest values of P-labile and P-sesquioxides-Fe/Al, which was related to usual higher fertilization compared with areas of sugarcane and forest. The greatest value of P-residual was found in sugarcane with almost 48% of total P. The P-organic varied 27 to 29% of the total suggesting its importance as valuable sink of P. We conclude that the type of land use had a significant effect on the forms of P which was observed in both the quantity and distributionof different forms of P in soil.

  8. Geoinformatics for the Mapping of Nexus Between Poverty and Land Degradation in Drylands of Thar Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    contributes to the relatively low Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. Besides the extreme deprivations in the normal course of life, the poor become particularly vulnerable at the time of recurrent drought induced crisis. (MPOWER, 2010) The present study demonstrates application of earth observations for the mapping of nexus between poverty and land degradation. The empirical study carried out by the investigator in the Pali district highlights that such technological inputs could be applied in support of the poor and marginal farming community in the different parts of State and the country at cadastral level.

  9. Highlighting continued uncertainty in global land cover maps for the user community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Van der Velde, Marijn; Boettcher, Hannes; Havlík, Petr; Achard, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years a number of new global datasets have been created and new, more sophisticated algorithms have been designed to classify land cover. GlobCover and MODIS v.5 are the most recent global land cover products available, where GlobCover (300 m) has the finest spatial resolution of other comparable products such as MODIS v.5 (500 m) and GLC-2000 (1 km). This letter shows that the thematic accuracy in the cropland domain has decreased when comparing these two latest products. This disagreement is also evident spatially when examining maps of cropland and forest disagreement between GLC-2000, MODIS and GlobCover. The analysis highlights the continued uncertainty surrounding these products, with a combined forest and cropland disagreement of 893 Mha (GlobCover versus MODIS v.5). This letter suggests that data sharing efforts and the provision of more in situ data for training, calibration and validation are very important conditions for improving future global land cover products.

  10. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  11. A Remote Sensing Approach for Regional-Scale Mapping of Agricultural Land-Use Systems Based on NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bellón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for generic remote sensing tools to support large-scale agricultural monitoring, we present a new approach for regional-scale mapping of agricultural land-use systems (ALUS based on object-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series analysis. The approach consists of two main steps. First, to obtain relatively homogeneous land units in terms of phenological patterns, a principal component analysis (PCA is applied to an annual MODIS NDVI time series, and an automatic segmentation is performed on the resulting high-order principal component images. Second, the resulting land units are classified into the crop agriculture domain or the livestock domain based on their land-cover characteristics. The crop agriculture domain land units are further classified into different cropping systems based on the correspondence of their NDVI temporal profiles with the phenological patterns associated with the cropping systems of the study area. A map of the main ALUS of the Brazilian state of Tocantins was produced for the 2013–2014 growing season with the new approach, and a significant coherence was observed between the spatial distribution of the cropping systems in the final ALUS map and in a reference map extracted from the official agricultural statistics of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. This study shows the potential of remote sensing techniques to provide valuable baseline spatial information for supporting agricultural monitoring and for large-scale land-use systems analysis.

  12. Embryonic origins of a motor system: motor dendrites form a myotopic map in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Landgraf

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The organisational principles of locomotor networks are less well understood than those of many sensory systems, where in-growing axon terminals form a central map of peripheral characteristics. Using the neuromuscular system of the Drosophila embryo as a model and retrograde tracing and genetic methods, we have uncovered principles underlying the organisation of the motor system. We find that dendritic arbors of motor neurons, rather than their cell bodies, are partitioned into domains to form a myotopic map, which represents centrally the distribution of body wall muscles peripherally. While muscles are segmental, the myotopic map is parasegmental in organisation. It forms by an active process of dendritic growth independent of the presence of target muscles, proper differentiation of glial cells, or (in its initial partitioning competitive interactions between adjacent dendritic domains. The arrangement of motor neuron dendrites into a myotopic map represents a first layer of organisation in the motor system. This is likely to be mirrored, at least in part, by endings of higher-order neurons from central pattern-generating circuits, which converge onto the motor neuron dendrites. These findings will greatly simplify the task of understanding how a locomotor system is assembled. Our results suggest that the cues that organise the myotopic map may be laid down early in development as the embryo subdivides into parasegmental units.

  13. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  14. Airborne geoid mapping of land and sea areas of East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, H.; Kadir, M.; Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A.; Isa, M. N.; Rasidi, S.; Mohamed, A.; Chihat, Z.; Nielsen, E.; Majid, F.; Talib, K.; Aman, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a new geoid-based vertical datum from airborne gravity data, by the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia, on land and in the South China Sea out of the coast of East Malaysia region, covering an area of about 610,000 square kilometres. More than 107,000 km flight line of airborne gravity data over land and marine areas of East Malaysia has been combined to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage; with an estimated accuracy of better than 2.0 mGal. The iMAR-IMU processed gravity anomaly data has been used during a 2014-2016 airborne survey to extend a composite gravity solution across a number of minor gaps on selected lines, using a draping technique. The geoid computations were all done with the GRAVSOFT suite of programs from DTU-Space. EGM2008 augmented with GOCE spherical harmonic model has been used to spherical harmonic degree N = 720. The gravimetric geoid first was tied at one tide-gauge (in Kota Kinabalu, KK2019) to produce a fitted geoid, my_geoid2017_fit_kk. The fitted geoid was offset from the gravimetric geoid by +0.852 m, based on the comparison at the tide-gauge benchmark KK2019. Consequently, orthometric height at the six other tide gauge stations was computed from HGPS Lev = hGPS - Nmy_geoid2017_.t_kk. Comparison of the conventional (HLev) and GPS-levelling heights (HGPS Lev) at the six tide gauge locations indicate RMS height difference of 2.6 cm. The final gravimetric geoidwas fitted to the seven tide gauge stations and is known as my_geoid2017_fit_east. The accuracy of the gravimetric geoid is estimated to be better than 5 cm across most of East Malaysia land and marine areas

  15. The relevance of humus forms for land degradation in Mediterranean mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J. M.; Jongejans, J.

    1998-06-01

    In the Gavarras (NE Spain), a large number of plots on respective schists, leucogranite and granodiorite was studied for their soils and vegetation. Results were used to check conclusions from earlier studies of Mediterranean forest soils (mostly shallow Regosols and Cambisols) on such acidic to intermediate rocks. They confirmed that the humus form depends on catenary position and lithology, and that aggregate stability and infiltration characteristics of the upper mineral soil horizon relate to humus form type. Aggregate stability of the topsoil was found to be relatively high in mor and mull type humus forms, but differences with moder type humus forms were not statistically significant. Differences in aggregate stability are attributed to the presence of stable humus-clay-iron complexes in mulls and to high fungal activity and organic matter content of mors. Low infiltration rates were only encountered in topsoils with mor type humus form, in line with results from the earlier studies. In deeper soil horizons with low organic matter content, aggregate stability will be largely related to soil reaction and base saturation. On leucogranite and granodiorite, these were found to vary strongly, most probably largely due to local differences in fast acid neutralizing capacity (ANC f). These local differences are primarily attributed to differences in the mineralogical composition and texture of the soil material, connected with differences in lithology and/or brought about by erosion, colluviation and soil formation. Consonant with earlier studies, it is concluded that the susceptibility of these forest soils to erosion largely depends on properties of the upper mineral soil horizon, which are controlled by or related with humus form development. General trends in the latter are clear and can be used to predict this susceptibility. In the case of land degradation, which implies a more severe erosion, deeper soil horizons are also involved. Spatial variability in

  16. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. Part 6: A low-cost method for land use mapping using simple visual techniques of interpretation. [Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that color composite transparencies and monocular magnification provided the best base for land use interpretation. New methods for determining optimum sample sizes and analyzing interpretation accuracy levels were developed. All stages of the methodology were assessed, in the operational sense, during the production of a 1:250,000 rural land use map of Murcia Province, Southeast Spain.

  17. Mapping land water and energy balance relations through conditional sampling of remote sensing estimates of atmospheric forcing and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Leila; Entekhabi, Dara; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop and apply a mapping estimation capability for key unknown parameters that link the surface water and energy balance equations. The method is applied to the Gourma region in West Africa. The accuracy of the estimation method at point scale was previously examined using flux tower data. In this study, the capability is scaled to be applicable with remotely sensed data products and hence allow mapping. Parameters of the system are estimated through a process that links atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface states, and unknown parameters. Based on conditional averaging of land surface temperature and moisture states, respectively, a single objective function is posed that measures moisture and temperature-dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings and surface states. This objective function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify evapotranspiration and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function, which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. This calibration-free method is applied to the mesoscale region of Gourma in West Africa using multiplatform remote sensing data. The retrievals are verified against tower-flux field site data and physiographic characteristics of the region. The focus is to find the functional form of the evaporative fraction dependence on soil moisture, a key closure function for surface and subsurface heat and moisture dynamics, using remote sensing data.

  18. Land-use impact on selected forms of arsenic and phosphorus in soils of different functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plak, Andrzej; Bartmiński, Piotr; Dębicki, Ryszard

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of technosols and geomechanically unchanged soils of the Lublin agglomeration on the concentrations of arsenic and phosphorus, and on selected forms of these elements. Arsenic and phosphorus concentrations were determined in the urban soils of Lublin (Poland), and the relationship between their degree of contamination and different types of land use was estimated. The samples collected were subjected to sequential analysis, using ammonium sulphate, acid ammonium phosphate, oxalate buffer (also with ascorbic acid) and aqua regia for arsenic, and ammonium chloride, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and aqua regia for phosphorus. The influence of the land use forms was observed in the study. The greatest amount of arsenic (19.62 mg kg-1) was found in the industrial soils of Lublin, while the greatest amount of phosphorus (580.4 mg kg-1) was observed in non-anthropogenic soils (mainly due to the natural accumulation processes of this element). Fractions of arsenic and phosphorus obtained during analysis showed strong differentiation. Amorphic and crystalline fractions of arsenic, bound with iron oxides, proved to have the highest share in the total arsenic pool. The same situation was noted for phosphorus.

  19. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  20. Discovering Land Cover Web Map Services from the Deep Web with JavaScript Invocation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic discovery of isolated land cover web map services (LCWMSs can potentially help in sharing land cover data. Currently, various search engine-based and crawler-based approaches have been developed for finding services dispersed throughout the surface web. In fact, with the prevalence of geospatial web applications, a considerable number of LCWMSs are hidden in JavaScript code, which belongs to the deep web. However, discovering LCWMSs from JavaScript code remains an open challenge. This paper aims to solve this challenge by proposing a focused deep web crawler for finding more LCWMSs from deep web JavaScript code and the surface web. First, the names of a group of JavaScript links are abstracted as initial judgements. Through name matching, these judgements are utilized to judge whether or not the fetched webpages contain predefined JavaScript links that may prompt JavaScript code to invoke WMSs. Secondly, some JavaScript invocation functions and URL formats for WMS are summarized as JavaScript invocation rules from prior knowledge of how WMSs are employed and coded in JavaScript. These invocation rules are used to identify the JavaScript code for extracting candidate WMSs through rule matching. The above two operations are incorporated into a traditional focused crawling strategy situated between the tasks of fetching webpages and parsing webpages. Thirdly, LCWMSs are selected by matching services with a set of land cover keywords. Moreover, a search engine for LCWMSs is implemented that uses the focused deep web crawler to retrieve and integrate the LCWMSs it discovers. In the first experiment, eight online geospatial web applications serve as seed URLs (Uniform Resource Locators and crawling scopes; the proposed crawler addresses only the JavaScript code in these eight applications. All 32 available WMSs hidden in JavaScript code were found using the proposed crawler, while not one WMS was discovered through the focused crawler

  1. Remote sensing and GIS for land use/cover mapping and integrated land management: case from the middle Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. B.; Kumar, Dilip

    2012-06-01

    In India, land resources have reached a critical stage due to the rapidly growing population. This challenge requires an integrated approach toward harnessing land resources, while taking into account the vulnerable environmental conditions. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) based technologies may be applied to an area in order to generate a sustainable development plan that is optimally suited to the terrain and to the productive potential of the local resources. The present study area is a part of the middle Ganga plain, known as Son-Karamnasa interfluve, in India. Alternative land use systems and the integration of livestock enterprises with the agricultural system have been suggested for land resources management. The objective of this paper is to prepare a land resource development plan in order to increase the productivity of land for sustainable development. The present study will contribute necessary input for policy makers to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the region.

  2. Hybrid image classification technique for land-cover mapping in the Arctic tundra, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish

    Remotely sensed image classification techniques are very useful to understand vegetation patterns and species combination in the vast and mostly inaccessible arctic region. Previous researches that were done for mapping of land cover and vegetation in the remote areas of northern Alaska have considerably low accuracies compared to other biomes. The unique arctic tundra environment with short growing season length, cloud cover, low sun angles, snow and ice cover hinders the effectiveness of remote sensing studies. The majority of image classification research done in this area as reported in the literature used traditional unsupervised clustering technique with Landsat MSS data. It was also emphasized by previous researchers that SPOT/HRV-XS data lacked the spectral resolution to identify the small arctic tundra vegetation parcels. Thus, there is a motivation and research need to apply a new classification technique to develop an updated, detailed and accurate vegetation map at a higher spatial resolution i.e. SPOT-5 data. Traditional classification techniques in remotely sensed image interpretation are based on spectral reflectance values with an assumption of the training data being normally distributed. Hence it is difficult to add ancillary data in classification procedures to improve accuracy. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a hybrid image classification approach that effectively integrates ancillary information into the classification process and combines ISODATA clustering, rule-based classifier and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier which uses artificial neural network (ANN). The main goal was to find out the best possible combination or sequence of classifiers for typically classifying tundra type vegetation that yields higher accuracy than the existing classified vegetation map from SPOT data. Unsupervised ISODATA clustering and rule-based classification techniques were combined to produce an intermediate classified map which was

  3. Compilation of functional soil maps for the support of spatial planning and land management in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Fodor, Nándor; Illés, Gábor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized DSM products heavily based on legacy soil data. Delineation of Areas with Excellent Productivity in the framework of the National Regional Development Plan or delimitation of Areas with Natural Constraints in Hungary according to the common European biophysical criteria are primary issues in national level spatial planning. Impact assessment of the forecasted climate change and the analysis of the possibilities of the adaptation in the agriculture and forestry can be supported by scenario based land management modelling, whose results can be also incorporated in spatial planning. All these challenges require adequate, preferably timely and spatially detailed knowledge of the soil cover. For the satisfaction of these demands the soil conditions of Hungary have been digitally mapped based on the most detailed, available recent and legacy soil data, applying proper DSM techniques. Various soil related information were mapped in three distinct approaches: (i) basic soil properties determining agri-environmental conditions (e.g.: soil type according to the Hungarian genetic classification, rootable depth, sand, silt and clay content by soil layers, pH, OM and carbonate content for the plough layer); (ii) biophysical criteria of natural handicaps (e.g.: poor drainage, unfavourable texture and stoniness, shallow rooting depth, poor chemical properties and soil moisture balance) defined by common European system and (iii) agro-meteorologically modelled yield values for different crops, meteorological

  4. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography, and map sources - Compatibility, accuracy and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.

  5. Fusion Approaches for Land Cover Map Production Using High Resolution Image Time Series without Reference Data of the Corresponding Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensor time series images allow one to produce land cover maps at a large scale. The supervised classification algorithms have been shown to be the best to produce maps automatically with good accuracy. The main drawback of these methods is the need for reference data, the collection of which can introduce important production delays. Therefore, the maps are often available too late for some applications. Domain adaptation methods seem to be efficient for using past data for land cover map production. According to this idea, the main goal of this study is to propose several simple past data fusion schemes to override the current land cover map production delays. A single classifier approach and three voting rules are considered to produce maps without reference data of the corresponding period. These four approaches reach an overall accuracy of around 80% with a 17-class nomenclature using Formosat-2 image time series. A study of the impact of the number of past periods used is also done. It shows that the overall accuracy increases with the number of periods used. The proposed methods require at least two or three previous years to be used.

  6. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  7. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  8. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies.

  9. Change Detection Algorithm for the Production of Land Cover Change Maps over the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Aleksandrowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary satellite Earth Observation systems provide growing amounts of very high spatial resolution data that can be used in various applications. An increasing number of sensors make it possible to monitor selected areas in great detail. However, in order to handle the volume of data, a high level of automation is required. The semi-automatic change detection methodology described in this paper was developed to annually update land cover maps prepared in the context of the Geoland2. The proposed algorithm was tailored to work with different very high spatial resolution images acquired over different European landscapes. The methodology is a fusion of various change detection methods ranging from: (1 layer arithmetic; (2 vegetation indices (NDVI differentiating; (3 texture calculation; and methods based on (4 canonical correlation analysis (multivariate alteration detection (MAD. User intervention during the production of the change map is limited to the selection of the input data, the size of initial segments and the threshold for texture classification (optionally. To achieve a high level of automation, statistical thresholds were applied in most of the processing steps. Tests showed an overall change recognition accuracy of 89%, and the change type classification methodology can accurately classify transitions between classes.

  10. A Review of the Application of Optical and Radar Remote Sensing Data Fusion to Land Use Mapping and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of complementary data available from remote sensing missions can hugely aid efforts towards accurately determining land use and quantifying subtle changes in land use management or intensity. This study reviewed 112 studies on fusing optical and radar data, which offer unique spectral and structural information, for land cover and use assessments. Contrary to our expectations, only 50 studies specifically addressed land use, and five assessed land use changes, while the majority addressed land cover. The advantages of fusion for land use analysis were assessed in 32 studies, and a large majority (28 studies concluded that fusion improved results compared to using single data sources. Study sites were small, frequently 300–3000 km 2 or individual plots, with a lack of comparison of results and accuracies across sites. Although a variety of fusion techniques were used, pre-classification fusion followed by pixel-level inputs in traditional classification algorithms (e.g., Gaussian maximum likelihood classification was common, but often without a concrete rationale on the applicability of the method to the land use theme being studied. Progress in this field of research requires the development of robust techniques of fusion to map the intricacies of land uses and changes therein and systematic procedures to assess the benefits of fusion over larger spatial scales.

  11. Mapping out the regulatory environment and its interaction with land and property markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)

  12. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  13. Islands of biogeodiversity in arid lands on a polygons map study: Detecting scale invariance patterns from natural resources maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J J; Pérez-Gómez, R; Brevik, Eric C; Cerdà, A

    2016-12-15

    Many maps (geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, etc.) are created to inventory natural resources. Each of these resources is mapped using a unique set of criteria, including scales and taxonomies. Past research indicates that comparing results of related maps (e.g., soil and geology maps) may aid in identifying mapping deficiencies. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Almeria Province, Spain to (i) compare the underlying map structures of soil and vegetation maps and (ii) investigate if a vegetation map can provide useful soil information that was not shown on a soil map. Soil and vegetation maps were imported into ArcGIS 10.1 for spatial analysis, and results then exported to Microsoft Excel worksheets for statistical analyses to evaluate fits to linear and power law regression models. Vegetative units were grouped according to the driving forces that determined their presence or absence: (i) climatophilous (ii) lithologic-climate; and (iii) edaphophylous. The rank abundance plots for both the soil and vegetation maps conformed to Willis or Hollow Curves, meaning the underlying structures of both maps were the same. Edaphophylous map units, which represent 58.5% of the vegetation units in the study area, did not show a good correlation with the soil map. Further investigation revealed that 87% of the edaphohygrophilous units were found in ramblas, ephemeral riverbeds that are not typically classified and mapped as soils in modern systems, even though they meet the definition of soil given by the most commonly used and most modern soil taxonomic systems. Furthermore, these edaphophylous map units tend to be islands of biodiversity that are threatened by anthropogenic activity in the region. Therefore, this study revealed areas that need to be revisited and studied pedologically. The vegetation mapped in these areas and the soils that support it are key components of the earth's critical zone that must be studied, understood, and preserved. Copyright © 2016

  14. Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Mapping for EPA EnviroAtlas Using Machine Learning and OBIA Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.; Riegel, J.; Rudder, C.; Endres, K.

    2013-12-01

    US EPA EnviroAtlas is an online collection of tools and resources that provides geospatial data, maps, research, and analysis on the relationships between nature, people, health, and the economy (http://www.epa.gov/research/enviroatlas/index.htm). Using EnviroAtlas, you can see and explore information related to the benefits (e.g., ecosystem services) that humans receive from nature, including clean air, clean and plentiful water, natural hazard mitigation, biodiversity conservation, food, fuel, and materials, recreational opportunities, and cultural and aesthetic value. EPA developed several urban land cover maps at very high spatial resolution (one-meter pixel size) for a portion of EnviroAtlas devoted to urban studies. This urban mapping effort supported analysis of relations among land cover, human health and demographics at the US Census Block Group level. Supervised classification of 2010 USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) digital aerial photos produced eight-class land cover maps for several cities, including Durham, NC, Portland, ME, Tampa, FL, New Bedford, MA, Pittsburgh, PA, Portland, OR, and Milwaukee, WI. Semi-automated feature extraction methods were used to classify the NAIP imagery: genetic algorithms/machine learning, random forest, and object-based image analysis (OBIA). In this presentation we describe the image processing and fuzzy accuracy assessment methods used, and report on some sustainability and ecosystem service metrics computed using this land cover as input (e.g., carbon sequestration from USFS iTREE model; health and demographics in relation to road buffer forest width). We also discuss the land cover classification schema (a modified Anderson Level 1 after the National Land Cover Data (NLCD)), and offer some observations on lessons learned. Meter-scale urban land cover in Portland, OR overlaid on NAIP aerial photo. Streets, buildings and individual trees are identifiable.

  15. Multi-temporal Land Use Mapping of Coastal Wetlands Area using Machine Learning in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farda, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. Changes in coastal wetlands, especially on land use, are important to monitor by utilizing multi-temporal imagery. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides many machine learning algorithms (10 algorithms) that are very useful for extracting land use from imagery. The research objective is to explore machine learning in Google Earth Engine and its accuracy for multi-temporal land use mapping of coastal wetland area. Landsat 3 MSS (1978), Landsat 5 TM (1991), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2001), and Landsat 8 OLI (2014) images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent multi temporal images. The input for machine learning are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) texture, and also polygon samples in 140 locations. There are 10 machine learning algorithms applied to extract coastal wetlands land use from Landsat imagery. The algorithms are Fast Naive Bayes, CART (Classification and Regression Tree), Random Forests, GMO Max Entropy, Perceptron (Multi Class Perceptron), Winnow, Voting SVM, Margin SVM, Pegasos (Primal Estimated sub-GrAdient SOlver for Svm), IKPamir (Intersection Kernel Passive Aggressive Method for Information Retrieval, SVM). Machine learning in Google Earth Engine are very helpful in multi-temporal land use mapping, the highest accuracy for land use mapping of coastal wetland is CART with 96.98 % Overall Accuracy using K-Fold Cross Validation (K = 10). GEE is particularly useful for multi-temporal land use mapping with ready used image and classification algorithms, and also very challenging for other applications.

  16. Land Cover Characterization and Mapping of South America for the Year 2010 Using Landsat 30 m Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Giri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (<5 m satellite data to validate the land cover product. The overall accuracy of the 2010 South American 30-m land cover map is 89% with a Kappa coefficient of 79%. Accuracy of barren areas needs to improve possibly using multi-temporal Landsat data. An update of land cover and change database of South America with additional land cover classes is needed. The results from this study are useful for developing resource management strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  17. Converting Topographic Maps into Digital Form to Aid in Archeological Research in the Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Serena R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of my project was to convert a topographical map into digital form so that the data can be manipulated and easily accessed in the field. With the data in this particular format, Dr. Sever and his colleagues can highlight the specific features of the landscape that they require for their research of the ancient Mayan civilization. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can also be created from the digitized contour features adding another dimension to their research.

  18. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  19. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  20. Automated Land Cover Change Detection and Mapping from Hidden Parameter Estimates of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, A.; Gupta, S. K. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Papandreou-Suppappola, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multitemporal observations acquired frequently by satellites with short revisit periods such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is an important source for modeling land cover. Due to the inherent seasonality of the land cover, harmonic modeling reveals hidden state parameters characteristic to it, which is used in classifying different land cover types and in detecting changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. In this work, we use an eight day MODIS composite to create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of ten years. Improved hidden parameter estimates of the nonlinear harmonic NDVI model are obtained using the Particle Filter (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo estimator. The nonlinear estimation based on PF is shown to improve parameter estimation for different land cover types compared to existing techniques that use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), due to linearization of the harmonic model. As these parameters are representative of a given land cover, its applicability in near real-time detection of land cover change is also studied by formulating a metric that captures parameter deviation due to change. The detection methodology is evaluated by considering change as a rare class problem. This approach is shown to detect change with minimum delay. Additionally, the degree of change within the change perimeter is non-uniform. By clustering the deviation in parameters due to change, this spatial variation in change severity is effectively mapped and validated with high spatial resolution change maps of the given regions.

  1. USGS Land Cover (NLCD) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Land Cover Database (NLCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992, NLCD 2001, NLCD 2006, and NLCD 2011 are National Land Cover Database classification schemes based primarily on Landsat data along with ancillary data...

  2. A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

  3. Water quality and small-scale land use mapping in the South-Chinese megacity Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschoen, R.; Azzam, R.; Baier, K.

    2011-12-01

    Since China adopted its "open-door" policy in 1978/ 79, the Pearl River Delta became one of the most rapid and dynamic urbanizing areas in East Asia due to migration, industrialization and globalization processes. The study area Guangzhou grew from a small town to a megacity with some 15 million inhabitants within less than 30 years. The rapid population growth and the urban and industrial expansion led to a remarkably increasing demand for freshwater, a high water consume and a rising sewage production. While economy and house constructions developed very fast, the expansion of water infrastructures could not keep pace with the urban growth. The consequences arising out of these situations are a serious deterioration of the surface and groundwater resources but also a degradation of living conditions and a threat to human health, particularly of the urban poor. In contrast to other studies that often consider the surface water quality outside Guangzhou, our focus was put on the urban Pearl River and its tributaries as well as urban groundwater and tap water. The study was conducted to spatially investigate the present status of the water quality in view of the concurrent formal and informal anthropogenic influences. Additional land use mapping was undertaken to analyze the interrelations between different land use types and water quality and to determine local pollution hotspots which should be taken into particular consideration of future city planning. Supplementing interviews were hold to find out usage patterns of groundwater and strategies to cope with both insufficient tap water quality and water infrastructures. A total of 74 surface water samples and 16 groundwater samples of privately and publicly accessible wells were taken at the beginning of the rainy season in May 2010. Those samples were partly compared to measurements carried out from 2007-2009, where adequate. Further, 15 tap water samples were taken in 2007/ 08 to draw conclusions about possible

  4. Meta-Analysis of Land Use / Land Cover Change Factors in the Conterminous US and Prediction of Potential Working Timberlands in the US South from FIA Inventory Plots and NLCD Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuck, James A.

    -analysis provides insight into the general success of econometric independent variables for future forest use or cover change research. The second part of this dissertation developed a method for predicting area estimates and spatial distribution of PWT in the US South. This technique determined land use from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and land cover from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Three dependent variable forms (DV Forms) were derived from the FIA data: DV Form 1, timberland, other; DV Form 2, short timberland, tall timberland, agriculture, other; and DV Form 3, short hardwood (HW) timberland, tall HW timberland, short softwood (SW) timberland, tall SW timberland, agriculture, other. The prediction accuracy of each DV Form was investigated using both random forest model and logistic regression model specifications and data optimization techniques. Model verification employing a "leave-group-out" Monte Carlo simulation determined the selection of a stratified version of the random forest model using one-year NLCD observations with an overall accuracy of 0.53-0.94. The lower accuracy side of the range was when predictions were made from an aggregated NLCD land cover class "grass_shrub". The selected model specification was run using 2011 NLCD and the other predictor variables to produce three levels of timberland prediction and probability maps for the US South. Spatial masks removed areas unlikely to be working forests (protected and urbanized lands) resulting in PWT maps. The area of the resulting maps compared well with USFS area estimates and masked PWT maps and had an 8-11% reduction of the USFS timberland estimate for the US South compared to the DV Form. Change analysis of the 2011 NLCD to PWT showed (1) the majority of the short timberland came from NLCD grass_shrub; (2) the majority of NLCD grass_shrub predicted into tall timberland, and (3) NLCD grass_shrub was more strongly associated with timberland in the Coastal Plain. Resulting map products

  5. Improved failure prediction in forming simulations through pre-strain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Siddharth; Staupendahl, Daniel; Heuse, Martin; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of sheared edges of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets to cracking during subsequent forming operations and the difficulty to predict this failure with any degree of accuracy using conventionally used FLC based failure criteria is a major problem plaguing the manufacturing industry. A possible method that allows for an accurate prediction of edge cracks is the simulation of the shearing operation and carryover of this model into a subsequent forming simulation. But even with an efficient combination of a solid element shearing operation and a shell element forming simulation, the need for a fine mesh, and the resulting high computation time makes this approach not viable from an industry point of view. The crack sensitivity of sheared edges is due to work hardening in the shear-affected zone (SAZ). A method to predict plastic strains induced by the shearing process is to measure the hardness after shearing and calculate the ultimate tensile strength as well as the flow stress. In combination with the flow curve, the relevant strain data can be obtained. To eliminate the time-intensive shearing simulation necessary to obtain the strain data in the SAZ, a new pre-strain mapping approach is proposed. The pre-strains to be mapped are, hereby, determined from hardness values obtained in the proximity of the sheared edge. To investigate the performance of this approach the ISO/TS 16630 hole expansion test was simulated with shell elements for different materials, whereby the pre-strains were mapped onto the edge of the hole. The hole expansion ratios obtained from such pre-strain mapped simulations are in close agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the simulations can be carried out with no increase in computation time, making this an interesting and viable solution for predicting edge failure due to shearing.

  6. Using the Landsat Archive to Estimate and Map Changes in Agriculture, Forests, and other Land Cover Types in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, S. P.; Oduor, P.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Ouko, E.; Gorelick, N.; Wilson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Every country's land is distributed among different cover types, such as: agriculture; forests; rangeland; urban areas; and barren lands. Changes in the distribution of these classes can inform us about many things, including: population pressure; effectiveness of preservation efforts; desertification; and stability of the food supply. Good assessment of these changes can also support wise planning, use, and preservation of natural resources. We are using the Landsat archive in two ways to provide needed information about land cover change since the year 2000 in seven East African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia). First, we are working with local experts to interpret historical land cover change from historical imagery at a probabilistic sample of 2000 locations in each country. This will provide a statistical estimate of land cover change since 2000. Second, we will use the same data to calibrate and validate annual land cover maps for each country. Because spatial context can be critical to development planning through the identification of hot spots, these maps will be a useful complement to the statistical, country-level estimates of change. The Landsat platform is an ideal tool for mapping land cover change because it combines a mix of appropriate spatial and spectral resolution with unparalleled length of service (Landsat 1 launched in 1972). Pilot tests have shown that time series analysis accessing the entire Landsat archive (i.e., many images per year) improves classification accuracy and stability. It is anticipated that this project will meet the civil needs of both governmental and non-governmental users across a range of disciplines.

  7. Landslide inventory map as a tool for landscape planning and management in Buzau Land Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Mihai; Niculae, Lucica; Popa, Răzvan-Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Buzău Land is an aspiring Geopark in Romania, located in the mountainous region of the southern part of the Carpathian Bend Area. From a geologic point of view, the East Carpathians represent a segment of the Alpine - Carpathian orogene, and they are composed of numerous tectonic units put up throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic orogenesis. They represent a result of two compressional phases, (1) during Late Cretaceous and (2) during Early and Middle Miocene that were responsible for thrusting of internal units onto external units. The latter cover tectonically the Foredeep folded deposits. Landslides are one of the most widespread and dangerous natural hazards in this region, disrupting access routes and damaging property and habitats at least twice per year, in the rainy seasons. This hazard induces deep changes in the landscape and has serious economic consequences related to the damaging of infrastructure and isolation of localities. The proximity to the Vrancea seismogenic zone increases the risk of landslide triggering. A first step in observing the space and time tendency and amplitude of landslides, in order to distinguish the main vulnerabilities and estimate the risk, is to produce an inventory map. We shall present a landslide inventory map for the Buzău Land territory (~1036 km2), which is the primary base of information for further discussions regarding this phenomenon and an essential tool in observing the development of mass-wasting processes and in landscape planning. The inventory map is in accordance with the recommendations of the IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass-Movement, applied across the EU. Based on this work, we can already draw some remarks: - The Geopark territory mostly covers two major tectonic units of the East Carpathians: the external nappes and the folded foredeep; areas with landslide potential are common, but by far the highest landslide frequency is observed in the foredeep. This is related to the soft, argillaceous

  8. Land-Use Mapping in a Mixed Urban-Agricultural Arid Landscape Using Object-Based Image Analysis: A Case Study from Maricopa, Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Galletti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land-use mapping is critical for global change research. In Central Arizona, U.S.A., the spatial distribution of land use is important for sustainable land management decisions. The objective of this study was to create a land-use map that serves as a model for the city of Maricopa, an expanding urban region in the Sun Corridor of Arizona. We use object-based image analysis to map six land-use types from ASTER imagery, and then compare this with two per-pixel classifications. Our results show that a single segmentation, combined with intermediary classifications and merging, morphing, and growing image-objects, can lead to an accurate land-use map that is capable of utilizing both spatial and spectral information. We also employ a moving-window diversity assessment to help with analysis and improve post-classification modifications.

  9. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; MacBean, Natasha; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Houghton, Richard A.; Peng, Shushi

    2018-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative) land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs) to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs) derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), Hansen et al. (2013) or Houghton and Nassikas (2017) while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016). Gross forest loss and gain during 1992-2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016), but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013) based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to characterize recent carbon dynamics

  10. Removing non-urban roads from the National Land Cover Database to create improved urban maps for the United States, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map the urban class and understand how urban lands change over time, we removed rural roads and small patches of rural development from the NLCD developed class and created four wall-to-wall maps (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011) of urban land. Removing rural roads from the NLCD developed class involved a multi-step filtering process, data fusion using geospatial road and developed land data, and manual editing. Reference data classified as urban or not urban from a stratified random sample was used to assess the accuracy of the 2001 and 2006 urban and NLCD maps. The newly created urban maps had higher overall accuracy (98.7 percent) than the NLCD maps (96.2 percent). More importantly, the urban maps resulted in lower commission error of the urban class (23 percent versus 57 percent for the NLCD in 2006) with the trade-off of slightly inflated omission error (20 percent for the urban map, 16 percent for NLCD in 2006). The removal of approximately 230,000 km2 of rural roads from the NLCD developed class resulted in maps that better characterize the urban footprint. These urban maps are more suited to modeling applications and policy decisions that rely on quantitative and spatially explicit information regarding urban lands.

  11. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  12. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  13. Land Cover Mapping Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Greater Cairo Region—Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Megahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study modeled the urban growth in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR, one of the fastest growing mega cities in the world, using remote sensing data and ancillary data. Three land use land cover (LULC maps (1984, 2003 and 2014 were produced from satellite images by using Support Vector Machines (SVM. Then, land cover changes were detected by applying a high level mapping technique that combines binary maps (change/no-change and post classification comparison technique. The spatial and temporal urban growth patterns were analyzed using selected statistical metrics developed in the FRAGSTATS software. Major transitions to urban were modeled to predict the future scenarios for year 2025 using Land Change Modeler (LCM embedded in the IDRISI software. The model results, after validation, indicated that 14% of the vegetation and 4% of the desert in 2014 will be urbanized in 2025. The urban areas within a 5-km buffer around: the Great Pyramids, Islamic Cairo and Al-Baron Palace were calculated, highlighting an intense urbanization especially around the Pyramids; 28% in 2014 up to 40% in 2025. Knowing the current and estimated urbanization situation in GCR will help decision makers to adjust and develop new plans to achieve a sustainable development of urban areas and to protect the historical locations.

  14. Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS. The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters. In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy.

  15. Direct sensor orientation of a land-based mobile mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Habib, Ayman F; Kersting, Ana P; Chiang, Kai-Wei; Bang, Ki-In; Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Li, Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS) is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS). The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters). In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy.

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  17. Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Schütz, Martin; Nguyen, Huong; Risch, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life forms (forbs, legumes, grasses, sedges) correlated with their dominance. We experimented in two subalpine grassland types with different land-use histories: (1) heavily grazed, nutrient-rich, short-grass vegetation and (2) lightly grazed, lower nutrient tall-grass vegetation. We found differences in leaf traits between treatments where either all herbivores were excluded or all herbivores were present, showing the importance of considering the impacts of both vertebrates and invertebrates on the leaf traits of plant species. Life forms responses to the progressive exclusion of herbivores were captured by six possible combinations: (1) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency (leaf area/nutrients) where lower nutrient levels are invested in leaf construction, but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, forbs in both vegetation types, (2) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency, for example, legumes in short grass, (3) increased leaf size but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, legumes in the tall grass, (4) increased number of leaves produced and increased resource use efficiency, for example, grasses in the short grass, (5) increased resource use efficiency of leaves only, for example, grasses and sedges in the tall grass, and (6) no response in terms of leaf construction or dominance, for example, sedges in the short grass. Although we found multiple

  18. Land use, macroalgae, and a tumor-forming disease in marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S Van Houtan

    Full Text Available Wildlife diseases are an increasing concern for endangered species conservation, but their occurrence, causes, and human influences are often unknown. We analyzed 3,939 records of stranded Hawaiian green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas over 28 years to understand fibropapillomatosis, a tumor-forming disease linked to a herpesvirus. Turtle size is a consistent risk factor and size-standardized models revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability. The disease peaked in some areas in the 1990s, in some regions rates remained constant, and elsewhere rates increased. Land use, onshore of where the turtles feed, may play a role. Elevated disease rates were clustered in watersheds with high nitrogen-footprints; an index of natural and anthropogenic factors that affect coastal eutrophication. Further analysis shows strong epidemiological links between disease rates, nitrogen-footprints, and invasive macroalgae and points to foraging ecology. These turtles now forage on invasive macroalgae, which can dominate nutrient rich waters and sequester environmental N in the amino acid arginine. Arginine is known to regulate immune activity, promote herpesviruses, and contribute to tumor formation. Our results have implications for understanding diseases in aquatic organisms, eutrophication, herpesviruses, and tumor formation.

  19. A regional land use survey based on remote sensing and other data: A report on a LANDSAT and computer mapping project, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, G. (Principal Investigator); Mutter, D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project mapped land use/cover classifications from LANDSAT computer compatible tape data and combined those results with other multisource data via computer mapping/compositing techniques to analyze various land use planning/natural resource management problems. Data were analyzed on 1:24,000 scale maps at 1.1 acre resolution. LANDSAT analysis software and linkages with other computer mapping software were developed. Significant results were also achieved in training, communication, and identification of needs for developing the LANDSAT/computer mapping technologies into operational tools for use by decision makers.

  20. Use of multispectral satellite imagery and hyperspectral endmember libraries for urban land cover mapping at the metropolitan scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, Frederik; Okujeni, Akpona; van der Linden, Sebastian; Canters, Frank

    2016-10-01

    The value of characteristic reflectance features for mapping urban materials has been demonstrated in many experiments with airborne imaging spectrometry. Analysis of larger areas requires satellite-based multispectral imagery, which typically lacks the spatial and spectral detail of airborne data. Consequently the need arises to develop mapping methods that exploit the complementary strengths of both data sources. In this paper a workflow for sub-pixel quantification of Vegetation-Impervious-Soil urban land cover is presented, using medium resolution multispectral satellite imagery, hyperspectral endmember libraries and Support Vector Regression. A Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager surface reflectance image covering the greater metropolitan area of Brussels is selected for mapping. Two spectral libraries developed for the cities of Brussels and Berlin based on airborne hyperspectral APEX and HyMap data are used. First the combined endmember library is resampled to match the spectral response of the Landsat sensor. The library is then optimized to avoid spectral redundancy and confusion. Subsequently the spectra of the endmember library are synthetically mixed to produce training data for unmixing. Mapping is carried out using Support Vector Regression models trained with spectra selected through stratified sampling of the mixed library. Validation on building block level (mean size = 46.8 Landsat pixels) yields an overall good fit between reference data and estimation with Mean Absolute Errors of 0.06, 0.06 and 0.08 for vegetation, impervious and soil respectively. Findings of this work may contribute to the use of universal spectral libraries for regional scale land cover fraction mapping using regression approaches.

  1. Object-based analysis of multispectral airborne laser scanner data for land cover classification and map updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Karila, Kirsi; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Puttonen, Eetu; Ahokas, Eero

    2017-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with passive multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. The main benefits have been achieved in the mapping of elevated objects such as buildings and trees. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and active multispectral information is for the first time available for 3D ALS point clouds from a single sensor. This article discusses the potential of this new technology in map updating, especially in automated object-based land cover classification and change detection in a suburban area. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from an object-based random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral ALS data are very useful for land cover classification, considering both elevated classes and ground-level classes. The overall accuracy of the land cover classification results with six classes was 96% compared with validation points. The classes under study included building, tree, asphalt, gravel, rocky area and low vegetation. Compared to classification of single-channel data, the main improvements were achieved for ground-level classes. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral intensity features based on several channels were more useful than those based on one channel. Automatic change detection for buildings and roads was also demonstrated by utilising the new multispectral ALS data in combination with old map vectors. In change detection of buildings, an old digital surface model (DSM) based on single-channel ALS data was also used. Overall, our analyses suggest that the new data have high potential for further increasing the automation level in mapping. Unlike passive aerial imaging commonly used in mapping, the multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and there are

  2. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes, vegetation water...

  3. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes,...

  4. Land degradation mapping for modelling of ecosystem benefit flows in the Inkomati catchment using remote sensing.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is of great concern in South Africa particularly in the Inkomati catchment. Here a mosaic of different land use types such as plantation agriculture, subsistence farming, irrigated commercial farming, rural and urban settlements...

  5. The use of remote sensing imagery for environmental land use and flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Foster, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flood hazard maps have been constructed for Graham, Yuma, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona using remote sensing techniques. Watershed maps of priority areas were selected on the basis of their interest to the county planning staff and represented areas of imminent or ongoing development and those known to be subject to inundation by storm runoff. Landsat color infrared imagery at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, and 1:250,000 was used together with high-altitude aerial photography at scales of 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 to determine drainage patterns and erosional features, soil type, and the extent and type of ground cover. The satellite imagery was used in the form of 70 mm chips for enhancement in a color additive viewer and in all available enlargement modes. Field checking served as the main backup to the interpretations. Areas with high susceptibility to flooding were determined with a high level of confidence from the remotely sensed imagery.

  6. Development of an expert analysis tool based on an interactive subsidence hazard map for urban land use in the city of Celaya, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, A.; Gonzalez Dominguez, F.; Nila Fonseca, A. L.; Ruangsirikulchai, A.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Cabral, E.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Land Subsidence as a result of groundwater extraction in central Mexico's larger urban centers initiated in the 80's as a result of population and economic growth. The city of Celaya has undergone subsidence for a few decades and a consequence is the development of an active normal fault system that affects its urban infrastructure and residential areas. To facilitate its analysis and a land use decision-making process we created an online interactive map enabling users to easily obtain information associated with land subsidence. Geological and socioeconomic data of the city was collected, including fault location, population data, and other important infrastructure and structural data has been obtained from fieldwork as part of a study abroad interchange undergraduate course. The subsidence and associated faulting hazard map was created using an InSAR derived subsidence velocity map and population data from INEGI to identify hazard zones using a subsidence gradient spatial analysis approach based on a subsidence gradient and population risk matrix. This interactive map provides a simple perspective of different vulnerable urban elements. As an accessible visualization tool, it will enhance communication between scientific and socio-economic disciplines. Our project also lays the groundwork for a future expert analysis system with an open source and easily accessible Python coded, SQLite database driven website which archives fault and subsidence data along with visual damage documentation to civil structures. This database takes field notes and provides an entry form for uniform datasets, which are used to generate a JSON. Such a database is useful because it allows geoscientists to have a centralized repository and access to their observations over time. Because of the widespread presence of the subsidence phenomena throughout cities in central Mexico, the spatial analysis has been automated using the open source software R. Raster, rgeos, shapefiles, and rgdal

  7. Mapping Ecosystem Services for Land Use Planning, the Case of Central Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.; Hein, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been

  8. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  9. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  10. Land cover mapping and change detection in urban watersheds using QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, David Barry

    The objective of this research was to develop methods for urban land cover analysis using QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery. Such imagery has emerged as a rich commercially available remote sensing data source and has enjoyed high-profile broadcast news media and Internet applications, but methods of quantitative analysis have not been thoroughly explored. The research described here consists of three studies focused on the use of pan-sharpened 61-cm spatial resolution QuickBird imagery, the spatial resolution of which is the highest of any commercial satellite. In the first study, a per-pixel land cover classification method is developed for use with this imagery. This method utilizes a per-pixel classification approach to generate an accurate six-category high spatial resolution land cover map of a developing suburban area. The primary objective of the second study was to develop an accurate land cover change detection method for use with QuickBird land cover products. This work presents an efficient fuzzy framework for transforming map uncertainty into accurate and meaningful high spatial resolution land cover change analysis. The third study described here is an urban planning application of the high spatial resolution QuickBird-based land cover product developed in the first study. This work both meaningfully connects this exciting new data source to urban watershed management and makes an important empirical contribution to the study of suburban watersheds. Its analysis of residential roads and driveways as well as retail parking lots sheds valuable light on the impact of transportation-related land use on the suburban landscape. Broadly, these studies provide new methods for using state-of-the-art remote sensing data to inform land cover analysis and urban planning. These methods are widely adaptable and produce land cover products that are both meaningful and accurate. As additional high spatial resolution satellites are launched and the

  11. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandbyge Ernstsen, Verner; Skovgaard Andersen, Mikkel; Gergely, Aron; Schulze Tenberge, Yvonne; Al-Hamdani, Zyad; Steinbacher, Frank; Rolighed Larsen, Laurids; Winter, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Land-water transition zones, like e.g. coastal and fluvial environments, are valuable ecosystems which are often characterised by high biodiversity and geodiversity. However, often these land-water transition zones are difficult or even impossible to map and investigate in high spatial resolution due to the challenging environmental conditions. Combining vessel borne shallow water multibeam echosounder (MBES) surveys ,to cover the subtidal coastal areas and the river channel areas, with airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys, to cover the intertidal and supratidal coastal areas and the river floodplain areas, potentially enables full-coverage and high-resolution mapping in these challenging environments. We have carried out MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR surveys in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system, a coastal environment in the Danish Wadden Sea which is part of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point clouds, which both have point densities in the order of 20 points/m2. Morphometric analyses of the DEMs enabled the identification and mapping of the different landforms within the coastal and fluvial environments. Hereby, we demonstrate that vessel borne MBES and airborne topobathymetric LiDAR, here in combination, are promising tools for seamless mapping across land-water transition zones as well as for the quantification of a range of landforms at landscape scale in different land-water transition zone environments. Hence, we demonstrate the potential for mapping and quantifying geomorphological diversity, which is one of the main components of geodiversity and a prerequisite for assessing geoheritage. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Danish Council for

  12. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  13. Dynamic positional fate map of the primary heart-forming region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Cheuvront, Tracey J; Lansford, Rusty D; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Rongish, Brenda J

    2009-08-15

    Here we show the temporal-spatial orchestration of early heart morphogenesis at cellular level resolution, in vivo, and reconcile conflicting positional fate mapping data regarding the primary heart-forming field(s). We determined the positional fates of precardiac cells using a precision electroporation approach in combination with wide-field time-lapse microscopy in the quail embryo, a warm-blooded vertebrate (HH Stages 4 through 10). Contrary to previous studies, the results demonstrate the existence of a "continuous" circle-shaped heart field that spans the midline, appearing at HH Stage 4, which then expands to form a wide arc of progenitors at HH Stages 5-7. Our time-resolved image data show that a subset of these cardiac progenitor cells do not overlap with the expression of common cardiogenic factors, Nkx-2.5 and Bmp-2, until HH Stage 10, when a tubular heart has formed, calling into question when cardiac fate is specified and by which key factors. Sub-groups and anatomical bands (cohorts) of heart precursor cells dramatically change their relative positions in a process largely driven by endodermal folding and other large-scale tissue deformations. Thus, our novel dynamic positional fate maps resolve the origin of cardiac progenitor cells in amniotes. The data also establish the concept that tissue motion contributes significantly to cellular position fate - i.e., much of the cellular displacement that occurs during assembly of a midline heart tube (HH Stage 9) is NOT due to "migration" (autonomous motility), a commonly held belief. Computational analysis of our time-resolved data lays the foundation for more precise analyses of how cardiac gene regulatory networks correlate with early heart tissue morphogenesis in birds and mammals.

  14. Potential Land Mapping for Agricultural Extentification in Mengwi Sub-district to Support Food Balance in Badung Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Trigunasih, Ni; Lanya, Indayati; Ratna Adi, I. G. P.; Hutauruk, Jeremia; Feronika

    2017-12-01

    The availability of agricultural land for food crops, especially in Bali, is rapidly declining every year. The availability of rice fields in Badung regency, especially in Mengwi Sub-district until 2040 is no longer exist, this means that Mengwi Sub-district has lost the rice fields. The existence of land conversion will affect food availability for the country, so there will be food deficit. The food balance in Badung Regency in 2015 with Cultivation Index (IP) and initial productivity in each Sub-district showed a food deficit of 32,843.44 tons, then after increasing IP of 2,5 the productivity in Kecamatan Petang and Kuta at 7 tons / ha, and Abiansemal, Mengwi and North Kuta Sub-districts with 8 tons / ha which indicate a surplus in 2020 and 2030 respectively of 25,155.19 tons, and 3,401.79 tons. But in 2040 and 2050 there was a food deficiency of 18,434.78 tons and 11,824.82 tons respectively. Considering that productivity improvement efforts cannot rely solely on intensification approaches, but also need to be done with extensification or expansion of agricultural areas to support food production. This research was conducted in Mengwi Sub-district, Badung Regency. Mengwi Sub-district consists of 20 villages. The objectives of this research are: (1) to map potential land that can be converted to agricultural land of food crops, and (2) to know the amount of food demand to supply food balance in Badung Regency in 2040. Research methodology includes (1) preliminary study, (2) interpretation of satellite images, (3) mapping and measurement of land area, and (4) calculation of additional food availability. The results indicate that the potential land that can be converted to agricultural land for food crops is 132 ha, consists of 128.51 ha of mixed plantation and 3.49 ha of bare land/bush. The result of additional land produced 1601.73 tons of rice that increased the food availability in Mengwi Sub-district to 45425.7 tons. The addition of surplus in 2040 in Mengwi

  15. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  16. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  17. Fuzzy Nonnative Phonolexical Representations Lead to Fuzzy Form-to-Meaning Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Cook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores nonnative (L2 phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1 L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1; and (2 fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2.The Russian-English Translation Priming task (Experiment 1, TJT explores how the degree of phonolexical similarity between a word and its lexical competitor affects lexical access of Russian words. Words with smaller phonolexical distance (e.g., parent - parrot show longer reaction times and lower accuracy compared to words with a larger phonolexical distance (e.g., parent – parchment in lower-proficiency nonnative speakers, and, to a lesser degree, higher-proficiency speakers. This points to a lack of detail in nonnative phonolexical representations necessary for efficient lexical access. The Russian Pseudo-Semantic Priming task (Experiment 2, PSP addresses the vulnerability of form-to-meaning mappings as a consequence of fuzzy phonolexical representations in L2. We primed the target with a word semantically related to its phonological competitor, or a potentially confusable word. The findings of Experiment 2 extend the results of Experiment 1 that, unlike native speakers, nonnative speakers do not properly encode phonolexical information. As a result, they are prone to access an incorrect lexical representation of a competitor word, as indicated by a slowdown in the judgments to confusable words.The study provides evidence that fuzzy phonolexical representations result in unfaithful form-to-meaning mappings, which lead to retrieval of

  18. Mapping the Influence of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on the Urban Heat Island Effect—A Case Study of Changchun, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobin Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal patterns of land use/land cover changes (LUCC can significantly affect the distribution and intensity of the urban heat island (UHI effect. However, few studies have mapped a clear picture of the influence of LUCC on UHI. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative models are employed to explore the effect of LUCC on UHI. UHI and LUCC maps were retrieved from Landsat data acquired from 1984, 1992, 2000, 2007, and 2014 to show their spatiotemporal patterns. The results showed that: (1 both the patterns of LUCC and UHI have had dramatic changes in the past 30 years. The urban area of Changchun increased more than four times, from 143.15 km2 in 1984 to 577.45 km2 in 2014, and the proportion of UHI regions has increased from 15.27% in 1984 to 29.62% in 2014; (2 the spatiotemporal changes in thermal environment were consistent with the process of urbanization. The average LST of the study area has been continuously increasing as many other land use types have been transformed to urban regions. The mean temperatures were higher in urban regions than rural areas over all of the periods, but the UHI intensity varied based on different measurements; and (3 the thermal environment inside the city varied widely even within a small area. The LST possesses a very strong positive relationship with impervious surface area (ISA, and the relationship has become stronger in recent years. The UHI we employ, specifically in this study, is SUHI (surface urban heat island.

  19. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... 235.1(e) and Section 235 of Immigration and Nationality Act. CBP Form I-68 is accessible at http://forms.cbp.gov/pdf/CBP_Form_I68.pdf Current Actions: This submission is being made to extend the...

  20. Mapping paddy rice planting areas through time series analysis of MODIS land surface temperature and vegetation index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhou, Yuting; Wang, Jie; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, and estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions. Paddy rice agriculture has expanded rapidly in northeastern China in the last decade, but there are no updated maps of paddy rice fields in the region. Existing algorithms for identifying paddy rice fields are based on the unique physical features of paddy rice during the flooding and transplanting phases and use vegetation indices that are sensitive to the dynamics of the canopy and surface water content. However, the flooding phenomena in high latitude area could also be from spring snowmelt flooding. We used land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to determine the temporal window of flooding and rice transplantation over a year to improve the existing phenology-based approach. Other land cover types (e.g., evergreen vegetation, permanent water bodies, and sparse vegetation) with potential influences on paddy rice identification were removed (masked out) due to their different temporal profiles. The accuracy assessment using high-resolution images showed that the resultant MODIS-derived paddy rice map of northeastern China in 2010 had a high accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 92% and 96%, respectively). The MODIS-based map also had a comparable accuracy to the 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China in terms of both area and spatial pattern. This study demonstrated that our improved algorithm by using both thermal and optical MODIS data, provides a robust, simple and automated approach to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones, the northern frontier of rice planting.

  1. Theory and praxis pf map analsys in CHEF part 1: Linear normal form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    This memo begins a series which, put together, could comprise the 'CHEF Documentation Project' if there were such a thing. The first--and perhaps only--three will telegraphically describe theory, algorithms, implementation and usage of the normal form map analysis procedures encoded in CHEF's collection of libraries. [1] This one will begin the sequence by explaining the linear manipulations that connect the Jacobian matrix of a symplectic mapping to its normal form. It is a 'Reader's Digest' version of material I wrote in Intermediate Classical Dynamics (ICD) [2] and randomly scattered across technical memos, seminar viewgraphs, and lecture notes for the past quarter century. Much of its content is old, well known, and in some places borders on the trivial.1 Nevertheless, completeness requires their inclusion. The primary objective is the 'fundamental theorem' on normalization written on page 8. I plan to describe the nonlinear procedures in a subsequent memo and devote a third to laying out algorithms and lines of code, connecting them with equations written in the first two. Originally this was to be done in one short paper, but I jettisoned that approach after its first section exceeded a dozen pages. The organization of this document is as follows. A brief description of notation is followed by a section containing a general treatment of the linear problem. After the 'fundamental theorem' is proved, two further subsections discuss the generation of equilibrium distributions and issue of 'phase'. The final major section reviews parameterizations--that is, lattice functions--in two and four dimensions with a passing glance at the six-dimensional version. Appearances to the contrary, for the most part I have tried to restrict consideration to matters needed to understand the code in CHEF's libraries.

  2. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  3. Interpretation of scenario results in terms of described and mapped land change trajectories and archetypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Stürck, Julia; Levers, Christian

    Module VISIONS seeks to identify critical pathways to reach desired futures for land systems (i.e., visions). In order to do so, work package (WP) 11 links the model-based scenarios (module ASSESSMENT) to the visions formulated derived in a transdisciplinary process together with stakeholders...... of future developments of current land change archetypes; and (3) an interpretation of future land change in light of long-term land system trajectories. Synthesizing across these analyses, six key insights emerged. First, future land change was relatively similar across marker scenarios and different...... policy alternatives, for many regions in Europe, suggesting strong path dependency. Second, the impact of policy options can differ (a) between regions in Europe and (b) among marker scenarios, highlighting the need for contextualized, regionalized policy making. Third, the expansion and intensification...

  4. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first (1) explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. (1) To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material has been lifted - and modified - from

  5. Theory and praxis of map analsys in CHEF part 2: Nonlinear normal form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; /FERMILAB

    2009-04-01

    This is the second of three memos describing how normal form map analysis is implemented in CHEF. The first [1] explained the manipulations required to assure that initial, linear transformations preserved Poincare invariants, thereby confirming correct normalization of action-angle coordinates. In this one, the transformation will be extended to nonlinear terms. The third, describing how the algorithms were implemented within the software of CHEF's libraries, most likely will never be written. The first section, Section 2, quickly lays out preliminary concepts and relationships. In Section 3, we shall review the perturbation theory - an iterative sequence of transformations that converts a nonlinear mapping into its normal form - and examine the equation which moves calculations from one step to the next. Following that is a section titled 'Interpretation', which identifies connections between the normalized mappings and idealized, integrable, fictitious Hamiltonian models. A final section contains closing comments, some of which may - but probably will not - preview work to be done later. My reasons for writing this memo and its predecessor have already been expressed. [1] To them can be added this: 'black box code' encourages users to proceed with little or no understanding of what it does or how it operates. So far, CHEF has avoided this trap admirably by failing to attract potential users. However, we reached a watershed last year: even I now have difficulty following the software through its maze of operations. Extensions to CHEF's physics functionalities, software upgrades, and even simple maintenance are becoming more difficult than they should. I hope these memos will mark parts of the maze for easier navigation in the future. Despite appearances to the contrary, I tried to include no (or very little) more than the minimum needed to understand what CHEF's nonlinear analysis modules do.1 As with the first memo, material

  6. Integrative image segmentation optimization and machine learning approach for high quality land-use and land-cover mapping using multisource remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibril, Mohamed Barakat A.; Idrees, Mohammed Oludare; Yao, Kouame; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd

    2018-01-01

    The growing use of optimization for geographic object-based image analysis and the possibility to derive a wide range of information about the image in textual form makes machine learning (data mining) a versatile tool for information extraction from multiple data sources. This paper presents application of data mining for land-cover classification by fusing SPOT-6, RADARSAT-2, and derived dataset. First, the images and other derived indices (normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, and soil adjusted vegetation index) were combined and subjected to segmentation process with optimal segmentation parameters obtained using combination of spatial and Taguchi statistical optimization. The image objects, which carry all the attributes of the input datasets, were extracted and related to the target land-cover classes through data mining algorithms (decision tree) for classification. To evaluate the performance, the result was compared with two nonparametric classifiers: support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). Furthermore, the decision tree classification result was evaluated against six unoptimized trials segmented using arbitrary parameter combinations. The result shows that the optimized process produces better land-use land-cover classification with overall classification accuracy of 91.79%, 87.25%, and 88.69% for SVM and RF, respectively, while the results of the six unoptimized classifications yield overall accuracy between 84.44% and 88.08%. Higher accuracy of the optimized data mining classification approach compared to the unoptimized results indicates that the optimization process has significant impact on the classification quality.

  7. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  8. Identifying Generalizable Image Segmentation Parameters for Urban Land Cover Mapping through Meta-Analysis and Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Johnson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of very high resolution (VHR satellite imagery and the development of Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA have led to many new opportunities for fine-scale land cover mapping, especially in urban areas. Image segmentation is an important step in the GEOBIA framework, so great time/effort is often spent to ensure that computer-generated image segments closely match real-world objects of interest. In the remote sensing community, segmentation is frequently performed using the multiresolution segmentation (MRS algorithm, which is tuned through three user-defined parameters (the scale, shape/color, and compactness/smoothness parameters. The scale parameter (SP is the most important parameter and governs the average size of generated image segments. Existing automatic methods to determine suitable SPs for segmentation are scene-specific and often computationally intensive, so an approach to estimating appropriate SPs that is generalizable (i.e., not scene-specific could speed up the GEOBIA workflow considerably. In this study, we attempted to identify generalizable SPs for five common urban land cover types (buildings, vegetation, roads, bare soil, and water through meta-analysis and nonlinear regression tree (RT modeling. First, we performed a literature search of recent studies that employed GEOBIA for urban land cover mapping and extracted the MRS parameters used, the image properties (i.e., spatial and radiometric resolutions, and the land cover classes mapped. Using this data extracted from the literature, we constructed RT models for each land cover class to predict suitable SP values based on the: image spatial resolution, image radiometric resolution, shape/color parameter, and compactness/smoothness parameter. Based on a visual and quantitative analysis of results, we found that for all land cover classes except water, relatively accurate SPs could be identified using our RT modeling results. The main advantage of our

  9. Spatial land-use inventory, modeling, and projection/Denver metropolitan area, with inputs from existing maps, airphotos, and LANDSAT imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C.; Miller, L. D.; Christenson, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A landscape model was constructed with 34 land-use, physiographic, socioeconomic, and transportation maps. A simple Markov land-use trend model was constructed from observed rates of change and nonchange from photointerpreted 1963 and 1970 airphotos. Seven multivariate land-use projection models predicting 1970 spatial land-use changes achieved accuracies from 42 to 57 percent. A final modeling strategy was designed, which combines both Markov trend and multivariate spatial projection processes. Landsat-1 image preprocessing included geometric rectification/resampling, spectral-band, and band/insolation ratioing operations. A new, systematic grid-sampled point training-set approach proved to be useful when tested on the four orginal MSS bands, ten image bands and ratios, and all 48 image and map variables (less land use). Ten variable accuracy was raised over 15 percentage points from 38.4 to 53.9 percent, with the use of the 31 ancillary variables. A land-use classification map was produced with an optimal ten-channel subset of four image bands and six ancillary map variables. Point-by-point verification of 331,776 points against a 1972/1973 U.S. Geological Survey (UGSG) land-use map prepared with airphotos and the same classification scheme showed average first-, second-, and third-order accuracies of 76.3, 58.4, and 33.0 percent, respectively.

  10. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model - A Map-Based Multicriteria Ecological, Economic, and Community Land-Use Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiosa, William B.; Bernknopf, Richard; Hearn, Paul; Hogan, Dianna; Strong, David; Pearlstine, Leonard; Mathie, Amy M.; Wein, Anne M.; Gillen, Kevin; Wachter, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype is a regional land-use planning Web tool that integrates ecological, economic, and social information and values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multicriteria evaluation framework that builds on geographic information system-based (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to regional land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The EPM uses both economics (monetized) and multiattribute utility (nonmonetized) approaches to valuing these endpoints and consequences. This hybrid approach represents a methodological middle ground between rigorous economic and ecological/ environmental scientific approaches. The EPM sacrifices some degree of economic- and ecological-forecasting precision to gain methodological transparency, spatial explicitness, and transferability, while maintaining credibility. After all, even small steps in the direction of including ecosystem services evaluation are an improvement over current land-use planning practice (Boyd and Wainger, 2003). There are many participants involved in land-use decision-making in South Florida, including local, regional, State, and Federal agencies, developers, environmental groups, agricultural groups, and other stakeholders (South Florida Regional Planning Council, 2003, 2004). The EPM's multicriteria evaluation framework is designed to cut across the objectives and knowledge bases of all of these participants. This approach places fundamental importance on social equity and stakeholder participation in land-use decision-making, but makes no attempt to determine normative socially 'optimal' land-use plans. The EPM is thus a map-based set of evaluation tools for planners and stakeholders to use in their deliberations of what is 'best', considering a balancing of disparate interests within a regional perspective. Although

  11. Enhancement of Tropical Land Cover Mapping with Wavelet-Based Fusion and Unsupervised Clustering of SAR and Landsat Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Laporte, Nadine; Netanyahuy, Nathan S.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The characterization and the mapping of land cover/land use of forest areas, such as the Central African rainforest, is a very complex task. This complexity is mainly due to the extent of such areas and, as a consequence, to the lack of full and continuous cloud-free coverage of those large regions by one single remote sensing instrument, In order to provide improved vegetation maps of Central Africa and to develop forest monitoring techniques for applications at the local and regional scales, we propose to utilize multi-sensor remote sensing observations coupled with in-situ data. Fusion and clustering of multi-sensor data are the first steps towards the development of such a forest monitoring system. In this paper, we will describe some preliminary experiments involving the fusion of SAR and Landsat image data of the Lope Reserve in Gabon. Similarly to previous fusion studies, our fusion method is wavelet-based. The fusion provides a new image data set which contains more detailed texture features and preserves the large homogeneous regions that are observed by the Thematic Mapper sensor. The fusion step is followed by unsupervised clustering and provides a vegetation map of the area.

  12. Land cover mapping and GIS processing for the Savannah River Site Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, L.M.; Guber, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Located in Barnwell, Aiken, and Allendale counties in South Carolina, SRS covers an area of approximately 77,700 hectares. Land cover information for SRS was interpreted from color and color infrared aerial photography acquired between 1980 and 1989. The data were then used as the source of the land cover data layer for the SRS sitewide Geographic Information System database. This database provides SRS managers with recent land use information and has been successfully used to support cost-effective site characterization and reclamation

  13. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  14. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1973: ERTS as an aid in a nationwide program for mapping general land use. [Phoenix Quadrangle, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in land use between 1970 and 1973 in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a standard land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Types of changes detected have been: (1) new residential development of former cropland and rangeland; (2) new cropland from the desert; and (3) new reservoir fill-up. The seasonal changing of vegetation patterns in ERTS has complemented air photos in delimiting the boundaries of some land use types. ERTS images, in combination with other sources of information, can assist in mapping the generalized land use of the fifty states by the standard 1:250,000 quadrangles. Several states are already working cooperatively in this type of mapping.

  15. Far Infrared Mapping of Three Galactic Star Forming Regions: W3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    - nyk 1990). Although extensions are seen in many IRAS bands, the TIFR maps show superior angular resolution as a result of their smaller and circular beam. Discrete sources have been extracted from the TIFR and HIRES maps using a.

  16. The Use of 3d City Models Form Oblique Images on Land Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakici, S.; Erkek, B.; Ayyildiz, E.; Özmüş, L.

    2017-11-01

    The article 718 of the civil law saying "The ownership on property includes the air above and terrain layers below to an extent providing benefit. The structures, plants and sources are included in the content of this ownership reserving the legal restrictions" and the cadastre law no. 3402 envisage 3D Cadastre. 3D data is required in order to perform 3D cadastre. To meet this requirement, oblique photogrammetry arises as the main data acquisition method. The data obtained by this method is used as base in 3D Cadastre and Land Administration activities. 3D cadastre required in the context of land administration activities in Turkey demands high resolution aerial oblique images to be used in services such as real estate value assessment & marketing in urban areas, urban planning, unlicensed construction monitoring & city administration and making location data (national address data etc.) intelligent.

  17. THE USE OF 3D CITY MODELS FORM OBLIQUE IMAGES ON LAND ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article 718 of the civil law saying “The ownership on property includes the air above and terrain layers below to an extent providing benefit. The structures, plants and sources are included in the content of this ownership reserving the legal restrictions” and the cadastre law no. 3402 envisage 3D Cadastre. 3D data is required in order to perform 3D cadastre. To meet this requirement, oblique photogrammetry arises as the main data acquisition method. The data obtained by this method is used as base in 3D Cadastre and Land Administration activities. 3D cadastre required in the context of land administration activities in Turkey demands high resolution aerial oblique images to be used in services such as real estate value assessment & marketing in urban areas, urban planning, unlicensed construction monitoring & city administration and making location data (national address data etc. intelligent.

  18. Three very high resolution optical images for land use mapping of a suburban catchment: input to distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueminet, Christine; Kermadi, Saïda; Michel, Kristell; Jankowfsky, Sonja; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Beal, David; Gagnage, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Keywords : land cover mapping, very high resolution, remote sensing processing techniques, object oriented approach, distributed hydrological model, peri-urban area Urbanization and other modifications of land use affect the hydrological cycle of suburban catchments. In order to quantify these impacts, the AVuPUR project (Assessing the Vulnerability of Peri-Urban Rivers) is currently developing a distributed hydrological model that includes anthropogenic features. The case study is the Yzeron catchment (150 km²), located close to Lyon city, France. This catchment experiences a growing of urbanization and a modification of traditional land use since the middle of the 20th century, resulting in an increase of flooding, water pollution and river banks erosion. This contribution discusses the potentials of automated data processing techniques on three different VHR images, in order to produce appropriate and detailed land cover data for the models. Of particular interest is the identification of impermeable surfaces (buildings, roads, and parking places) and permeable surfaces (forest areas, agricultural fields, gardens, trees…) within the catchment, because their infiltration capacity and their impact on runoff generation are different. Three aerial and spatial images were acquired: (1) BD Ortho IGN aerial images, 0.50 m resolution, visible bands, may 5th 2008; (2) QuickBird satellite image, 2.44 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, august 29th 2008; (3) Spot satellite image, 2.50 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, September 22nd 2008. From these images, we developed three image processing methods: (1) a pixel-based method associated to a segmentation using Matlab®, (2) a pixel-based method using ENVI®, (3) an object-based classification using Definiens®. We extracted six land cover types from the BD Ortho IGN (visible bands) and height classes from the satellite images (visible and near infrared bands). The three classified images are

  19. On the spatial and temporal resolution of land cover products for applied use in wind resource mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Dellwik, Ebba

    as input for modelling the wind conditions over a Danish near-coastal region. The flow model results were compared to alternative use of USGS land cover. Significant variations in the wind speed were found between the two atmospheric flow model results. Furthermore the wind speed from the flow model...... was compared to meteorological observations taken in a tall mast and from ground based remote-sensing wind profiling lidars. It is shown that simulations using CORINE provide better wind flow results close to the surface as compared to those using USGS on the investigated site. The next step towards...... improvement of flow model inputs is to investigate in further detail applied use of satellite maps in forested areas. 75% of new land-based wind farms are planned in or near forests in Europe. In forested areas the near surface atmospheric flow is more challenging to calculate than in regions with low...

  20. The geo-genic radon potential map of the aspiring 'Buzau Land' Geo-park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, M. C.; Burghele, B. D.; Roba, C. A.; Sferle, T. L.; Buterez, C.; Mitrofan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the geo-genic radon potential in Buzau County is part of a research project aiming to apply research for sustainable development and economic growth following the principles of geo-conservation in order to support the 'Buzau Land' UNESCO Geo-park initiative. The mapping of geo-genic radon will be used as an overview for planning purposes. The main geological formations of the studied area were identified as Cretaceous and Paleogene flysch, included in a thin-skinned nappes pile and consisting of alternating sandstones, marls, clays and, subordinately, conglomerates, all tightly folded or faulted. Significant variations in the concentration of radon were therefore determined in the ground. However, no high values were determined, the maximum measured activity concentration being 101.6 kBq m -3 . (authors)

  1. An investigation of the sensitivity of a land surface model to climate change using a reduced form model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, A.H.; McIlwaine, S. [PAOS/CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Beringer, J. [Inst. of Arctic Biology, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States); Bonan, G.B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2001-05-01

    In an illustration of a model evaluation methodology, a multivariate reduced form model is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of a land surface model to changes in atmospheric forcing. The reduced form model is constructed in terms of a set of ten integrative response metrics, including the timing of spring snow melt, sensible and latent heat fluxes in summer, and soil temperature. The responses are evaluated as a function of a selected set of six atmospheric forcing perturbations which are varied simultaneously, and hence each may be thought of as a six-dimensional response surface. The sensitivities of the land surface model are interdependent and in some cases illustrate a physically plausible feedback process. The important predictors of land surface response in a changing climate are the atmospheric temperature and downwelling longwave radiation. Scenarios characterized by warming and drying produce a large relative response compared to warm, moist scenarios. The insensitivity of the model to increases in precipitation and atmospheric humidity is expected to change in applications to coupled models, since these parameters are also strongly implicated, through the representation of clouds, in the simulation of both longwave and shortwave radiation. (orig.)

  2. Drivers of land use change and carbon mapping in the savannah area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranteng Addo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land-use and land-cover change in both forest reserves and off-reserves is a critical issue in sub Saharan Africa. Deforestation and conversion of forest land to agricultural land continue to be one of the major environmental problems in Africa, and for that matter, Ghana cannot be exceptional; and its resultant effect is the loss in the ecological integrity and the quality of forests, resulting in carbon loss and the resultant climate change effects (FAO 2016. The study area covers the Community Resource Management Areas (CREMA of the Mole National Park in Ghana, and this study reveals that the area is well endowed with a diverse composition and structure of woodland including dense, open and riverine stretches, which – under the national definition of forest – qualifies as forest. The results reveal that there had been an annual deforestation rate of 0.11% over the period of review. It was concluded from the study that woodland had high carbon stocks with an average carbon of 80 tC/ha, the highest being 194 tC/ha and the lowest being 7 tC/ha, which was recorded in the dense woodland and grassland respectively. The fluxes within the land sector in the study area are moderate and the potential of the area to qualify for as REDD+ is very high. However, the drivers of deforestation, especially bush fires and illegal timber harvesting, are challenges that need to be addressed.

  3. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8 degrees S and...

  4. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8...

  5. Advancing Coastal Climate Adaptation in Denmark by Land Subsidence Mapping using Sentinel-1 Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels H.; Mølgaard, Mads R.

    2016-01-01

    There are still large uncertainties in projections of climate change and sea level rise. Here, land subsidence is an additional factor that may adversely affect the vulnerability towards floods in low-lying coastal communities. The presented study performs an initial assessment of subsidence...

  6. Road Map for Education and Training in Land Use and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, M.M.B.; Oonk, C.; Palang, H.; Pedroli, G.B.M.; Stastná, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new EU countries, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia are still struggling with the different assessment tools and basic issues related to sustainable development. This brochure summarises the results of the ATLAS project. Land use change: a

  7. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panecki Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

  9. Maps4Science - National Roadmap for Large-Scale Research Facilities 2011 (NWO Application form)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Van der Wal, T.; De By, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is historically known as one of worlds' best-measured countries. It is continuing this tradition today with unequalled new datasets, such as the nationwide large-scale topographic map, our unique digital height map (nationwide coverage; ten very accurate 3D points for every Dutch m2)

  10. Development of a Land Use Mapping and Monitoring Protocol for the High Plains Region: A Multitemporal Remote Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Nellis, M. Duane

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a practical protocol that employs multitemporal remotely sensed imagery, integrated with environmental parameters to model and monitor agricultural and natural resources in the High Plains Region of the United States. The value of this project would be extended throughout the region via workshops targeted at carefully selected audiences and designed to transfer remote sensing technology and the methods and applications developed. Implementation of such a protocol using remotely sensed satellite imagery is critical for addressing many issues of regional importance, including: (1) Prediction of rural land use/land cover (LULC) categories within a region; (2) Use of rural LULC maps for successive years to monitor change; (3) Crop types derived from LULC maps as important inputs to water consumption models; (4) Early prediction of crop yields; (5) Multi-date maps of crop types to monitor patterns related to crop change; (6) Knowledge of crop types to monitor condition and improve prediction of crop yield; (7) More precise models of crop types and conditions to improve agricultural economic forecasts; (8;) Prediction of biomass for estimating vegetation production, soil protection from erosion forces, nonpoint source pollution, wildlife habitat quality and other related factors; (9) Crop type and condition information to more accurately predict production of biogeochemicals such as CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases that are inputs to global climate models; (10) Provide information regarding limiting factors (i.e., economic constraints of pumping, fertilizing, etc.) used in conjunction with other factors, such as changes in climate for predicting changes in rural LULC; (11) Accurate prediction of rural LULC used to assess the effectiveness of government programs such as the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Conservation Reserve Program; and (12) Prediction of water demand based on rural LULC that can be related to rates of

  11. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  12. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In Belgium, during several decennia, a phosphate plant discharged radium chloride containing waste water into two small rivers. One of those is part of a hydrographically very complex ecosystem with lots of small tributaries and hundreds of hectares of flooding zones. Hence, the river banks and large parts of these flooding zones have become contaminated with radium, heavy metals and chlorides. During a foot campaign, using a home made portable data logging system, consisting of a commercial 2.5 kg NaI detector, a computer mouse sized GPS, and a small pocket PC, the radioactive contamination of about 600 ha of sometimes very rough terrain was measured and mapped. The resulting very detailed radium contamination maps shed a whole new light on the water flow patterns of the ecosystem. The apparatus can also be used for efficiently guiding sampling campaigns for investigating other types of contamination. The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods

  13. Similarity and accuracy of mental models formed during nursing handovers: A concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Broyer, Chaya; Dagan, Efrat

    2017-09-01

    Shared mental models are crucial for constructing mutual understanding of the patient's condition during a clinical handover. Yet, scant research, if any, has empirically explored mental models of the parties involved in a clinical handover. This study aimed to examine the similarities among mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses, and to test their accuracy by comparing them with mental models of expert nurses. A cross-sectional study, exploring nurses' mental models via the concept mapping technique. 40 clinical handovers. Data were collected via concept mapping of the incoming, outgoing, and expert nurses' mental models (total of 120 concept maps). Similarity and accuracy for concepts and associations indexes were calculated to compare the different maps. About one fifth of the concepts emerged in both outgoing and incoming nurses' concept maps (concept similarity=23%±10.6). Concept accuracy indexes were 35%±18.8 for incoming and 62%±19.6 for outgoing nurses' maps. Although incoming nurses absorbed fewer number of concepts and associations (23% and 12%, respectively), they partially closed the gap (35% and 22%, respectively) relative to expert nurses' maps. The correlations between concept similarities, and incoming as well as outgoing nurses' concept accuracy, were significant (r=0.43, p<0.01; r=0.68 p<0.01, respectively). Finally, in 90% of the maps, outgoing nurses added information concerning the processes enacted during the shift, beyond the expert nurses' gold standard. Two seemingly contradicting processes in the handover were identified. "Information loss", captured by the low similarity indexes among the mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses; and "information restoration", based on accuracy measures indexes among the mental models of the incoming nurses. Based on mental model theory, we propose possible explanations for these processes and derive implications for how to improve a clinical handover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 6: Cost, accuracy and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitude aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Fitzpatrick, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Level 2 land use maps produced at three scales (1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000) from high altitude photography were compared with each other and with point data obtained in the field. The same procedures were employed to determine the accuracy of the Level 1 land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. Accuracy of the Level 2 maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000 and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. Accuracy of the Level 1 1:250,000 maps was 76.5 percent for aerial photographs and 69.5 percent for ERTS imagery. The cost of Level 2 land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per sq km). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about two times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent.

  15. Detection and mapping of long-term land degradation and desertification in Arab region using MODESERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faour, GH.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the definition and formulation of a remotely sensed based monitoring system for land degradation and desertification. The main objective of this system is to identify processes of land degradation and desertification sensitive areas at regional scale. The proposed methodology relies on the use of time series NDVI images generated from remote sensing satellites for the regional assessment and monitoring of vegetation dynamics. Parametric model based on ordinary least-squares regression was developed and implemented through the use of MODESERT, an open-source software developed by the National Council for Scientific Research in Lebanon (CNRS). The study area covers the entire Arab World. Long term trends were derived using the GIMMS NDVI data set over the time period between 1982 and 2006. It is the longest series of NDVI product covering our regions. Three main classes, subdivided into seven groups,were established representing: moderately to highly sensitive areas, areas with no-significant change, moderately to highly developed areas. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to estimate the accuracy of the trend model; it generated a mean error at5-10%. Results indicatedthat more than 40% of the total MENA region weresensitive to land degradation and desertification. In contrast,only less than 5% of the region had witnessed positive changes in vegetation cover. The major drivers ofland degradation were mainly linked to climate variability and recurring drought and to less extent their sub-drivers such as forest firesand the poor socio economic development. Development in vegetation cover was found to occur at larger scalesin Southern Somalia, Sudan and Southern Iraq marshlands.This method could be applied to nationalscaleassessment. Using others satellites images (e.g. SPOT Vegetation, MOD13Q1, etc...) has alsopotential.This monitoring system is operational since 2007 and was validated through the publication of the biennial Arab

  16. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  17. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Browning, Zac

    2014-01-01

    Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1) an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2) a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  18. Mapping Land Cover and Estimating the Grassland Structure in a Priority Area of the Chihuahuan Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rodríguez-Maturino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field characterization of the grassland vegetation structure, represented by the coverage of grass canopy (CGC and the grass height, was carried out during three years (2009–2011 in a priority area for the conservation of grasslands of North America. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 images were selected and the information of reflectance was obtained based on the geographical location of each field-sampling site. Linear models, constructed with field and satellite data, with high coefficients of determination for CGC (R2 = 0.81, R2 = 0.81 and R2 = 0.72 and grass height (R2 = 0.82, R2 = 0.79 and R2 = 0.73 were obtained. The maps showed a good level of CGC (>25% and grass height (>25 cm, except for the year 2009, which presented the lowest values of grass height in the area. According to the Kappa Index, a moderate concordance among the three CGC maps was presented (0.49–0.59. Conversely, weak and moderate concordances were found among the grass height maps (0.36–0.59. It was observed that areas with a high CGC do not necessarily correspond to areas with greater grass height values. Based on the data analyzed in this study, the grassland areas are highly dynamic, structurally heterogeneous and the spatial distribution of the variables does not show a definite pattern. From the information generated, it is possible to determine those areas that are the most important for monitoring to then establish effective strategies for the conservation of these grasslands and the protection of threatened migratory bird species.

  19. Covariance of biophysical data with digital topograpic and land use maps over the FIFE site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F. W.; Schimel, D. S.; Friedl, M. A.; Michaelsen, J. C.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Dubayah, R.; Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the biophysical stratification of the FIFE site, implementation of the stratification utilizing geographic information system methods, and validation of the stratification with respect to field measurements of biomass, Bowen ratio, soil moisture, and the greenness vegetation index (GVI) derived from TM satellite data. Maps of burning and topographic position were significantly associated with variation in GVI, biomass, and Bowen ratio. The stratified design did not significantly alter the estimated site-wide means for surface climate parameters but accounted for between 25 and 45 percent of the sample variance depending on the variable.

  20. Clustering of Multi-Temporal Fully Polarimetric L-Band SAR Data for Agricultural Land Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiminia, H.; Homayouni, S.; Safari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the unique capabilities of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) sensors make them an important and efficient tool for natural resources and environmental applications, such as land cover and crop classification. The aim of this paper is to classify multi-temporal full polarimetric SAR data using kernel-based fuzzy C-means clustering method, over an agricultural region. This method starts with transforming input data into the higher dimensional space using kernel functions and then clustering them in the feature space. Feature space, due to its inherent properties, has the ability to take in account the nonlinear and complex nature of polarimetric data. Several SAR polarimetric features extracted using target decomposition algorithms. Features from Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi algorithms used as inputs for the clustering. This method was applied to multi-temporal UAVSAR L-band images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Canada, during June and July in 2012. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach with respect to the classical methods. In addition, using multi-temporal data in the clustering process helped to investigate the phenological cycle of plants and significantly improved the performance of agricultural land cover mapping.

  1. Using a Combined Platform of Swarm Intelligence Algorithms and GIS to Provide Land Suitability Maps for Locating Cardiac Rehabilitation Defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAFFASH-CHARANDABI, Neda; SADEGHI-NIARAKI, Abolghasem; PARK, Dong-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart is completely stopped and is not pumping any blood. Although most cardiac arrest cases are reported from homes or hospitals, about 20% occur in public areas. Therefore, these areas need to be investigated in terms of cardiac arrest incidence so that places of high incidence can be identified and cardiac rehabilitation defibrillators installed there. Methods: In order to investigate a study area in Petersburg, Pennsylvania State, and to determine appropriate places for installing defibrillators with 5-year period data, swarm intelligence algorithms were used. Moreover, the location of the defibrillators was determined based on the following five evaluation criteria: land use, altitude of the area, economic conditions, distance from hospitals and approximate areas of reported cases of cardiac arrest for public places that were created in geospatial information system (GIS). Results: The A-P HADEL algorithm results were more precise about 27.36%. The validation results indicated a wider coverage of real values and the verification results confirmed the faster and more exact optimization of the cost function in the PSO method. Conclusion: The study findings emphasize the necessity of applying optimal optimization methods along with GIS and precise selection of criteria in the selection of optimal locations for installing medical facilities because the selected algorithm and criteria dramatically affect the final responses. Meanwhile, providing land suitability maps for installing facilities across hot and risky spots has the potential to save many lives. PMID:26587471

  2. Toward an operational framework for fine-scale urban land-cover mapping in Wallonia using submeter remote sensing and ancillary vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Grippa, Tais; Lennert, Moritz; Vanhuysse, Sabine; Stephenne, Nathalie; Wolff, Eléonore

    2017-07-01

    Encouraged by the EU INSPIRE directive requirements and recommendations, the Walloon authorities, similar to other EU regional or national authorities, want to develop operational land-cover (LC) and land-use (LU) mapping methods using existing geodata. Urban planners and environmental monitoring stakeholders of Wallonia have to rely on outdated, mixed, and incomplete LC and LU information. The current reference map is 10-years old. The two object-based classification methods, i.e., a rule- and a classifier-based method, for detailed regional urban LC mapping are compared. The added value of using the different existing geospatial datasets in the process is assessed. This includes the comparison between satellite and aerial optical data in terms of mapping accuracies, visual quality of the map, costs, processing, data availability, and property rights. The combination of spectral, tridimensional, and vector data provides accuracy values close to 0.90 for mapping the LC into nine categories with a minimum mapping unit of 15 m2. Such a detailed LC map offers opportunities for fine-scale environmental and spatial planning activities. Still, the regional application poses challenges regarding automation, big data handling, and processing time, which are discussed.

  3. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  4. Thematic mapping, land use, geological structure and water resources in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascuevas, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The images can be positioned in an absolute reference system (geographical coordinates or polar stereographic coordinates) by means of their marginal indicators. By digital analysis of LANDSAT data and geometric positioning of pixels in UTM projection, accuracy was achieved for corrected MSS information which could be used for updating maps at scale 1:200,000 or smaller. Results show that adjustment of the UTM grid was better obtained by a first order, or even second order, algorithm of geometric correction. Digital analysis of LANDSAT data from the Madrid area showed that this line of study was promising for automatic classification of data applied to thematic cartography and soils identification.

  5. Linking Land Cover Data and Crop Yields for Mapping and Assessment of Pollination Services in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Paracchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key ecosystem service as many crops but in particular, fruits and vegetables are partially dependent on pollinating insects to produce food for human consumption. Here we assessed how pollination services are delivered at the European scale. We used this assessment to estimate the relative contribution of wild pollinators to crop production. We developed an index of relative pollination potential, which is defined as the relative potential or relative capacity of ecosystems to support crop pollination. The model for relative pollination potential is based on the assumption that different habitats, but in particular forest edges, grasslands rich in flowers and riparian areas, offer suitable sites for wild pollinator insects. Using data of the foraging range of wild bees with short flight distances, we linked relative pollination potential to regional statistics of crop production. At aggregated EU level, the absence of insect pollination would result in a reduction of between 25% and 32% of the total production of crops which are partially dependent on insect pollination, depending on the data source used for the assessment. This production deficit decreases to 2.5% if only the relative pollination potential of a single guild of pollinators is considered. A strength of our approach is the spatially-explicit link between land cover based relative pollination potential and crop yield which enables a general assessment of the benefits that are derived from pollination services in Europe while providing insight where pollination gaps in the landscape occur.

  6. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic, and geomorphic study of New Zealand; indigenous forest assessment in New Zealand; mapping, land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Mcgreevy, M. G.; Stirling, I. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The present resolution of LANDSAT precludes its use for topographic mapping at scales larger than 1:250,000. Encouraging potential was displayed for environmental and land use studies at scales up to 1:100,000.

  7. Approaching multidimensional forms of knowledge through Personal Meaning Mapping in science integrating teaching outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bolling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    knowledge dimensions is important, especially in science teaching outside the classroom, where “hands-on” approaches and experiments are often part of teaching and require procedural knowledge, among other things. Therefore, this study investigates PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions......Current research points to Personal Meaning Mapping (PMM) as a method useful in investigating students’ prior and current science knowledge. However, studies investigating PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions are lacking. Ensuring that students are able to access specific...... in formal science education integrating teaching outside the classroom. We applied a case study design involving two schools and four sixth-grade classes. Data were collected from six students in each class who constructed personal meaning maps and were interviewed immediately after natural science...

  8. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  9. Folk explanations of blood-lands: the map of massacres and bestial cruelties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Ramšak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood is not solely a body part and a medicinal substance; it’s likewise a metaphor for life. Blood as a social concept has mainly been explored as a symbol of kinship, genetic heritage and lineage, nationalism, race, taboo, in rituals, and blood dona- tions. Besides that, ethnic or national survival is also written on the map with bloody place-names. When the soil is soaked with blood of patriotic defenders and endangering others, the collective memory creates new bloody geographical names. They record the evidence of historically important harsh events, remind us of heroic battles, neighbouring antagonisms, or, provide an insight into religious changes in the area. The stories of violent killings and bloodshed in defence of a country, enriched with fears, imagination and prejudices towards the bloodthirsty foreign invaders, such as Turks or French, upset people’s blood. Though the base kri, blood, Blut, krvav, blutig is proportionally rare in Slovene toponymics, these geographical names describe historic episodes of groups and a nation. The tales about the origin of bloody place-names and about the horrific blood spill, which stops the blood in the veins, became a part of the nation’s cultural heritage.

  10. A Framework for Mapping User-Designed Forms to Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    In the quest for database usability, several applications enable users to design custom forms using a graphical interface, and forward engineer the forms into new databases. The path-breaking aspect of such applications is that users are completely shielded from the technicalities of database creation. Despite this innovation, the process of…

  11. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antonio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.

  12. Mapping the coverage of security controls in cyber insurance proposal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, D; Agrafiotis, I; Nurse, JRC; Creese, S

    2017-01-01

    Policy discussions often assume that wider adoption of cyber insurance will promote information security best practice. However, this depends on the process that applicants need to go through to apply for cyber insurance. A typical process would require an applicant to fill out a proposal form, which is a self-assessed questionnaire. In this paper, we examine 24 proposal forms, offered by insurers based in the UK and the US, to determine which security controls are present in the ...

  13. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) images (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images), RADARSAT images, aerial photography, and other data where available, to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) (Williams and others, 1995; Swithinbank and others, 2003a,b, 2004; Ferrigno and others, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and in press; and Williams and Ferrigno, 2005) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation

  15. Mapping soil erosion hotspots and assessing the potential impacts of land management practices in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, Lulseged; Adimassu, Zenebe; Ellison, James; Yaekob, Tesfaye; Woldearegay, Kifle; Mekonnen, Kindu; Thorne, Peter; Le, Quang Bao

    2017-09-01

    An enormous effort is underway in Ethiopia to address soil erosion and restore overall land productivity. Modelling and participatory approaches can be used to delineate erosion hotspots, plan site- and context-specific interventions and assess their impacts. In this study, we employed a modelling interface developed based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation adjusted by the sediment delivery ratio to map the spatial distribution of net soil loss and identify priority areas of intervention. Using the modelling interface, we also simulated the potential impacts of different soil and water conservation measures in reducing net soil loss. Model predictions showed that net soil loss in the study area ranges between 0.4 and 88 t ha- 1 yr- 1 with an average of 12 t ha- 1 yr- 1. The dominant soil erosion hotspots were associated with steep slopes, gullies, communal grazing and cultivated areas. The average soil loss observed in this study is higher than the tolerable soil loss rate estimated for the highland of Ethiopia. The scenario analysis results showed that targeting hotspot areas where soil loss exceeds 10 t ha- 1 yr- 1 could reduce net soil loss to the tolerable limit (interventions. Future work should include cost-benefit and tradeoff analyses of the various management options for achieving a given level of erosion reduction.

  16. A statistically based mapping of the influence of geology and land use on soil pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstrøm, Thomas; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Krüger, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    . The data have been analysed using statistical spatial analysis methods, and a model has been erected demonstrating areas of homogeneous low, high, or inhomogeneous pH values relative to deposits from different ice advances and regional variations in land use. The investigation shows that the major part......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the geographical distribution of pH values in Danish soils of different ages representing the main Saalian and Weichselian ice advances. The investigation is based on soil sampling from top- and subsoils in soil profiles located in a nationwide 7-km grid...... of Jutland is characterized by low pH values in the topsoils and subsoils compared to the islands east of the peninsula. This corresponds with the maximum extension of the Weichselian Young Baltic Ice Cap. A Hot Spot analysis carried out on regional and local scales shows that most of the Danish islands form...

  17. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  18. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  19. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA and change vector analysis (CVA methods for monitoring and mapping land degradation/desertification in arid and semiarid areas (Sudan, using Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim A.M. Salih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The severe Sahel catastrophe in 1968–1974 as well as repeated famines and food shortage that have hit many African countries during the 1970s have highlighted the need for further research concerning land degradation and environmental monitoring in arid and semi-arid areas. Land degradation, and desertification processes in arid and semi-arid environment were increased in the last four decades, especially in the developing countries like Sudan. To test to what extent remote sensing and geographical information science (GIS methodologies and techniques could be used for monitoring changes in arid and semi-arid regions and environment, these methodologies have long been suggested as a time and cost-efficient method. In this frame, spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA, Object-based oriented classification (Segmentation, and Change Vector Analysis are recently much recommended as a most suitable method for monitoring and mapping land cover changes in arid and semi-arid environment. Therefor the aim of this study is to use these methods and techniques for environmental monitoring with emphasis on desertification and to find model that can describe and map the status and rate of desertification processes and land cover changes in semi-arid areas in White Nile State (Sudan by using multi-temporal imagery of the Landsat satellite TM (1987, TM (2000, and ETM+ (2014 respectively. The paper also discusses and evaluates the efficiency of the adapted methodologies in monitoring the land degradation processes and changes in the arid and semi-arid regions.

  20. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of 100, 50-100 and development of the region downstream to the access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  1. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  2. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km ?? 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  3. Mapping and analysis land-use and land-cover changes during 1996-2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Fitri, A.; Harahap, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forest plays a significant role for biogeochemical carbon cycle in the context of climate change along the tropical coastal area. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes from 1996, 2006 and 2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove diversity in Lubuk Kertang consists of fifteen species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, A. lanata, A. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, L. littorea, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Xylocarpus granatum. The land use/land cover consists of seven classes namely, mangrove forest, river, residential, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, and open space area. A land use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest 109.4 ha from 1996-2006 converted to aquaculture 51.5 ha (47.1%). By contrast, mangrove lost 291.2 ha during 2006-2016, with main driver deforestation was oil palm plantation 128.1 ha (44%). During twenty years mangrove forest has been lost more than 400.4 ha, which is equal to 20.02 ha/year. On the other hand, oil palm plantation and aquaculture have been increased 155.3 ha and 114.1 ha during 1996-2016, respectively, suggested that both land-uses are mainly responsible for mangrove deforestation. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning and practice and mitigating actions for emission reduction scenario.

  4. Estimation and mapping of above-ground biomass of mangrove forests and their replacement land uses in the Philippines using Sentinel imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose Alan A.; Apan, Armando A.; Maraseni, Tek N.; Salmo, Severino G.

    2017-12-01

    The recent launch of the Sentinel-1 (SAR) and Sentinel-2 (multispectral) missions offers a new opportunity for land-based biomass mapping and monitoring especially in the tropics where deforestation is highest. Yet, unlike in agriculture and inland land uses, the use of Sentinel imagery has not been evaluated for biomass retrieval in mangrove forest and the non-forest land uses that replaced mangroves. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sentinel imagery for the retrieval and predictive mapping of above-ground biomass of mangroves and their replacement land uses. We used Sentinel SAR and multispectral imagery to develop biomass prediction models through the conventional linear regression and novel Machine Learning algorithms. We developed models each from SAR raw polarisation backscatter data, multispectral bands, vegetation indices, and canopy biophysical variables. The results show that the model based on biophysical variable Leaf Area Index (LAI) derived from Sentinel-2 was more accurate in predicting the overall above-ground biomass. In contrast, the model which utilised optical bands had the lowest accuracy. However, the SAR-based model was more accurate in predicting the biomass in the usually deficient to low vegetation cover non-forest replacement land uses such as abandoned aquaculture pond, cleared mangrove and abandoned salt pond. These models had 0.82-0.83 correlation/agreement of observed and predicted value, and root mean square error of 27.8-28.5 Mg ha-1. Among the Sentinel-2 multispectral bands, the red and red edge bands (bands 4, 5 and 7), combined with elevation data, were the best variable set combination for biomass prediction. The red edge-based Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index had the highest prediction accuracy among the vegetation indices. Overall, Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery can provide satisfactory results in the retrieval and predictive mapping of the above-ground biomass of mangroves and the replacement

  5. Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snopok, Pavel [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented

  6. Moving from proprietary to open-source solutions for academic research in remote sensing: Example with semi-automated land cover mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Grippa, Taïs

    2017-01-01

    GRASS GIS has recently experienced significant improvements for Object-Based Image Analysis. At ULB the choice was made to combine GRASS GIS and Python in a semi-automated processing chain for land-cover mapping. The later proved its ability of being quickly customized in order to match the requirements of different projects. In order to promote the OSGEO software, we decided to make it freely available, allowing anyone interested to review, reuse and/or enhance it for further studies.

  7. Spatiotemporal Built-up Land Density Mapping Using Various Spectral Indices in Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS (Case Study: Surakarta City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risky, Yanuar S.; Aulia, Yogi H.; Widayani, Prima

    2017-12-01

    Spectral indices variations support for rapid and accurate extracting information such as built-up density. However, the exact determination of spectral waves for built-up density extraction is lacking. This study explains and compares the capabilities of 5 variations of spectral indices in spatiotemporal built-up density mapping using Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS in Surakarta City on 2002 and 2015. The spectral indices variations used are 3 mid-infrared (MIR) based indices such as the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and Built-up and 2 visible based indices such as VrNIR-BI (visible red) and VgNIR-BI (visible green). Linear regression statistics between ground value samples from Google Earth image in 2002 and 2015 and spectral indices for determining built-up land density. Ground value used amounted to 27 samples for model and 7 samples for accuracy test. The classification of built-up density mapping is divided into 9 classes: unclassified, 0-12.5%, 12.5-25%, 25-37.5%, 37.5-50%, 50-62.5%, 62.5-75%, 75-87.5% and 87.5-100 %. Accuracy of built-up land density mapping in 2002 and 2015 using VrNIR-BI (81,823% and 73.235%), VgNIR-BI (78.934% and 69.028%), NDBI (34.870% and 74.365%), UI (43.273% and 64.398%) and Built-up (59.755% and 72.664%). Based all spectral indices, Surakarta City on 2000-2015 has increased of built-up land density. VgNIR-BI has better capabilities for built-up land density mapping on Landsat-7 ETM + and Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS.

  8. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  9. QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF OUTPUTS OF A NATIONWIDE AGRICULTURAL LAND COVER MAPPING PROGRAM USING LIDAR: PHIL-LIDAR 2 PARMAP EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Pagkalinawan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Resources Extraction from LiDAR Surveys (PARMAP project component of the Nationwide Detailed Resources Assessment using LiDAR (Phil-LiDAR 2 Program aims to produce detailed agricultural maps using LiDAR. Agricultural land cover at crop level was classified through object based image analysis using Support Vector Machine as classifier and LiDAR derivatives from point cloud (2 points per sq.m. and orthophoto (0.5-meter resolution as inputs. An accuracy of at least 90 %, assessed using validation points from the field and through image interpretation, was required before proceeding to post-processing and map lay-out. Knowledge sharing and capacity development facilitated by the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD enabled partner universities across the Philippines to produce outputs for their assigned region. Considering output layers were generated by multiple teams working on different landscape complexities with some degree of data quality variability, quality checking is crucial to ensure accuracy standards were met. UPD PARMap devised a centralized and end-to-end scheme divided into four steps – land classification, GIS post-processing, schema application, and map lay-out. At each step, a block is reviewed and, subsequently, either approved or returned with documentation on required revisions. Turnaround time of review is at least one block (area ranging from 10 to 580 sq. km. per day. For coastal municipalities, an additional integration process to incorporate mapped coastal features was applied. Common problems observed during quality checking include misclassifications, gaps between features, incomplete attributes and missing map elements. Some issues are particular to specific blocks such as problematic LiDAR derivatives. UPD addressed these problems through discussion and mentoring visits to partner universities. As of March 2017, a total of 336 municipal agricultural maps have been turned-over to various

  10. Towards an improved Land Surface Phenology mapping using a new MODIS product: A case study of Bavarian Forest National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gourav; Buras, Allan; Asam, Sarah; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Past work in remote sensing of land surface phenology have mapped vegetation cycles at multiple scales. Much has been discussed and debated about the uncertainties associated with the selection of data, data processing and the eventual conclusions drawn. Several studies do however provide evidence of strong links between different land surface phenology (LSP) metrics with specific ground phenology (GP) (Fisher and Mustard, 2007; Misra et al., 2016). Most importantly the use of high temporal and spatial resolution remote sensing data and ground truth information is critical for such studies. In this study, we use a higher temporal resolution 4 day MODIS NDVI product developed by EURAC (Asam et al., in prep) for the Bavarian Forest National Park during 2002-2015 period and extract various phenological metrics covering different phenophases of vegetation (start of season / sos and end of season / eos). We found the LSP-sos to be more strongly linked to the elevation of the area than LSP-eos which has been cited to be harder to detect (Stöckli et al., 2008). The LSP metrics were also correlated to GP information at 4 different stations covering elevations ranging from approx. 500 to 1500 metres. Results show that among the five dominant species in the area i.e. European ash, Norway spruce, European beech, Norway maple and orchard grass, only particular GP observations for some species show stronger correlations with LSP than others. Spatial variations in the LSP-GP correlations were also observed, with certain areas of the National Park showing positive correlations and others negative. An analysis of temporal trends of LSP also indicates the possibility to detect those areas in the National Park that were affected by extreme events. Further investigations are planned to explain the heterogeneity in the derived LSP metrics using high resolution ground truth data and multivariate statistical analyses. Acknowledgement: This research received funding from the Bavarian

  11. Land Cover Mapping using GEOBIA to Estimate Loss of Salacca zalacca Trees in Landslide Area of Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Anggi; Juniansah, Anwar; Nurcahyati, Eka; Dimas Afrizal, Mousafi; Adnan Shafry Untoro, Muhammad; Arifatha, Na'ima; Ramadhani Yudha Adiwijaya, Raden; Farda, Nur Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Landslide is an unpredictable natural disaster which commonly happens in highslope area. Aerial photography in small format is one of acquisition method that can reach and obtain high resolution spatial data faster than other methods, and provide data such as orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model (DSM). The study area contained landslide area in Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara. Aerial photographs of landslide area provided advantage in objects visibility. Object's characters such as shape, size, and texture were clearly seen, therefore GEOBIA (Geography Object Based Image Analysis) was compatible as method for classifying land cover in study area. Dissimilar with PPA (PerPixel Analyst) method that used spectral information as base object detection, GEOBIA could use spatial elements as classification basis to establish a land cover map with better accuracy. GEOBIA method used classification hierarchy to divide post disaster land cover into three main objects: vegetation, landslide/soil, and building. Those three were required to obtain more detailed information that can be used in estimating loss caused by landslide and establishing land cover map in landslide area. Estimating loss in landslide area related to damage in Salak (Salacca zalacca) plantations. This estimation towards quantity of Salak tree that were drifted away by landslide was calculated in assumption that every tree damaged by landslide had same age and production class with other tree that weren't damaged. Loss calculation was done by approximating quantity of damaged trees in landslide area with data of trees around area that were acquired from GEOBIA classification method.

  12. Report on the lands of the arid region of the United States with a more detailed account of the land of Utah with maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John Wesley

    1879-01-01

    A report from Maj. J. W.Powell, geologist in charge of the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, upon the lands of the Arid Region of the United States, setting forth the extent of said region, and making suggestions as to the conditions under which the lands embraced within its limit may be rendered available for agricultural and grazing purposes. With the report is transmitted a statement of the rainfall of the western portion of the United States, with reports upon the subject of irrigation by Capt. C. E. Button, U. S. A., Prof. A. H. Thompson, and Mr. G. K. Gilbert.

  13. Perubahan Lingkungan Mikro pada Berbagai Penutupan Lahan Hasil Revegetasi (Micro Environmental Change in Various Form Land Cover Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadan Mulyana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of land rehabilitation (revegetation activities is necessary for measuring the extent of success of the ongoing activities in rehabilitating and recovering degraded lands. One way for evaluating the success of land rehabilitation (revegetation is by determining the changes of micro enviroment.  The objective of this research was to study the changes of micro environment in  various types of revegetated land cover, including scrub/bush land (SB, agricultural land (TP, monoculture teak (JM and mixed crops (TC in Ciliwung upper watershed. Research results showed that the highest air temperature and soil temperature were  obtained at SB, respectively at 32.8 0C and 26.5 0C, and the lowest at TC, respectively at 28.1 0C and 20.7 0C. Relative humidity and soil moisture were highest at TC (72.3% and 96% and lowest at SB (60.8%, and the lowest soil moisture occurred at JM (45%.  The highest infiltration rate occurred on TP (475.5 mm h-1, very rapid, followed by JM (117 mmh-1, fast and TC (80 mm h-1, and the lowest at SB (17.65 mm h-1, medium slow.  Erosion reductions occurred after 6 years of the revegetation activities with the following  results:TC  (96,676.1 ton year-1 ha-1, JM (10,790 ton year-1 ha-1, TP and SB (52,867.9 ton year-1 ha-1 and 24,612.6 ton year-1 ha-1.  The micro environments for all land cover types were better after revegetation activities.Keywords: micro environment, land cover, erosion, infiltration, upper watershed

  14. Mapping and estimating land change between 2001 and 2013 in a heterogeneous landscape in West Africa: Loss of forestlands and capacity building opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Olofsson, Pontus; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Helmschrot, Joerg; Wala, Kpérkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2017-12-01

    In West Africa, accurate classification of land cover and land change remains a big challenge due to the patchy and heterogeneous nature of the landscape. Limited data availability, human resources and technical capacities, further exacerbate the challenge. The result is a region that is among the more understudied areas in the world, which in turn has resulted in a lack of appropriate information required for sustainable natural resources management. The objective of this paper is to explore open source software and easy-to-implement approaches to mapping and estimation of land change that are transferrable to local institutions to increase capacity in the region, and to provide updated information on the regional land surface dynamics. To achieve these objectives, stable land cover and land change between 2001 and 2013 in the Kara River Basin in Togo and Benin were mapped by direct multitemporal classification of Landsat data by parameterization and evaluation of two machine-learning algorithms. Areas of land cover and change were estimated by application of an unbiased estimator to sample data following international guidelines. A prerequisite for all tools and methods was implementation in an open source environment, and adherence to international guidelines for reporting land surface activities. Findings include a recommendation of the Random Forests algorithm as implemented in Orfeo Toolbox, and a stratified estimation protocol - all executed in the QGIS graphical use interface. It was found that despite an estimated reforestation of 10,0727 ± 3480 ha (95% confidence interval), the combined rate of forest and savannah loss amounted to 56,271 ± 9405 ha (representing a 16% loss of the forestlands present in 2001), resulting in a rather sharp net loss of forestlands in the study area. These dynamics had not been estimated prior to this study, and the results will provide useful information for decision making pertaining to natural resources management, land

  15. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF LAND AND ECOSYSTEM MAPPING. TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION 5 OF THE EUROPEAN BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY TO 2020 IN ITALY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Capotorti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the basic data and the methodological approach proposed for the implementation of Action 5 of the European Biodiversity Strategy in Italy. In particular, it focuses on a model for ecosystem mapping and characterisation at the country level that has been built with the interdisciplinary involvement of geobotanists, functional ecologists, forest scientists and zoologists. The first operational steps of the model are based on the cartographic integration between potential natural vegetation, biogeographic regions, and land cover maps. The final step entails characterising the mapped ecosystems in terms of Habitats Directive, local occurrence of threatened plant species and faunal components. The model is going to be tested in Italy, but should also be applied elsewhere in Mediterranean Europe, especially in those countries that have a comparable ecological complexity.

  16. A Tool for Creating Regionally Calibrated High-Resolution Land Cover Data Sets for the West African Sahel: Using Machine Learning to Scale Up Hand-Classified Maps in a Data-Sparse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Van Gordon, S.; Min, A.; Sullivan, J.; Weiner, Z.; Tappan, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using support vector machine (SVM) learning and high-accuracy hand-classified maps, we have developed a publicly available land cover classification tool for the West African Sahel. Our classifier produces high-resolution and regionally calibrated land cover maps for the Sahel, representing a significant contribution to the data available for this region. Global land cover products are unreliable for the Sahel, and accurate land cover data for the region are sparse. To address this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Regional Center for Agriculture, Hydrology and Meteorology (AGRHYMET) in Niger produced high-quality land cover maps for the region via hand-classification of Landsat images. This method produces highly accurate maps, but the time and labor required constrain the spatial and temporal resolution of the data products. By using these hand-classified maps alongside SVM techniques, we successfully increase the resolution of the land cover maps by 1-2 orders of magnitude, from 2km-decadal resolution to 30m-annual resolution. These high-resolution regionally calibrated land cover datasets, along with the classifier we developed to produce them, lay the foundation for major advances in studies of land surface processes in the region. These datasets will provide more accurate inputs for food security modeling, hydrologic modeling, analyses of land cover change and climate change adaptation efforts. The land cover classification tool we have developed will be publicly available for use in creating additional West Africa land cover datasets with future remote sensing data and can be adapted for use in other parts of the world.

  17. Land cover characterization and mapping of South America for the year 2010 using Landsat 30 m satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and accurate land cover and land cover change information is needed for South America because the continent is in constant flux, experiencing some of the highest rates of land cover change and forest loss in the world. The land cover data available for the entire continent are too coarse (250 m to 1 km) for resource managers, government and non-government organizations, and Earth scientists to develop conservation strategies, formulate resource management options, and monitor land cover dynamics. We used Landsat 30 m satellite data of 2010 and prepared the land cover database of South America using state-of-the-science remote sensing techniques. We produced regionally consistent and locally relevant land cover information by processing a large volume of data covering the entire continent. Our analysis revealed that in 2010, 50% of South America was covered by forests, 2.5% was covered by water, and 0.02% was covered by snow and ice. The percent forest area of South America varies from 9.5% in Uruguay to 96.5% in French Guiana. We used very high resolution (change database of South America with additional land cover classes is needed. The results from this study are useful for developing resource management strategies, formulating biodiversity conservation strategies, and regular land cover monitoring and forecasting.

  18. Mapping decadal land cover changes in the woodlands of north eastern Namibia using the Landsat satellite archive (1975-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Vladimir; Phinn, Stuart; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Woodland savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to intensive land uses. This study investigates the land cover changes over 108,038 km2 in NE Namibia using multi-sensor Landsat imagery, at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method and supervised Regression Tree classifiers. We discuss likely impacts of land tenure and reforms over the past four decades on changes in land use and land cover. These included losses, gains and exchanges between predominant land cover classes. Exchanges comprised logical conversions between woodland and agricultural classes, implying woodland clearing for arable farming, cropland abandonment and vegetation succession. The dominant change was a reduction in the area of the woodland class due to the expansion of the agricultural class, specifically, small-scale cereal and pastoral production. Woodland area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2014, while cleared land increased from 9% to 14%. We found that the main land cover changes are conversion from woodland to agricultural and urban land uses, driven by urban expansion and woodland clearing for subsistence-based agriculture and pastoralism.

  19. Mapping rock forming minerals at Boundary Canyon, Death Valey National Park, California, using aerial SEBASS thermal infrared hyperspectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslett, Zan; Taranik, James V.; Riley, Dean N.

    2018-02-01

    Aerial spatially enhanced broadband array spectrograph system (SEBASS) long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral image data were used to map the distribution of rock-forming minerals indicative of sedimentary and meta-sedimentary lithologies around Boundary Canyon, Death Valley, California, USA. Collection of data over the Boundary Canyon detachment fault (BCDF) facilitated measurement of numerous lithologies representing a contact between the relatively unmetamorphosed Grapevine Mountains allochthon and the metamorphosed core complex of the Funeral Mountains autochthon. These included quartz-rich sandstone, quartzite, conglomerate, and alluvium; muscovite-rich schist, siltstone, and slate; and carbonate-rich dolomite, limestone, and marble, ranging in age from late Precambrian to Quaternary. Hyperspectral data were reduced in dimensionality and processed to statistically identify and map unique emissivity spectra endmembers. Some minerals (e.g., quartz and muscovite) dominate multiple lithologies, resulting in a limited ability to differentiate them. Abrupt variations in image data emissivity amongst pelitic schists corresponded to amphibolite; these rocks represent gradation from greenschist- to amphibolite-metamorphic facies lithologies. Although the full potential of LWIR hyperspectral image data may not be fully utilized within this study area due to lack of measurable spectral distinction between rocks of similar bulk mineralogy, the high spectral resolution of the image data was useful in characterizing silicate- and carbonate-based sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in proximity to fault contacts, as well as for interpreting some mineral mixtures.

  20. The role of GIS and remote sensing in land degradation assessment and conservation mapping: some user experiences and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynden, van G.W.J.; Mantel, S.

    2001-01-01

    Planning strategies for sustainable land management require solid base line data on natural resources (soils, physiography, climate, vegetation, land use, etc.) and on socio-economic aspects. GIS and remote sensing have an important role in linkage and analysis of such data, in particular for

  1. A review of the application of optical and radar remote sensing data fusion to land use mapping and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Neha; Baumann, Matthias; Ehammer, Andrea; Reiche, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of complementary data available from remote sensing missions can hugely aid efforts towards accurately determining land use and quantifying subtle changes in land use management or intensity. This study reviewed 112 studies on fusing optical and radar data, which offer unique spectral

  2. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  3. Land cover mapping at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands, New Mexico, USA using multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrefat, Habes A.; Goodell, Philip C.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this research is to map land cover patterns and to detect changes that occurred at Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero, White Sands using multispectral Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and hyperspectral Hyperion and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The other objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the information dimensionality limits of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, ALI, Hyperion, and AVIRIS data with respect to signal-to-noise and spectral resolution, (2) to determine the spatial distribution and fractional abundances of land cover endmembers, and (3) to check ground correspondence with satellite data. A better understanding of the spatial and spectral resolution of these sensors, optimum spectral bands and their information contents, appropriate image processing methods, spectral signatures of land cover classes, and atmospheric effects are needed to our ability to detect and map minerals from space. Image spectra were validated using samples collected from various localities across Alkali Flat and Lake Lucero. These samples were measured in the laboratory using VNIR-SWIR (0.4-2.5 μm) spectra and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. Dry gypsum deposits, wet gypsum deposits, standing water, green vegetation, and clastic alluvial sediments dominated by mixtures of ferric iron (ferricrete) and calcite were identified in the study area using Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Pixel Purity Index (PPI), and n-D Visualization. The results of MNF confirm that AVIRIS and Hyperion data have higher information dimensionality thresholds exceeding the number of available bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, and ALI data. ASTER and ALI data can be a reasonable alternative to AVIRIS and Hyperion data for the purpose of monitoring land cover, hydrology and sedimentation in the basin. The spectral unmixing analysis and dimensionality eigen

  4. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  5. Support Vector Data Description Model to Map Specific Land Cover with Optimal Parameters Determined from a Window-Based Validation Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshui Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an approach, the window-based validation set for support vector data description (WVS-SVDD, to determine optimal parameters for support vector data description (SVDD model to map specific land cover by integrating training and window-based validation sets. Compared to the conventional approach where the validation set included target and outlier pixels selected visually and randomly, the validation set derived from WVS-SVDD constructed a tightened hypersphere because of the compact constraint by the outlier pixels which were located neighboring to the target class in the spectral feature space. The overall accuracies for wheat and bare land achieved were as high as 89.25% and 83.65%, respectively. However, target class was underestimated because the validation set covers only a small fraction of the heterogeneous spectra of the target class. The different window sizes were then tested to acquire more wheat pixels for validation set. The results showed that classification accuracy increased with the increasing window size and the overall accuracies were higher than 88% at all window size scales. Moreover, WVS-SVDD showed much less sensitivity to the untrained classes than the multi-class support vector machine (SVM method. Therefore, the developed method showed its merits using the optimal parameters, tradeoff coefficient (C and kernel width (s, in mapping homogeneous specific land cover.

  6. Intercoder Reliability of Mapping Between Pharmaceutical Dose Forms in the German Medication Plan and EDQM Standard Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Julian; Becker, Kim; Ludmann, Dominik; Pantazoglou, Elisabeth; Dewenter, Heike; Thun, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    A nationally uniform medication plan has recently been part of German legislation. The specification for the German medication plan was developed in cooperation between various stakeholders of the healthcare system. Its' goal is to enhance usability and interoperability while also providing patients and physicians with the necessary information they require for a safe and high-quality therapy. Within the research and development project named Medication Plan PLUS, the specification of the medication plan was tested and reviewed for semantic interoperability in particular. In this study, the list of pharmaceutical dose forms provided in the specification was mapped to the standard terms of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare by different coders. The level of agreement between coders was calculated using Cohen's Kappa (κ). Results show that less than half of the dose forms could be coded with EDQM standard terms. In addition to that Kappa was found to be moderate, which means rather unconvincing agreement among coders. In conclusion, there is still vast room for improvement in utilization of standardized international vocabulary and unused potential considering cross-border eHealth implementations in the future.

  7. Mapping local structural perturbations in the native state of stefin B (cystatin B under amyloid forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eParamore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike a number of amyloid-forming proteins, stefins, in particular stefin B (cystatin B form amyloids under conditions where the native state predominates. In order to trigger oligomerization processes, the stability of the protein needs to be compromised, favoring structural re-arrangement however, accelerating fibril formation is not a simple function of protein stability. We report here on how optimal conditions for amyloid formation lead to the destabilization of dimeric and tetrameric states of the protein in favor of the monomer. Small, highly localized structural changes can be mapped out that allow us to visualize directly areas of the protein which eventually become responsible for triggering amyloid formation. These regions of the protein overlap with the Cu (II-binding sites which we identify here for the first time. We hypothesize that in vivo modulators of amyloid formation may act similarly to painstakingly optimized solvent conditions developed in vitro. We discuss these data in the light of current structural models of stefin B amyloid fibrils based on H-exchange data, where the detachment of the helical part and the extension of loops were observed.

  8. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. Part 4: Review of land use surveys using orbital imagery outside of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Outside the U.S., various attempts were made to investigate the feasibility of utilizing orbital MSS imagery in the production of small scale land use maps. Overall, these studies are not as elaborate or extensive in their scope as the U.S. ones, and generally the non-U.S. investigators have employed nonsophisticated and less expensive techniques. A representative range of studies is presented to demonstrate the approaches and trends dealing with reprocessing, interpretation, classification, sampling, and ground truth procedures.

  9. Interpolation of GPS and Geological Data Using InSAR Deformation Maps: Method and Application to Land Subsidence in the Alto Guadalentín Aquifer (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Béjar-Pizarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence resulting from groundwater extractions is a global phenomenon adversely affecting many regions worldwide. Understanding the governing processes and mitigating associated hazards require knowing the spatial distribution of the implicated factors (piezometric levels, lithology, ground deformation, usually only known at discrete locations. Here, we propose a methodology based on the Kriging with External Drift (KED approach to interpolate sparse point measurements of variables influencing land subsidence using high density InSAR measurements. In our study, located in the Alto Guadalentín basin, SE Spain, these variables are GPS vertical velocities and the thickness of compressible soils. First, we estimate InSAR and GPS rates of subsidence covering the periods 2003–2010 and 2004–2013, respectively. Then, we apply the KED method to the discrete variables. The resulting continuous GPS velocity map shows maximum subsidence rates of 13 cm/year in the center of the basin, in agreement with previous studies. The compressible deposits thickness map is significantly improved. We also test the coherence of Sentinel-1 data in the study region and evaluate the applicability of this methodology with the new satellite, which will improve the monitoring of aquifer-related subsidence and the mapping of variables governing this phenomenon.

  10. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Valent P.; Rončák P.; Maliariková M.; Behan Š.

    2016-01-01

    The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has ...

  11. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography, and map sources: Compatibility, accuracy, and cost. Remote Sensing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Regional planning agencies are currently expressing a need for detailed land cover/use information to effectively meet the requirements of various federal programs. Individual data sources have advantages and limitations in fulfilling this need, both in terms of time/cost and technological capability. A methodology has been developed to merge land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography and map sources to maximize the effective use of a variety of data sources in the provision of an integrated information system for regional analysis. A test of the proposed inventory method is currently under way in four central Michigan townships. This test will evaluate the compatibility, accuracy and cost of the integrated method with reference to inventories developed from a single data source, and determine both the technological feasibility and analytical potential of such a system.

  12. Assessment and mapping of tradeoffs land uses in the Orangutan habitat: A case Pongo pygmeus pygmeus habitat of West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, P. G.; Supriatna, J.; Koestoer, R. H.; Harmantyo, D.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to analyse trade-offs among 6 (six) types of dominant land uses to consider Orangutan livelihood and landscape sustainability. The results of this study assists landscape's planners and policy makers for selecting development scenarios as well as policy within the landscape, especially to reduce human and wildlife conflict as impact of development. This study was conducted in Orangutan sub species Pongo pygmeus pygmeus habitat in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Net present value analysis was applied to identify economic profit of land uses and also perspective of expert judgment was applied to identify suitability of the land uses to Orangutan livelihood. The study shows that palm oil plantation was the dominant land use type in non-forest area category and natural forest is in forest area category within the site. Palm oil contributed highest economic profit (average IDR 11 Million per year) compared to other land use types, and thus the worst land use type for supporting Orangutan conservation; index suitability for Orangutan achieved only 21.8. The development of agroforestry which planted more than 3 valuable economic commodities is used as an alternative in forest buffer area development that can provide better gain for economic and Orangutan conservation with index suitability for Orangutan was 43.5. In achieving sustainability at the landscape level, it needs to consider the sustainability of the umbrella species, such as Orangutan. The existence of the umbrella species would also protect other biodiversity, forest and its environmental services.

  13. Fallow land mapping for better crop monitoring in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using HJ-1 CCD data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miao; Wu, Bingfang; Meng, Jihua; Dong, Taifeng; You, Xingzhi

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of grain production is essential for socio-economic development planning, guidance and control of macro cropping structure adjustment. Fallow areas should be identified each growing season which is critical for grain production prediction. This paper focuses on fallow arable land monitoring during summer grain season in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain using China Environment Satellite HJ-1 CCD data. With the two satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, high temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be obtained. HJ-1 CCD data were acquired from early March to early June in 2010 over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. Multi-temporal HJ-1 CCD data were pre-processed and time series of NDVI were derived. An algorithm for separating cropped and fallow areas was developed based on three key periods of NDVI in early-March, mid-April and mid-May, 2010. The influence of fallow arable lands to yield estimation and crop condition monitoring over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were also investigated and analyzed. Preliminary results in this paper showed that HJ-1 CCD data are capable for fallow land monitoring. Information of fallow arable lands is an essential part of crop monitoring and it should be incorporated into crop monitoring systems. In the future, the fallow lands over autumn grain season should also be identified and information of fallow arable lands should be generated yearly in order to get more reliable production prediction

  14. Determination of wetland ecosystem boundaries and validation of land use maps using remote sensing: Fuente de Piedra case study (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Malak, Dania Abdul; Schröder, Christoph; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques (SRS) are valid tools for wetland monitoring that could support wetland managers in assessing the spatial and temporal changes in wetland ecosystems as well as in understanding their condition and the ecosystem services they provide. This study focuses on the one hand, on drawing hydro-ecological guidelines for the delimitation of wetland ecosystems; and on the other hand, to assess the reliability of widely available satellite images (Landsat) in estimating the land use/ land cover types covering wetlands. This research develops comprehensive guidelines to determine the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem located in Andalusia, Spain and defines the main land use/ land cover classes covering this ecosystem using Landsat 8 images. An accuracy of the SRS results delivered is tested using the regional inventory of land use produced by the regional government of Andalusia in 2011. By using the ecological and hydrological settings of the area, the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem are determined as an alternative to improve the current delimitations methodology (the Ramsar and Natura 2000 delineations), used by the local authorities so far and based mainly on administrative reasoning. In terms of the land use land cover definition in the area, Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem shows to cover a total area of 195 km2 composed mainly by agricultural areas (81.46%): olive groves, non-irrigated arable land and pastures, being 54.82%, 25.71% and 0.93% of the surface respectively. Wetland related land covers (water surface, wetland vegetation) represent 6.85% while natural vegetation is distributed in forest, 1.67%, and shrub areas, 4.14%, being 5.81% in total. 4.58% of the area corresponds to urban and other artificial surfaces. The rest, 1.30%, is composed of different areas without vegetation (sands, bare rock, dumps, etc.). The classification of the Landsat images made with the newly developed SWOS toolbox

  15. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations in a hierarchical cognitive map formed by theta phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2009-06-01

    The human cognitive map is known to be hierarchically organized consisting of a set of perceptually clustered landmarks. Patient studies have demonstrated that these cognitive maps are maintained by the hippocampus, while the neural dynamics are still poorly understood. The authors have shown that the neural dynamic "theta phase precession" observed in the rodent hippocampus may be capable of forming hierarchical cognitive maps in humans. In the model, a visual input sequence consisting of object and scene features in the central and peripheral visual fields, respectively, results in the formation of a hierarchical cognitive map for object-place associations. Surprisingly, it is possible for such a complex memory structure to be formed in a few seconds. In this paper, we evaluate the memory retrieval of object-place associations in the hierarchical network formed by theta phase precession. The results show that multiple object-place associations can be retrieved with the initial cue of a scene input. Importantly, according to the wide-to-narrow unidirectional connections among scene units, the spatial area for object-place retrieval can be controlled by the spatial area of the initial cue input. These results indicate that the hierarchical cognitive maps have computational advantages on a spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations. Theta phase precession dynamics is suggested as a fundamental neural mechanism of the human cognitive map.

  17. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  18. An operational methodology for riparian land cover fine scale regional mapping for the study of landscape influence on river ecological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, T.; Kosuth, P.; Souchon, Y.; Villeneuve, B.; Durrieu, S.; Chandesris, A.

    2010-12-01

    Preservation and restoration of river ecosystems require an improved understanding of the mechanisms through which they are influenced by landscape at multiple spatial scales and particularly at river corridor scale considering the role of riparian vegetation for regulating and protecting river ecological status and the relevance of this specific area for implementing efficient and realistic strategies. Assessing correctly this influence over large river networks involves accurate broad scale (i.e. at least regional) information on Land Cover within Riparian Areas (LCRA). As the structure of land cover along rivers is generally not accessible using moderate-scale satellite imagery, finer spatial resolution imagery and specific mapping techniques are needed. For this purpose we developed a generic multi-scale Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) scheme able to produce LCRA maps in different geographic context by exploiting information available from very high spatial resolution imagery (satellite or airborne) and/or metric to decametric spatial thematic data on a given study zone thanks to fuzzy expert knowledge classification rules. A first experimentation was carried out on the Herault river watershed (southern of France), a 2650 square kilometers basin that presents a contrasted landscape (different ecoregions) and a total stream length of 1150 Km, using high and very high multispectral remotely-sensed images (10m Spot5 multispectral images and 0.5m aerial photography) and existing spatial thematic data. Application of the OBIA scheme produced a detailed (22 classes) LCRA map with an overall accuracy of 89% and a Kappa index of 83% according to a land cover pressures typology (six categories). A second experimentation (using the same data sources) was carried out on a larger test zone, a part of the Normandy river network (25 000 square kilometers basin; 6000 km long river network; 155 ecological stations). This second work aimed at elaborating a robust statistical

  19. The factors forming investor’s failure: Is financial literacy a matter? Viewing test by cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amari Mouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply cognitive map-related techniques to extract causal knowledge from a specific problem domain. This paper proposes to draw an average cognitive map in order to identify the failure factors of the Tunisian small investors. Our paper extends traditional and behavioral finance and previous research by proposing a new approach to building an average cognitive map for the explanation of small investors’ failure in the stock market.

  20. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  1. Full-scale experimental and numerical study about structural behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground settlements due to land subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ortiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence due to ground water withdrawal is a problem in many places around the world (Poland, 1984. This causes differential ground settlements that affect masonry structures, because these structural materials do not exhibit an adequate performance beyond a certain level of angular distortion. This work presents the experimental and numerical results about a study regarding the performance of a full-scale thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground differential settlements due to land subsidence. The experimental stage consisted in the construction of a test-building to be subjected to differential settlements in laboratory. The numerical stage consisted in performing a numerical non-linear static pull-down analysis simulating the differential ground settlements of the test-building. The results show that the structural performance of the tested building was very suitable in terms of ductility.

  2. Mapping the base of sand dunes using a new design of land-streamer for static correction applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almalki, H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    The complex near-surface structure is a major problem in land seismic data. This is more critical when data acquisition takes place over sand dune surfaces, where the base of the sand acts as a trap for energy and, depending on its shape, can

  3. Mapping wildland fuels and forest structure for land management: a comparison of nearest neighbor imputation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann; Michael C. Wimberly; Matthew J. Gregory; Jeremy S. Fried

    2009-01-01

    Land managers need consistent information about the geographic distribution of wildland fuels and forest structure over large areas to evaluate fire risk and plan fuel treatments. We compared spatial predictions for 12 fuel and forest structure variables across three regions in the western United States using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) imputation, linear models (...

  4. Multi-Temporal Landslide Susceptibility Maps and Future Scenarios for Expected Land Cover Changes (Southern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, Luca; Zumpano, Veronica; Malek, Ziga; Micu, Mihai; Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Parise, Mario; Mikoš, Matjaž; Vilímek, Vít; Yin, Yueping; Sassa, Kyoji

    2017-01-01

    Human activities, including extensive land use practices, such as deforestation and intensive cultivation, may severely affect the landscape, and have caused important changes to the extent of natural forests during the last century in Southern Italy. Such changes had a strong influence on the

  5. Mapping the base of sand dunes using a new design of land-streamer for static correction applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almalki, H.

    2012-05-16

    The complex near-surface structure is a major problem in land seismic data. This is more critical when data acquisition takes place over sand dune surfaces, where the base of the sand acts as a trap for energy and, depending on its shape, can considerably distort conventionally acquired seismic data. Estimating the base of the sand dune surface can help model the sand dune and reduce its harmful influence on conventional seismic data. Among the current methods to do so are drilling upholes and using conventional seismic data to apply static correction. Both methods have costs and limitations. For upholes, the cost factor and their inability to provide a continuous model is well realized. Meanwhile, conventional seismic data lack the resolution necessary to obtain accurate modeling of the sand basement. We developed a method to estimate the sand base from land-streamer seismic acquisition that is developed and geared to sand surfaces. Seismic data acquisition took place over a sand surface in the Al-Thumamah area, where an uphole is located, using the developed land-streamer and conventional spiked geophone systems. Land-streamer acquisition not only provides a more efficient data acquisition system than the conventional spiked geophone approach, but also in our case, the land-streamer provided better quality data with a broader frequency bandwidth. Such data enabled us to do accurate near-surface velocity estimation that resulted in velocities that are very close to those measured using uphole methods. This fact is demonstrated on multiple lines acquired near upholes, and agreement between the seismic velocities and the upholes is high. The stacked depth seismic section shows three layers. The interface between the first and second layers is located at 7 m depth, while the interface between second and third layers is located at 68 m depth, which agrees with the uphole result. 2012 The Author(s).

  6. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs, were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this

  7. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raciti, Steve M.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Newell, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha −1 ) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha −1 ), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha −1 ) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha −1 ) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R 2 = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R 2 = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston

  8. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raciti, Steve M., E-mail: Steve.M.Raciti@Hofstra.edu [Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Gittleson Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549 (United States); Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hutyra, Lucy R.; Newell, Jared D. [Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha{sup −1}), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha{sup −1}) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R{sup 2} = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R{sup 2} = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic

  9. Updated global soil map for the Weather Research and Forecasting model and soil moisture initialization for the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DY, C. Y.; Fung, J. C. H.

    2016-08-01

    A meteorological model requires accurate initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain realistic numerical weather predictions. The land surface controls the surface heat and moisture exchanges, which can be determined by the physical properties of the soil and soil state variables, subsequently exerting an effect on the boundary layer meteorology. The initial and boundary conditions of soil moisture are currently obtained via National Centers for Environmental Prediction FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis data, which are collected operationally in 1° by 1° resolutions every 6 h. Another input to the model is the soil map generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (FAO-UNESCO) soil database, which combines several soil surveys from around the world. Both soil moisture from the FNL analysis data and the default soil map lack accuracy and feature coarse resolutions, particularly for certain areas of China. In this study, we update the global soil map with data from Beijing Normal University in 1 km by 1 km grids and propose an alternative method of soil moisture initialization. Simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that spinning-up the soil moisture improves near-surface temperature and relative humidity prediction using different types of soil moisture initialization. Explanations of that improvement and improvement of the planetary boundary layer height in performing process analysis are provided.

  10. 2011 Landings statistics and fishing activity maps based on VMS and logbook data of the Dutch fishing fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coers, A.; Hintzen, N.T.

    2012-01-01

    The current request for data and maps is in the context of informing the offshore wind farm Project called Hornsea, in which Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd. currently is engaged. Poseidon is a company of fisheries consultants, specializing in the development of sustainable fisheries and

  11. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  12. Maps From Mud—Using the Multiple Scenario Approach to Reconstruct Land Cover Dynamics From Pollen Records: A Case Study of Two Neolithic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jane Bunting

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen records contain a wide range of information about past land cover, but translation from the pollen diagram to other formats remains a challenge. In this paper, we present LandPolFlow, a software package enabling Multiple Scenario Approach (MSA based land cover reconstruction from pollen records for specific landscapes. It has two components: a basic Geographic Information System which takes grids of landscape constraints (e.g., topography, geology and generates possible “scenarios” of past land cover using a combination of probabilistic and deterministic placement rules to distribute defined plant communities within the landscape, and a pollen dispersal and deposition model which simulates pollen loading at specified points within each scenario and compares that statistically with actual pollen assemblages from the same location. Goodness of fit statistics from multiple pollen site locations are used to identify which scenarios are likely reconstructions of past land cover. We apply this approach to two case studies of Neolithisation in Britain, the first from the Somerset Levels and Moors and the second from Mainland, Orkney. Both landscapes contain significant evidence of Neolithic activity, but present contrasting contexts. In Somerset, wet-preserved Neolithic remains such as trackways are abundant, but little dry land settlement archaeology is known, and the pre-Neolithic landscape was extensively wooded. In Orkney, the Neolithic archaeology includes domestic and monumental stone-built structures forming a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the pre-Neolithic landscape was largely treeless. Existing pollen records were collated from both landscapes and correlated within new chronological frameworks (presented elsewhere. This allowed pollen data to be grouped into 200 year periods, or “timeslices,” for reconstruction of land cover through time using the MSA. Reconstruction suggests that subtle but clear and persistent impacts of

  13. It's time for a crisper image of the Face of the Earth: Landsat and climate time series for massive land cover & climate change mapping at detailed resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Xavier; Miquel, Ninyerola; Oscar, González-Guerrero; Cristina, Cea; Pere, Serra; Alaitz, Zabala; Lluís, Pesquer; Ivette, Serral; Joan, Masó; Cristina, Domingo; Maria, Serra Josep; Jordi, Cristóbal; Chris, Hain; Martha, Anderson; Juanjo, Vidal

    2014-05-01

    Combining climate dynamics and land cover at a relative coarse resolution allows a very interesting approach to global studies, because in many cases these studies are based on a quite high temporal resolution, but they may be limited in large areas like the Mediterranean. However, the current availability of long time series of Landsat imagery and spatially detailed surface climate models allow thinking on global databases improving the results of mapping in areas with a complex history of landscape dynamics, characterized by fragmentation, or areas where relief creates intricate climate patterns that can be hardly monitored or modeled at coarse spatial resolutions. DinaCliVe (supported by the Spanish Government and ERDF, and by the Catalan Government, under grants CGL2012-33927 and SGR2009-1511) is the name of the project that aims analyzing land cover and land use dynamics as well as vegetation stress, with a particular emphasis on droughts, and the role that climate variation may have had in such phenomena. To meet this objective is proposed to design a massive database from long time series of Landsat land cover products (grouped in quinquennia) and monthly climate records (in situ climate data) for the Iberian Peninsula (582,000 km2). The whole area encompasses 47 Landsat WRS2 scenes (Landsat 4 to 8 missions, from path 197 to 202 and from rows 30 to 34), and 52 Landsat WRS1 scenes (for the previous Landsat missions, 212 to 221 and 30 to 34). Therefore, a mean of 49.5 Landsat scenes, 8 quinquennia per scene and a about 6 dates per quinquennium , from 1975 to present, produces around 2376 sets resulting in 30 m x 30 m spatial resolution maps. Each set is composed by highly coherent geometric and radiometric multispectral and multitemporal (to account for phenology) imagery as well as vegetation and wetness indexes, and several derived topographic information (about 10 Tbyte of data). Furthermore, on the basis on a previous work: the Digital Climatic Atlas of

  14. SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, LIFE FORMS AND FOLK NOMENCLATURE OF FOREST AND COMMON LAND PLANTS OF WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangol, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper enumerates 349 plant species belonging to 77 families of vascular plants collected in the winter seasons of 1996 and 2000 by the flora teams of the Population and Ecology Research Laboratory, Nepal. Of the total species, 249 species belong to dicotyledons, 87 species to monocotyledons and 13 species to pteridophytes. Among the families, dicotyledons contributed the highest number of families (55 in number) followed by monocotyledons and pteridophytes. In the study areas, species composition varies with the type of habitats in the study plots. Some species are unique in distribution. The highest unique species are contributed by common lands (87 spp.), followed by the Chitwan National Park forest (36 spp.) and Tikauli forest (32 spp.). Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees, Saccharum spontaneum L. and Thelypteris auriculata (J. Sm.) K. Iwats are the most common species across all the research blocks. Of the listed plants, many plants have local names either in Nepalese or other tribal languages. Plants are named in different ways on the basis of habit, habitat, smell, taste, and morphological characters of the plants, which are also the basis of nomenclature in plant taxonomy. PMID:22962539

  15. Mapping the Forest Type and Land Cover of Puerto Rico, a Component of the Caribbean Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eileen Helmer; Olga Ramos; T. DEL M. LÓPEZ; Maya Quinones; W. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    The Caribbean is one of the world’s centers of biodiversity and endemism. As in similar regions, many of its islands have complex topography, climate and soils, and ecological zones change over small areas. A segmented, supervised classification approach using Landsat TM imagery enabled us to develop the most detailed island-wide map of Puerto Rico’s extremely complex...

  16. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  17. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Newell, Jared D

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355Gg (28.8MgCha(-1)) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7MgCha(-1)), but residential (32.8MgCha(-1)) and developed open (23.5MgCha(-1)) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R(2)=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R(2)=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances

  18. Mapping Carbon Storage in Urban Trees with Multi-source Remote Sensing Data: Relationships between Biomass, Land Use, and Demographics in Boston Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assess the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compare our results with lower resolution estimates, and explore the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha-1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha-1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha-1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha-1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances in

  19. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and

  20. An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D.

    1974-01-01

    A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

  1. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  2. Comparative analysis of extracted heights from topographic maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic maps represent the three-dimensional landscape by providing relief information in the form of contours in addition to plan information on which natural and man-made landmarks are quite accurately represented. Height information, extractible from topographic maps, comes in handy for most land use planning.

  3. Extraction of the predisposition parameters for mapping the susceptibility of slides lands, in the region of EL Quola, province of Larache (Nothern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hamdouni Ikram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Slide lands (Lands mass movements are among the natural risks that Morocco faces in the Rifaines regions in particular. They generally constitute small-scale, punctual phenomena. But their diversity and frequency are nevertheless responsible for significant and costly damages and injuries. To deal with this problem, the study of field instabilities must take into account that: ithe ground movements must be taken in a context of the overall dynamics of the watershed, ii-the choice of more objective methods, which is not based on the very subjective opinion of the expert; iii-the choice of an adapted approach to the scale of work. In this article, we used the evidence theory "WofE" to evaluate the sensibility of landslide in the El Quola area. This method is based on the analysis of the relationships between landslides that occurred in the past (the so-called modelable variable Vm and the spatial distribution of some predictive parameters of instability (Vp. The result obtained is a landslide susceptibility map that is the result of multi-disciplinary and multi-temporal data. This method has been described as one of the most performing by several authors; however, it requires a conditional independence between the different predictive factors. The quality of the performances was evaluated with success curves.

  4. Digital mapping of soil properties in Zala County, Hungary for the support of county-level spatial planning and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Szatmári, Gábor; Fodor, Nándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József; Illés, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized DSM products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. Impact assessment of the forecasted climate change and the analysis of the possibilities of the adaptation in the agriculture and forestry can be supported by scenario based land management modelling, whose results can be incorporated in spatial planning. This framework requires adequate, preferably timely and spatially detailed knowledge of the soil cover. For the satisfaction of these demands in Zala County (one of the nineteen counties of Hungary), the soil conditions of the agricultural areas were digitally mapped based on the most detailed, available recent and legacy soil data. The agri-environmental conditions were characterized according to the 1:10,000 scale genetic soil mapping methodology and the category system applied in the Hungarian soil-agricultural chemistry practice. The factors constraining the fertility of soils were featured according to the biophysical criteria system elaborated for the delimitation of naturally handicapped areas in the EU. Production related soil functions were regionalized incorporating agro-meteorological modelling. The appropriate derivatives of a 20m digital elevation model were used in the analysis. Multitemporal MODIS products were selected from the period of 2009-2011 representing different parts of the growing season and years with various climatic conditions. Additionally two climatic data layers, the 1

  5. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  7. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO + . Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO + in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO + in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO + emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction

  8. Map of the approximate inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2017-07-11

    The inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, was mapped in 2011. Since that time, the saltwater interface has continued to move inland. The interface is near several active well fields; therefore, an updated approximation of the inland extent of saltwater and an improved understanding of the rate of movement of the saltwater interface are necessary. A geographic information system was used to create a map using the data collected by the organizations that monitor water salinity in this area. An average rate of saltwater interface movement of 140 meters per year was estimated by dividing the distance between two monitoring wells (TPGW-7L and Sec34-MW-02-FS) by the travel time. The travel time was determined by estimating the dates of arrival of the saltwater interface at the wells and computing the difference. This estimate assumes that the interface is traveling east to west between the two monitoring wells. Although monitoring is spatially limited in this area and some of the wells are not ideally designed for salinity monitoring, the monitoring network in this area is improving in spatial distribution and most of the new wells are well designed for salinity monitoring. The approximation of the inland extent of the saltwater interface and the estimated rate of movement of the interface are dependent on existing data. Improved estimates could be obtained by installing uniformly designed monitoring wells in systematic transects extending landward of the advancing saltwater interface.

  9. a Free and Open Source Tool to Assess the Accuracy of Land Cover Maps: Implementation and Application to Lombardy Region (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratic, G.; Brovelli, M. A.; Molinari, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    The availability of thematic maps has significantly increased over the last few years. Validation of these maps is a key factor in assessing their suitability for different applications. The evaluation of the accuracy of classified data is carried out through a comparison with a reference dataset and the generation of a confusion matrix from which many quality indexes can be derived. In this work, an ad hoc free and open source Python tool was implemented to automatically compute all the matrix confusion-derived accuracy indexes proposed by literature. The tool was integrated into GRASS GIS environment and successfully applied to evaluate the quality of three high-resolution global datasets (GlobeLand30, Global Urban Footprint, Global Human Settlement Layer Built-Up Grid) in the Lombardy Region area (Italy). In addition to the most commonly used accuracy measures, e.g. overall accuracy and Kappa, the tool allowed to compute and investigate less known indexes such as the Ground Truth and the Classification Success Index. The promising tool will be further extended with spatial autocorrelation analysis functions and made available to researcher and user community.

  10. Maps of the Martian Landing Sites and Rover Traverses: Viking 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix Landers, and the Mars Exploration Rovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J., III; Deen, R. G.; Gengl, H.

    2016-12-01

    The traverse maps produced tactically for the MER and MSL rover missions are the first step in placing the observations made by each vehicle into a local and regional geologic context. For the MER, Phoenix and MSL missions, 25cm/pixel HiRISE data is available for accurately localizing the vehicles. Viking and Mars Pathfinder, however, relied on Viking Orbiter images of several tens of m/pixel to triangulate to horizon features visible both from the ground and from orbit. After Pathfinder, MGS MOC images became available for these landing sites, enabling much better correlations to horizon features and localization predictions to be made, that were then corroborated with HiRISE images beginning 9 years ago. By combining topography data from MGS, Mars Express, and stereo processing of MRO CTX and HiRISE images into orthomosaics (ORRs) and digital elevation models (DEMs), it is possible to localize all the landers and rover positions to an accuracy of a few tens of meters with respect to the Mars global control net, and to better than half a meter with respect to other features within a HiRISE orthomosaic. JPL's MIPL produces point clouds of the MER Navcam stereo images that can be processed into 1cm/pixel ORR/DEMs that are then georeferenced to a HiRISE/CTX base map and DEM. This allows compilation of seamless mosaics of the lander and rover camera-based ORR/DEMs with the HiRISE ORR/DEM that can be viewed in 3 dimensions with GIS programs with that capability. We are re-processing the Viking Lander, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix lander data to allow similar ORR/DEM products to be made for those missions. For the fixed landers and Spirit, we will compile merged surface/CTX/HiRISE ORR/DEMs, that will enable accurate local and regional mapping of these landing sites, and allow comparisons of the results from these missions to be made with current and future surface missions.

  11. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Andersen, Mikkel Skovgaard; Gergely, Aron

    due to the challenging environmental conditions. Combining vessel borne shallow water multibeam echosounder (MBES) surveys ,to cover the subtidal coastal areas and the river channel areas, with airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys, to cover the intertidal and supratidal...... coastal areas and the river floodplain areas, potentially enables full-coverage and high-resolution mapping in these challenging environments. We have carried out MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR surveys in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system, a coastal environment in the Danish Wadden Sea which is part...... of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point...

  12. A new form of land concentration in Colombia Una nueva forma de concentración de la tierra en Colombia:la ley 1448 de 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Henao Guzmán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the Law 1448 of 2011, which explains reparation and restitution of victims, and the National Development Plan (NDP 2011-2014 generate land concentration in Colombia. This is due to how the NDP objectives disintegrate the Law 1448 objectives; this phenomenon could be explained using an agency model and the subsequent moral risk issue formed between the State and the victims. Regarding these results, a game-theory model was built, and this effectively concludes that the Law 1448 and the NDP generate land concentration in ColombiaEn este artículo se pretende mostrar, mediante un análisis económico, cómo la Ley 1448 de 2011 (o Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras, junto al Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (PND 2011-2014, generan concentración de la tierra en Colombia. Esto se debe a que los objetivos del PND terminan disgregando los que busca la Ley 1448, lo cual se explica con el uso de un modelo de agencia y el subsecuente problema de riesgo moral para el Estado y las víctimas del conflicto. A partir de los resultados anteriores se construye un modelo de teoría de juegos, del que se concluye que, efectivamente, la Ley 1448 y el PND generan concentración de la tierra en Colombia.

  13. Research Activities in Support of High-Resolution Land Cover Mapping in the North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Agroforestry Strategic Framework and the 2014 Farm Bill call for inventory and monitoring of agroforestry practices; however, collecting such data over very large non-forested areas is costly. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station has addressed this challenge by forming a targeted task team whose primary purpose is to...

  14. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Marvil, Josh [Department of Physics, New Mexico Tech., 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian, E-mail: akepley@nrao.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  15. Development of land data sets for studies of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, F.G.; Watkins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a major initiative to organize, produce, and distribute land data sets that will support the land data requirements of the global change science community. Satellite image data sets, produced from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensors, will be developed to provide repetitive, synoptic coverage of regional, continental, and global land areas. These data sets, integrated with related land data and supplemented by coregistered Landsat data sets, will enable scientists to quantify the fundamental land surface attributes that are needed to model land surface processes, to detect and monitor land surface change, and to map land cover. These well-structured, consistent land data sets will form the historical record of land observations prior to the era of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System sensors

  16. LANDS CARTOGRAPHY: A MESOAMERICAN HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pájaro Huertas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Land maps, like prehispanic mesoamerican maps, do notuse Euclidean projections, which are based on ahumanistic or social projection. The spatial reality inthese maps is defined and structured by socialrelationships. Thus, a land map represents a communityshowing its territory and history, and not only an area likein conventional technical maps. A land map is a“communicentric projection” of the “egocentricperception” of the peasant, and can be defined as theprojection in graphic symbols of the spatial relationshipsabstracted from the knowledge available in cognitivemaps of the environments known by the peasant, ratherthan the result of sophisticated techniques, such as thoseused in soil surveys or remote perception.

  17. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  18. Evaluation of the Initial Thematic Output from a Continuous Change-Detection Algorithm for Use in Automated Operational Land-Change Mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pengra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS has begun the development of operational, 30-m resolution annual thematic land cover data to meet the needs of a variety of land cover data users. The Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm is being evaluated as the likely methodology following early trials. Data for training and testing of CCDC thematic maps have been provided by the USGS Land Cover Trends (LC Trends project, which offers sample-based, manually classified thematic land cover data at 2755 probabilistically located sample blocks across the conterminous United States. These samples represent a high quality, well distributed source of data to train the Random Forest classifier invoked by CCDC. We evaluated the suitability of LC Trends data to train the classifier by assessing the agreement of annual land cover maps output from CCDC with output from the LC Trends project within 14 Landsat path/row locations across the conterminous United States. We used a small subset of circa 2000 data from the LC Trends project to train the classifier, reserving the remaining Trends data from 2000, and incorporating LC Trends data from 1992, to evaluate measures of agreement across time, space, and thematic classes, and to characterize disagreement. Overall agreement ranged from 75% to 98% across the path/rows, and results were largely consistent across time. Land cover types that were well represented in the training data tended to have higher rates of agreement between LC Trends and CCDC outputs. Characteristics of disagreement are being used to improve the use of LC Trends data as a continued source of training information for operational production of annual land cover maps.

  19. Evaluation of the initial thematic output from a continuous change-detection algorithm for use in automated operational land-change mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, Bruce; Gallant, Alisa L.; Zhu, Zhe; Dahal, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun the development of operational, 30-m resolution annual thematic land cover data to meet the needs of a variety of land cover data users. The Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm is being evaluated as the likely methodology following early trials. Data for training and testing of CCDC thematic maps have been provided by the USGS Land Cover Trends (LC Trends) project, which offers sample-based, manually classified thematic land cover data at 2755 probabilistically located sample blocks across the conterminous United States. These samples represent a high quality, well distributed source of data to train the Random Forest classifier invoked by CCDC. We evaluated the suitability of LC Trends data to train the classifier by assessing the agreement of annual land cover maps output from CCDC with output from the LC Trends project within 14 Landsat path/row locations across the conterminous United States. We used a small subset of circa 2000 data from the LC Trends project to train the classifier, reserving the remaining Trends data from 2000, and incorporating LC Trends data from 1992, to evaluate measures of agreement across time, space, and thematic classes, and to characterize disagreement. Overall agreement ranged from 75% to 98% across the path/rows, and results were largely consistent across time. Land cover types that were well represented in the training data tended to have higher rates of agreement between LC Trends and CCDC outputs. Characteristics of disagreement are being used to improve the use of LC Trends data as a continued source of training information for operational production of annual land cover maps.

  20. 36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land. (iv) Commercial land. (2) Not later than August 12, 1994, a map or maps displaying the privately... availability of this map or maps in the local newspapers of record. (b) Changes in land category assignment.../grazing land so long as the intended use or development is consistent with the standards in § 292.23 and...

  1. Mapping crop based on phenological characteristics using time-series NDVI of operational land imager data in Tadla irrigated perimeter, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; El Harti, Abderrazak; EL Moujahid, Ali; Bouch, Naima; El Ouazzani, Rabii; Lhissou, Rachid; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2015-10-01

    Morocco is a primarily arid to semi-arid country. These climatic conditions make irrigation an imperative and inevitable technique. Especially, agriculture has a paramount importance for the national economy. Retrieving of crops and their location as well as their spatial extent is useful information for agricultural planning and better management of irrigation water resource. Remote sensing technology was often used in management and agricultural research. Indeed, it's allows crops extraction and mapping based on phenological characteristics, as well as yield estimation. The study area of this work is the Tadla irrigated perimeter which is characterized by heterogeneous areas and extremely small size fields. Our principal objectives are: (1) the delimitation of the major crops for a good water management, (2) the insulation of sugar beet parcels for modeling its yields. To achieve the traced goals, we have used Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data pan-sharpened to 15 m. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications were applied to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of 10 periods. Classifications were calculated for a site of more than 124000 ha. This site was divided into two parts: the first part for selecting, training datasets and the second one for validating the classification results. The SVM and SAM methods classified the principal crops with overall accuracies of 85.27% and 57.17% respectively, and kappa coefficient of 80% and 43% respectively. The study showed the potential of using time-series OLI NDVI data for mapping different crops in irrigated, heterogeneous and undersized parcels in arid and semi-arid environment.

  2. Mapping of Daily Mean Air Temperature in Agricultural Regions Using Daytime and Nighttime Land Surface Temperatures Derived from TERRA and AQUA MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature is one of the most important factors in crop growth monitoring and simulation. In the present study, we estimated and mapped daily mean air temperature using daytime and nighttime land surface temperatures (LSTs derived from TERRA and AQUA MODIS data. Linear regression models were calibrated using LSTs from 2003 to 2011 and validated using LST data from 2012 to 2013, combined with meteorological station data. The results show that these models can provide a robust estimation of measured daily mean air temperature and that models that only accounted for meteorological data from rural regions performed best. Daily mean air temperature maps were generated from each of four MODIS LST products and merged using different strategies that combined the four MODIS products in different orders when data from one product was unavailable for a pixel. The annual average spatial coverage increased from 20.28% to 55.46% in 2012 and 28.31% to 44.92% in 2013.The root-mean-square and mean absolute errors (RMSE and MAE for the optimal image merging strategy were 2.41 and 1.84, respectively. Compared with the least-effective strategy, the RMSE and MAE decreased by 17.2% and 17.8%, respectively. The interpolation algorithm uses the available pixels from images with consecutive dates in a sliding-window mode. The most appropriate window size was selected based on the absolute spatial bias in the study area. With an optimal window size of 33 × 33 pixels, this approach increased data coverage by up to 76.99% in 2012 and 89.67% in 2013.

  3. Monitoring Urban Land Cover/land Use Change in Algiers City Using Landsat Images (1987-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchachi, B.; Zhong, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring the Urban Land Cover/Land Use change detection is important as one of the main driving forces of environmental change because Urbanization is the biggest changes in form of Land, resulting in a decrease in cultivated areas. Using remote sensing ability to solve land resources problems. The purpose of this research is to map the urban areas at different times to monitor and predict possible urban changes, were studied the annual growth urban land during the last 29 years in Algiers City. Improving the productiveness of long-term training in land mapping, were have developed an approach by the following steps: 1) pre-processing for improvement of image characteristics; 2) extract training sample candidates based on the developed methods; and 3) Derive maps and analyzed of Algiers City on an annual basis from 1987 to 2016 using a Supervised Classifier Support Vector Machine (SVMs). Our result shows that the strategy of urban land followed in the region of Algiers City, developed areas mostly were extended to East, West, and South of Central Regions. The urban growth rate is linked with National Office of Statistics data. Future studies are required to understand the impact of urban rapid lands on social, economy and environmental sustainability, it will also close the gap in data of urbanism available, especially on the lack of reliable data, environmental and urban planning for each municipality in Algiers, develop experimental models to predict future land changes with statistically significant confidence.

  4. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  6. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  7. Geomorphologic characteristic of low-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal land candidate at Lemahabang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphological aspect is a factor should be considered on land evaluation for radioactive wastes disposal purpose. The aspect is important because geomorphological factors contribute on hydrological and erosion condition of the land. The objective of the study is to characterize the geomorphological condition of the land, i.e. land form, geomorphological processes, rock type, soil, surface water, ground water, vegetation and land use. The study was conducted by descriptive analyses from literature study and field geomorphological method, with evaluation as well as developed for terrain analyses. The study area can be divided industry for land from units, I.e. tuff undulating unit (land use: plantation), coastal deposits plain unit, silty sand fluvial plain unit (land use: wet rice field) and unconsolidated sand beach deposits plain unit (opened land without vegetation). Hydrologically, the study area can be divided indus tri three small river stream area (RSA). Detailed description of geomorfological condition is showed by table and geomorphological map. (author)

  8. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ionov, Victor; Iliyin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite). After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  9. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  10. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  11. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs

  12. Mapeamento da temperatura da superfície terrestre com uso do sensor AVHRR/NOAA Mapping land surface temperature using AVHRR/NOAA sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Gusso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação do uso do sensor AVHRR/NOAA (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration para mapeamento da temperatura da superfície terrestre (TST no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por meio da comparação entre três algoritmos clássicos. Foram comparados os métodos de Becker & Li, Sobrino et al. e Kerr et al. para estimativa das TST mínimas, utilizando imagens noturnas e logo após o amanhecer. Os dados de emissividade e TST foram obtidos por meio de combinações matemáticas da radiação detectada nas faixas do visível, infravermelho próximo e termal do sensor AVHRR/NOAA. O sensor AVHRR é adequado para o mapeamento de TST para as condições do tipo de cobertura do solo que predominam no Rio Grande do Sul, visto que a TST estimada pelos três métodos testados foi próxima à temperatura do ar medida nos locais selecionados. O método de Sobrino et al. foi o mais adequado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitable use of AVHRR/NOAA (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on land surface temperature (LST mapping in Rio Grande do Sul State by means of the comparison of three classic algorithms. The methods of Becker & Li, Sobrino et al. and Kerr et al. were compared for the minimum LST estimation, using nocturnal and predawn images. Both emissivity and LST data were obtained by means of mathematical combinations of the visible, near-infrared and thermal detected radiation of the AVHRR/NOAA sensor. The AVHRR sensor is suitable for LST mapping for the overall conditions of soil coverage in Rio Grande do Sul, once the estimated LST, by the three tested methods, was close to the measured air temperature at the selected locations. Sobrino et al. was the most adequate method.

  13. Features of the standard evaluation of agricultural land in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Опара

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Normative pecuniary valuation of land belongs to important economic regulators of land relations in Ukraine. Indicators of monetary valuation of land plots are used to determine the size of the land tax, the State duty at exchange, inheritance and the donation of land rent for land plots of the state and communal property, loss of agricultural and forestry production, as well as in the development of indicators and economic mechanisms to stimulate rational use and protection of lands. Normative monetary valuation of agricultural land is defined according to the standards of capitalized rent income on land for agricultural purposes and indicators of soils bonitet by drafting evaluation scales of agroindustrial groups of soils in natural agricultural areas. Index of standard capitalized rent on income reflects the profitability of a business. The soil differences appear on soil maps and they are the main target of the regulatory evaluation. The main source of information about the soil cover of agricultural land should actually be made by Derzhgeocadastr archives and its subordinate State enterprises according to the results of standard evaluation of a single agricultural land plot under the territorial authority of Derzhgeocadastr through administrative services at the location of the land. An extract from the technical documentation about the regulatory assessments of land must be published in time not exceeding three working days from the date of receipt of the corresponding application. The introduction of new methodological approach to the standard evaluation of agricultural lands involves the simplification of access of landowners and land users to data evaluation, based on possible continuous evaluation of administrative districts and providing information about the assessment of the particular land plot in the form of extract from the technical documentation of the standard evaluation, which will be determined on the basis of standard

  14. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  15. 基于ArcGIS分幅制作及输出使用林地现状图的方法研究%Method of Producing and Outputting Status Map of Used Forest Land Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦强; 黄磊

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the basic requirements of the present situation of the forest land map,such as the scale scale,the land area standard,the small line label,the figure number,the land annotation,the chart,the corridor decoration and the color of the land.This paper discusses a series of presentations,such as the preparation of the base map,the creation of a custom face slice layer,the establishment of a small class and the division layer correspondence,data driven page setup,production boundary.With ArcGIS software data-driven pages and factory mapping module sub-frame to produce forest land map can dynamically loaded map number,dynamic page definition query and dynamic loading small class notes,and also can improve the efficiency of mapping,shorten cycle.%阐述成图比例尺、用地范围标注,小班线标注、图幅号、地块注记、接图表、图廊整饰、地类色彩等分幅制作林地现状图的基本要求.藉此论述了准备底图,创建自定义面状分幅图层,建立小班与分幅图层对应关系,数据驱动页面设置,制作界线,地块标注等一系列现状图分幅制作方法和步骤,借助ArcGIS软件数据驱动页面和工厂化制图模块分幅制作林地现状图,可实现动态化加载图幅号、动态化页面定义查询和动态化加载小班注记表,可以提高制图效率、缩短出图周期.

  16. The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E. G.; Spencer, M.; Kim, Y.; Smith, J.; McDonald, K. C.; vanZyl, J.; Houser, P.; Dorion, T.; Koster, R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State Mission (Hydros) is a pathfinder mission in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder Program (ESSP). The objective of the mission is to provide exploratory global measurements of the earth's soil moisture at 10-km resolution with two- to three-days revisit and land-surface freeze/thaw conditions at 3-km resolution with one- to two-days revisit. The mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements and associated algorithms for estimating the amount and phase (frozen or thawed) of surface soil moisture. The mission data will enable advances in weather and climate prediction and in mapping processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The Hydros instrument is a combined radar and radiometer system operating at 1.26 GHz (with VV, HH, and HV polarizations) and 1.41 GHz (with H, V, and U polarizations), respectively. The radar and the radiometer share the aperture of a 6-m antenna with a look-angle of 39 with respect to nadir. The lightweight deployable mesh antenna is rotated at 14.6 rpm to provide a constant look-angle scan across a swath width of 1000 km. The wide swath provides global coverage that meet the revisit requirements. The radiometer measurements allow retrieval of soil moisture in diverse (nonforested) landscapes with a resolution of 40 km. The radar measurements allow the retrieval of soil moisture at relatively high resolution (3 km). The mission includes combined radar/radiometer data products that will use the synergy of the two sensors to deliver enhanced-quality 10-km resolution soil moisture estimates. In this paper, the science requirements and their traceability to the instrument design are outlined. A review of the underlying measurement physics and key instrument performance parameters are also presented.

  17. Lands directorate publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The directorate has a lead role in providing advice to the federal government on land use policy in Canada. The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) Program has produced significant amounts of data pertaining to the capability of Canadian lands to support agriculture, forestry, recreation, wildlife and sport fish. A list of CLI reports is presented in this publication. In addition, and capability maps have been compiled for agricultural, forestry, recreation and wildlife and are listed and described in this publication. (KRM)

  18. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  19. Geoportal as a way for monitoring land settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталя Бубир

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of geoportals will improve land monitoring through timely detection of changes in land conditions, mobility access to geospatial data. The result of cadastre geoportals analysis of leading countries, including France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria, USA, Canada, has indicated that their content is correlated to cadastre features in one country and often do not contain complex issues of land monitoring settlements. In Ukraine, there is no public online mapping resource of this topic. It is proposed to establish specialized geoportal monitoring land settlements for public use. The geoportal contents should include an interactive map of each settlement, text information about settlements, laws and regulations, data about existing land use, including land-use violations and carried out or planned environmental activities. An important component of this portal is a personal user panel (Personal office, where he can view, save, print information that is of interest to him, including application forms to the local land management. On this basis we have developed a geoportal monitoring land settlements of Stepnogorsk village council within the student’s research work as part of the relevant geoportals in Zaporizhzhia region. The portal main menu includes: Settlements of Zaporizhzhia region; Monitoring land settlements; Land environmental; Virtual Tour; News. Additional menu contains five tabs: Home (go to home page geoportals; laws; Maps; Photo Gallery; Personal office. Interactive maps of settlements are based on Google maps. Map content includes mapping settlement’s functional areas and distribution of adverse natural and anthropogenic processes. The main map’s advantage is active zone, clicking on which the user is able to see which process is unfavorable in the territory, and which intended purpose is in this land. The user can also edit the map by his personal office. Overall, portal development within student

  20. Evaluating The Land Use And Land Cover Dynamics In Borena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS was an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate, and spatial pattern of land use change. Three land use and land cover maps were produced by analyzing remotely sensed images of Landsat satellite imageries at three time points (1972,1985,and 2003) .

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from property descriptions. Cadastral features contained in the data set include real property boundary lines, rights-of-way boundaries, property dimensions, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from...

  2. The GOFC-GOLD/CEOS Land Cover Harmonization and Validation Initiative: Technical Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.; Stehman, S.; Nightingale, J.; Friedl, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2010-12-01

    A global effort to assess the accuracy of existing and future land cover products derived from a variety of satellite sensors over a range of spatial resolutions is being led by the Land Cover Implementation Team (LC-IT) of GOFC/GOLD (Global Observation of Land Cover Dynamics) in conjunction with the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) WGCV (Working Group on Calibration and Validation) LPV (Land Product Validation) subgroup. The first phase of this effort is complete and culminated in a publication of community consensus "best practices" for validation of global land cover datasets (2). The next phase is to implement the recommendations outlined in the "best practices" document. A "living database" of global randomized sample sites will form the basis of accuracy assessment for a host of global land cover products (GLC2000, MODIS land cover, GLOBCOVER, United Nation's Forest Resource Assessment (FRA2010), and the Mid-Decadal Global Land Survey. This "living dataset" will also be a community resource available for use in validation of regional or national mapping efforts using LCCS (UN FAO's Land Cover Classification System). Based on the known accuracy of existing land cover products, GOFC/GOLD will to develop and update a "best currently available" global land cover map. Individual geographic regions may be selected from different land cover products (global, national or regional), or they may be combined in various ways

  3. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  4. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an Interactive Web Mapping Portal and Cyberinfrastructure for Science and Land Management in the Vicinity of Barrow on the North Slope of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarzaga, S. M.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Barba, M.; Aiken, Q.; Nelson, L.; Mazza Ramsay, F. D.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 16,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Recent advances include provision of differential global positioning (dGPS) system and high resolution aerial imagery support to visiting scientists, analysis and multitemporal mapping of over 120 km of coastline for erosion monitoring; maintenance of a wireless micrometeorological sensor network; links to Barrow area datasets housed at national data archives; and substantial upgrades to the BAID website. Web mapping applications that have launched to the public include: an Imagery Time Viewer that allows users to compare imagery of the Barrow area between 1949 and the present; a Coastal Erosion Viewer that allows users to view long-term (1955-2015) and recent (2013-2015) rates of erosion for the Barrow area; and a Community Planning Tool that allows users to view and print dynamic reports based on an array of basemaps including a new 0.5m resolution wetlands map designed to enhance decision making for development and land management.

  5. Determination of Some Land and Soil Characteristics of Siirt Province with Geographic Information System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif ÖZYAZICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine some land and soil characteristics of Siirt province and to make database using Geographic Information System (GIS. The study area covers about 562619.5 ha. Firstly, digital elevation model was formed using topographic map of the Siirt province and after this process slope, aspect, elevation and hill shade maps were also produced. In addition to that, some data produced General Directory of Rural Services and climate data were used in this study. According to study results, west part of the Siirt province has almost flat area whereas, hilly and mountain area locate in north and east part of it. Therefore, slope degree increase from west to north and east ways. More than half of the study area’s soil types (65% is Brown forest soils. Besides, according to land use and land cover map about 44% and 31% of the study area covers by shrubbery-brush and pastures, respectively. According to erosion maps, approximately %90 of the Siirt province lands has medium, severe and very severe erosion problem. Lands that are suitable for agricultural activities are very limited in Siirt Province. Only about 9% of the total land was classified as I, II and III land capability classes. Moreover, investigated depth map of the study area about 85% of the study area has very shallow and shallow soil depth. Deep soils found on plain and valley located at west part of the study area.

  6. Between the Remnants of Colonialism and the Insurgence of Self-Narrative in Constructing Participatory Social Maps: Towards a Land Education Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Michèle; Silva, Regina; Jaber, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a social mapping project conducted by the Environmental Education, Communication and Arts Research Group from the Federal University of Mato Grosso. The primary goals of the project were to map the vulnerable social groups of Mato Grosso, and identify the social and environmental conflicts that put them in situations of…

  7. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  8. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  9. The Neogene lakes on the Balkan land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nadežda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeogeographic maps of the lacustrine Miocene and Pliocene have been constructed according to all the known geological data. The Lakes of the Balkan Land, depending on the tectonics, migrated due to causes from the deep subsurface. There are several phases of the Miocene lakes: the lowermost Miocene transiting from marine Oligocene, Lower, Middle, Upper Miocene covering, in patches, the main part of the Land. The Pliocene lakes spread mostly to the north of the Balkan Land and covered only its marginal parts. Other lake-like sediments, in fact freshened parts of the Black Sea Kuialnician (Upper Pliocene, stretched along the middle and southern portions of the Balkan Peninsula (to the south of the Balkan Mt.. Subsequently, the Balkan Peninsula was formed.

  10. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 10 M ☉ and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t H . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to ∼20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z ∼ 1 and z ∼ 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  11. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 < z < 1.5 and 326 SFGs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of GOODS-South. Galaxies were selected to be more massive than 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t{sub H} . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to {approx}20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  12. Mapping the urban form of coastal fishing towns in Algarve: Olhão and Vila Real de Santo António

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Batista Pacheco

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper examines the urban growth patterns of two coastal fishing towns in southern Portugal: Olhão and Vila Real de Santo António. The goal is to investigate the relationship between the configurational and network properties of the urban forms in order to identify generative or emergent patterns, understanding their particular urban morphology. The Space Syntax Theory, applied to the syntactical modelling of these towns, is used to understand the urban processes. Topological variables, such as connectivity, integration and intelligibility, are calculated by DepthMap Software and the Theory of the “Deformed Wheel” is used to represent the evolutionary trends and to identify generic rules. The study is developed by comparing the two urban networks in two moments of their evolution, first in the mid-20th century, which corresponds to the historic core, and second corresponding to the present day. The main results demonstrate a contrast between the segregated network of Olhão's irregular historic centre and the integrated network of Vila Real de Santo António's regular historic centre, revealed by the value of integration variable. The urban expansion of these towns during the last decades decreased the value of integration and aggravated the intelligibility of the urban fabric. The application of syntactic approaches, with quantitative analysis, aims to complement the traditional procedures of the History of Urbanism, developing an operational method adaptable to the study of urban morphology.

  13. Landscape-seascape dynamics in the isthmus between Sørkapp Land and the rest of Spitsbergen: Will a new big Arctic island form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wieslaw; Ostafin, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    Transformation of the glaciated isthmus between Sørkapp Land and the rest of Spitsbergen since 1900 is described. The landscape-seascape dynamics depends on the glacial recession determined by climate warming after the Little Ice Age (i.e., since the beginning of the twentieth century, and especially since the 1980s). The isthmus has been narrowed from 28 km in 1899-1900 to 6.2 km in 2013, and lowered by 60-200 m from 1936 to 2005. Two isthmus' glaciers will have melted, given the current thermic conditions, by 2030-2035. It cannot be ruled out that Sørkapp Land will become an island after that period, because the altitude of the glaciers' bedrock is close to the sea level. The disappearance of this huge ice mass, even without origin of a sound and island, will lead to a great transformation of the landscape and the ecosystem.

  14. Urban Heat Island Simulations in Guangzhou, China, Using the Coupled WRF/UCM Model with a Land Use Map Extracted from Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM was used for studying urban environmental issues. Because land use data employed in the WRF model do not agree with the current situation around Guangzhou, China, the performance of WRF/UCM with new land-use data extracted from Remote Sensing (RS data was evaluated in early August 2012. Results from simulations reveal that experiments with the extracted data are capable of reasonable reproductions of the majority of the observed temporal characteristics of the 2-m temperature, and can capture the characteristics of Urban Heat Island (UHI. The “UCM_12” simulation, which employed the extracted land-use data with the WRF/UCM model, provided the best reproduction of the 2-m temperature data evolution and the smallest minimum absolute average error when compared with the other two experiments without coupled UCM. The contributions of various factors to the UHI effect were analyzed by comparing the energy equilibrium processes of “UCM_12” in urban and suburban areas. Analysis revealed that energy equilibrium processes with new land use data can explain the diurnal character of the UHI intensity variation. Furthermore, land use data extracted from RS can be used to simulate the UHI.

  15. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Hamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS. MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc. to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  16. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  17. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  18. Integrando desenhos e imagens de satélite no estudo de mudanças no uso e cobertura da terra Integrating sketch maps and satellite pictures in the study of changes in land coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Oliveira D'Antona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos o procedimento de coleta e processamento de informações sobre uso e cobertura da terra, obtidas por desenhos feitos com moradores de lotes rurais, em um segmento da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Pará. Consideramos as peculiaridades dos dados de campo buscando integrá-los aos dados obtidos por satélite. Concluímos que o instrumento deve ser usado sistematicamente no aprimoramento de abordagens interdisciplinares para o estudo de mudanças ambientais.We analyzed the procedure of collecting and processing information in regard to land use and land coverage obtained from sketch maps created together with rural property owners in a settlement area along the Transamazonica, the Transamazon Highway, in Pará, Brazil. We assessed the special features of field data and integrated them with data from satellites. We concluded that these sketch maps can be used systematically to improve interdisciplinary approaches in the study of environmental changes.

  19. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 12: User evaluation of experimental land use maps and related products from the central Atlantic test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recommendations resulting from the CARETS evaluation reflect the need to establish a flexible and reliable system for providing more detailed raw and processed land resource information as well as the need to improve the methods of making information available to users.

  20. Estimation and Mapping of Land Surface Temperature From AATSR Images And GIS : A Case Study In Kolondieba-Tiendaga Basin In Sudano-Sahelian Climate, Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daou, I.; Mariko, A.; Rasmus, F.; Menenti, M.; Kourosh, K.; Maïga, H.B.; Maïga, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the various terms which intervene in the energy balance of surface is essential at the same time for the hydrologists, the amenagists, the agronomists, the meteorologists, and the climatologists. The land surface temperature of the making ground left the key parameters of this

  1. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  2. Status and trends of land change in the Eastern United States—1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Kristi L.; Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis

    2016-09-28

    PrefaceU.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1794–D is the fourth in a four-volume series on the status and trends of the Nation’s land use and land cover, providing an assessment of the rates and causes of land-use and land-cover change in the Eastern United States between 1973 and 2000. Volumes A, B, and C provide similar analyses for the Western United States, the Great Plains of the United States, and the Midwest–South Central United States, respectively. The assessments of land-use and land-cover trends are conducted on an ecoregion-by-ecoregion basis, and each ecoregion assessment is guided by a nationally consistent study design that includes mapping, statistical methods, field studies, and analysis. Individual assessments provide a picture of the characteristics of land change occurring in a given ecoregion; in combination, they provide a framework for understanding the complex national mosaic of change and also the causes and consequences of change. Thus, each volume in this series provides a regional assessment of how (and how fast) land use and land cover are changing, and why. The four volumes together form the first comprehensive picture of land change across the Nation.Geographic understanding of land-use and land-cover change is directly relevant to a wide variety of stakeholders, including land and resource managers, policymakers, and scientists. The chapters in this volume present brief summaries of the patterns and rates of land change observed in each ecoregion in the Eastern United States, together with field photographs, statistics, and comparisons with other assessments. In addition, a synthesis chapter summarizes the scope of land change observed across the entire Eastern United States. The studies provide a way of integrating information across the landscape, and they form a critical component in the efforts to understand how land use and land cover affect important issues such as the provision of ecological goods and

  3. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  4. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  5. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for science and land management in the vicinity of Utqiaġvik (Barrow) on the North Slope of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R. P.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Barba, M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Utqiaġvik (Barrow) area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 18,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Recent advances include provision of differential global positioning (dGPS) system and high resolution aerial imagery support to visiting scientists, analysis and multitemporal mapping of over 120 km of coastline for erosion monitoring; maintenance of a wireless micrometeorological sensor network; links to Barrow area datasets housed at national data archives; a NOAA funded community outreach program for citizen science and public outreach on costal erosion; and substantial upgrades to the BAID website. Web mapping applications that have launched to the public include: an Imagery Time Viewer that allows users to compare imagery of the Barrow area between 1948 and the present; a Coastal Erosion Viewer that allows users to view long-term (1955-2015) and recent (2013-2015) rates of erosion for the Barrow area; and a Community Planning tool that allows users to view and print dynamic reports based on an array of basemaps including a new 0.5m resolution wetlands map designed to

  6. State Lands by Administrator - Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  7. State Lands by Administrator - Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  8. State Lands by Administrator - Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  9. State Lands by Administrator - County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  10. Object-oriented classification of land use in urban areas applying very high resolution satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.B.

    2001-08-01

    The availability of the new very high resolution satellite imagery will offer a wide range of new applications in the field of remote sensing. Information about actual land use is an important task for the management and planning in urban areas. High resolution satellite data will be an alternative to aerial photographs for updating and maintaining cartographic and geographic databases at reduced costs. The aim of the research is to formalize the visual interpretation procedure in order to automate the whole process. The assumption underlying this approach is that the land use functions can be distinguished on the basis of the differences in spatial distribution and pattern of land cover forms. Therefore a two-stage classification procedure is applied. In a first stage a land cover map is produced. In a second stage the morphological properties and spatial patterns of the land cover objects are analyzed with the structural analyzing and mapping system leading to a characterization and description of distinct urban land use categories. This information is then used for building a rule system that is implemented in a new commercial software tool called eCognition. An object-oriented classifier applies the rules to the land cover objects resulting in the required land use map. The potential of this method is demonstrated in a case study using IKONOS data covering a part of the metropolitan area of Vienna. (author)

  11. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  12. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  13. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Silver Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  15. The evolving Alaska mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P.D.; O'Brien, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of mapping in Alaska, the current status of the National Mapping Program, and future plans for expanding and improving the mapping coverage. Research projects with Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Return Vidicon imagery and real- and synthetic-aperture radar; image mapping programs; digital mapping; remote sensing projects; the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; and the Alaska High-Altitude Aerial Photography Program are also discussed.-from Authors

  16. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Stirling, I. F.; Mcgreevy, M. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As part of the tape reformatting process, a simple coded picture output program was developed. This represents Pixel's radiance level by one of a 47 character set on a nonoverprinting line printer. It not only has aided in locating areas for the reformatting process, but has also formed the foundation for a supervised clustering package. This in turn has led to a simplistic but effective thematic mapping package.

  17. 75 FR 44046 - Noise Exposure Map Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... applicable regulations and which depict non-compatible land uses as of the date of submission of such maps, a... Baseline Noise Exposure Map. Section 1: Appendix C, D and E--Consultation requirements. Section 2: Land Use... the Act. These functions are inseparable from the ultimate land use control and planning...

  18. Single-edition quadrangle maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a

  19. Using remote sensing and GIS to detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during 1960-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ashraf M; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-03-01

    This paper illustrates the result of land use/cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh using topographic maps and multi-temporal remotely sensed data from 1960 to 2005. The Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique was used to extract information from satellite data, and post-classification change detection method was employed to detect and monitor land use/cover change. Derived land use/cover maps were further validated by using high resolution images such as SPOT, IRS, IKONOS and field data. The overall accuracy of land cover change maps, generated from Landsat and IRS-1D data, ranged from 85% to 90%. The analysis indicated that the urban expansion of Dhaka Metropolitan resulted in the considerable reduction of wetlands, cultivated land, vegetation and water bodies. The maps showed that between 1960 and 2005 built-up areas increased approximately 15,924 ha, while agricultural land decreased 7,614 ha, vegetation decreased 2,336 ha, wetland/lowland decreased 6,385 ha, and water bodies decreased about 864 ha. The amount of urban land increased from 11% (in 1960) to 344% in 2005. Similarly, the growth of landfill/bare soils category was about 256% in the same period. Much of the city's rapid growth in population has been accommodated in informal settlements with little attempt being made to limit the risk of environmental impairments. The study quantified the patterns of land use/cover change for the last 45 years for Dhaka Metropolitan that forms valuable resources for urban planners and decision makers to devise sustainable land use and environmental planning.

  20. Australian provenance for Upper Permian to Cretaceous rocks forming accretionary complexes on the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana land margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, A.L.; Barley, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    U-Pb (SHRIMP) detrital zircon age patterns are reported for 12 samples of Permian to Cretaceous turbiditic quartzo-feldspathic sandstone from the Torlesse and Waipapa suspect terranes of New Zealand. Their major Permian to Triassic, and minor Early Palaeozoic and Mesoproterozoic, age components indicate that most sediment was probably derived from the Carboniferous to Triassic New England Orogen in northeastern Australia. Rapid deposition of voluminous Torlesse/Waipapa turbidite fans during the Late Permian to Late Triassic appears to have been directly linked to uplift and exhumation of the magmatically active orogen during the 265-230 Ma Hunter-Bowen event. This period of cordilleran-type orogeny allowed transport of large volumes of quartzo-feldspathic sediment across the convergent Gondwana land margin. Post-Triassic depocentres also received (recycled?) sediment from the relict orogen as well as from Jurassic and Cretaceous volcanic provinces now offshore from southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. The detailed provenance-age fingerprints provided by the detrital zircon data are also consistent with progressive southward derivation of sediment: from northeastern Queensland during the Permian, southeastern Queensland during the Triassic, and northeastern New South Wales - Lord Howe Rise - Norfolk Ridge during the Jurassic to Cretaceous. Although the dextral sense of displacement is consistent with the tectonic regime during this period, detailed characterisation of source terranes at this scale is hindered by the scarcity of published zircon age data for igneous and sedimentary rocks in Queensland and northern New South Wales. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age components cannot be adequately matched with likely source terranes in the Australian-Antarctic Precambrian craton, and it is possible they originated in the Proterozoic cores of the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks of southeast China. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  1. How employees perceive organizational learning: construct validation of the 25-item short form of the strategic learning assessment map (SF-SLAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainert, Jakob; Niepel, Christoph; Lans, T.; Greiff, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The Strategic Learning Assessment Map (SLAM) originally assessed organizational learning (OL) at the level of the firm by addressing managers, who rated OL in the SLAM on five dimensions of individual learning, group learning, organizational learning, feed-forward learning, and feedback

  2. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  3. Agent-based land markets: Heterogeneous agents, land proces and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn C.; van der Veen, A.; Amblard, F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a spatially explicit agent-based model of a bilateral land market. Heterogeneous agents form their bid and ask prices for land based on the utility that they obtain from a certain location (houte/land) and base on the state of the market (an excess of demand or supply). We underline the

  4. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  5. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  6. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.; Fullerton, David S.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  7. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  8. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  9. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  10. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...

  11. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 4. New Zealand forest service LANDSAT projects, part 5. Vegetation map and landform map of Aupouri Peninsula, Northland, part 6. Geographical applications of LANDSAT mapping, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Mcgreevy, M. G.; Stirling, I. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Inspection of pixels obtained from LANDSAT of New Zealand revealed that not only can ships and their wakes be detected, but that information on the size, state of motion, and direction of movement was inferred by calculating the total number of pixels occupied by the vessel and wake, the orientation of these pixels, and the sum of their radiance values above the background level. Computer enhanced images showing the Waimihia State Forest and much of Kaingaroa State Forest on 22 December 1975 were examined. Most major forest categories were distinguished on LANDSAT imagery. However, the LANDSAT imagery seemed to be most useful for updating and checking existing forest maps, rather than making new maps with many forest categories. Snow studies were performed using two basins: Six Mile Creek and Mt. Robert. The differences in radiance levels indicated that a greater areal snow cover in Six Mile Creek Basin with the effect of lower radiance values from vegetation/snow regions. A comparison of the two visible bands (MSS 4 and 5) demonstrate this difference for the two basins.

  12. Current Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Land Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use mapping is important for evaluation, management and conservation of natural resources of an area and the knowledge on the existing land use is one of the prime pre-requisites for suggesting better use of land. In this study, we examined four mapping approaches (unsupervised, supervised, fuzzy supervised and ...

  13. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  14. Automatic Sub-Pixel Co-Registration of LandSat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI Images Using Phase Correlation and Machine Learning Based Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Roger, Jean-Claude; Vermote, Eric F.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates misregistration issues between Landsat-8/OLI and Sentinel-2A/MSI at 30 m resolution, and between multi-temporal Sentinel-2A images at 10 m resolution using a phase correlation approach and multiple transformation functions. Co-registration of 45 Landsat-8 to Sentinel-2A pairs and 37 Sentinel-2A to Sentinel-2A pairs were analyzed. Phase correlation proved to be a robust approach that allowed us to identify hundreds and thousands of control points on images acquired more than 100 days apart. Overall, misregistration of up to 1.6 pixels at 30 m resolution between Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A images, and 1.2 pixels and 2.8 pixels at 10 m resolution between multi-temporal Sentinel-2A images from the same and different orbits, respectively, were observed. The non-linear Random Forest regression used for constructing the mapping function showed best results in terms of root mean square error (RMSE), yielding an average RMSE error of 0.07+/-0.02 pixels at 30 m resolution, and 0.09+/-0.05 and 0.15+/-0.06 pixels at 10 m resolution for the same and adjacent Sentinel-2A orbits, respectively, for multiple tiles and multiple conditions. A simpler 1st order polynomial function (affine transformation) yielded RMSE of 0.08+/-0.02 pixels at 30 m resolution and 0.12+/-0.06 (same Sentinel-2A orbits) and 0.20+/-0.09 (adjacent orbits) pixels at 10 m resolution.

  15. USGS Topo Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Topo is a topographic tile cache base map that combines the most current data (Boundaries, Names, Transportation, Elevation, Hydrography, Land Cover, and other...

  16. Identification of soil erosion land surfaces by Landsat data analysis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Curzio, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the typical relationship between the spectral reflectance of aileron's on newly-formed land surfaces and the geo morphological features of the land surfaces at issue. These latter represent the products of superficial erosional processes due to the action of the gravity and/or water; thus, such land surfaces are highly representative of the strong soil degradation occurring in a wide area located on the boundary between Molise and Puglia regions (Southern Italy). The results of this study have been reported on thematic maps; on such maps, the detected erosional land surfaces have been mapped on the basis of their typical spectral signature. The study has been performed using Landsat satellite imagery data which have been then validated by means of field survey data. The satellite data have been processed using remote sensing techniques, such as: false colour composite, contrast stretching, principal component analysis and decorrelation stretching. The study has permitted to produce, in a relatively short time and at low expense, a map of the eroded land surfaces. Such a result represents a first and fundamental step in evaluating and monitoring the erosional processes in the study area [it

  17. Dynamics of exponential maps

    OpenAIRE

    Rempe, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains several new results about the dynamics of exponential maps $z\\mapsto \\exp(z)+\\kappa$. In particular, we prove that periodic external rays of exponential maps with nonescaping singular value always land. This is an analog of a theorem of Douady and Hubbard for polynomials. We also answer a question of Herman, Baker and Rippon by showing that the boundary of an unbounded exponential Siegel disk always contains the singular value. In addition to the presentation of new resul...

  18. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  19. Determination of Distribution and Properties of Soil Formed on Different Fluvial Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan DENGİZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial land, formed on accumulated sediment depositions by time, show large variety in their properties at short distances. Therefore, different soils can be form on these lands. The objective of this research was to determine, mapping and classify different soils formed on fluvial land used for intensive cultivation in Örencik village of Samsun Bafra district. Total study area is approximately 407.9 ha. Average annual temperature and precipitation are 13.6 oC and 764.3 mm, respectively. After examination of topographic, land use, geologic and geomorphologic maps and land observation, 9 profile places were excavated in study area. Detailed land observations were done with grid method and auger examinations. The soil samples were taken from each profile and their analyses were done in the laboratory. By assessing the results of analyses and field studies, 7 different soil series were determined and described. Three of them were classified as Entisol due to their young age, three of them were classified as Inceptisol and one is as Vertisol. Whereas Cevizlik series has the largest area (24.7%, Elmacıdede series has the smallest area in the study area (7.8%.

  20. MODERN LAND MANAGEMENT UKRAINE: CONCEPT, ESSENCE, TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak Anton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of

  1. Typical land use pattern in high-mountain landscape - part of the Vysoke Tatry Mts. and the Podtatranska kotlina Basin; map fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnciarova, T.; Kubicek, F.; Ruzickova, H.; Berkova, A.; Simonovic, V.

    2002-01-01

    The territory of the Vysoke Tatry (High Tatras) Mts. and the Podtatranska kotlina Basin documents the human impact even in the highest situated parts of Slovakia. The human impact was obvious the same in the past (lowering of the upper timberline and the dwarf pine scrub by grazing) as in the present time (recreation, tourism, and sport). The most frequent wood species of the Tatras forests is the spruce tree. Fir occurs up to the altitude of 1,250 m above sea level. The wood species accompanying the spruce in higher positions are larch, cembra pine, and mountain ash where they form the upper timberline. The mountain dwarf pine scrub creates an independent tier above the upper timber line in the altitude oscillating between 1,550 m and 1,850 m and gradually transits into alpine meadows with rare flora and fauna. The foothill landscape is intensively agriculturally used. The present species composition of the meadows and pastures, as well as their landscape scenery was decisively determined by intensification of farming (adjustments of the terrain, draining of waterlogged areas and spring areas, removal of woody vegetation, creation of disproportionately large fields, sowing of introduced grass species, and the like). It has not only caused the change of the original nature of meadows and pastures, but it has also changed the whole sub-Tatras landscape. (authors)

  2. Use of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral image data and real-time field sampling for water quality mapping in the Hirfanlı Dam Lake, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurmacı, Murat; Ekercin, Semih; Altaş, Levent; Kurmaç, Yakup

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of water quality variations in Hirfanlı Water Reservoir, which is one of the most important water resources in Turkey, through EO-1 (Earth Observing-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral data and real-time field sampling. The study was materialized in 20 different sampling points during the overpass of the EO-1 ALI sensor over the study area. A multi-linear regression technique was used to explore the relationships between radiometrically corrected EO-1 ALI image data and water quality parameters: chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids. The retrieved and verified results show that the measured and estimated values of water quality parameters are in good agreement (R (2) >0.93). The resulting thematic maps derived from EO-1 multispectral data for chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids show the spatial distribution of the water quality parameters. The results indicate that the reservoir has average nutrient values. Furthermore, chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids values increased at the upstream reservoir and shallow coast of the Hirfanlı Water Reservoir.

  3. the implications of land use/cover dynamics on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-04

    Dec 4, 2017 ... Land use maps were produced using the GIS software packages of ... Keywords: Land use/cover, Dynamics, Remote Sensing Techniques, Geographic Information System, .... sporadic floods and landslides in Bambui which.

  4. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and