WorldWideScience

Sample records for manufacturing streamlines production

  1. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  2. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-05-27

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines.

  3. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  4. Application of manufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  5. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product ...

  6. Current trend in latex dipped products manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper present the activities in dipped products manufacturing in Malaysia; the activities carried out by MARGMA - Malaysian Rubber Glove manufacturer; other issues discussed such as labour, pricing environmental issue, product certification in this activity

  7. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  8. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  9. Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

  10. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  11. Theoretical Calculations on Sediment Transport on Titan, and the Possible Production of Streamlined Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) has been returning images of Titan, along with other Saturnian satellites. Images taken through the 938 nm methane window see down to Titan's surface. One of the purposes of the Cassini mission is to investigate possible fluid cycling on Titan. Lemniscate features shown recently and radar evidence of surface flow prompted us to consider theoretically the creation by methane fluid flow of streamlined forms on Titan. This follows work by other groups in theoretical consideration of fluid motion on Titan's surface.

  12. Knowledge management toboost productivity in manufacturing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management toboost productivity in manufacturing. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The assessment tool is an important factor because knowledge management has a deep relationship with performance ...

  13. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  14. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  15. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul

    2011-01-01

    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  16. Qualification of academic facilities for small-scale automated manufacture of autologous cell-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Chandra, Amit; Alvey, David; Ginty, Patrick; McCall, Mark; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J

    2014-01-01

    Academic centers, hospitals and small companies, as typical development settings for UK regenerative medicine assets, are significant contributors to the development of autologous cell-based therapies. Often lacking the appropriate funding, quality assurance heritage or specialist regulatory expertise, qualifying aseptic cell processing facilities for GMP compliance is a significant challenge. The qualification of a new Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility with automated processing capability, the first of its kind in a UK academic setting, provides a unique demonstrator for the qualification of small-scale, automated facilities for GMP-compliant manufacture of autologous cell-based products in these settings. This paper shares our experiences in qualifying the Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility, focusing on our approach to streamlining the qualification effort, the challenges, project delays and inefficiencies we encountered, and the subsequent lessons learned.

  17. Process for the manufacture of whey products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanie, P

    1980-01-01

    Whey is subjected to ultrafiltration to retain about 10% of the T5, whilst the permeate is demineralized to 7% or less ash in the final product and dried to 3% moisture. The product, containing (in DM) 75% or more lactose, 6% or less protein and 8% or less minerals, is hydrolysed, e.g. with beta-galactosidase. It may be used for replacing sucrose, in the manufacture of a range of foods. Applications include chewing gum, fondants, nougats, chocolate, bakery and confectionery products as well as cream and yoghurt.

  18. Manufacturers Mergers and Product Variety in Vertically Related Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysovalantou Milliou; Joel Sandonis

    2014-01-01

    We study final product manufacturers’ incentives to introduce new products into the market and how they are affected by a merger among them. We show that when manufacturers distribute their products through multi-product retailers, a manufacturers merger, although it leads to an increase in the wholesale prices, it can enhance product variety. The merger generated product variety efficiencies though arise only when vertical relations are present: when manufacturers sell directly their produ...

  19. Streamlining On-Demand Access to Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Data Products for Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Tislin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) support National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters, whose Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Data Delivery (DD) will access JPSS data products on demand from the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Product Distribution and Access (PDA) service. Based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Service, this on-demand service promises broad interoperability and frugal use of data networks by serving only the data that a user needs. But the volume, velocity, and variety of JPSS data products impose several challenges to such a service. It must be efficient to handle large volumes of complex, frequently updated data, and to fulfill many concurrent requests. It must offer flexible data handling and delivery, to work with a diverse and changing collection of data, and to tailor its outputs into products that users need, with minimal coordination between provider and user communities. It must support 24x7 operation, with no pauses in incoming data or user demand; and it must scale to rapid changes in data volume, variety, and demand as new satellites launch, more products come online, and users rely increasingly on the service. We are addressing these challenges in order to build an efficient and effective on-demand JPSS data service. For example, on-demand subsetting by many users at once may overload a server's processing capacity or its disk bandwidth - unless alleviated by spatial indexing, geolocation transforms, or pre-tiling and caching. Filtering by variable (/ band / layer) may also alleviate network loads, and provide fine-grained variable selection; to that end we are investigating how best to provide random access into the variety of spatiotemporal JPSS data products. Finally, producing tailored products (derivatives, aggregations) can boost flexibility for end users; but some tailoring operations may impose significant server loads

  20. Production of RVNRL and manufacture of products from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, K.C.; Jacob, J.

    1996-01-01

    The procedure of the trial irradiation of latex at the pilot plant are discussed. Factory influencing the quality of RVNRL during trial production are identified. Procedure for processing of radiation prevulcanised latex into end products has been standardised. Household gloves, industrial gloves, to), balloons, blood transfusion tubes and nipples are manufactured commercially from RVNRL produced at Rubber Board

  1. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacture, preproduction design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a tobacco... about the manufacturing practices and processes unique to your facility and regulated tobacco products... process, package, label, and distribute different types of regulated tobacco products (cigarettes...

  2. 21 CFR 680.2 - Manufacture of Allergenic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of Allergenic Products. 680.2 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS § 680.2 Manufacture of Allergenic Products. (a...) Cultures derived from microorganisms. Culture media into which organisms are inoculated for the manufacture...

  3. Lean Manufacturing Implementation: an Approach to Reduce Production Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraswari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lean Manufacturing Implementation: An Approach To Reduce Production Cost. Opportunities to improve production processes and reduce production cost through the implementation of lean manufacturing in small medium garment manufacturing are presented in this research. This research shows that there is a possibility of decrease in production cost and increase in return on sales. Lean manufacturing implementation can eliminate waste in the production process. This is a set of techniques for identification and elimination of waste gathered from The Ford Production, Statistical Process Control and other techniques. Improvement of quality could be carried out while time and cost of production are being reduced.

  4. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  5. Assimilation Patterns in the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in SMEs: Exploring their Effects on Product Innovation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are more and more adopting advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT aimed at fostering product innovation process, improving product quality, streamlining the production process, and gaining productivity. In this study, we analyze the relationship between AMT proficiency levels in manufacturing SMEs and product innovation performance. Using data from 616 manufacturing SMEs, and considering a wide range of various AMT (20 different types of AMT grouped into 5 categories, we derived three AMT assimilation patterns through a cluster analysis procedure combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering algorithms. The analysis of the relationship between AMT assimilation patterns and product innovation performance shows a rather unexpected picture: in spite of the existence of clearly distinct patterns of AMT assimilation, we find no significant relationship between any pattern and product innovation performance. Instead, we find the organizational and environmental context of SMEs to be more determinant for product innovation performance than any of the AMT assimilation patterns. From a practical point of view, this study indicates that manufacturing SMEs managers interested in fostering their innovation capabilities through AMT assimilation need to be aware of the contingency effects of their organizational size, age, and sector of activity.

  6. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  7. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MANUFACTURING STRATEGY OF PACKAGING PRODUCT-MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P. Patil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents finding of a survey on manufacturing strategy implementation (MSI adopted by the Indian packaging product manufacturing companies (IPPMC. Though the companies differ in terms of prod uct types (shape, method, content and material of packaging, conversion system, sales volume and sophistication of machinery used, they share common purpose that are used for packaging the product s . With growth in demand for consumer products, packaging f orms basis of differentiating products from competitors. The survey shows emphasis on implementation of manufacturing strategy, key decision areas, identifies competitive priorities, order winners. To get insight, three companies are selected for detailed case studies.

  8. PDC Journeys to Product Analysis Development and Additive Manufacturing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalina Sheik Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    The technology for product development and manufacturing has gone through many advancements. It is widely recognised that it would provide competitive advantage for engineering organization in term of product development cycle, productivity, sustainability and efficiency. We begin by describing the general characteristic of design process that will need to be integrated in product life cycle management. In Nuclear Malaysia, especially in engineering design activities the majority have been using 3D modelling. This paper discusses on the current product design practiced in Nuclear Malaysia, new product development process and new manufacturing technique which is additive manufacturing. (author)

  9. Mass customization and build to order production - in manufacturing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    in the manufacturing as information processing is accountable for an increasing portion of the value creation. In order to improve the information processing some manufacturers have applied product models, thereby giving the customer access to the manufactures knowledge base. This project will introduce solution......Mass Customization and Build to Order Production – In Manufacturing Networks Mass customization and globalization have radically changed the environment for manufacturers. A new context is emerging with intensified competition and accelerated technology development. In this environment evolution...... is not an option, but a necessity for survival. This leads to the question “what can manufacturing enterprises do to turn the development into their own advantage?” As competition intensifies customer are increasingly demanding sophisticated and adapted solutions. Conventional manufacturer are challenged...

  10. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....

  11. Predictive Manufacturing: A Classification Strategy to Predict Product Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2018-01-01

    manufacturing analytics model that employs a big data approach to predicting product failures; third, we illustrate the issue of high dimensionality, along with statistically redundant information; and, finally, our proposed method will be compared against the well-known classification methods (SVM, K......-nearest neighbor, artificial neural networks). The results from real data show that our predictive manufacturing analytics approach, using genetic algorithms and Voronoi tessellations, is capable of predicting product failure with reasonable accuracy. The potential application of this method contributes...... to accurately predicting product failures, which would enable manufacturers to reduce production costs without compromising product quality....

  12. Modeling of Agile Intelligent Manufacturing-oriented Production Scheduling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Qi Sheng; Chang-Ping Tang; Ci-Xing Lv

    2010-01-01

    Agile intelligent manufacturing is one of the new manufacturing paradigms that adapt to the fierce globalizing market competition and meet the survival needs of the enterprises, in which the management and control of the production system have surpassed the scope of individual enterprise and embodied some new features including complexity, dynamicity, distributivity, and compatibility. The agile intelligent manufacturing paradigm calls for a production scheduling system that can support the cooperation among various production sectors, the distribution of various resources to achieve rational organization, scheduling and management of production activities. This paper uses multi-agents technology to build an agile intelligent manufacturing-oriented production scheduling system. Using the hybrid modeling method, the resources and functions of production system are encapsulated, and the agent-based production system model is established. A production scheduling-oriented multi-agents architecture is constructed and a multi-agents reference model is given in this paper.

  13. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1005 [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0091; (formerly 2007N-0104)] Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  14. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost

  15. Potential of Continuous Manufacturing for Liposomal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Robert D; Thomas, Vaughan; Farid, Suzanne S

    2018-05-21

    Over the last several years, continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has evolved from bulk APIs and solid oral dosages into the more complex realm of biologics. The development of continuous downstream processing techniques has allowed biologics manufacturing to realize the benefits (e.g. improved economics, more consistent quality) that come with continuous processing. If relevant processing techniques and principles are selected, the opportunity arises to develop continuous manufacturing designs for additional pharmaceutical products including liposomal drug formulations. Liposome manufacturing has some inherent aspects that make it favorable for a continuous process. Other aspects such as formulation refinement, materials of construction, and aseptic processing need development, but present an achievable challenge. This paper reviews the current state of continuous manufacturing technology applicable to liposomal drug product manufacturing and an assessment of the challenges and potential of this application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  17. Lean manufacturing: A better way for enhancement in productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Ahir, Pankaj; Kumar Yadav, Lalit; Singh Chandrawat, Saurabh

    2012-03-01

    Productivity is the impact of peoples working together. Machines are merely an extended way of collective imagination and energy. Lean Manufacturing is the most used method for continues improvement of business. Organization management philosophy focusing on the reduction of wastage to improve overall customer value. "Lean" operating principles began in manufacturing environments and are known by a variety of synonyms; Lean Manufacturing, Lean Production, Toyota Production System, etc. It is commonly believed that Lean started in Japan "The notable activities in keeping the price of Ford products low is the steady restriction of the production cycle. The longer an article is in the process of manufacture and the more it is moved about, the greater is its ultimate cost." "A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement, flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection."

  18. Specificity of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Biomedical Cell Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, M A; Pyatigorskaya, N V

    2018-03-01

    The article describes special aspects of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for biomedical cell products (BMCP) that imply high standards of aseptics throughout the entire productio process, strict requirements to donors and to the procedure of biomaterial isolation, guaranty of tracing BMCP products, defining processing procedures which allow to identify BMCP as minimally manipulated; continuous quality control and automation of the control process at all stages of manufacturing, which will ensure product release simultaneously with completion of technological operations.

  19. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...

  20. External designers in product design processes of small manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hans; Reymen, Isabelle; Stultiëns, Rutger G L; Peutz, Murk

    Small manufacturing firms often fail to reap the benefits of good design practices. This study investigates how the involvement of external designers influences the evolution of product design processes in small manufacturing firms. Qualitative and quantitative process research methods were used to

  1. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  2. Lean Production Applications in a Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Görener; Humeyra Baser; Ali Turkyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Lean production is a production model which comes about the pursuit of companies to be able to meet competition and make effective production. The main purpose of lean production is to get control about the wastage. This study includes the requirements for the success of the lean production and how the lean production system can be established. In this paper, lean production techniques were applied to the electric water heater line. Measurements using lean initiatives were made, operation cyc...

  3. Identifying variables that influence manufacturing product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article a risk analysis of the production process of selected products in a plant producing votive candles was conducted. The Pareto-Lorenz diagram and FMEA method were used which indicated the most important areas affecting the production of selected elements of candles. The synthesis of intangible factors affecting production in the audited company was also carried out with particular emphasis on the operation of the production system. The factors determining the validity of studies was examined, describing the principle of BOST 14 Toyota management. The most important areas of the company were identified, positively affecting the production process.

  4. Creating customer value by streamlining business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrappen, H

    1992-02-01

    Much of the strategic preoccupation of senior managers in the 1990s is focusing on the creation of customer value. Companies are seeking competitive advantage by streamlining the three processes through which they interact with their customers: product creation, order handling and service assurance. 'Micro-strategy' is a term which has been coined for the trade-offs and decisions on where and how to streamline these three processes. The article discusses micro-strategies applied by successful companies.

  5. Age, wage and productivity in Dutch manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  6. Carbon composite manufacturing in automotive volume production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Raphael; Pahl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight constructions are a continuously increasing trend in the automotive industry. Main drivers for that trend are the challenging emission reduction targets regarding combustion engines and increasing ranges in electric mobility. This article presents different composite production methods...... and discusses their ability within mass production giving also an example within the automotive production....

  7. Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing and the Expenditure Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conversion factors based on the expenditure approach and evaluates the appropriateness for international comparisons of output levels in manufacturing. We apply a consistency check based on the insight that relative productivity levels should be invariant to the choice of base....... The conclusion is insensitive to the applied method for developing conversion factors. The implication is that we cannot measure relative productivity levels in manufacturing across countries using the expenditure approach....

  8. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    BEVERELLI, Cosimo; FIORINI, Matteo; HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  9. Simulation modeling for quality and productivity in steel cord manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Turkseven, Can Hulusi; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2003-01-01

    We describe the application of simulation modeling to estimate and improve quality and productivity performance of a steel cord manufacturing system. We describe the typical steel cord manufacturing plant, emphasize its distinguishing characteristics, identify various production settings and discuss applicability of simulation as a management decision support tool. Besides presenting the general structure of the developed simulation model, we focus on wire fractures, which can be an important...

  10. MANUFACTURING NATURAL KILLER CELLS AS MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian CHABANNON

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of HLA presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. NK cell activity can possibly be modulated in vivo through direct or indirect actions exerted by small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. NK cells can also be adoptively transferred following more or less substantial modifications through cell and gene manufacturing, in order to empower them with new or improved functions and ensure their controlled persistence and activity in the recipient. In the present review, we will focus on the technological and regulatory challenges of NK cell manufacturing, and discuss conditions in which these innovative cellular therapies can be brought to the clinic.

  11. Lean Production Applications in a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Görener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean production is a production model which comes about the pursuit of companies to be able to meet competition and make effective production. The main purpose of lean production is to get control about the wastage. This study includes the requirements for the success of the lean production and how the lean production system can be established. In this paper, lean production techniques were applied to the electric water heater line. Measurements using lean initiatives were made, operation cycle times were determined, and Kaizen improvement methods and line balancing methods were applied according to the results. And the last section of study showed conclusion of lean implementation.

  12. Good manufacturing practices of artisanal products in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, J.M.S.D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the importance of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of artisanal products, aiming to generate a discussion about this subject. The elaboration of artisanal food has been gaining prominence in several countries of the world since these products carry the identity and culture of a place. The traditional and artisanal way of manufacturing provides the food with a variation in its characteristics, which makes it peculiar in comparison to its similar, pleasing the most diverse demands of consumers. In addition, they are considered healthier and natural foods. In the Northeast of Brazil, these products are highlighted by the significant commercialization, being sources of income generation for the region. Among the most prominent products are the coalho and butter types cheeses, bottled butter and carne de sol. Despite the economic and cultural importance of these products, the traditional way of manufacturing, without proper hygiene care, can be a limiting factor for the formal commercialization of these products. Therefore, adopting good manufacturing practices at artisanal food processing places may be the first step towards the production of higher quality products that meet the requirements of the legislation but retain their artisanal manufacturing characteristics.

  13. 27 CFR 19.374 - Manufacture of nonbeverage products, intermediate products, or eligible flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of nonbeverage... PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.374 Manufacture of nonbeverage products...

  14. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...] Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for... to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk... Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Recommended Requirements for Adoption by State...

  15. Problems and Instruments of Product and Technological Diversification of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article involves identification of objectives and development of instruments for product and technological diversification aimed at updating the range of products and introducing innovative technologies, which will ensure a high level of competitiveness and create preconditions for steady development of the enterprise. As a result of studying the literary sources the objectives and instruments for development of enterprises by means of product and technological diversification have been defined. The article suggests effective instruments of product and technological diversification of manufacturing, namely: the model of expansion of the product range, multi-criteria model of optimization of the product range, a modified model of Kantorovich-Koopmans for implementing new production technologies with set limits on the product output. Further research relate to formation of instruments for manufacturing diversification by means of introducing new types of production.

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of special strains of microorganisms in production of functional meat products offers some opportunities. Thus, such action is associated with formation of the following specific dietary components: organic acids, bactericins, enzymes, vitamins and others. They promote to improve the sanitary microbiological, organoleptic, functional and technological parameters of meat products. Using of denitrifying microbial strains could reduce the residual content of sodium nitrite in the finished product, minimizing the possible carcinogenic and mutagenic impact of this compound on a human body, producing functional safe products while maintaining its high organoleptic characteristics.

  17. Optimization of large scale food production using Lean Manufacturing principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Breum, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the production principles of Lean Manufacturing (Lean) can be applied in a large-scale meal production. Lean principles are briefly presented, followed by a field study of how a kitchen at a Danish hospital has implemented Lean in the daily production. In the kitchen...... not be negatively affected by the rationalisation of production procedures. The field study shows that Lean principles can be applied in meal production and can result in increased production efficiency and systematic improvement of product quality without negative effects on the working environment. The results...... show that Lean can be applied and used to manage the production of meals in the kitchen....

  18. Integrated Production-Distribution Scheduling Problem with Multiple Independent Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nonstandard parts supply chain with a public service platform for machinery integration in China. The platform assigns orders placed by a machinery enterprise to multiple independent manufacturers who produce nonstandard parts and makes production schedule and batch delivery schedule for each manufacturer in a coordinate manner. Each manufacturer has only one plant with parallel machines and is located at a location far away from other manufacturers. Orders are first processed at the plants and then directly shipped from the plants to the enterprise in order to be finished before a given deadline. We study the above integrated production-distribution scheduling problem with multiple manufacturers to maximize a weight sum of the profit of each manufacturer under the constraints that all orders are finished before the deadline and the profit of each manufacturer is not negative. According to the optimal condition analysis, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model and use CPLEX to solve it.

  19. Social aspects in additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanna Lena Maria; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kaae, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as drug printing, represent a new engineering approach that can implement the concept of personalized medicine via on-demand manufacturing of dosage forms with individually adjusted doses. Implementation of AM principles...... will be used for production of on-demand medicine. The impact of such changes in the distribution chain on regulation, healthcare professionals and patients are highlighted. Expert opinion: Drug manufacturing by traditional methods is well-established, but it lacks the possibility for on-demand personalized...

  20. Productivity and Openness: Firm Level Evidence in Brazilian Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Liu; Shoji Nishijima

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the productivity of Brazilian manufacturing industries, particularly addressing the influence of liberalization on productivity. We first calculate total factor productivity (TFP) by estimating the stochastic frontier production function and the inefficiency determination equation simultaneously. Then TFP growth rates are regressed on openness-related variables and other firm characteristics. The results show that firm openness to the world is a crucial determinant of ...

  1. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  2. From a homemade to an industrial product : manufacturing Bulgarian yogurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoilova, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in yogurt production in the first half of the twentieth century were related to the transformation of dairy manufacturing through the incorporation of science and technology into the production process. The modernization of the dairy industry affected yogurt, which Bulgarians considered a

  3. Horizontally Differentiated Store Brands: Production Outsourcing to National Brand Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Shindo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a retailer's strategic decision with regard to outsourcing the production of such types of store brands (SBs to national brand (NB manufacturers. The wholesale price of NB is assumed to be set by the manufacturer, while that of the SB is assumed to be set by the retailer. When a retailer outsources SB production to an NB manufacturer, the NB manufacturer might suffer from cannibalization due to offering both the SB and the NB, implying that a strategic interaction between the retailer and manufacturer is an important issue. Based on this motivation, we mainly focus on the strategy of a dominant retailer in such a situation and investigate it with a game-theoretic approach. We show that the optimal strategy for the SB retailer sensitively depends on the degree of differentiation between the SB and the NB. In particular, if both products are less differentiated, the retailer benefits from offering only the SB, and, in this case, the retailer should offer its wholesale price, after the manufacturer sets the NB wholesale price. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal strategies of the retailer are socially efficient, if and only if the SB and the NB are sufficiently differentiated.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.; Leonova B. I.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of spe...

  5. Product Life Cycle of the Manufactured Home Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Wherry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residential construction consumes an estimated 26 percent of the total U.S. wood harvest and thus plays an important role in the forest products value chain. While being a relatively small part of the U.S. residential construction market, the factory-built residential housing industry, originating from manufactured homes (e.g. mobile homes, is embracing emerging industry segments such as modular or panelized homes. Since indications exist that factory-built home production is slated to gain a more prominent role in the U.S. construction markets at the cost of traditional stick-built production, the factory-built home industry sub-segment is of considerable importance to the forest products industry. This research looks at manufactured home producers as a benchmark for analyzing the current economic state of the industry and discusses competitive strategies. The analysis concludes, through macroeconomic modeling, that manufactured homes are in the declining stage of their product life cycle due to changes to the U.S. residential construction sector and the factory-built home industry and by advancements of rival industry-segments. As market share continues to decline, firms operating in this industry-segment seek to either hedge their losses through product diversification strategies or remain focused on strategically repositioning the manufactured home segment.

  6. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for Adoption by... sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk. These Recommended... comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  7. Method of manufacturing borosilicate glass solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tsuneya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain glass solidification products efficiently in a dry process from medium and high level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from PWR type reactors. Method: Boric acid-containing radioactive liquid wastes generated from primary coolants of PWR type reactors are evaporated to condensate as the pre-treatment. The concentrated liquid wastes are supplied to a drum type rotary kiln. While on the other hand, usual glass frits are introduced into the kiln. The liquid wastes are dried in the rotary kiln, as well as B 2 O 3 and the glass frits in the liquid wastes are combined into glass particles. In this case, since the kiln is rotated, no glass particles are deposited on the wall of the kiln. Then, the glass particles are introduced for melting into a high frequency melting furnace made of metal. The melting temperature is set to 1100 - 1150 deg C. The molten borosilicate glass is recovered from the bottom of the melting furance, contained in a canister and cooled for several hours, and then a cover is welded to the canister. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  9. Efficacy of Lean Manufacturing to Improve Production Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Balogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lean manufacturing system is a technique of manufacturing products in time. The concept of lean manufacturing principles employs simpler ways of communicating required materials as well as manual technique in ensuring the provision of signals for replenishment of materials the production companies require. Performance on the other hand, can be considered the attainment of value effectively and efficiently. Lean manufacturing and performance production goes hand in hand. Through utilizing lean manufacturing method, most companies would be able to tailor their processes in achieving effective performance and meeting unique requests from their consumers. The exploratory observations conducted in the study was purposely for examining the nature of complex interactions involved between major constructs and environmental sustainability at the parent company and the tire part vendors. The method of the research was a qualitative case study. The research data were obtained from with the case company and through structured interviews the case company's consumers. The case-specific tools were first developed in close co-operation with the case company. Future research agenda addresses gaps in the current literature and suggests relevant framework from which to explore this phenomenon.

  10. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  11. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Bruno G; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S; Reis, Catarina P

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability.

  12. Good manufacturing practices for medicinal products for human use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Bruno G.; Rijo, Patrícia; Gonçalo, Tânia S.; Reis, Catarina P.

    2015-01-01

    At international and national levels, there are public and private organizations, institutions and regulatory authorities, who work and cooperate between them and with Pharmaceutical Industry, in order to achieve a consensus of the guidelines and laws of the manufacturing of medicinal products for human use. This article includes an explanation of how operate and cooperate these participants, between them and expose the current regulations, following the line of European Community/European Economic Area, referencing, wherever appropriate, the practiced guidelines, outside of regulatory action of space mentioned. In this way, it is intended to achieve quality, security and effectiveness exceptional levels in the manufacturing of health products. Good Manufacturing Practice aim the promotion of the human health and consequently, to the improvement of quality of life. For achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the presented concepts and show the benefits arising from this applicability. PMID:25883511

  13. Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-06-01

    Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for product design and manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Presents state-of-the-art research in the area of multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for integrated product design and manufacturing Provides a comprehensive review of the literature Gives in-depth descriptions of recently developed innovative and novel methodologies, algorithms and systems in the area of modelling, simulation and optimisation

  15. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  16. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  17. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  18. Operator-Oriented Product and Production Process Design for Manufacturing, Maintenance and Upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, G. van; Bosch, T.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of production in the manufacturing industry is changing, and companies face large challenges. Customers expect fast delivery times, proven sustainability, flexibility, and frequent product upgrades. To stay competitive and manage rapid technological demands, a parallel, iterative and

  19. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  20. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed.... The Fabrazyme shortage resulted from contamination at the manufacturing [[Page 65910

  1. Implementation of Canflex bundle manufacture - from 'bench scale' to production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zircatec Precision Industries (ZPI) has been involved with the development of the 43 element Canflex bundle design since 1986. This development included several 'prototype' campaigns involving the manufacture of small quantities of test bundles using enriched fuel. Manufacturing and inspection methods for this fuel were developed at ZPI as the design progressed. The most recent campaign involved the production of 26 bundles of the final Canflex design for a demonstration irradiation in the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This presentation will explore issues pertaining to the introduction of a new product line from initial trial quantities to full production levels. The Canflex fuel experience and a brief review of development efforts will be used as an example. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 50.25-5 - Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Products requiring manufacturer or mill certification... manufacturer or mill certification. (a) Products required to be certified by a manufacturer or by mill... accepted without referring to its manufacturer or mill certification, if: (1) The product is marked in...

  3. Product variety, product complexity and manufacturing operational performance: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    Manufacturing in the twenty-first century has been wrought with the struggle to satisfy the rising demand for greater product variety and more complex products while still maintaining efficient manufacturing operations. However, the literature lacks an overview of which operational performance...... measures are most affected by increased variety and complexity. This study presents a systematic literature review of the recent scholarly literature on variety, complexity and manufacturing operational performance (MOP). Results show that product variety has a consistently negative relationship with MOP...... across different time, cost, quality and flexibility measures while product complexity lacks evidence of strong relationships with MOP measures....

  4. Lean production teams and health in garment manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P R; Mullarkey, S

    2000-04-01

    The impact of lean production on psychological health was assessed by comparing lean production teams in garment manufacture with a traditional system for making similar garments. Work design characteristics were examined as mediators of the impact of work organization on health. Findings indicate both positive and negative direct effects of teamworking on aspects of autonomy, work demands, and social climate. In turn, both positive and negative direct effects of work design on psychological health were found, which combine to give no overall difference between the groups. This study suggests that the balance between positive and negative effects of lean production teamworking depends on management choices in the form of work design.

  5. The production route selection algorithm in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.; Olender, M.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing requirements and competition in the global market are challenges for the companies profitability in production and supply chain management. This situation became the basis for construction of virtual organizations, which are created in response to temporary needs. The problem of the production flow planning in virtual manufacturing networks is considered. In the paper the algorithm of the production route selection from the set of admissible routes, which meets the technology and resource requirements and in the context of the criterion of minimum cost is proposed.

  6. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  7. Distributed Manufacturing of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility and Economic Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey L. Woern

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed manufacturing even at the household level is now well established with the combined use of open source designs and self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers. Previous work has shown substantial economic consumer benefits for producing their own polymer products. Now flexible filaments are available at roughly 3-times the cost of more conventional 3-D printing materials. To provide some insight into the potential for flexible filament to be both technically feasible and economically viable for distributed digital manufacturing at the consumer level this study investigates 20 common flexible household products. The 3-D printed products were quantified by print time, electrical energy use and filament consumption by mass to determine the cost to fabricate with a commercial RepRap 3-D printer. Printed parts were inspected and when necessary tested for their targeted application to ensure technical feasibility. Then, the experimentally measured cost to DIY manufacturers was compared to low and high market prices for comparable commercially available products. In addition, the mark-up and potential for long-term price declines was estimated for flexible filaments by converting thermoplastic elastomer (TPE pellets into filament and reground TPE from a local recycling center into filament using an open source recyclebot. This study found that commercial flexible filament is economically as well as technically feasible for providing a means of distributed home-scale manufacturing of flexible products. The results found a 75% savings when compared to the least expensive commercially equivalent products and 92% when compared to high market priced products. Roughly, 160 flexible objects must be substituted to recover the capital costs to print flexible materials. However, as previous work has shown the Lulzbot Mini 3-D printer used in this study would provide more than a 100% ROI printing one object a week from hard thermoplastics

  8. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  9. Isotope products manufacture in Russia and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, S.V.; Okhotina, I.A.; Kalelin, E.A.; Krasnov, N.N.; Kuzin, V.V.; Malykh, J.A.; Makarovsky, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    At the present stage of the world economy development, stable and radioactive isotopes,preparations and products on their base are widely used in many fields of the national economy, medicine and scientific researches. The Russian Federation is one of the largest worldwide producers of a variety of nuclide products on the base of more than 350 isotopes, as follows: stable isotopes reactor, cyclotron, fission product radioactive isotopes, ion-radiation sources compounds, labelled with stable and radioactive isotopes, radionuclide short-lived isotope generators, radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide light and heat sources; luminous paints on base of isotopes. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy coordinates activity for development and organization of manufacture and isotope products supply in Russia as well as for export. Within many years of isotope industry development, there have appeared some manufacturing centres in Russia, dealing with a variety of isotope products. The report presents the production potentialities of these centres and also an outlook on isotope production development in Russia in the next years

  10. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  11. International Outsourcing and Productivity in Italian Manufacturing Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Turco Alessia

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of international outsourcing of materials and services on productivity in Italian manufacturing sectors during the period 1985-1997. Three different measures of outsourcing are used. Firstly, a "narrow" measure of outsourcing is calculated as the intensity of intermediate inputs that each sector imports from the same sector abroad. Secondly, a "broad" measure of outsourcing of materials is calculated as the intensity of materials imported from non-energy manufa...

  12. [Pharmaceutical product quality control and good manufacturing practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the roles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in pharmaceutical product quality control. There are three keys to pharmaceutical product quality control. They are specifications, thorough product characterization during development, and adherence to GMP as the ICH Q6A guideline on specifications provides the most important principles in its background section. Impacts of the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (rPAL) which became effective in 2005 on product quality control are discussed. Progress of ICH discussion for Pharmaceutical Development (Q8), Quality Risk Management (Q9) and Pharmaceutical Quality System (Q10) are reviewed. In order to reconstruct GMP guidelines and GMP inspection system in the regulatory agencies under the new paradigm by rPAL and the ICH, a series of Health Science studies were conducted. For GMP guidelines, product GMP guideline, technology transfer guideline, laboratory control guideline and change control system guideline were written. For the GMP inspection system, inspection check list, inspection memo and inspection scenario were proposed also by the Health Science study groups. Because pharmaceutical products and their raw materials are manufactured and distributed internationally, collaborations with other national authorities are highly desired. In order to enhance the international collaborations, consistent establishment of GMP inspection quality system throughout Japan will be essential.

  13. Manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal hydrogenation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Maloletnev; M.A. Gyul' malieva [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    The manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal distillates was experimentally studied. A flow chart for the production of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes was designed, which comprised the hydrogen treatment of the total wide-cut (or preliminarily dephenolized) fraction with FBP 425{sup o}C; fractional distillation of the hydrotreated products into IBP-60, 60-180, 180-300, and 300-425{sup o}C fractions; the hydro-cracking of middle fractions for increasing the yield of gasoline fractions whenever necessary; the catalytic reform of the fractions with bp up to 180{sup o}C; and the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. Dispersion-strengthened Aluminium Products Manufactured by Powder Blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1969-01-01

    Detailed experiments carried out to examine relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of powder-blended aluminum products are reported; their results as well as structural studies by transmission electron microscopy and tensile-and creep- testing, are given; as dispersed phase......, various oxide powders were selected on criterion that during manufacturing no reaction must taken place between metal and oxide phase; strength of powder-blended aluminum products increases and elongation decreases with decreasing particle size of aluminum powder and with increasing concentration of oxide...

  15. Social aspects in additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johanna; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kaae, Susanne; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2017-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as drug printing, represent a new engineering approach that can implement the concept of personalized medicine via on-demand manufacturing of dosage forms with individually adjusted doses. Implementation of AM principles, such as pharmacoprinting, will challenge the entire drug distribution chain and affect the society at different levels. Areas covered: This work summarizes the concept of personalized medicine and gives an overview of possibilities for monitoring patients' health. The most recent activities in the field of printing technologies for fabrication of dosage forms and 'polypills' with flexible doses and tailored release profiles are reviewed. Different scenarios for the drug distribution chain with the required adjustments in drug logistics, quality systems and environmental safety are discussed, as well as whether AM will be used for production of on-demand medicine. The impact of such changes in the distribution chain on regulation, healthcare professionals and patients are highlighted. Expert opinion: Drug manufacturing by traditional methods is well-established, but it lacks the possibility for on-demand personalized drug production. With the recent approval of the first printed medicine, society should be prepared for the changes that will follow the introduction of printed pharmaceuticals.

  16. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  17. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    approach that we apply to two case companies, this paper presents an empirical study of how to initiate involvement of manufacturing employees in R&D activities. We have used participatory methods from design thinking that has the ability to create relations between employees from different backgrounds......Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... and through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...

  18. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  19. RECONFIGURABLE PRODUCT ROUTING AND CONTROL FOR MASS CUSTOMISATION MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Reconfigurable control of flexible manufacturing systems can allow for the efficient and responsive production of customised product instances. This can aid in providing make-to-order business models for various small- to medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and provide competitive advantage in a dynamic global marketplace. Reconfigurable control application requires an understanding of the modes of production variability in mass customisation manufacturing. Temporally uncorrelated workflow routings are considered as one of these production variability modes. In this light, this paper addresses the flexible material payload routing problem, and presents a mobile robot platform that has been developed to research and design reconfigurable routing systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Verstelbare beheer van aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels kan die doeltreffende en reaktiewe produksie van doelgemaakte produkeksemplare toelaat. Hierdie beheer kan assisteer in die voorsiening van vervaardig-na-bestellingbesigheidsmodelle aan ’n aantal klein- tot medium-grootte ondernemings in Suid-Afrika, en aan hulle ’n kompeterende voorsprong bied in ’n dinamiese globale mark. Die instelling van verstelbare beheer vereis dat die modi van produkveranderlikheid in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging verstaan word. Hierdie artikel spreek die probleem van aanpasbare roetebepaling van materiaalvragte in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging aan. ’n Mobiele robot-platform, ontwikkel vir navorsing in verstelbare roetebepalingstelsels, word ook voorgelê.

  20. 16 CFR 300.25 - Country where wool products are processed or manufactured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an origin label on the unfinished product, the manufacturing processes as required in paragraph (a)(4... processed or manufactured. Further work or material added to the wool product in another country must effect...

  1. Analysis of production flow process with lean manufacturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Ikhsan; Arif Nasution, Abdillah; Prasetio, Aji; Fadillah, Kharis

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted on the company engaged in the production of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). The production process in the company are still exists several activities that cause waste. Non value added activity (NVA) in the implementation is still widely found, so the cycle time generated to make the product will be longer. A form of improvement on the production line is by applying lean manufacturing method to identify waste along the value stream to find non value added activities. Non value added activity can be eliminated and reduced by utilizing value stream mapping and identifying it with activity mapping process. According to the results obtained that there are 26% of value-added activities and 74% non value added activity. The results obtained through the current state map of the production process of process lead time value of 678.11 minutes and processing time of 173.94 minutes. While the results obtained from the research proposal is the percentage of value added time of 41% of production process activities while non value added time of the production process of 59%. While the results obtained through the future state map of the production process of process lead time value of 426.69 minutes and processing time of 173.89 minutes.

  2. CUSTOMIZED PRODUCTS: THE INTEGRATING RELATIONSHIP MARKETING, AGILE MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman BARUTCU

    2007-01-01

    A customized product is a special product designed and manufactured for individual customers to meet their individual needs. Managers need to understand why customers demand and how companies supply customized products. The importance of this study is to highlight business, marketing and manufacturing strategies so as to supply customized products efficiently. It is expected from a manufacturer to successfully adopt relationship marketing, mass customization, agile manufacturing and supply ch...

  3. Intelligent technologies in process of highly-precise products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhidova, K. L.; Khakimov, Z. L.; Isaeva, M. R.; Shukhin, V. V.; Labazanov, M. A.; Ignatiev, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main control methods of the surface layer of bearing parts is the eddy current testing method. Surface layer defects of bearing parts, like burns, cracks and some others, are reflected in the results of the rolling surfaces scan. The previously developed method for detecting defects from the image of the raceway was quite effective, but the processing algorithm is complicated and lasts for about 12 ... 16 s. The real non-stationary signals from an eddy current transducer (ECT) consist of short-time high-frequency and long-time low-frequency components, therefore a transformation is used for their analysis, which provides different windows for different frequencies. The wavelet transform meets these conditions. Based on aforesaid, a methodology for automatically detecting and recognizing local defects in bearing parts surface layer has been developed on the basis of wavelet analysis using integral estimates. Some of the defects are recognized by the amplitude component, otherwise an automatic transition to recognition by the phase component of information signals (IS) is carried out. The use of intelligent technologies in the manufacture of bearing parts will, firstly, significantly improve the quality of bearings, and secondly, significantly improve production efficiency by reducing (eliminating) rejections in the manufacture of products, increasing the period of normal operation of the technological equipment (inter-adjustment period), the implementation of the system of Flexible facilities maintenance, as well as reducing production costs.

  4. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E...—Product Manufacturing Checklist PRODUCT MANUFACTURING CHECKLIST AuditeeAuditor signatureDate Compliance...

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  6. The Scientific Context of Product Portfolio Management at Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Luiz Neuenfeldt Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Correct product portfolio management is one of the feasible ways of ensuring competitive sustainability before continued market evolution whereby decisions to maintain or exclude an item from the sales offering drives consequences that impact both internal and external contexts. In alignment with this standpoint, the purpose of this study is to identify and pinpoint the conceptual framework on product portfolio management, particularly in as much as existing applications centred on manufacturing sector firms is concerned, so as to allow for the envisioning of possible opportunities of fostering future investigations on the subject matter. To this effect, theoretical-conceptual research was conducted, starting with the primary definition of how this field of study is explored right through to the bibliometric review of existing publications. The end result was the identification a gap in research that focuses on portfolio management at manufacturing companies, particularly in Brazil where only two studies centred on this theme were found, although the country hosts more than 30 types of organizations of this kind.

  7. Report of working committee 2 production of manufactured gases; Rapport du comite de travail 2 production de gaz manufactures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.

    2000-07-01

    The Committee's work during this triennium focused on 4 topic areas. They are: the potential of hydrogen in meeting long term energy demands, future development prospects for manufactured gas units/gasification of coal, biomass, and opportunity materials for the production of electricity and chemicals, recovery of methane from coal seams, and update on management of contaminated gas sites. This report presents the status and the potentials of present and future opportunities for the gas industry in the areas of manufactured gases including hydrogen and coal bed/mine methane. The idea of hydrogen as an energy carrier is getting increased attention these days for its promise of super clean emissions at the point of use. The development of fuel cells for stationary and mobile applications has highlighted the need of hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure. Hydrogen appears destined to be a major energy source of the future. The industry for gasification is growing, particularly for the production of electricity and chemicals from opportunity fuels, such as petroleum coke from refineries. Coal and biomass are also getting increased interests due to their promise of high efficiency and lower emissions. Methane from coal mines is also getting increased attention due not only to its environmental benefits but also to its favorable own economics. The future of the energy industry will be price and environmentally driven. A well-informed gas industry will be in a position to continue to play a major role in the future of the energy industry world-wide. (author)

  8. Six sigma and lean production adoption in a manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Christian Scheller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The connection among Lean Production with Six Sigma originated the Lean Six Sigma methodology, focused on processes variation and waste reduction. This methodology was developed on different ways in the companies and there is no consensus over its structure and its implementation. In this context, this paper aims to identify and analyze the main characteristics on the adoption and integration of Lean Six Sigma methodology through a case study conducted in a manufacturing company that adopts lean production and six sigma. The results show two important aspects of the Lean Six Sigma methodology. One of them is the adoption of the value stream mapping as a central tool on Lean Six Sigma. The other is the use of DMAIC for improvements actions. The study indicates that despite the difficulties on Lean Six Sigma implementation, the methodology offers benefits to the company that adopts it in the suitable way.

  9. Inventory Management Strategies For Productivity Improvement In Equipment Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T Amachree

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined and developed Inventory Management Strategies IMS which could be creatively employed for Productivity Improvement in Equipment Firms PIEMF Equipment manufacturing projects suffer from declining productivity and inability to effectively satisfy customized order batch quantity within schedules budgeted cost and quality specifications due to lack of robust and well defined IMS as well as none code classification of vast number of inventory item. Survey and expost-facto research designs were adopted on the four identified IMS in three EMF. The method used for primary data collection and measurement on four IMS and inventory management parameters was questionnaire modelled into likert five point scale from the target respondents being experts in the subject matter. The secondary data was obtained from the computerised inventory status file of the three equipment manufacturing firms. The methods of primary data analysis and test of research used were Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient and oneway. Analysis of variance ANOVA computer software via Statistical Program for Social Science SPSS version 17 ABC analysis and classification of materials was used for code categorization of secondary data also with the aid of Microsoft excel. The results of the analyses highlighted and isolated A class of inventory items which are 137 out of 543 for Siemens Nig. Ltd 154 out of 551 for Dresser-Rand Nig. Ltd and 162 of 551 for Nigerian Engineering Works Ltd. The results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis and test of research hypotheses indicate that Materials Requirements Planning MRP followed by Supply Chain Management SCM are the most significant IMS as they correlate strongly with PIEMF. The study recommends IMS adoption by code classification of materials in which MRP or SCM could be deployed for management of A class of inventories while classical IMS could be used for management B and C classes of inventory items.

  10. Design and research on the platform of network manufacture product electronic trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Xuemei

    2003-09-01

    With the rapid globalization of market and business, E-trading affects every manufacture enterprise. However, the security of network manufacturing products of transmission on Internet is very important. In this paper we discussed the protocol of fair exchange and platform for network manufacture products E-trading based on fair exchange protocol and digital watermarking techniques. The platform realized reliable and copyright protection.

  11. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  13. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  14. 16 CFR 1211.24 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. 1211.24 Section 1211.24 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.24 Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. (a) Form of permanent label of...

  15. Computational manufacturing as a bridge between design and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonravov, Alexander V; Trubetskov, Michael K

    2005-11-10

    Computational manufacturing of optical coatings is a research area that can be placed between theoretical designing and practical manufacturing in the same way that computational physics can be placed between theoretical and experimental physics. Investigations in this area have been performed for more than 30 years under the name of computer simulation of manufacturing and monitoring processes. Our goal is to attract attention to the increasing importance of computational manufacturing at the current state of the art in the design and manufacture of optical coatings and to demonstrate possible applications of this research tool.

  16. Productivity improvement in the production line with lean manufacturing approach: case study PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    diah Halimatussa’

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increaseing productivity is one of the competitive strategies that can be applied in a company in order to survive in an intense competitive presure. PT. XYZ is a textile industry manufacturing golf gloves and caddy bag. Every day, the company has a production target of 600 pieces per line. However, the desired target is not achieved that it will affect the delay in delivery of products to customers. In this research, a case study on implementing value stream mapping and Kaizen as the lean manufacturing concept is reported. The purpose of this study is to map the current production line, analyse and design the future value stream mapping by eliminating waste occured. It is obtained a lead time reduction as much as 440.4 seconds through eliminating 17 non-value added activities. Then, the output can be increased up to 21% which is equal to 502 pieces.

  17. Glocalized Production - A Holistic Approach for Future Manufacturing at The LEGO Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    ) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). RMS is a manufacturing system that is designed for rapid changes. It is based on core characteristics such as modularity, convertibility, customized flexibility, etc.. RM is the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM –commonly referred to as 3D printing) for the production......Global production is changing. Changes in production paradigms, global competition, manufacturing technologies, and new mega trends such as individualization, inflict immense challenges on global manufacturers. A new holistic approach for facing supply chain and production challenges is proposed...... facilities, the establishment of production close to main markets, and the creation of a global network of independent factories and supply chains with local manufacturing. Doing so will potentially increase responsiveness, cut transportation costs, reduce complexity, enable production to demand rather than...

  18. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products: a novel tailored model for optimizing performance and estimating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Römhild, Andy; Kaiser, Daniel; Beier, Carola; Bauer, Gerhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reinke, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) have gained considerable attention in academia due to their therapeutic potential. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles ensure the quality and sterility of manufacturing these products. We developed a model for estimating the manufacturing costs of cell therapy products and optimizing the performance of academic GMP-facilities. The "Clean-Room Technology Assessment Technique" (CTAT) was tested prospectively in the GMP facility of BCRT, Berlin, Germany, then retrospectively in the GMP facility of the University of California-Davis, California, USA. CTAT is a two-level model: level one identifies operational (core) processes and measures their fixed costs; level two identifies production (supporting) processes and measures their variable costs. The model comprises several tools to measure and optimize performance of these processes. Manufacturing costs were itemized using adjusted micro-costing system. CTAT identified GMP activities with strong correlation to the manufacturing process of cell-based products. Building best practice standards allowed for performance improvement and elimination of human errors. The model also demonstrated the unidirectional dependencies that may exist among the core GMP activities. When compared to traditional business models, the CTAT assessment resulted in a more accurate allocation of annual expenses. The estimated expenses were used to set a fee structure for both GMP facilities. A mathematical equation was also developed to provide the final product cost. CTAT can be a useful tool in estimating accurate costs for the ATMPs manufactured in an optimized GMP process. These estimates are useful when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these novel interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Foundations & principles of distributed manufacturing elements of manufacturing networks, cyber-physical production systems and smart automation

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent description of distributed manufacturing, providing a solid base for further research on the subject as well as smart implementations in companies. It provides a guide for those researching and working in a range of fields, such as smart manufacturing, cloud computing, RFID tracking, distributed automation, cyber physical production and global design anywhere, manufacture anywhere solutions. Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing anticipates future advances in the fields of embedded systems, the Internet of Things and cyber physical systems, outlining how adopting these innovations could rapidly bring about improvements in key performance indicators, which could in turn generate competition pressure by rendering successful business models obsolete. In laying the groundwork for powerful theoretical models, high standards for the homogeneity and soundness of the suggested setups are applied. The book especially elaborates on the upcoming competition in online manu...

  20. 78 FR 4307 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...-2009-N-0435] Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products AGENCY: Food and...) is issuing this regulation on the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) requirements applicable... this subpart? (Sec. 4.2) D. What current good manufacturing practice requirements apply to my...

  1. Manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, B.P.; Kravchenko, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production with JA-300 nitrogen air distributing device has been developed. Gas mixture containing 2-3% of neon-helium mixture (the rest is mainly nitrogen 96-97%) is selected out of the cover of the JA-300 column condensator and enters the deflegmator under the 2.3-2.5 atm. pressure. The diflegmator presents a heat exchange apparatus in which at 78 K liquid nitrogen the condensation of nitrogen from the mixture of gases entering from the JA-300 column takes place. The enriched gas mixture containing 65-70% of neon-helium mixture and 30-35% of nitrogen goes out from the deflegmator. This enriched neon-helium mixture enters the gasgoeder for impure (65-70%) neon-helium mixture. Full cleaning of-neon helium mixture of nitrogen is performed by means of an adsorber. As adsorbent an activated coal has been used. Adsorption occurs at the 78 K temperature of liquid nitrogen and pressure P=0.1 atm. As activated coal cooled down to nitrogen temperature adsorbs nitrogen better than neon and helium, the nitrogen from the mixture is completely adsorbed. Pure neon-helium mixture from the adsorber comes into a separate gasgolder. In one campaign the cycle allows obtaining 2 m 3 of the mixture. The mixture contains 0.14% of nitrogen, 0.01% of oxygen and 0.06% of hydrogen

  2. A Systematic Approach to Quality Oriented Product Sequencing for Multistage Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Faping; Butt, Shahid Ikramullah

    2016-01-01

    Product sequencing is one way to reduce cost and improve product quality for multistage manufacturing systems (MMS). However, systematically evaluating the influence of product sequence on quality performance for MMS is still a challenge. By considering the rate of incoming conforming product, manufacturing system quality transition between batch to batch, and quality propagation along stages, this paper investigates the appropriate batch policies and product sequencing for MMS so that satisf...

  3. Design of production process main shaft process with lean manufacturing to improve productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Anizar; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This object research is one of manufacturing companies that produce oil palm machinery parts. In the production process there is delay in the completion of the Main shaft order. Delays in the completion of the order indicate the low productivity of the company in terms of resource utilization. This study aimed to obtain a draft improvement of production processes that can improve productivity by identifying and eliminating activities that do not add value (non-value added activity). One approach that can be used to reduce and eliminate non-value added activity is Lean Manufacturing. This study focuses on the identification of non-value added activity with value stream mapping analysis tools, while the elimination of non-value added activity is done with tools 5 whys and implementation of pull demand system. Based on the research known that non-value added activity on the production process of the main shaft is 9,509.51 minutes of total lead time 10,804.59 minutes. This shows the level of efficiency (Process Cycle Efficiency) in the production process of the main shaft is still very low by 11.89%. Estimation results of improvement showed a decrease in total lead time became 4,355.08 minutes and greater process cycle efficiency that is equal to 29.73%, which indicates that the process was nearing the concept of lean production.

  4. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Investigating factors that influence level and dynamics of capital productivity in plants manufacturing equipment for mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karenov, R.S. (Karagandinskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-10-01

    Analyzes productivity of capital in plants manufacturing equipment for underground coal mining in the USSR. Effects of the following factors are evaluated: working time, investment, mechanization of manufacturing processes, power of motors used to drive the manufacturing equipment, duration of a manufacturing cycle, cooperation degree, equipment service life. Effects of insufficient specialization of manufacturing plants and the manufacturing of mining equipment by repair shops of individual mines which should rather specialize in equipment repair and maintenance are evaluated. Analysis shows that specialization of the manufacturing plants could increase productivity of capital by 1.5-2.0 times, reduce labor consumption by 3-5 times and consumption of materials by 1.5-1.7 times. 4 refs.

  6. Manufacturing of Zirconium products at Chepetsky Mechanical Plant, Stock Company. Prospects of development and products quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergazov, K.; Shtuza, M.; Lozitsky, S.; Kutyavin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report described all the steps required to fabricate zirconium components, starting from the procurement of feed material up to rolling of sheets, tubes, bars and manufacture of the applicable parts required to manufacture fuel assemblies. Automated state-of-the-art equipment used for advanced productivity, as well as various installations able to perform numerous inspection steps to assure quality of the manufactured products was showcased. The challenges to be addressed in the nearest future were also presented

  7. 49 CFR 661.6 - Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 661.6 Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products. If steel, iron, or... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification requirements for procurement of steel or manufactured products. 661.6 Section 661.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  8. Management Accounting in the Manufacturing Sector: Managing Costs at the Design and Production Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, Tony; Wouters, Marc; Chapman, Christopher S.; Hopwood, Anthony G.; Shields, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the empirical research literature on management accounting in the manufacturing sector including the development as well and manufacturing phases of the product lifecycle. As managing product development has gained terrain in companies over the last 15 years, management

  9. Advanced Process Chains for Prototyping and Pilot Production based on Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For many years, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been a well-established production technology used mainly for rapid prototyping. But the need for increased flexibility and economic low volume production led to the discovery of Additive Manufacturing as a suitable fabrication technique (Mellor 2013...

  10. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a) Purchases by executive agencies of prison-made products carried in GSA supply distribution facilities must...

  12. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... [Foreign Country]”. (ii) When the U.S. Customs Service requires an origin label on the unfinished product... manufactured. Further work or material added to the textile fiber product in another country must effect a...

  13. Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System : Volume 1. Master Product Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Volume I is part of a four volume set documenting areas of research resulting from the development of the Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System (AMAS) for the DOT/Transportation Systems Center. AMAS was designed to assist in the evaluation of in...

  14. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  15. Domestic Wood Products Manufacturing Trends and Factors to Enhance Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson; Rich Christianson

    2003-01-01

    There is little question that imports have captured a substantial portion of the domestic furniture market. However, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain industry perspectives of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that can enhance domestic competitiveness...

  16. Eradication of Productivity Related Problems Through Lean Principles In Integrated Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of distributed integrated manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM under the global collaborative environment along with the principles of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is an umbrella term which involves automated design, analysis, planning manufacturing, dispatching, customer-interaction, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and factory floor functions, which are inter-linked through the computer, to control all the campus-wide manufacturing related operations. It helps to improve the performance of a firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing business in which most of lean ideas are embedded. These lean ideas cause work in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities and focus on customers’ needs by delivering them at minimum time, with high quality and at minimum cost by eliminating hidden waste. What happens at the shop floor of even an integrated industry is that proper and timely attention is not paid to the intangible lean principles in the manual part of the CIM system which results in substantial loss of the plant productivity. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to investigate the different poor productivity-related problems in a partially integrated manufacturing environment and lay down the remedial measures to eradicate them using ‘Juran’s problem solving techniques’ and various ‘lean tools’ which results in the reduced wastages and hence improved productivity.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Fiber-Reinforced Additive Manufacturing for Injection Molding Insert Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Stotz, Philippe Maurice; Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) injection molding (IM) inserts have proved to be capable to substitute conventionally manufactured metal inserts with polymer-based insert enforced with short, virgin, unseized carbon fibers (CFs). It has been shown that the implementation of AM technology resulted......, this contribution provides a comparison of environmental performance of conventionally vs. additively manufactured inserts in a full life cycle perspective indicated in Figure 1, including materials, production, use and end-of-life (EoL) stages....

  18. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  19. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  1. 16 CFR 1205.35 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. 1205.35 Section 1205.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS Certification § 1205.35 Product...

  2. 27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands. 17.5 Section 17.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which...

  3. Qualification of laser based additive production for manufacturing of forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization leads to very short product life cycles, so the costs of a tool have to be amortized with a low number of workpieces. Especially for highly loaded tools, like those for forging, that leads to expensive products. Therefore more economical production processes for tool manufacturing have to be investigated. As laser additive manufacturing is already used for the production of moulds for injection moulding, this technology maybe could also improve the forging tool production. Within this paper laser metal deposition, which is industrially used for tool repair, will be investigated for the use in tool manufacturing. Therefore a mechanical characterization of parts built with different laser process parameters out of the hot work tool steel 1.2709 is made by upsetting tests and hardness measurements. So the influence of the additive manufacturing process on the hardness distribution is analysed.

  4. Does private-label production by national-brand manufacturers create discounter goodwill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Deleersnyder, B.; Geyskens, I.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discount stores have a private-label dominated assortment where national brands have only limited shelf access. These limited spots are in high demand by national-brand manufacturers. We examine whether private-label production by leading national-brand manufacturers for two important discounters

  5. The added value of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in the production of radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Edwin; Woerdenbag, Herman; Luurtsema, Geert; de Hooge, Marjolijn; Boersma, Hendrikus

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturers of medicinal products including radiopharmaceuticals have to follow regulations from their governmental organizations as well as professional societies to ensure built-in quality combined with patient safety issues. This chapter is a concise review of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

  6. 78 FR 16824 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... manufacturing operations. DATES: Submit electronic or written comments on the tobacco companies' recommendations... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0227] Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food...

  7. Practical Aspects of CALS in Design and Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shpitalni, Moshe; Alting, Leo; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...... with the design and manufacture of sheet metal parts. It is demonstrated that through implementation of the CALS approach, the overall process can be optimised and products can be manufactured significantly more accurately, faster and less expensively.......The transition from design to process planning and to the various stages of manufacturing is traditionally sequential. In many cases, practical problems associated with manufacturing cannot be resolved if only individual processes are examined. These problems can be overcome, however, by adopting...

  8. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  9. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  10. Cellulose Products Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Cellulose Products Manufacturing, see the rule history for this Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), and find Compliance help for this source.

  11. Quality Productivity Circle in Manufacture | Achi | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief history of quality control and productivity is hereby traced. ... Circle management technique are discussed in its relationship with productivity. ... so should be made sound in body (and spirit) through appropriate training and motivation.

  12. Validation of a sterilization dose for products manufactured using a 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsgard, Wendy; Winters, Martell

    2018-02-01

    As more healthcare products are personalized, the use of unique, patient-specific products will increase. Some of these are manufactured using a 3D printing process (also known as additive manufacturing) for either polymers or metals. For these products, processes such as sterilization validations must be handled in a different manner. The concepts typically used are still relevant but are approached from an alternative perspective to account for a potential production batch size of one, and for the great variability that can occur in size and shape of a product.

  13. Lean manufacturing analysis to reduce waste on production process of fan products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar

    2018-02-01

    This research is based on case study that being on electrical company. One of the products that will be researched is the fan, which when running the production process there is a time that is not value-added, among others, the removal of material which is not efficient in the raw materials and component molding fan. This study aims to reduce waste or non-value added activities and shorten the total lead time by using the tools Value Stream Mapping. Lean manufacturing methods used to analyze and reduce the non-value added activities, namely the value stream mapping analysis tools, process mapping activity with 5W1H, and tools 5 whys. Based on the research note that no value-added activities in the production process of a fan of 647.94 minutes of total lead time of 725.68 minutes. Process cycle efficiency in the production process indicates that the fan is still very low at 11%. While estimates of the repair showed a decrease in total lead time became 340.9 minutes and the process cycle efficiency is greater by 24%, which indicates that the production process has been better.

  14. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by... COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203.34 Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers). (a) Form of permanent...

  15. 78 FR 58273 - Approval for Manufacturing (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, New... (production) authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., within FTZ 284 in Bergen, New York (FTZ Docket 5-2012... manufacturing (production) authority under zone procedures within FTZ 284 on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., as...

  16. Quantifying the robustness of process manufacturing concept – A medical product case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Troldtoft, M.E.; Eifler, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Product robustness refers to the consistency of performance of all of the units produced. It is often the case that process manufactured products are not designed concurrently, so by the end of the product design phase the Process Manufacturing Concept (PMC) has yet to be decided. Allocating...... the unit-to-unit robustness of an early-stage for a PMC is proposed. The method uses variability and adjustability information from the manufacturing concept in combination with sensitivity information from products' design to predict its functional performance variation. A Technology maturation factor...... process capable tolerances to the product during the design phase is therefore not possible. The robustness of the concept (how capable it is to achieve the product specification), only becomes clear at this late stage and thus after testing and iteration. In this article, a method for calculating...

  17. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  18. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  19. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  20. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    OpenAIRE

    Bullon, Juan; González Arrieta, Angélica; Hernández Encinas, Ascensión; Queiruga Dios, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities pr...

  1. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  3. EVALUATION OF MANUFACTURING AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY THE END OF THE FINANCIAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincho Minev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated on the matter of evaluation of manufacturing and agricultural production after the initial appraisal. Accounting standards and regulations, concerning the reappraisal of production, are discussed with emphasis on the key and most disputable requirements. The most commonly met difficulties in the process of reappraisal of production are pointed out. A research is done over the leading manufacturing and agricultural entities in Bulgaria. The point of the research is to study the degree on witch entities met the requirements and regulations of accounting standards when they reevaluate their production by the end of the year. The results of the research are shown and analyzed. Conclusions are made along with some recommendations in order to improve the quality of reappraisal of manufacturing and agricultural production.

  4. MICROORGANISMS IN SELECTED CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS DURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality confectionery products during production. A total of 135 samples were analyzed: 45 samples of the punch balls, 45 Venček samples and 45 samples French cubes from home, school and private production. For microorganism cultivation VRBL agar for the isolation of coliform bacteria, DRBC and DG18 for microscopic fungi and yeasts, Plate Count Agar for total viable count, Meat peptone agar for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, XLD agar for Salmonella sp. and Baird Parker agar for Staphylococcus aureus were used. Following microbiological parameters were tested: total viable count, mesophilic anaerobic microorganisms, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms contained in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. The overall assessment of the microbiological quality of the punch balls, we found that two samples from school factory and one sample from private producer did not meet CA SR for the total viable count. Comparing the microbiological quality of Venček with CA SR, we found that one sample of home production did not meet the requirements for this type of product. All the tested samples were Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. negative. Comparing the results of the samples with French cubes CA SR, we found that all the samples satisfy requirements.

  5. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  6. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E

    2015-05-19

    In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital.

  7. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  8. Recipes for Men: Manufacturing Makeup and the Politics of Production in 1910s China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of Republican China (1911-49), masculinity was explored in writings on how to manufacture makeup that appeared in women's magazines. Male authors and editors of these writings--some of whom were connoisseurs of technology, some of whom were would-be manufacturers--appropriated the tropes of the domestic and feminine to elevate hands-on work and explore industry and manufacturing as legitimate masculine pursuits. Tapping into time-honored discourses of virtuous productivity in the inner chambers and employing practices of appropriating the woman's voice to promote unorthodox sentiment, these recipes "feminized" production to valorize a new masculine agenda, which included chemistry and manufacturing, for building a new China.

  9. BIM-Based 4D Simulation to Improve Module Manufacturing Productivity for Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joosung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modular construction methods, where products are manufactured beforehand in a factory and then transported to the site for installation, are becoming increasingly popular for construction projects in many countries as this method facilitates the use of the advanced technologies that support sustainability in building projects. This approach requires dual factory–site process management to be carefully coordinated and the factory module manufacturing process must therefore be managed in a detailed and quantitative manner. However, currently, the limited algorithms available to support this process are based on mathematical methodologies that do not consider the complex mix of equipment, factories, personnel, and materials involved. This paper presents three new building information modeling-based 4D simulation frameworks to manage the three elements—process, quantity, and quality—that determine the productivity of factory module manufacturing. These frameworks leverage the advantages of 4D simulation and provide more precise information than existing conventional documents. By utilizing a 4D model that facilitates the visualization of a wide range of data variables, manufacturers can plan the module manufacturing process in detail and fully understand the material, equipment, and workflow needed to accomplish the manufacturing tasks. Managers can also access information about material quantities for each process and use this information for earned value management, warehousing/storage, fabrication, and assembly planning. By having a 4D view that connects 2D drawing models, manufacturing errors and rework can be minimized and problems such as construction delays, quality lapses, and cost overruns vastly reduced.

  10. Potential of impulse drying technology for molded pulp products manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The vision of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to develop a paper bottle for beer, which will be both recyclable and biodegradable. The early prototypes of the bottle are very promising but there are huge technical and scientific challenges ahead to mature the production technology....... The possibility of applying the concept of impulse drying during the drying stage is suggested. This would give benefits in terms of productivity and it would also reduce energy consumption.With the aim of understanding and controlling the impulse drying phenomena, a simplified approach is proposed. Finally......, a potential design for a testing equipment is described....

  11. A practical discussion of risk management for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, A Hamid; Baseman, Harold S; Long, Mike; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Quality risk management (QRM) is now a regulatory expectation, and it makes good business sense. The goal of the risk assessment is to increase process understanding and deliver safe and effective product to the patients. Risk analysis and management is an acceptable and effective way to minimize patient risk and determine the appropriate level of controls in manufacturing. While understanding the elements of QRM is important, knowing how to apply them in the manufacturing environment is essential for effective process performance and control. This article will preview application of QRM in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing to illustrate how QRM can help the reader achieve that objective. There are several areas of risk that a drug company may encounter in pharmaceutical manufacturing, specifically addressing oral solid and liquid formulations. QRM tools can be used effectively to identify the risks and develop strategy to minimize or control them. Risks are associated throughout the biopharmaceutical manufacturing process-from raw material supply through manufacturing and filling operations to final distribution via a controlled cold chain process. Assessing relevant attributes and risks for biotechnology-derived products is more complicated and challenging for complex pharmaceuticals. This paper discusses key risk factors in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Successful development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products is all about managing risks. If a company was to take zero risk, most likely the path to commercialization would not be commercially viable. On the other hand, if the risk taken was too much, the product is likely to have a suboptimal safety and efficacy profile and thus is unlikely to be a successful product. This article addresses the topic of quality risk management with the key objective of minimizing patient risk while creating an optimal process and product. Various tools are presented to aid implementation of these

  12. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  13. Country status of application, manufacturing and sterilization of single-use medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of application of single-use medical products in Malaysia. The status of their manufacturing and sterilization is also discussed. The increasing production of such items calls for a more reliable and efficient sterilization technique in particular, radiation sterilization. In line with the demand and the effort to increase local production of medical products, UTN would be providing irradiation service together with research and development in this particular field by 1988. (author)

  14. Master data extraction and adaptation based on collected production data in manufacturing execution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, T.; Baumann, M.; Schenk, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to extraction and correction of manufacturing master data, needed by Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) to control and schedule the production. The implementation of the created schedule and the improvement of Key Performance Indicators depends strongly on the quality of the master data. The master data of most enterprises ages or the enterprises cannot fully provide it, because a highly manual expense for statistical analysis and administration is needed. T...

  15. Price transmission between products at different stages of manufacturing in forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2005-01-01

    The theory of demand and supply implies a positive relationship, or "price transmission" between the prices of products at different stages of manufacturing, This relationship was investigated with quarterly prices of softwood stumpage in the US South, and national prices of forest products, from 1977 to 2002. All prices, net of inflation, were found to be...

  16. Additive manufacturing for the production of inserts for micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2015-01-01

    The production of inserts for micro injection moulding using additive manufacturing technology has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of pilot production and reduce overall time to market. In this work, Digital Light Processing (DLP) was used to produce micro injection moulding inserts...

  17. On the role of the residual stress state in product manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.; Groen, M.; Post, J.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the effect of the residual stress state during product manufacturing of AISI 420 steel on the final shape of the product. The work includes Finite Element (FE) calculations of the distribution of the residual stresses after metal forming and a heat treatment. The evolution

  18. Comparative productivity performance in manufacturing in South and East Asia, 1960–93

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Szirmai, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on comparative productivity performance in manufacturing in five major Asian economies: China, India, Indonesia, Korea and Taiwan. Using conversion factors derived according to an industry of origin approach, comparisons of real labour productivity are made, with the world

  19. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for melt-based dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration introduced the quality by design approach and process analytical technology guidance to encourage innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. As part of this renewed emphasis on the improvement of manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to develop more efficient production processes with more intensive use of online measurement and sensing, real-time quality control, and process control tools. Here, we present dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP) as an alternative to conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing methods. This mini-manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceuticals utilizes drop on demand printing technology for automated and controlled deposition of melt-based formulations onto edible substrates. The advantages of drop-on-demand technology, including reproducible production of small droplets, adjustable drop sizing, high placement accuracy, and flexible use of different formulations, enable production of individualized dosing even for low-dose and high-potency drugs. In this work, DAMPP is used to produce solid oral dosage forms from hot melts of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a polymer. The dosage forms are analyzed to show the reproducibility of dosing and the dissolution behavior of different formulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  1. Additively Manufactured, Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Cans for Valves Used in Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H. [ORNL; Gandy, David [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Lannom, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2018-01-01

    This CRADA NFE-14-05241 was conducted as a Technical Collaboration project within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) sponsored by the US Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office (CPS Agreement Number 24761). Opportunities for MDF technical collaborations are listed in the announcement “Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technology Collaborations for US Manufacturers in Advanced Manufacturing and Materials Technologies” posted at http://web.ornl.gov/sci/manufacturing/docs/FBO-ORNL-MDF-2013-2.pdf. The goal of technical collaborations is to engage industry partners to participate in short-term, collaborative projects within the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) to assess applicability and of new energy efficient manufacturing technologies. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.ORNL would like to acknowledge the leadership of EPRI in pulling together the extensive team and managing the execution of the project. In addition, ORNL would like to acknowledge the other contributions of the team members associated with this project. Quintus provided time, access, expertise, and labor of their hydro forming capabilities to evaluate both conventional and additively manufactured tools through this process. Crane ChemPharma Energy provided guidance and information on valve geometries. Carpenter Powder Products was involved with the team providing information on powder processing as it pertains to the canning and hot isostatic pressing of powder. on providing powder and knowledge as it pertains to powder supply for hot isostatic pressing; they also provided powder for the test trials by the industrial team. Bodycote provided guidance on hot isostatic pressing and can requirements. They were also responsible for the hot isostatic pressing of the test valve

  2. 27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use. 19.58 Section 19.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use. (a) General. Apothecaries... distilled spirits contained therein: (1) Medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors...

  3. Real-Time Shop-Floor Production Performance Analysis Method for the Internet of Manufacturing Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Typical challenges that manufacturing enterprises are facing now are compounded by lack of timely, accurate, and consistent information of manufacturing resources. As a result, it is difficult to analyze the real-time production performance for the shop-floor. In this paper, the definition and overall architecture of the internet of manufacturing things is presented to provide a new paradigm by extending the techniques of internet of things (IoT to manufacturing field. Under this architecture, the real-time primitive events which occurred at different manufacturing things such as operators, machines, pallets, key materials, and so forth can be easily sensed. Based on these distributed primitive events, a critical event model is established to automatically analyze the real-time production performance. Here, the up-level production performance analysis is regarded as a series of critical events, and the real-time value of each critical event can be easily calculated according to the logical and sequence relationships among these multilevel events. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate how to apply the designed methods to analyze the real-time production performance.

  4. A new integrated lean manufacturing model for magnesium products

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Perricone, G.; Oppio, R.

    2009-04-01

    From an environmental point of view, lighter metals like aluminum and magnesium are unclean products to make; they require energy-intensive methods and increased greenhouse gas emissions as compared with steels. They are, however, clean to use, in particular in the transportation sector, if adequate weight savings and consequent fuel consumption reduction and CO2 reduction can be achieved to offset the initial higher energy need. In order to reduce CO2 emissions, better energy efficiency and substitution of low-carbon technologies are going to play a key role in future technical options. Modern research and development should be focused on promoting the efficient use of metallic materials according to the “dematerialization” concept design.

  5. Perception of the HACCP system operators on livestock product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate crucial factors on HACCP system implementation in domestic livestock product plants, and to offer job satisfaction and the career prospect of HACCP system operators. The survey was carried out by selecting 150 HACCP system operators who implemented HACCP system. The respondents claimed that the most important contents in HACCP system operation were to assemble HACCP team (21.8%), and the second was to monitoring (20.0%). Documentation and recording (16.9%) and verification (11.1%) were followed. The respondents answered the major factor in sanitation management was cleaning/washing/disinfection (18.9%) and inspection (18.4%). The results showed that there were significant differences in the prospect of occupation in HACCP system operator by the gender (p HACCP system operator were satisfied with their job (73%) and also showed optimistic prospect of occupation (82%).

  6. Trade Liberalization and Productivity-A Panel Study of the Mexican Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Talan Iscan

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been a revival of interest in the trade-growth nexus. A number of authors have suggested that regional economic integration and liberalization of international trade are likely to have positive effects not only on productivity levels but also on long-term productivity growth rates in developing countries. Using a panel of Mexican manufacturing industries, this paper examines several alternative mechanisms through which trade contributes positively to productivity lev...

  7. WTO Accession, Foreign Bank Entry, and the Productivity of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Qian, Zhenjie; Wang, Luhang

    2016-01-01

    After China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, foreign banks are allowed to enter the Chinese banking market in phases. Using firm-level data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China which cover all state-owned and non state-owned manufacturing firms...... with sales over 5 million RMB, we examine the relationship between foreign bank entry and the industry-level productivity growth of China’s manufacturing sector. Our empirical results suggest that (a) on average, opening up a region for foreign bank entry has no impact on aggregate productivity growth, (b...

  8. Product recovery optimization in closed-loop supply chain to improve sustainability in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.; Garg, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    that emerge from that business’s economical, environmental and social dimensions. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective mixed integer mathematical problem for a generic closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network to rationalise how a system’s product recovery helps to improve manufacturing sustainability....... The CLSC network proposed in this study consists of a hybrid manufacturing facility, warehouse, distribution centres, collection centres and a hybrid recovery facility (HRF). The proposed model determines the best location for the HRF and optimal flow of products, recovered parts and material...

  9. SURVEY REGARDING THE LEVEL OF PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Freiberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about a questionnaire survey regarding the level of product lifecycle management in manufacturing companies in the Czech Republic. Based on the research available from foreign and domestic literature, a questionnaire survey was compiled and carried out with the purpose of applying the methods used in the life cycle management in selected areas: maintenance, information systems and the cost of the product lifecycle. The survey is carried out through a printed as well as an electronic questionnaire with additional structured interviews in selected manufacturing companies in the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Romania.

  10. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzlinger, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Ohlhaeuser, K.

    1986-01-01

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  11. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. ACHP | News | ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification ACHP Issues Program Comment to Streamline Communication Facilities Construction and Modification The Advisory Council on

  13. Product manufacturing, quality, and reliability initiatives to maintain a competitive advantage and meet customer expectations in the semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Gregory

    Semiconductor products are manufactured and consumed across the world. The semiconductor industry is constantly striving to manufacture products with greater performance, improved efficiency, less energy consumption, smaller feature sizes, thinner gate oxides, and faster speeds. Customers have pushed towards zero defects and require a more reliable, higher quality product than ever before. Manufacturers are required to improve yields, reduce operating costs, and increase revenue to maintain a competitive advantage. Opportunities exist for integrated circuit (IC) customers and manufacturers to work together and independently to reduce costs, eliminate waste, reduce defects, reduce warranty returns, and improve quality. This project focuses on electrical over-stress (EOS) and re-test okay (RTOK), two top failure return mechanisms, which both make great defect reduction opportunities in customer-manufacturer relationship. Proactive continuous improvement initiatives and methodologies are addressed with emphasis on product life cycle, manufacturing processes, test, statistical process control (SPC), industry best practices, customer education, and customer-manufacturer interaction.

  14. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  15. QUALITY CONTROL IN PRECAST PRODUCTION A case study on Tunnel Segment Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Weng Cheong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality control forms an integral part of precast production. An efficient quality system is most critical in the mass production of precast components in any project. In this study, the quality control system implemented in a precast factory is discussed. The precast factory is set up for the manufacture of large quantity of tunnel segments under a contract. Processes in the precast manufacture are discussed with respect to the control procedures in the quality inspection plan. The standard tests involved, roles of inspectors and corrective actions on-site are highlighted. Critical issues pertaining to the productivity and quality of precast production are reviewed. These include the quality of staff and maintenance, which could potentially affect the efficiency of the quality system. Some considerations should also be given to improve the workflow and productivity of the plant.

  16. Streamlining the Design-to-Build Transition with Build-Optimization Software Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberortner, Ernst; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Hillson, Nathan J; Deutsch, Samuel

    2017-03-17

    Scaling-up capabilities for the design, build, and test of synthetic biology constructs holds great promise for the development of new applications in fuels, chemical production, or cellular-behavior engineering. Construct design is an essential component in this process; however, not every designed DNA sequence can be readily manufactured, even using state-of-the-art DNA synthesis methods. Current biological computer-aided design and manufacture tools (bioCAD/CAM) do not adequately consider the limitations of DNA synthesis technologies when generating their outputs. Designed sequences that violate DNA synthesis constraints may require substantial sequence redesign or lead to price-premiums and temporal delays, which adversely impact the efficiency of the DNA manufacturing process. We have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. BOOST incorporates knowledge of DNA synthesis success determinants into the design process to output ready-to-build sequences, preempting the need for sequence redesign. The BOOST web application is available at https://boost.jgi.doe.gov and its Application Program Interfaces (API) enable integration into automated, customized DNA design processes. The herein presented results highlight the effectiveness of BOOST in reducing DNA synthesis costs and timelines.

  17. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R and D and manufacturing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A W; Guo, J L; Wang, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research and Development (R and D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R and D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable. (paper)

  18. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  19. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  20. Supply Inventory Management: Evaluation of the Defense Supply Center Columbus Qualified Products List and Qualified Manufacturers List Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... was transitioned from the Military Departments. The Defense Supply Center Columbus currently has management responsibility for over 300 Qualified Products Lists and 4 Qualified Manufacturers Lists...

  1. Accelerated Logistics: Streamlining the Army's Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Mark

    2000-01-01

    ...) initiative, the Army has dramatically streamlined its supply chain, cutting order and ship times for repair parts by nearly two-thirds nationwide and over 75 percent at several of the major Forces Command (FORSCOM) installations...

  2. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  3. Orodispersible films: Product transfer from lab-scale to continuous manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Orodispersible films have been described as new beneficial dosage forms for special patient populations. Due to various production settings, different requirements on film formulations are required for non- continuous and continuous manufacturing. In this study, a continuous coating machine was qualified in regards of the process conditions for film compositions and their effects on the formed films. To investigate differences between both manufacturing processes, various film formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) as film formers were produced and the resulting films were characterized. The qualification of the continuously operating coating machine reveals no uniform heat distribution during drying. Coating solutions for continuous manufacturing should provide at least a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa*s (wet film thickness of 500 μm, velocity of 15.9 cm/min). HPC films contain higher residuals of ethanol or acetone in bench-scale than in continuous production mode. Continuous production lead to lower drug content of the films. All continuously produced films disintegrate within less than 30 s. There are observed significant effects of the production process on the film characteristics. When transferring film manufacturing from lab-scale to continuous mode, film compositions, processing conditions and suitable characterization methods have to be carefully selected and adopted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  5. The transformation factor: a measure for the productive behaviour of a manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ron, de A.J.

    1993-01-01

    By using advanced manufacturing processes, production results should increase. Nevertheless managers have their doubts to invest in such processes because of the financial risks and the absence of adequate technical and economical measures which should support their decisions. Measures which contain

  6. Additive Manufacturing and Casting Technology Comparison: Mechanical Properties, Productivity and Cost Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vevers, A.; Kromanis, A.; Gerins, E.; Ozolins, J.

    2018-04-01

    The casting technology is one of the oldest production technologies in the world but in the recent years metal additive manufacturing also known as metal 3D printing has been evolving with huge steps. Both technologies have capabilities to produce parts with internal holes and at first glance surface roughness is similar for both technologies, which means that for precise dimensions parts have to be machined in places where precise fit is necessary. Benchmark tests have been made to find out if parts which are produced with metal additive manufacturing can be used to replace parts which are produced with casting technology. Most of the comparative tests have been made with GJS-400-15 grade which is one of the most popular cast iron grades. To compare mechanical properties samples have been produced using additive manufacturing and tested for tensile strength, hardness, surface roughness and microstructure and then the results have been compared with the samples produced with casting technology. In addition, both technologies have been compared in terms of the production time and production costs to see if additive manufacturing is competitive with the casting technology. The original paper has been written in the Latvian language as part of the Master Thesis within the framework of the production technology study programme at Riga Technical University.

  7. 75 FR 4973 - Registration Requirements for Importers and Manufacturers of Prescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... diverted to the clandestine manufacture of a controlled substance. Most of the ephedrine, pseudoephedrine... for-profit. Other: Not-for-profit, government agencies. Abstract: The Domestic Chemical Diversion... may be diverted in the United States for the production of illicit drugs must register with DEA...

  8. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.; Wise, K.D.; Wuttke, G.H.; Masnari, N.A.; Rensel, W.B.; Robinson, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A method of manufacturing inertial confinement fusion targets is described which is adaptable for high volume production of low cost targets in a wide variety of sizes. The targets include a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a protective concentric shell. (UK)

  9. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  10. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more

  11. A Comparison of Real Output and Productivity for British and American Manufacturing in 1935

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, H. de; Woltjer, P.

    2009-01-01

    The manufacturing productivity gap between the U.S. and the U.K. became much larger during the interwar period than existing estimates suggest. This paper presents a new estimate based on real value added and hours worked. First, a detailed benchmark comparison for 1935 is constructed using official

  12. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  13. Product Development Categorized as Independent Strategic and Innovative Practice: Case from Indian Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Dutt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, Indian manufacturing has seen technologically intensive and resource optimization based initiatives to satisfy competitive urge and to build or sustain market position. This they do by developing products either strategically or innovatively, but that is hardly distinguished or seen as a separate approach to product development. Strategically, product development is resource optimization based while innovatively, it is product differentiation focused. This paper outlines the strategic and innovative approach to product development and analyzes sector specific role of each in product development. The study is undertaken with nine product development team-leaders and resource-heads, three of each from automobile, steel and textile. It is concluded that textile is strategically skewed toward product development whereas automobile is inclined towards innovative orientation. The biggest limitation of this study is smaller sample-size because respondents are reluctant to disclose new technical initiatives and composition of product development.

  14. Study on the Key Factor Parameters to Increase Productivity in Construction and Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyed, K.; Alaswad, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Proper management of human and non-human resources in construction and manufacturing projects can give-in considerable savings in time and cost. Construction and Manufacturing industry faces issues in connection with problems related with productivity and the problems are usually connected with performance of employees. The performance of employees is affected by many factors. In this paper a survey was made on respondents who are employed various projects of Saudi Arabia. The researcher developed a theoretical framework from the existing research which was used as a Model to collect and analyze the field data to test the hypothesis. In this research activity three predictors (commitment, job satisfaction and job performance) for determining the change in productivity. The results highlight that commitment and job performance (respectively) are the two predictors which are explaining 37% of variation in the productivity of the companies. The results also show that Job Satisfaction has no role in the prediction of productivity.

  15. Stream-lined Gating Systems with Improved Yield - Dimensioning and Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Skov-Hansen, Søren Peter

    the two types of lay-outs are cast in production. It is shown that flow in the stream-lined lay-out is well controlled and that the quality of the castings is as at least equal to that of castings produced with a traditional lay-out. Further, the yield is improved by 4 % relative to a traditional lay-out.......The paper describes how a stream-lined gating system where the melt is confined and controlled during filling can be designed. Commercial numerical modelling software has been used to compare the stream-lined design with a traditional gating system. These results are confirmed by experiments where...

  16. Gender Pay Gap, Productivity Gap and Discrimination in Canadian Clothing Manufacturing in 1870

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L McDevitt; James R Irwin; Kris Inwood

    2009-01-01

    Women's earnings were less than men's in Canadian clothing factories in 1870. Orthodox neoclassical theory would explain that gender pay gap as a reflection of a gender productivity gap. Using classical hypothesis testing we reject that view, based on a large cross-section of 1870 census data. We find the gender pay gap was significantly larger than the gender productivity gap, much as Hellerstein et al. [1999] found for US manufacturing circa 1990. Our results are clear and compell...

  17. Integrate Product Planning Process of OKP Companies in the Cloud Manufacturing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng , Pai; Xu , Xun; Xie , Sheng ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Cloud-Based Manufacturing; International audience; In today’s competitive market, OKP companies operate in the “engineer-to-order” business mode, whereby analysing the “voice of customer” promptly and accurately in the early design stage determines the success of product development. However, OKP companies have limited resources. They may not be able to afford the cost of the complicated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) product planning process, nor can they obtain abundant CRs infor...

  18. An integrated approach for safer, productive and reliable PHWR fuel manufacturing at NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2013-01-01

    India has been pursuing three-stage nuclear power programme and has developed comprehensive capabilities in all aspects of nuclear power and fuel cycle and is now recognized as a country with advanced nuclear technologies in the comity of nations. The first stage of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) based on natural uranium has reached a state of maturity. In view of civilian nuclear safeguards agreement with NSG and IAEA, Nuclear Power Reactors in India and associated fuel manufacturing facilities at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) are grouped into IAEA safeguarded and out-of-safeguarded facilities. The civilian nuclear energy generation has to be accelerated for achieving energy security for the country. NFC has pioneered manufacturing technologies of UO 2 fuel, fuel clad and structural components for the PHWRs 220, 540 and PHWR700. Nearly 20 GWe of nuclear energy generation is being planned through PHWR route. Several technological improvements that were carried out recently in the production lines are the key to achieve higher productivity and safety. NFC has also been pursuing capacity augmentation by adding newer equipment in the existing facility and setting up new plants both for uranium production as well as zirconium production. Flexible manufacturing systems consisting of automatic workstations and robots were introduced in the 19 and 37 element PHWR fuel assembly lines. Various safety measures were introduced right from design stage for improving radiological safety for workmen. State-of-art equipment were designed, developed and commissioned for reduction/elimination of fatigue-oriented operations. In addition to natural uranium oxide fuel, NFC has also successfully manufactured virgin slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel and reprocessed depleted uranium fuels which were irradiated in the operating PHWRs. The paper brings out NFC's role in Indian nuclear power program and its manufacturing capabilities for types of PHWR fuel, zircaloy structural

  19. The research for flexible product family manufacturing based on real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maozhu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to find the best production strategy for product mix, which means the largest value of the options. And finally, give a case and find the solution of the optimal production strategy for product mix. Design/methodology/approach: This article, based on the production with characteristics of a call option and 0-1 integer programming model, build new-products mix strategy, and through case demonstrate that traditional method underestimates the value of the products mix. Finding: According to market being volatility and uncertainty and the production can being delayed, firms can flexibly arrange the best time for products to manufacture. Use real options theory to analyze product decision and the best production timing decision. Find the total options value is higher than the traditional methods. Research limitations/implications: We are not applied to real option pricing theory in modular flexible production system. We just applied real option pricing theory to the product platform. The basic model needs to improve. While the thinking of this paper provides some research ideas for flexible production systems based on real option in further research. Practical Implications: The introduction of the real option make the company can achieve dynamic planning and flexible management for production of products mix and get the better benefit. Originality/value: The central contribution of this paper is to introduce the option mechanism in the production timing for the product mix.

  20. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  1. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  2. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US....... The dataset provides information about the value and quantity of each good produced by the firm, as well as the amount of exports. One additional and unique characteristic of our dataset is that it provides a firm-product level measure of the unit average cost. We use this information to compute a firm...

  3. Design for manufacturing and assembly key performance indicators to support high-speed product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Juel Jespersen, Ida Kirstine; Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) has great potential for minimizing late engineering changes (ECs) that impede high-speed product development and delay time-to-profit. However, our understanding of DfMA and its implementation in industry is still incomplete. This paper presents...... an industrial case study on late ECs in high-speed product development and compares the results to other examples from the literature. It then proposes a framework with sets of key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure and improve producability and product quality throughout the product development process....

  4. A case study on Simulation and Design optimization to improve Productivity in cooling tower manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranav Nithin, R.; Gopikrishnan, S.; Sumesh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cooling towers are the heat transfer devices commonly found in industries which are used to extract the high temperature from the coolants and make it reusable in various plants. Basically, the cooling towers has Fills made of PVC sheets stacked together to increase the surface area exposure of the cooling liquid flowing through it. This paper focuses on the study in such a manufacturing plant where fills are being manufactured. The productivity using the current manufacturing method was only 6 to 8 fills per day, where the ideal capacity was of 14 fills per day. In this plant manual labor was employed in the manufacturing process. A change in the process modification designed and implemented will help the industry to increase the productivity to 14. In this paper, initially the simulation study was done using ARENA the simulation package and later the new design was done using CAD Package and validated using Ansys Mechanical APDL. It’s found that, by the implementation of the safe design the productivity can be increased to 196 Units.

  5. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drera, Saleem S., E-mail: saleem.drera@scatec.no [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Björk, Klara Insulander [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Sobieska, Matylda [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Nuclear Materials, Os allé 5, NO-1777, Halden (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project’s fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively. - Highlights: • High quality Ce−Th fuel production can be accomplished by utilizing powder metallurgical procedures. • Powder morphology is key to obtaining high density fuels. • Optimal pellet pressing is obtained when 3.5–4 tons of force is applied by the pellet press for powder compaction. • Pellet sintering is accomplished effectively in an Air oxidizing atmosphere. • Based on this surrogate work, expected (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel density is 95.5% of theoretical density.

  6. Method for matching customer and manufacturer positions for metal product parameters standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadij; Danilova, Yulija

    2018-04-01

    Decision making is the main stage of regulation the relations between customer and manufacturer during the design the demands of norms in standards. It is necessary to match the positions of the negotiating sides in order to gain the consensus. In order to take into consideration the differences of customer and manufacturer estimation of the object under standardization process it is obvious to use special methods of analysis. It is proposed to establish relationships between product properties and its functions using functional-target analysis. The special feature of this type of functional analysis is the consideration of the research object functions and properties. It is shown on the example of hexagonal head crew the possibility to establish links between its functions and properties. Such approach allows obtaining a quantitative assessment of the closeness the positions of customer and manufacturer at decision making during the standard norms establishment.

  7. HOW DO DIFFERENT COORDINATION MECHANISMS BETWEEN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING INFLUENCE FIRM PERFORMANCE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Acur, Nuran; Boer, Harry

    In the literature several suggestions have been put forward for tools, methods and mechanisms to coordinate new product development (NPD) and manufacturing. However, evidence of the operational performance effects of many of these approaches is at best limited. Furthermore, there is a lack...... of understanding of how various coordination mechanisms work in different contexts. Using a survey consisting of data from 677 manufacturing firms from 19 countries worldwide, we test how coordination mechanisms relate to operational performance, and how context moderates these relationships or affects performance...... between standardization and organization design, respectively, and performance are positively moderated by company size. Furthermore, innovativeness moderates the relationship between organization design and performance positively. For managers, our findings indicate that NPD-manufacturing coordination...

  8. Quality changes in krill and krill products during their manufacturing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, Inge

    The main objective of this study is to a) investigate the effect of temperature towards the non-enzymatic browning reactions and lipid oxidation in krill products sampled at different stages during their manufacturing process. In order to further investigate this, a simple model system comprising...... amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine and lysine) was prepared with addition of lipid (saturated and α, β-unsaturated aldehydes) or non-enzymatic (Strecker aldehydes and pyrazine) derived volatiles. Therefore, the secondary objective is to investigate if the occurrence of non......-enzymatic browning reactions and lipid oxidation in krill products during their manufacturing process. The occurrence of these reactions could be observed in krill meal and this was ascribed to the presence of carbonyl compounds derived lipid oxidation products. The presence of a high level of non...

  9. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.; Elseaidy, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF 6 , 19.7±0.2 % U 235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  10. Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is amending its regulations to implement certain drug shortages provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). The rule requires all applicants of covered approved drugs or biological products--including certain applicants of blood or blood components for transfusion and all manufacturers of covered drugs marketed without an approved application--to notify FDA electronically of a permanent discontinuance or an interruption in manufacturing of the product that is likely to lead to a meaningful disruption in supply (or a significant disruption in supply for blood or blood components) of the product in the United States.

  11. THE FACTORS AFFECTING ON THE SUCCESS OF IMPLEMENTING TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING COMPANY (NS BLUESCOPE VIETNAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Van Tai (PhD)*, Dean of International Trade, College of Foreign Economic Relations Phan Cao Huy (MBA), Technical Manager, Bosch Vietnam

    2017-01-01

    The competition in business environment becomes more strictly, manufacturers must introduce lots of new products on the high quality level with suitable price. Thus, new technologies have been applied, manufacturing systems become more complex. Therefore, a new strategy for maintenance such as Total productive maintenance (TPM) becomes really necessary. Many organizations have implemented TPM to increase the effectiveness of manufacturing system. However, implementation of TPM still meets a l...

  12. Integrando a promoção das metodologias Lean Manufacturing e Six Sigma na busca de produtividade e qualidade numa empresa fabricante de autopeças Integrating the promotion of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma methodologies in search of productivity and quality in an auto parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bento da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os diversos fatores críticos de sucesso que as empresas devem considerar, destaca-se a busca por padrões cada vez mais elevados de produtividade e qualidade. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma iniciativa de integrar a promoção das metodologias Lean Manufacturing e Six Sigma na busca de um melhor desempenho operacional. Essa integração combina a aplicação de elementos de Lean Manufacturing, que visa à racionalização dos fluxos de valor por meio da redução de desperdícios, com elementos de Six Sigma, que visa à sistematização do processo de análise e controle da variação em processos para se obter qualidade superior. O trabalho é baseado num estudo de caso sobre as mudanças realizadas para a acomodação desta abordagem numa empresa fabricante de autopeças. São investigados a estrutura adotada para sua promoção bem como o modo em que os projetos de melhoria são desenvolvidos por meio dela. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a iniciativa de conciliar a aplicação destas duas metodologias pode contribuir para aprimorar e tornar mais abrangente e efetivo o processo de melhoria contínua.Among the diverse critical success factors that the firms must consider, the pursuit of increasingly higher standards of productivity and quality stands out. In this context, the purpose of this article is to present an initiative to integrate the promotion of the Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma methodologies in seeking enhanced operational performance. This integration combines the application of Lean Manufacturing elements that aim at the streamlining of value streams by the elimination of wastes with Six Sigma elements which aim at the systematization of the analysis and control of process variation for accomplishing superior quality. This work is based on a case study on the changes undertaken for the implementation of this approach in an auto parts manufacturer. The organizational structure which was

  13. Production And Some Properties Of Curd A Yoghurt-Like Product Manufactured By Potato Juice And Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Aygun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a type of curd a yoghurt-like product YLP was prepared by potato juice and milk and some of its physico-chemical microbiological and sensory properties were examined. Analyses were applied to four yoghurt groups consisting of YLPs manufactured by using milk and potato juice at different ratios 0.5 for YLP1 1 for YLP2 and 1.5 for YLP3 and yoghurt produced using starter culture control group. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. numbers in all yoghurt samples manufactured by potato juice showed increase after the seventh day. The YLP manufactured by potato juice at a ratio of 0.5 was most preferred by panelists among the other YLP samples and most similar to yoghurt with starter culture.

  14. Manufacturing history of etanercept (Enbrel®): Consistency of product quality through major process revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Brian; Singh, Ena; Mahgoub, Ehab; O'Brien, Julie; Vicik, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) (Enbrel®) is a soluble protein that binds to, and specifically inhibits, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine. ETN is synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology as a fusion protein, with a fully human TNFRII ectodomain linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. Successful manufacture of biologics, such as ETN, requires sophisticated process and product understanding, as well as meticulous control of operations to maintain product consistency. The objective of this evaluation was to show that the product profile of ETN drug substance (DS) has been consistent over the course of production. Multiple orthogonal biochemical analyses, which included evaluation of attributes indicative of product purity, potency, and quality, were assessed on >2,000 batches of ETN from three sites of DS manufacture, during the period 1998-2015. Based on the key quality attributes of product purity (assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography HPLC), binding activity (to TNF by ELISA), potency (inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis by cell-based bioassay) and quality (N-linked oligosaccharide map), we show that the integrity of ETN DS has remained consistent over time. This consistency was maintained through three major enhancements to the initial process of manufacturing that were supported by detailed comparability assessments, and approved by the European Medicines Agency. Examination of results for all major quality attributes for ETN DS indicates a highly consistent process for over 18 years and throughout changes to the manufacturing process, without affecting safety and efficacy, as demonstrated across a wide range of clinical trials of ETN in multiple inflammatory diseases.

  15. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  16. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  17. CIM [computer-integrated manufacturing]: It all starts with product definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The logical starting place for computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is at the front end of the production process - product definition. It consists of the part/assembly drawings, material lists, specifications, and procedures. Product definition starts at the design agencies: two nuclear design laboratories (Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and a non-nuclear design laboratory (Sandia National Laboratories with two site locations). These laboratories perform the basic part design which is then transferred over a secure communications network to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, where weapon components are produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE). Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES) and DOE Data Exchange Format (DOEDEF) translation software is used to transfer part designs between dissimilar graphics systems. Product-definition data flow is examined both external and internal to the Y-12 Plant. Software developed specifically to computerize product definition is covered as follows: Electronic File Manager (EFM), Manage Design Documents, Distribute Product Definition, Manage Manufacturing Procedures and Product Specifications. Trident II is the first program to beneficially use CIM technologies plant-wide. Prototype software was written to add a layer of user friendliness through multilayer menu selects to enable access to a number of existing application software packages. Additional software was developed and purchased that enables a single personal computer to meet many needs. These product-definition needs include procedures generation, graphics viewing, and office automation. 3 figs

  18. The Impact of Organizational Learning Capability on Product Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Turkish Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yaşar Uğurlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of organizational learning capability on product innovation performance in the manufacturing sector using empirical data. A survey was conducted with 120 firms that were on the list of Top 1000 Firms of Turkey and registered with the Istanbul Chamber of Industry, to examine the relationship between the dimensions of organizational learning capability and the dimensions of product innovation performance. The findings of the study indicate a positive relationship between organizational learning capability and product innovation performance.

  19. Linking culture, organizational, learning orientation and product innovation performance: the case of Ethiopian manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyene, K. T.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using formal survey data from textile and leather product manufacturing firms in Ethiopia, we investigate how the current national cultural setup (power distance, collectivism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance is affecting organizational learning, orientation and product innovation performance. Further, we assess the moderating role of sector and ownership structure on the interrelationship. The result demonstrates that the current national culture setup is negatively affecting the learning and innovation activities of the firms in the country. It also shows that while sector type is neutral, ownership type significantly affects the interrelationship among culture, learning orientation and product innovation performance.

  20. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  1. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  2. An Agent-based Manufacturing Management System for Production and Logistics within Cross-Company Regional and National Production Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal is the development of a simultaneous, dynamic, technological as well as logistical real-time planning and an organizational control of the production by the production units themselves, working in the production network under the use of Multi-Agent-Technology. The design of the multi-agent-based manufacturing management system, the models of the single agents, algorithms for the agent-based, decentralized dispatching of orders, strategies and data management concepts as well as their integration into the SCM, basing on the solution described, will be explained in the following.

  3. An Agent-Based Manufacturing Management System for Production and Logistics within Cross-Company Regional and National Production Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heinrich

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal is the development of a simultaneous, dynamic, technological as well as logistical real-time planning and an organizational control of the production by the production units themselves, working in the production network under the use of Multi-Agent-Technology. The design of the multi-agent-based manufacturing management system, the models of the single agents, algorithms for the agent-based, decentralized dispatching of orders, strategies and data management concepts as well as their integration into the SCM, basing on the solution described, will be explained in the following.

  4. Produtividade fabril I: método para rápido aumento da produtividade fabril Manufacture productivity I: quick improvement method of the manufacture productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Celso Contador

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O método para rápido aumento da produtividade fabril, aplicável principalmente à indústria brasileira de manufatura (17% do PIB, fundamenta-se exclusivamente na redução ou eliminação do tempo inativo do homem, da máquina e do material, que é a grande causa da ineficiência. O método exige a utilização de apenas cinco das mais simples, elementares e conhecidas técnicas e é aplicável às vinte situações mais freqüentes (objetos de estudo na indústria de manufatura. Nossa experiência atesta que o método é capaz de aumentar a produtividade fabril em valor superior a 30%, em poucos meses e de forma perene (houve um caso de aumento de 160% em toda uma seção de usinagem de uma empresa multinacional. Sua aplicação e a implantação das medidas dele decorrentes são feitas com extrema facilidade e, por isto, os resultados surgem muito rapidamente. Atinge portanto seu objetivo: proporcionar aumento da produtividade fabril em curto espaço de tempo. Os demais artigos da série detalharão os objetos de estudo.The quick improvement method of the manufacture productivity is based on the reduction or on the elimination of the machine/operator/material inative time, exclusively. The inative time of this three elements is recognized to be main reason of the inefficiency. The method here discussed is specially applicable in the brazilian manufacturing industry (which represents 17% of the PIB. It utilizes five of the most simple, elementary and well-known thechniques and it is applicable in the most frequent situations of the manufacturing industries. The background of the author assures that the method can to improve the productivity beyond 30% in a short time (in a particular enterprise, it was possible to improve 160% the productivity of its machining department. The application of the method and the implementation of its suggested rules are made with right facility and, because that, the results appear very quickly. A succession

  5. Practical application of game theory based production flow planning method in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.

  6. Method of manufacturing gadolinium oxide-incorporated nuclear fuel sintering products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira; Seki, Makoto; Omori, Sadayuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To manufacture nuclear fuel sintering products excellent in burning property and mechanical property. Constitution: In the manufacturing step for nuclear fuel sintering products, specific metal oxides are added for promoting the growth of crystal grains in the sintering. Those metal oxides melted at a temperature lower than the sintering temperature of a mixture of nuclear fuel oxide powder and oxide power, or those metal oxides causing eutectic reaction are used as the metal oxide. Particularly, those compounds having oxygen atom - metal atom ratio (O/M) of not less than 2 are preferably used. As such metal oxides usable herein transition metal oxides, e.g., Nb 2 O 5 , TiO 2 , MoO 3 and WO 3 are preferred, with Nb 2 O 3 and TiO 2 being preferred particularly. (Seki, T.)

  7. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  8. Manufacturing, regulatory and commercial challenges of biopharmaceuticals production: a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, Marko; Nordström, Katrina

    2005-04-01

    Biopharmaceuticals product development is a broad and multidisciplinary field. Science and technology are combined with new manufacturing, regulatory and commercial challenges. However, although there is ample literature on the molecular biology and biochemistry of products, the implementation of processes from test tube to commercial scale has not received similar attention. Consequently, the present study aims to highlight, from practical point of view, some of the key issues involved with manufacturing technologies of biopharmaceuticals at a commercial scale. Regulatory requirements and investments are also addressed based on the practical experiences of start-up and small companies. Finland is used as a case-example of such companies as this is a EU-member state with strong technological growth and rapidly increasing number of biotech companies.

  9. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  10. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Trade and Production in the Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) have not reached a consistent conclusion. The existing literature is primarily based on anecdotes and scattered case studies. This study analyzes the trade flows and composition change of the most polluting industries in manufacturing sectors among countries in order to offer a more general conclusion. This study finds that stricter environmental regulation stringency decreases the net export and production share of the most p...

  12. Photovoltaics manufacturer's overview of interactions with customers of photovoltaic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1982-11-01

    Communications between the customer and manufacturer of photovoltaic products often require time-consuming interaction before each has the necessary information. Customers appear not to know what information is needed by the supplier to size photovoltaic systems properly nor are they adequately able to estimate their own system needs. Customers can make unrealistic measurement demands and do not provide feedback to the supplier on system performance in the field.

  13. Benchmarking Naval Shipbuilding with 3D Laser Scanning, Additive Manufacturing, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-20

    are also available. These technologies are past the disillusionment stage and are in the enlightenment phase where benefits are being derived, as... technologies such as three-dimensional scanning (3DLS), product lifecycle management (PLM), and additive manufacturing (AM) to reduce costs while...naval shipbuilding savings. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, secondary research was conducted on the three technologies

  14. The manufacture of MTR fuel elements and Mo99 production targets at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium/aluminium alloy elements have been produced at Dounreay for nearly 40 years. In April 1990 the two DIDO-type reactors operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Harwell were closed, with the result that a large portion of the then current customer base disappeared and, to satisfy the needs of the evolving market, the decision was taken to invest over 1m pounds in new equipment for the manufacture of dispersed fuels and molybdenum production targets. (author)

  15. Industrial Compositional Streamline Simulation for Efficient and Accurate Prediction of Gas Injection and WAG Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margot Gerritsen

    2008-10-31

    Gas-injection processes are widely and increasingly used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In the United States, for example, EOR production by gas injection accounts for approximately 45% of total EOR production and has tripled since 1986. The understanding of the multiphase, multicomponent flow taking place in any displacement process is essential for successful design of gas-injection projects. Due to complex reservoir geometry, reservoir fluid properties and phase behavior, the design of accurate and efficient numerical simulations for the multiphase, multicomponent flow governing these processes is nontrivial. In this work, we developed, implemented and tested a streamline based solver for gas injection processes that is computationally very attractive: as compared to traditional Eulerian solvers in use by industry it computes solutions with a computational speed orders of magnitude higher and a comparable accuracy provided that cross-flow effects do not dominate. We contributed to the development of compositional streamline solvers in three significant ways: improvement of the overall framework allowing improved streamline coverage and partial streamline tracing, amongst others; parallelization of the streamline code, which significantly improves wall clock time; and development of new compositional solvers that can be implemented along streamlines as well as in existing Eulerian codes used by industry. We designed several novel ideas in the streamline framework. First, we developed an adaptive streamline coverage algorithm. Adding streamlines locally can reduce computational costs by concentrating computational efforts where needed, and reduce mapping errors. Adapting streamline coverage effectively controls mass balance errors that mostly result from the mapping from streamlines to pressure grid. We also introduced the concept of partial streamlines: streamlines that do not necessarily start and/or end at wells. This allows more efficient coverage and avoids

  16. Design of an automatic production monitoring system on job shop manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Hoedi; Sugiarto, Yohanes; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2018-02-01

    Every production process requires monitoring system, so the desired efficiency and productivity can be monitored at any time. This system is also needed in the job shop type of manufacturing which is mainly influenced by the manufacturing lead time. Processing time is one of the factors that affect the manufacturing lead time. In a conventional company, the recording of processing time is done manually by the operator on a sheet of paper. This method is prone to errors. This paper aims to overcome this problem by creating a system which is able to record and monitor the processing time automatically. The solution is realized by utilizing electric current sensor, barcode, RFID, wireless network and windows-based application. An automatic monitoring device is attached to the production machine. It is equipped with a touch screen-LCD so that the operator can use it easily. Operator identity is recorded through RFID which is embedded in his ID card. The workpiece data are collected from the database by scanning the barcode listed on its monitoring sheet. A sensor is mounted on the machine to measure the actual machining time. The system's outputs are actual processing time and machine's capacity information. This system is connected wirelessly to a workshop planning application belongs to the firm. Test results indicated that all functions of the system can run properly. This system successfully enables supervisors, PPIC or higher level management staffs to monitor the processing time quickly with a better accuracy.

  17. Productivity improvement: Implementation and analysis of clustering technique in manufacturing of timing gearbox cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is an indicator of efficiency with which resources, both human and material, are transformed into useful services and goods. The vital purpose of the prevailing work was to analyze the factors involved in the improvement of productivity in all its types such as material, capital, labor, machine and total productivity at the plant. This was obtained by decreasing the manufacturing cost per component by reducing its cycle time and increasing the monthly production rate. The experimentation revealed that using proposed processes and improved tooling, monthly production rate has increased by 16.2% due to reduced cycle time, the number of defected components i.e. rejection rate has reduced up to 2%. A reduction of 6.78% in manufacturing cost per component was recorded. Tooling cost has reduced by more than 12%. Saving up to 50% in inspection cost has been recorded due to close dimensional tolerances and high surface finish achieved on components. An increase of 4.84% was recorded in total productivity.

  18. Optimisation of the manufacturing process of tritide and deuteride targets used for neutron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, Carole; Bach, Pierre; Tulle, Pierre Alain; Rompay, Marc van; Ballanger, Anne

    2002-01-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium targets on copper substrates, and going to more sophisticated devices. The range of possible uses is wide, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets or large size rotating targets for higher lifetimes. The activity of the targets ranges from 3.7x10 10 to 3.7x10 13 Bq (1-1000 Ci), the diameter being up to 30 cm. Sodern and the CEA/Valduc centre have developed different technologies for tritium target manufacture, allowing the selection of the best configuration for each kind of use. In order to optimize the production of high energy neutrons, the performance of tritide and deuteride titanium targets made by different processes has been studied experimentally by bombardment with 120 and 350 kV deuterons provided by electrostatic accelerators. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output or lifetime and stability or thermal behaviour. The importance of the deposit evaporation conditions on the efficiency of neutron emission is clearly demonstrated, as well as the thermomechanical stability of the Ti thin film under deuteron bombardment. The main parameters involved in the target performance are discussed from a thermodynamical approach

  19. Optimisation of the manufacturing process of tritide and deuteride targets used for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnin, Carole; Bach, Pierre; Tulle, Pierre Alain; van Rompay, Marc; Ballanger, Anne

    2002-03-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium targets on copper substrates, and going to more sophisticated devices. The range of possible uses is wide, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets or large size rotating targets for higher lifetimes. The activity of the targets ranges from 3.7×10 10 to 3.7×10 13 Bq (1-1000 Ci), the diameter being up to 30 cm. Sodern and the CEA/Valduc centre have developed different technologies for tritium target manufacture, allowing the selection of the best configuration for each kind of use. In order to optimize the production of high energy neutrons, the performance of tritide and deuteride titanium targets made by different processes has been studied experimentally by bombardment with 120 and 350 kV deuterons provided by electrostatic accelerators. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output or lifetime and stability or thermal behaviour. The importance of the deposit evaporation conditions on the efficiency of neutron emission is clearly demonstrated, as well as the thermomechanical stability of the Ti thin film under deuteron bombardment. The main parameters involved in the target performance are discussed from a thermodynamical approach.

  20. Spatial Agglomeration and Productivity of Textile and Leather Manufacturing in the Punjab Province of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Iqba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether spatial agglomeration of textile and leather industry facilitates to enhance its own productivity at establishment level in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on the survey data for the years 1995-96, 2000-2001 and 2005-06 collected from the Punjab Bureau of Statistics (PBS. The production function framework has been utilized. The results of production function suggest that spatial agglomeration of textile and leather industry plays a vital role in determining the productivity of establishments. The impact of localization (specialization is positive and stronger than urbanization (diversification which implies that locating manufacturing establishments in a particular district leads to enhance the productivity of establishments. Therefore, government policy should be biased to promote localization of textile and leather industry.

  1. Impact of product platforms on lean production systems : evidence from industrial machinery manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, A.A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of product platform changes on lean production systems. Current research into product platforms focuses mostly on the development stage. However, although the initial development of platforms is an important issue, product platforms often evolve during later

  2. Big Data Based Analysis Framework for Product Manufacturing and Maintenance Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Yingfeng; Ren , Shan

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Cloud-Based Manufacturing; International audience; With the widely use of smart sensor devices in the product lifecycle management (PLM), it creates amount of real-time and muti-source lifecycle big data. These data allow decision makers to make better-informed PLM decisions. In this article, an overview framework of big data based analysis for product lifecycle (BDA-PL) was presented to provide a new paradigm by extending the techniques of Internet of Things (IoT) and big data analys...

  3. Characterization of additive manufacturing processes for polymer micro parts productions using direct light processing (DLP) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    The process capability of additive manufacturing (AM) for direct production of miniaturized polymer components with micro features is analyzed in this work. The consideration of the minimum printable feature size and obtainable tolerances of AM process is a critical step to establish a process...... chains for the production of parts with micro scale features. A specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) AM machine suitable for precision printing has been used. A test part is designed having features with different sizes and aspect ratios in order to evaluate the DLP AM machine capability...

  4. Advanced Shape Memory Technology to Reshape Product Design, Manufacturing and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guang Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review on the advanced shape memory technology (ASMT with a focus on polymeric materials. In addition to introducing the concept and fundamentals of the ASMT, the potential applications of the ASMT either alone or integrated with an existing mature technique (such as, 3D printing, quick response (QR code, lenticular lens and phenomena (e.g., wrinkling and stress-enhanced swelling effect in product design, manufacturing, and recycling are demonstrated. It is concluded that the ASMT is indeed able to provide a range of powerful approaches to reshape part of the life cycle or the whole life cycle of products.

  5. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of lean manufacturing as a factor for improving productive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Pentiado Godoy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the impact that the Lean manufacturing tool can have in a company that does not have management methodology for the Toyota Production System. This work was carried out in an industry that outsources services for the export of the medium-sized leather footwear producers sector located in the industrial pole of RS, Brazil. In the data collection, questions were raised with the managers and collaborators, as well as the researcher’s empirical view on the decisions that were being taken in the productive processes for a period of four months. These data were analyzed using Excel spreadsheets. In the results , the importance of the application of the Lean Manufacturing tools was highlighted , and some suggestions were given to the managers, mainly in relation to the idle capacity of production in several sectors, representing how much more the company could be producing to reach its maximum capacity. The mapping applied identified the adaptation of new machines for better production results, as well as intensifying the mapping of the critical paths that aggregate and do not add value in the productive operating environment.

  7. A Decision Optimization Model for Leased Manufacturing Equipment with Warranty under Forecasting Production/Maintenance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Hajej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expensive production equipment, many manufacturers usually lease production equipment with a warranty period during a finite leasing horizon, rather than purchasing them. The lease contract contains the possibility of obtaining an extended warranty for a given additional cost. In this paper, based on the forecasting production/maintenance optimization problem, we develop a mathematical model to study the lease contract with basic and extended warranty based on win-win relationship between the lessee and the lessor. The influence of the production rates in the equipment degradation consequently on the total cost by each side during the finite leasing horizon is stated in order to determine a theoretical condition under which a compromise-pricing zone exists under different possibilities of maintenance policies.

  8. Practical Use of Nitrite and Basis for Dosage in the Manufacture of Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Ekgreen, Maria Helbo; Risum, Jørgen

    . The particularities of the production methods make such a quantification rather uncertain. Furthermore, some dry cured products from South Europe are made with nitrate, which slowly and only partly is converted to nitrite and further to NO during the curing process. The Danish limitations on the use of nitrate......The use of nitrite (NaNO2) in the manufacture of salted (cured) meat products has a long tradition in the industry, dating back to the early twentieth century. Nitrite serves several technological purposes, primarily by the formation of a stable red colour in the meat and the inhibition...... of the growth of Clostridium botulinum. According to an assessment report by the European Food Safety Authority (The EFSA Journal, 14, p. 1-134, 2003) all evidence points to that it is the added amount of nitrite rather than the residual amount of nitrite in the product which exerts the antimicrobial effect...

  9. Streamlining the Bankability Process using International Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, George [Sunset Technology, Mount Airy, MD; Ramu, Govind [SunPower, San Jose, California; Heinz, Matthias [TUV Rheinland, Cologne, Germany; Chen, Yingnan [CGC (China General Certification Center), Beijing; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark, Union Hall, VA; Lokanath, Sumanth [First Solar, Tempe, Arizona; Daniels, Eric [Suncycle USA, Frederick MD; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE, Zurich, Switzerland; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS, Trumbull, CT

    2017-09-27

    NREL has supported the international efforts to create a streamlined process for documenting bankability and/or completion of each step of a PV project plan. IECRE was created for this purpose in 2014. This poster describes the goals, current status of this effort, and how individuals and companies can become involved.

  10. 21 CFR 1002.51 - Exemptions for manufacturers of products intended for the U.S. Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the U.S. Government. 1002.51 Section 1002.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.... Government. Upon application therefor by the manufacturer, the Director, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, may exempt from the provisions of this part a manufacturer of any electronic product intended for...

  11. British and German manufacturing productivity compared : A new benchmark for 1935/36 based on double deflated value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer; de Jong, Herman; Timmer, Marcel P.

    We present a new estimate of Anglo-German manufacturing productivity levels for 1935/36. It is based on archival data on German manufacturing and published British census data. We calculate comparative levels of value added, correcting for differences in prices for outputs and inputs. This so-called

  12. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  13. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  14. Stimuli of Collaboration in Product Development: A Case Study in a Project Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jääskeläinen Aki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is already a wide acceptance on the importance of involving supplier and customer companies in product development. Decent understanding prevails on the relationship-oriented approach to product development including various collaboration forms. However, there is less research on the factors explaining the decision of attending to joint product development. In addition, less studies have examined the integrated role of both suppliers and customers in product development initiatives. This study searches answers to the following research questions: 1. What is the role of different actors in product development initiatives? 2. What factors motivate suppliers and customers to participate in product development? The research is carried out as an in-depth qualitative single case study in a large project manufacturing company. It takes the perspective of a focal company striving for product improvements. The first part of the empirical study consists of 15 semi-structured interviews. The second part includes two discursive workshops and builds upon the results of the interviews. This study contributes to the existing research by explaining the challenges and conditions facilitating joint product development with supplier and purchaser companies. The results highlight the role of customers in improving the effectiveness of product development. As a practical contribution, the paper reports the application of workshop method as a facilitator of collaboration between supplier, purchaser (focal company and customer companies.

  15. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  16. Manufacturing of curd products of increased biological value for the elderly from dried components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabodalova, Ludmila A; Belozerova, Maria S; Evstigneeva, Tatiana N

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the number of elderly people has increased, and the diseases that arise in old age are associated, amongst other factors, with malnutrition. In the elderly, the need for primary nutrients and energy changes, so the development of food products intended for this particular group of people is becom- ing increasingly important. The purpose of this research is to work out the composition of and technology for producing low-fat curd products from raw milk and vegetable components. The developed products can be used for their gerodietetic properties, because nutritional and energy needs in the elderly were taken into account when designing the product. The curd product was manufactured from skimmed dried milk (SDM), soy isolate protein (SIP) and spelt grain. Optimal conditions for the recombination of SIP were determined. The influence of mass fraction of SIP on the properties of the clot and the end product was studied. The degree of dispersion of the grain component was determined, from the organoleptic evaluation of samples of the mixture, and the optimum method of addition was chosen. The method of adding cooked spelt into the clot after pressing was chosen. Harrington’s generalized desirability function was used for the calculation of the optimum mass frac- tion of the grain component in the end product. The formulation and technology for a curd product based on dry ingredients were determined. The amino acid composition and content of essential components in the developed product were determined, and the biological and nutritional value were calculated. The use of dry ingredients for the production of a curd product makes it possible to manufac- ture the product in the absence of raw milk. The formulation of the product is designed taking into account the needs of the body in old age. The incorporation of spelt increases the biological value of the curd product to 81.5%.

  17. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-04-19

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.

  18. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights: a case study of local production in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-06-14

    Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) on local production; a gap analysis from the literature review indicated a need for further research. Over sixty interviews were conducted with people involved in the Nepali pharmaceutical production and distribution chain from 2006 to 2009 on the GMP areas of relevance: regulatory capacity, staffing, funding and training, resourcing of GMP, inspectors' interpretation of the rules and compliance. Although Nepal producers have increased their overall share of the domestic market, only the public manufacturer, Royal Drugs, focuses on medicines for public health programmes; private producers engage mainly in brand competition for private markets, not essential medicines. Nepali regulators and producers state that implementation of GMP standards is hindered by low regulatory capacity, insufficient training of staff in the industry, financial constraints and lack of investment for upgrading capital. The transition period to mandatory compliance with WHO GMP rules is lengthy. Less than half of private producers had WHO GMP in 2013. Producers are not directly affected by international harmonisation of standards as they do not export medicines and the Nepali regulator does not enforce the WHO standards strictly. Without an international GMP certificate they cannot tender for donor dependent health programmes. In Nepal, local private manufacturers focus mainly on brand competition for private consumption not essential medicines, the government preferentially procures essential

  19. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

  20. Exploring barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing based new product development in manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengfeng; Van der Velde, David; Chatzakis, Emmanouil; McStea, Terry; Smith, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Crowdsourcing is an innovative business practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content or even funds by soliciting contributions from a large group of people (the `Crowd'). The potential benefits of utilizing crowdsourcing in product design are well-documented, but little research exists on what are the barriers and opportunities in adopting crowdsourcing in new product development (NPD) of manufacturing SMEs. In order to answer the above questions, a Proof of Market study is carried out on crowdsourcing-based product design under an Innovate UK funded Smart project, which aims at identifying the needs, challenges and future development opportunities associated with adopting crowdsourcing strategies for NPD. The research findings from this study are reported here and can be used to guide future development of crowdsourcing-based collaborative design methods and tools and provide some practical references for industry to adopt this new and emerging collaborative design method in their business.

  1. Energy consumption in the manufacture of sawn goods and wood-based panel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities of saving energy in the sawmill, plywood, particle board, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, glulam, and wood preservation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is minimum in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/cubic meters and maximum in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, the energy consumption (6.95 GJ/cubic meters) is about double that in particleboard production (3.40 GJ/cubic meters). The main part of the energy (70-85%) is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of total energy is used in individual processes. Over half (53.9%) of the total energy consumption is in the sawmill industry, 19.2% in the plywood industry, 12.2% in the particleboard industry, and 7.2% in the fibreboard industry.

  2. Innovative Production Scheduling with Customer Satisfaction Based Measurement for the Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Oh Shim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems for the sustainability of manufacturing firms in the era of the fourth industrial revolution is addressed in this research. In terms of open innovation, innovative production scheduling can be defined as scheduling using big data, cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing, mobile network, and so on. In this environment, one of the most important things is to develop an innovative scheduling algorithm for the sustainability of manufacturing firms. In this research, a flexible flowshop scheduling problem is considered with the properties of sequence-dependent setup and different process plans for jobs. In a flexible flowshop, there are serial workstations with multiple pieces of equipment that are able to process multiple lots simultaneously. Since the scheduling in this workshop is known to be extremely difficult, it is important to devise an efficient and effective scheduling algorithm. In this research, a heuristic algorithm is proposed based on a few dispatching rules and economic lot size model with the objective of minimizing total tardiness of orders. For the purposes of performance evaluation, a simulation study is conducted on randomly generated problem instances. The results imply that our proposed method outperforms the existing ones, and greatly enhances the sustainability of manufacturing firms.

  3. Optimizing production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning's integration in failure-prone manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.

  4. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Environment-Aware Production Schedulingfor Paint Shops in Automobile Manufacturing: A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui

    2017-12-25

    The traditional way of scheduling production processes often focuses on profit-driven goals (such as cycle time or material cost) while tending to overlook the negative impacts of manufacturing activities on the environment in the form of carbon emissions and other undesirable by-products. To bridge the gap, this paper investigates an environment-aware production scheduling problem that arises from a typical paint shop in the automobile manufacturing industry. In the studied problem, an objective function is defined to minimize the emission of chemical pollutants caused by the cleaning of painting devices which must be performed each time before a color change occurs. Meanwhile, minimization of due date violations in the downstream assembly shop is also considered because the two shops are interrelated and connected by a limited-capacity buffer. First, we have developed a mixed-integer programming formulation to describe this bi-objective optimization problem. Then, to solve problems of practical size, we have proposed a novel multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm characterized by problem-specific improvement strategies. A branch-and-bound algorithm is designed for accurately assessing the most promising solutions. Finally, extensive computational experiments have shown that the proposed MOPSO is able to match the solution quality of an exact solver on small instances and outperform two state-of-the-art multi-objective optimizers in literature on large instances with up to 200 cars.

  6. ATLAS Barrel Hadron Calorimeter: general manufacturing concepts for 300000 absorber plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.A.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Bylinkin, P.M

    1998-01-01

    We summarize a 4-year (1994-1997) experience of design and research efforts which led us to the solution of 2 important tasks of a principal significance for precision assembly of one of major elements of ATLAS, - its Hadron Barrel Tile Calorimeter. These tasks were: - to develop the high tolerances (50-100 microns) technology for about 300000 units of calorimeter nuclear absorber plates mass production, - to choose the best manufacturer(s) able to satisfy shop drawings demands in a reasonable balance with some other significant criteria: production period, price acceptable geography location (transport expenses), available storage area and access ways, reliable quality control etc. For the best absorbers producers our final choice was the TATRA PLANT (Czech Republic) for 1.6 m long plates stamping (40800 units) with Argonne punching die and the MINSK TRACTOR PLANT (Belarus Republic) for smaller size plates stamping (about 240000 units). We exclude noticeable (more than 1% of the day production) tolerances violations by the specially developed QUALITY CONTROL Program

  7. Quantitative monitoring of corticosteroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2012-07-10

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids such as prednisolone, hydrocortisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide without these ingredients being indicated on the label. Due to their severe side effects such as permenent skin atopy, these corticosteroids have to be monitored in cosmetic products from a forensic point of view. Many cosmetic product samples (N=65) have been collected from both local and online markets in Korea. The corticosteroid content of these samples was analyzed by LC-MS/MS with diagnostic ions (m/z). Linearity was studied with 0.1-10 μg/mL range in all corticosteroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.997) were found and the limits of quantification were 4.68-7.97 ng/mL for each of the corticosteroids. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were 97.2-113.5%and precisions (RSD) for intra-day and inter-day analysis were less than 8.9%. Also, accuracy (Bias %) was less than 11.8%. The results showed that between 0.76-0.94 μg/g levels of prednisolone were detected in four cosmetic products and triamcinolone acetonidewas detected with a concentration in the range of 11.5-272 μg/g in nine samples. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have arbitrarily added these corticosteroids in their cosmetic products without indicating them on the label. Thus, these cosmetic products have to be monitored and if proven illegal preparations removed from the market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Strategically Flexible Production. A Review and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    ) led to only partial results, and were often abandoned or scaled down. At the same time, a number of soft organizational and managerial approaches and improvement programs, mostly derived from Japan, began to spread in response to the dramatic changes in the competitive environment that seemed...... to require new rationales to organize and manage production systems. However, the compatibility and coherence between changing organizational paradigms and CIM approaches were not extensively explored nor understood. This paper aims to investigate the interactions between the implementation and integration...... of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) and the adoption of new managerial and organizational principles....

  9. Process analytical technology in continuous manufacturing of a commercial pharmaceutical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jenny M; Nielsen, Sarah; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Anthony; Aymat, Efrain Y; Almodovar, Elvin; Classe, Gustavo; Colón, Yleana; Sanchez, Eric; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of process analytical technology and continuous manufacturing at an FDA approved commercial manufacturing site is described. In this direct compaction process the blends produced were monitored with a Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic calibration model developed with partial least squares (PLS) regression. The authors understand that this is the first study where the continuous manufacturing (CM) equipment was used as a gravimetric reference method for the calibration model. A principal component analysis (PCA) model was also developed to identify the powder blend, and determine whether it was similar to the calibration blends. An air diagnostic test was developed to assure that powder was present within the interface when the NIR spectra were obtained. The air diagnostic test as well the PCA and PLS calibration model were integrated into an industrial software platform that collects the real time NIR spectra and applies the calibration models. The PCA test successfully detected an equipment malfunction. Variographic analysis was also performed to estimate the sampling analytical errors that affect the results from the NIR spectroscopic method during commercial production. The system was used to monitor and control a 28 h continuous manufacturing run, where the average drug concentration determined by the NIR method was 101.17% of label claim with a standard deviation of 2.17%, based on 12,633 spectra collected. The average drug concentration for the tablets produced from these blends was 100.86% of label claim with a standard deviation of 0.4%, for 500 tablets analyzed by Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy. The excellent agreement between the mean drug concentration values in the blends and tablets produced provides further evidence of the suitability of the validation strategy that was followed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The study of production performance of water heater manufacturing by using simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Bamatraf, OAA; Tadjuddin, M.

    2018-02-01

    In industrial companies, as demand increases, decision-making to increase production becomes difficult due to the complexity of the model systems. Companies are trying to find the optimum methods to tackle such problems so that resources are utilized and production is increased. One line system of a manufacturing company in Malaysia was considered in this research. The Company produces several types of water heater and each type went into many processes, which was divided into twenty six sections. Each section has several operations. The main type of the product was 10G water heater which is produced most compare to other types, hence it was taken under consideration to be studied in this research. It was difficult to find the critical section that could improve the productions of the company. This research paper employed Delmia Quest software, Distribution Analyser software and Design of Experiment (DOE software) to simulate one model system taken from the company to be studied and to find the critical section that will improve the production system. As a result, assembly of inner and outer tank section were found to be the bottleneck section. Adding one section to the bottleneck increases the production rate by four products a day. The buffer size is determined by the experiment was six items.

  11. Essential Aspects in Assessing the Safety Impact of Interactions between a Drug Product and Its Associated Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in the biotechnology industry is the utilization of plastic components in manufacturing systems for the production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or a finished drug product (FDP). If the API, the FDP, or any solution used to generate them (for example, process streams such as media, buffers, and the like) come in contact with a plastic at any time during the manufacturing process, there is the potential that substances leached from the plastic may accumulate in the API or FDP, affecting safety and/or efficacy. In this article the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the article outlines the safety assessment process for manufacturing systems, specifically addressing the topics of risk management and the role of compendial testing. Finally, the proper use of vendor-supplied extractables information is considered. Manufacturing suites used to produce biopharmaceuticals can include components that are made out of plastics. Thus it is possible that substances could leach out of the plastics and into manufacturing solutions, and it is further possible that such leachables could accumulate in the pharmaceutical product. In this article, the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the author proposes a process by which the impact on product safety of such leached substances can be assessed.

  12. The comparison analysis of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Xingle; Zhao, Xicang; Cheng, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly compares total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures from 2005 to 2010. First, we evaluate total factor productivity and eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures through distance function and directional slack-based measure (DSBM) respectively. Furthermore, we also explore the difference of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency. Last, we investigate the determinants of Malmquist, Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures through random-effect Tobit and bootstrap truncated econometric methods. We find that there are some gaps between Malmquist and Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures. Per labor cement industry value has U-shape relationship with both Malmquist and Malmquist–Luenberger. It is necessary to adopt advanced technology to reduce pollutant emissions. -- Highlights: •Eco-efficiency of cement manufactures is evaluated through slack-based measure. •Eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures has biases with total factor productivity. •Environmental Kuznets curve is existed for China's cement manufactures

  13. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  14. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO 2 and U 3 O 7 . The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated

  15. Characterization of uranium corrosion products involved in the March 13, 1998 fuel manufacturing facility pyrophoric event.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T.C.

    1999-04-26

    Uranium metal corrosion products from ZPPR fuel plates involved in the March 13, 1998 pyrophoric event in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and BET gas sorption techniques. Characterization was performed on corrosion products in several different conditions: immediately after separation from the source metal, after low-temperature passivation, after passivation and extended vault storage, and after burning in the pyrophoric event. The ignition temperatures and hydride fractions of the corrosion product were strongly dependent on corrosion extent. Corrosion products from plates with corrosion extents less than 0.7% did not ignite in TGA testing, while products from plates with corrosion extents greater than 1.2% consistently ignited. Corrosion extent is defined as mass of corrosion products divided by the total mass of uranium. The hydride fraction increased with corrosion extent. There was little change in corrosion product properties after low-temperature passivation or vault storage. The burned products were not reactive and contained no hydride; the principal constituents were UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The source of the event was a considerable quantity of reactive hydride present in the corrosion products. No specific ignition mechanism could be conclusively identified. The most likely initiator was a static discharge in the corrosion product from the 14th can as it was poured into the consolidation can. The available evidence does not support scenarios in which the powder in the consolidation can slowly self-heated to the ignition point, or in which the powder in the 14th can was improperly passivated.

  16. Very-large-scale production of antibodies in plants: The biologization of manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2017-07-01

    Gene technology has facilitated the biologization of manufacturing, i.e. the use and production of complex biological molecules and systems at an industrial scale. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the major class of biopharmaceutical products, but they are typically used to treat specific diseases which individually have comparably low incidences. The therapeutic potential of mAbs could also be used for more prevalent diseases, but this would require a massive increase in production capacity that could not be met by traditional fermenter systems. Here we outline the potential of plants to be used for the very-large-scale (VLS) production of biopharmaceutical proteins such as mAbs. We discuss the potential market sizes and their corresponding production capacities. We then consider available process technologies and scale-down models and how these can be used to develop VLS processes. Finally, we discuss which adaptations will likely be required for VLS production, lessons learned from existing cell culture-based processes and the food industry, and practical requirements for the implementation of a VLS process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan BULLON

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities present different subdivisions, each with its own traits. The length of the textile process and the variety of its technical processes lead to the coexistence of different sub-sectors in regards to their business structure and integration. The textile industry is developing expert systems applications to increase production, improve quality and reduce costs. The analysis of textile designs or structures includes the use of mathematical models to simulate the behavior of the textile structures (yarns, fabrics and knitting. The Finite Element Method (FEM has largely facilitated the prediction of the behavior of that textile structure under mechanical loads. For classification problems Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs haveproved to be a very effective tool as a quick and accurate solution. The Case-Based Reasoning (CBR method proposed in this study complements the results of the finite element simulation, mathematical modeling and neural networks methods.

  18. Dendritic cells for active immunotherapy: optimizing design and manufacture in order to develop commercially and clinically viable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolette, C A; Healey, D; Tcherepanova, I; Whelton, P; Monesmith, T; Coombs, L; Finke, L H; Whiteside, T; Miesowicz, F

    2007-09-27

    Dendritic cell (DC) active immunotherapy is potentially efficacious in a broad array of malignant disease settings. However, challenges remain in optimizing DC-based therapy for maximum clinical efficacy within manufacturing processes that permit quality control and scale-up of consistent products. In this review we discuss the critical issues that must be addressed in order to optimize DC-based product design and manufacture, and highlight the DC based platforms currently addressing these issues. Variables in DC-based product design include the type of antigenic payload used, DC maturation steps and activation processes, and functional assays. Issues to consider in development include: (a) minimizing the invasiveness of patient biological material collection; (b) minimizing handling and manipulations of tissue at the clinical site; (c) centralized product manufacturing and standardized processing and capacity for commercial-scale production; (d) rapid product release turnaround time; (e) the ability to manufacture sufficient product from limited starting material; and (f) standardized release criteria for DC phenotype and function. Improvements in the design and manufacture of DC products have resulted in a handful of promising leads currently in clinical development.

  19. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.

  20. Particle shedding from peristaltic pump tubing in biopharmaceutical drug product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In a typical manufacturing setup for biopharmaceutical drug products, the fill and dosing pump is placed after the final sterile filtration unit in order to ensure adequate dispensing accuracy and avoid backpressure peaks. Given the sensitivity of protein molecules, peristaltic pumps are often preferred over piston pumps. However, particles may be shed from the silicone tubing employed. In this study, particle shedding and a potential turbidity increase during peristaltic pumping of water and buffer were investigated using three types of commercially available silicone tubing. In the recirculates, mainly particles of around 200 nm next to a very small fraction of particles in the lower micrometer range were found. Using 3D laser scanning microscopy, surface roughness of the inner tubing surface was found to be a determining factor for particle shedding from silicone tubing. As the propensity toward particle shedding varied between tubing types and also cannot be concluded from manufacturer's specifications, individual testing with the presented methods is recommended during tubing qualification. Choosing low abrasive tubing can help to further minimize the very low particle counts to be expected in pharmaceutical drug products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and...

  2. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  3. Streamlining the Online Course Development Process by Using Project Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Managing the design and production of online courses is challenging. Insufficient instructional design and inefficient management often lead to issues such as poor course quality and course delivery delays. In an effort to facilitate, streamline, and improve the overall design and production of online courses, this article discusses how we…

  4. The Transportation Logistics of Manufactured Products in the Colombian Internal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisson Castro Escobar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks the transport logistics of the Colombian manufacturing industry in the domestic market, analyzing the direction and the volume of the cargo moved by road. The study is intended to identify some sectorial and regional enclaves of the industry that could be strategic for market diversification and to facilitate production chains. Estimates of land freight movements are made based on the origin-destination survey carried out by the Ministry of Transportation in 2008. The different regional and sectorial flows are projected through a geodetic network model. The results indicate that regional differences in product specialization explain the movement of cargo from specific industries, while in other cases there are no significant flows because the industries largely serve local markets.

  5. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  6. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  7. Research on the Governance Mechanism of Aviation Complex Product Manufacturing Supply Chain Based on Dynamic Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacturing process of aeronautical complex products, for the following problems: develop long production cycle, a large number of ancillary products, a plurality of participating units, etc, and the status of the frequency of quality problems, using single-phase static game model in the case of asymmetric information, study on Supplier Quality insufficient investment, which resulting in opportunistic behaviour reasons. And using KMRW dynamic game model, we quantitative analysis the mechanism and crucial role of reputation mechanisms to ensure aeronautical complex product manufacturing supply chain and effective operation.

  8. Applications of dimensional micro metrology to the product and process quality control in manufacturing of precision polymer micro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Precision manufacturing of micro injection moulded (mu IM) components presents challenges in terms of quality control due to the miniaturization of product dimensions and tolerances. This paper addresses product compliance with specifications, focusing on tolerances of dimensions and position on mu...... IM components selected from industrial production. Two systems were analysed: a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM) with sub-micrometer uncertainty and an optical CMM allowing fast measurements suitable for in-line quality control. Product quality control capability, measuring uncertainty...... and calibration guidelines are discussed for both systems. Finally, a new approach for the manufacturing of hybrid micro polymer-metal calibrated objects is proposed....

  9. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  10. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  11. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Application of Lean Manufacturing for Operation Improvement: A Case Study of Black Cough Medicine Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramadona Pramadona

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry has a market tends to be unstable and volatile in meeting customer needs. This is due to the economic crisis that occurred in different parts of the world. The pharmaceutical industry currently uses good manufacturing practices (cGMP to ensure that products are consistently produced and controlled according to the required standards. Pharmaceutical industry slowly started to move from cGMP to lean manufacturing that focused on reducing operating costs while ensuring compliance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usage of lean manufacturing instead of the usage of cGMP to eliminate wastes. To conduct this study, literature review and company visit has been done. This analysis was applied by using value stream mapping (VSM and 7-wastes methodology to analyze the problems in the OBH (Black Cough Medicine production line one of the pharmaceutical industry in Bandung, Indonesia. For the improvement, the lean manufacturing approach has been carried out and the future VSM has been developed. Finding reveals that the application of lean manufacturing in the cGMP environment helps the company to eliminate wastes in reducing lead time and cycle time in the manufacturing process. Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, cGMP, lean manufacturing, value stream mapping, 7-wastes.

  13. A product-process approach for development of the manufacturing footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John

    2009-01-01

    to ever changing global business environment there are certain other external factors that act as drivers for the manufacturing facility development process and therefore should be given considerable importance as they play a major role in defining the future footprint of a manufacturing organisation....... elaborating the development and establishment of various manufacturing facilities of a Danish pump manufacturer is then described. The discussion from the case leads to the conclusion that developing new manufacturing facilities can be explained using existing theories of manufacturing strategy. However due...

  14. A pharmacology guided approach for setting limits on product-related impurities for bispecific antibody manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sharmila; Sonoda, Junichiro; Tully, Timothy; Williams, Ambrose J; Yang, Feng; Macchi, Frank; Hudson, Terry; Chen, Mark Z; Liu, Shannon; Valle, Nicole; Cowan, Kyra; Gelzleichter, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    bFKB1 is a humanized bispecific IgG1 antibody, created by conjoining an anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) half-antibody to an anti-Klothoβ (KLB) half-antibody, using the knobs-into-holes strategy. bFKB1 acts as a highly selective agonist for the FGFR1/KLB receptor complex and is intended to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic defects by mimicking the activity of the hormone FGF21. An important aspect of the biologics product manufacturing process is to establish meaningful product specifications regarding the tolerable levels of impurities that copurify with the drug product. The aim of the current study was to determine acceptable levels of product-related impurities for bFKB1. To determine the tolerable levels of these impurities, we dosed obese mice with bFKB1 enriched with various levels of either HMW impurities or anti-FGFR1-related impurities, and measured biomarkers for KLB-independent FGFR1 signaling. Here, we show that product-related impurities of bFKB1, in particular, high molecular weight (HMW) impurities and anti-FGFR1-related impurities, when purposefully enriched, stimulate FGFR1 in a KLB-independent manner. By taking this approach, the tolerable levels of product-related impurities were successfully determined. Our study demonstrates a general pharmacology-guided approach to setting a product specification for a bispecific antibody whose homomultimer-related impurities could lead to undesired biological effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Application of Lean Manufacturing Tools in a Garment Industry as a Strategy for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Nunesca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use and apply lean tools as ways of improving manufacturing systems that lead to reduction of wastes and standardization of cycle time. Model A in Line 1 at sewing section was the focus of the study. The researcher used questionnaires, 5S Audit checklists, and Time Study forms in information-gathering and cycle time-computation. Based on the observation done, the company does not have a standard operation time. Similarly, the researcher observed non-value activities such as unnecessary transportation and manual counting, and there were also product defects due to poor 5S and WIP inventories. After considering lean tools, using process flow and cycle time analysis, the standard time was determined. Likewise, the non-value added activities were reduced, thus productivity was improved. After lean implementation, 100% efficiency was achieved, the rejection rate was reduced to 0.08% and zero WIP inventories in Line 1 became a practice. Lean tools brought significant changes in providing smooth process flow and productive operations, which in turn, give a remarkable contribution in achieving company’s goals, focus on the customers, giving quality products at the right time and at the right place. Therefore, the full implementation of BY Garments would contribute in gaining more profits.

  16. Manufacturing wizardry : products to tame heat, cold, deserts, swamps and underground infernos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples of Canadian oil and natural gas service equipment are cited as examples of exportable Canadian know-how. Foremosts are Canadian made, all terrain vehicles, designed to work in rugged terrain. Calgary-based Foremost Industries Inc., has sold several of their industrial vehicles for the Taklamakan, the high desert in the Tarim Basin of northwestern China. The huge vehicles with monster tires can haul up to 70 tonnes of material and leave very little or no mark on the wilderness. Foremost Industries Inc. is also an international corporation with branches in Nevada and Indiana. Their success stems from the fact that they were able to develop a vehicle for well drilling that would withstand the rough terrain and extreme climate conditions across western and northern Canada. Atco, a Calgary-based company, has developed quality portable housing to shelter surveyors, geologists, and drilling-rig crews. Another company, Reynolds Manufacturing, has developed safety clothing for workers in the oil industry. Canadian Oilfield Rigs and Equipment Fabrication Inc., manufacture volume production technology packages such as wireline data recording vehicles and well-service rigs, sold in markets from Algeria to Venezuela. 5 figs

  17. Capacity optimization and scheduling of a multiproduct manufacturing facility for biotech products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munawar A; Dhakre, Ankita; Rathore, Anurag S; Patil, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    A general mathematical framework has been proposed in this work for scheduling of a multiproduct and multipurpose facility involving manufacturing of biotech products. The specific problem involves several batch operations occurring in multiple units involving fixed processing time, unlimited storage policy, transition times, shared units, and deterministic and fixed data in the given time horizon. The different batch operations are modeled using state-task network representation. Two different mathematical formulations are proposed based on discrete- and continuous-time representations leading to a mixed-integer linear programming model which is solved using General Algebraic Modeling System software. A case study based on a real facility is presented to illustrate the potential and applicability of the proposed models. The continuous-time model required less number of events and has a smaller problem size compared to the discrete-time model. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Axiomatic design in large systems complex products, buildings and manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Nam

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a synthesis of recent developments in Axiomatic Design theory and its application in large complex systems. Introductory chapters provide concise tutorial materials for graduate students and new practitioners, presenting the fundamentals of Axiomatic Design and relating its key concepts to those of model-based systems engineering. A mathematical exposition of design axioms is also provided. The main body of the book, which represents a concentrated treatment of several applications, is divided into three parts covering work on: complex products; buildings; and manufacturing systems. The book shows how design work in these areas can benefit from the scientific and systematic underpinning provided by Axiomatic Design, and in so doing effectively combines the state of the art in design research with practice. All contributions were written by an international group of leading proponents of Axiomatic Design. The book concludes with a call to action motivating further research into the engineeri...

  19. Computer aided production of manufacturing CAMAC-wired boards by the multiwire-technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, M; Brehmer, W

    1975-10-01

    The multiwire-technique is a computer controlled wiring method for the manufacturing of circuit boards with insulated conductors. The technical data for production are dimensional drawings of the board and a list of all points which are to be connected. The listing must be in absolute co-ordinates including a list of all soldering points for component parts and a reproducible print pattern for inscription. For this wiring method a CAMAC standard board, a layout plan with alpha-numeric symbols, and a computer program which produces the essential technical data were developed. A description of the alpha-numeric symbols, the quality of the program, recognition and checking of these symbols, and the produced technical data is presented. (auth)

  20. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  1. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  2. Streamlined approach to waste management at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, L.; Campbell, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive, mixed, hazardous and non-hazardous wastes have been and continue to be generated at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) as a result of research and development activities and operations since the 1940s. Over the years, the wastes produced as a byproduct of activities delivering the core missions of the CRL site have been of many types, and today, over thirty distinct waste streams have been identified, all requiring efficient management. With the commencement of decommissioning of the legacy created as part of the development of the Canadian nuclear industry, the volumes and range of wastes to be managed have been increasing in the near term, and this trend will continue into the future. The development of a streamlined approach to waste management is a key to successful waste management at CRL. Waste management guidelines that address all of the requirements have become complex, and so have the various waste management groups receiving waste, with their many different processes and capabilities. This has led to difficulties for waste generators in understanding all of the requirements to be satisfied for the various CRL waste receivers, whose primary concerns are to be safe and in compliance with their acceptance criteria and license conditions. As a result, waste movement on site can often be very slow, especially for non-routine waste types. Recognizing an opportunity for improvement, the Waste Management organization at CRL has implemented a more streamlined approach with emphasis on early identification of waste type and possible disposition path. This paper presents a streamlined approach to waste identification and waste management at CRL, the implementation methodology applied and the early results achieved from this process improvement. (author)

  3. Industrial production and professional application of manufactured nanomaterials-enabled end products in Dutch industries: potential for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Brouwer, Derk H; Tielemans, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2013-04-01

    In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

  4. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  5. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from coffee drink manufacturing wastewater by applying UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Shin, Hang-Sik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Essex Hall, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The feasibility of continuous H{sub 2} production from coffee drink manufacturing wastewater (CDMW) was tested in two different types of reactors: a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr). While the performance in CSTR was limited, it was significantly enhanced in UASBr. The maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.29 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose{sub added} was achieved at HRT of 6 h in UASBr operation. Non-hydrogenic, lactic acid was the dominant in CSTR, while butyric and caproic acids in UASBr. As caproic acid is generated by consuming acetic and butyric acids, all of which are related to H{sub 2} production, the presence of caproic acid in the broth also indicates H{sub 2} production, yielding 1.33 mol H{sub 2}/glucose. It was speculated that the enhanced performance in UASBr was attributed to the high concentration of biomass over 60,000 mg VSS/L in the blanket zone, which provided insufficient substrate for indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to survive. The abundance of LAB in CDMW was confirmed by natural fermentation of CDMW. That is without the addition of external inoculum, CDMW was mainly fermented into lactic acid under mesophilic condition. For the first time ever, H{sub 2} producing granules (HPG) with diameters of 2.1 mm were successfully formed by using actual waste as a substrate. (author)

  6. Evaluation of hardboard manufacturing process wastewater as a feedstream for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Stephanie; Liu, Jifei; Shonnard, David; Bagley, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Waste streams from the wood processing industry can serve as feedstream for ethanol production from biomass residues. Hardboard manufacturing process wastewater (HPW) was evaluated on the basis of monomeric sugar recovery and fermentability as a novel feedstream for ethanol production. Dilute acid hydrolysis, coupled with concentration of the wastewater resulted in a hydrolysate with 66 g/l total fermentable sugars. As xylose accounted for 53 % of the total sugars, native xylose-fermenting yeasts were evaluated for their ability to produce ethanol from the hydrolysate. The strains selected were, in decreasing order by ethanol yields from xylose (Y p/s, based on consumed sugars), Scheffersomyces stipitis ATCC 58785 (CBS 6054), Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 60393, and Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 46537. The yeasts were compared on the basis of substrate utilization and ethanol yield during fermentations of the hydrolysate, measured using an HPLC. S. stipitis, P. tannophilus, and K. marxianus produced 0.34, 0.31, and 0.36 g/g, respectively. The yeasts were able to utilize between 58 and 75 % of the available substrate. S. stipitis outperformed the other yeast during the fermentation of the hydrolysate; consuming the highest concentration of available substrate and producing the highest ethanol concentration in 72 h. Due to its high sugar content and low inhibitor levels after hydrolysis, it was concluded that HPW is a suitable feedstream for ethanol production by S. stipitis.

  7. Lean Manufacturing Implementation for Multinational Companies with Production Subsidiary in Brazil: Development of A Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Goehnera,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign multinational companies with a production subsidiary in Brazil are in general recognized as high-level productive companies; however, their productivity potential is mostly not fully achieved. Lean Manufacturing (LM has been proved as a valuable aid to achieve competitiveness in the long run. Regarding the rising importance of successfully implementing LM at multinationals in Brazil and an apparent lack of discussion regarding LM in Brazil this paper aims to propose a comprehensive implementation roadmap, which enables a multinational on a basis of a systematic approach, to achieve an advanced sustainable LM system in a practical manner. The insights of literature and case studies are combined to develop the roadmap. The roadmap was developed so that both companies, those, which have not started yet their journey towards LM, as well as those that have taken already the first steps can use the roadmap. However, the roadmap was built on a broad empirical basis. It should be noticed that it is impossible to consider all factors influencing the LMI at multinationals operating in Brazil in a real world setting. As a result, the roadmap should not be regarded as a ready implementation plan, which has to be strictly followed. Instead, it should be seen as a guideline, which helps a multinational to develop its own, detailed and fitted plan for successfully implementing LM and establishing a learning organization.

  8. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7  cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  9. Lightroom 5 streamlining your digital photography process

    CERN Document Server

    Sylvan, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Manage your images with Lightroom and this beautifully illustrated guide Image management can soak up huge amounts of a photographer's time, but help is on hand. This complete guides teaches you how to use Adobe Lightroom 5 to import, manage, edit, and showcase large quantities of images with impressive results. The authors, both professional photographers and Lightroom experts, walk you through step by step, demonstrating real-world techniques as well as a variety of practical tips, tricks, and shortcuts that save you time. Streamline image management tasks like a pro, and get back to doing

  10. Streamline-concentration balance model for in-situ uranium leaching and site restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, P.M.; Schechter, R.S.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-03-01

    This work presents two computer models. One describes in-situ uranium leaching and the other describes post leaching site restoration. Both models use a streamline generator to set up the flow field over the reservoir. The leaching model then uses the flow data in a concentration balance along each streamline coupled with the appropriate reaction kinetics to calculate uranium production. The restoration model uses the same procedure except that binary cation exchange is used as the restoring mechanism along each streamline and leaching cation clean up is simulated. The mathematical basis for each model is shown in detail along with the computational schemes used. Finally, the two models have been used with several data sets to point out their capabilities and to illustrate important leaching and restoration parameters and schemes

  11. Streamline-concentration balance model for in situ uranium leaching and site restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This work presents two computer models. One describes in situ uranium leaching and the other describes post leaching site restoration. Both models use a streamline generator to set up the flow field over the reservoir. The leaching model then uses the flow data in a concentration balance along each streamline coupled with the appropriate reaction kinetics to calculate uranium production. The restoration model uses the same procedure ecept that binary cation exchange is used as the restoring mechanism along each streamline and leaching cation clean up is stimulated. The mathematical basis for each model is shown in detail along with the computational schemes used. Finally, the two models have been used with several data sets to point out their capabilities and to illustrate important leaching and restoration parameters and schemes

  12. Standardization of Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells for immunotherapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchter, Patrick; Bieback, Karen; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Bornhäuser, Martin; Müller, Lutz P; Bönig, Halvard; Wagner, Wolfgang; Meisel, Roland; Pavel, Petra; Tonn, Torsten; Lang, Peter; Müller, Ingo; Renner, Matthias; Malcherek, Georg; Saffrich, Rainer; Buss, Eike C; Horn, Patrick; Rojewski, Markus; Schmitt, Anita; Ho, Anthony D; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schmitt, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Human mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) represent a potential resource not only for regenerative medicine but also for immunomodulatory cell therapies. The application of different MSC culture protocols has significantly hampered the comparability of experimental and clinical data from different laboratories and has posed a major obstacle for multicenter clinical trials. Manufacturing of cell products for clinical application in the European Community must be conducted in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice and requires a manufacturing license. In Germany, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut as the Federal Authority for Vaccines and Biomedicines is critically involved in the approval process. This report summarizes a consensus meeting between researchers, clinicians and regulatory experts on standard quality requirements for MSC production. The strategy for quality control testing depends on the product's cell composition, the manufacturing process and the indication and target patient population. Important quality criteria in this sense are, among others, the immunophenotype of the cells, composition of the culture medium and the risk for malignant transformation, as well as aging and the immunosuppressive potential of the manufactured MSCs. This position paper intends to provide relevant information to interested parties regarding these criteria to foster the development of scientifically valid and harmonized quality standards and to support approval of MSC-based investigational medicinal products. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloud-based design and manufacturing (CBDM) a service-oriented product development paradigm for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the reader to game-changing ways of building and utilizing Internet-based services related to design and manufacture activities through the cloud. In a broader sense, CBDM refers to a new product realization model that enables collective open innovation and rapid product development with minimum costs through social networking and negotiation platforms between service providers and consumers. It is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected physical and virtualized service pools of design and manufacturing resources as well as intelligent search capabilities for design and manufacturing solutions. Practicing engineers and decision makers will learn how to strategically position their product development operations for success in a globalized interconnected world.

  14. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  15. Concerning of Defects in Design and Manufacture of the Products. Case Study: Redesign of the Citrus Juicer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan BUCUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial products market is marked by a series of mistakes resulting from their design and manufacture. These defects are due to a superficial conceptual analysis, with emphasis on manufacturing to lower cost price, without a few aspects like: functional, ergonomic, aesthetic and cultural in product development. This analysis is important because it combines all these aspects and which aim the final solution of the optimized product. This paper proposes a method of study that identifies those aspects of the analysis of a product on the market that is a citrus juicer. Redesigning the product is made using AutoCAD and Inventor Autodesk design environment. The method proposed in this paper it will be applied to any industrial product, respecting their particularities.

  16. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  17. Power infrastructure quality and manufacturing productivity in Africa: A firm level analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyo, Busani

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of the quality of power infrastructure on productivity in African manufacturing firms using data from the World Bank enterprise surveys. We measured power infrastructure quality using the number of hours per day without electricity and the percentage of output lost due to outages and found these indicators to be negative and significant determinants of productivity. These variables seem to be significant determinants in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia as well as in the food and agriculture sector. To improve economic growth and encourage employment creation, governments in Africa have to come up with measures to improve the reliability of electricity infrastructure. - Highlights: • Power infrastructure quality indicators are found to have a negative and significant effect. • The power quality indicators have varied effects both at country and sector level. • Owning a generator minimises the negative impact of outages in Uganda, Tanzania and Mauritius. • Other controls like labour, capital, foreign ownership etc. have a positive and significant effect. • The firm age variable is insignificant suggesting that accumulated knowledge does not matter

  18. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  19. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  20. Design for Manufacture and Assembly for Product Development (Case study : Emergency Lamp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatilah, Y.; Pulansari, F.; Ernawati, Dira; Pujiastuti, C.; Parwati, C. I.; Prasetyo, B.

    2018-01-01

    Community needs that are not primary but important in everyday life are lights for lighting. State electricity company (PLN) is experiencing limitations in supplying electricity for this puIDRose. Therefore emergency lights (emergency lights) are already marketed in the community, which limited function only illuminate a very limited space. Therefore we developed the design of energy saving lamps using “Light Emitting Diode” (LED) which can illuminate the whole house as well as functioning as mobile phone charger (HP). The method used is Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA), with the result of design development The percentage increase in assembly efficiency (E) is 0.01071 - 0.00645 = 0.00426 or = 39.76%. The decrease in material costs is IDR 234,000 - IDR 214,000 = IDR 20,000 or = 8.54% .Development design is received because of more assembly efficiency than the initial design. Power usage on previous products with series and designs of the original product can last only 4-5 hours non-stop, while the development of the design can survive 9-10 hours 2x more energy efficient.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-01-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO 2 e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO 2 e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO 2 e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO 2 e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO 2 e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO 2 e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Majid, E-mail: majid_qau86@yahoo.com [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Haripur, Hattar Road, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Haripur 22620 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian [Leaf Agronomy Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company, Akora Khattak Factory, P.O. and District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Sharma, Benktesh Dash [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  3. Microscale to manufacturing scale-up of cell-free cytokine production--a new approach for shortening protein production development timelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, James F; Yin, Gang; Steiner, Alexander R; Yang, Junhao; Naresh, Alpana; Roy, Sushmita M; Gold, Daniel S; Heinsohn, Henry G; Murray, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Engineering robust protein production and purification of correctly folded biotherapeutic proteins in cell-based systems is often challenging due to the requirements for maintaining complex cellular networks for cell viability and the need to develop associated downstream processes that reproducibly yield biopharmaceutical products with high product quality. Here, we present an alternative Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system that is optimized for predictable high-yield protein synthesis and folding at any scale with straightforward downstream purification processes. We describe how the linear scalability of OCFS allows rapid process optimization of parameters affecting extract activation, gene sequence optimization, and redox folding conditions for disulfide bond formation at microliter scales. Efficient and predictable high-level protein production can then be achieved using batch processes in standard bioreactors. We show how a fully bioactive protein produced by OCFS from optimized frozen extract can be purified directly using a streamlined purification process that yields a biologically active cytokine, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, produced at titers of 700 mg/L in 10 h. These results represent a milestone for in vitro protein synthesis, with potential for the cGMP production of disulfide-bonded biotherapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  5. Step-Based Data Sharing and Exchange in One-of-a-Kind Product Collaborative Design for Cloud Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the trend for global collaboration, there is a need for collaborative design between geographically distributed teams and companies. In particular, this need is inevitable in the companies doing their business based on one-of-a-kind production (OKP. One important problem is the lack of interoperability and compatibility of data between different CAx systems. This problem is further highlighted in data exchange in cloud manufacturing. To the best of authors' knowledge, current studies have limitations in achieving the interoperability and compatibility of data. In this paper, a STEP-based data model is proposed to represent OKP product data/knowledge, which contains four categories of product knowledge (i.e., customer, product, manufacturing, and resource resp.. A STEP-based data modelling approach is proposed to describe each category of knowledge separately and then connect them to form the final integrated model. Compared with most current product models, this model includes the more complete product data/knowledge involved in OKP product development (OKPPD, and thus it can provide more adequate knowledge support for OKPPD activities. Based on the proposed STEP-based data model, a product data exchange and sharing (DES framework is proposed and developed to enable DES in collaborative OKPPD in the cloud manufacturing environment. Case studies were carried out to validate the proposed data model and DES framework.

  6. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  7. Production Decision Based on Discounted Price and Delivery Frequency for Garment Original Equipment Manufacturer with Constrained Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yanfang; GU Yajie; HAN Lin; WANG Xize

    2017-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) have never been so important and powerful as it is today in garment manufacturing industry.The OEM supplier's production decisions always have a great impact on the market performance and the profits of a garment brand manufacturer.With constrained capacity and multiply buyers,how to make reasonable production decisions is an urgent problem for OEM suppliers.A price discount model with a single OEM supplier and two buyers is proposed to deal with the problem.Based on this model,the OEM supplier could satisfy buyers' demands and guarantee their profits as well through adjusting price and delivery frequency.A numerical example validates the validity of the model.

  8. New Product Development for Green and Low-Carbon Products—A Case Study of Taiwan's TFT-LCD Manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.

    2011-11-01

    Green supply chain has become an important topic these days due to pollution, global warming, extreme climatic events, etc. A green product is manufactured with the goal of reducing the damage to the environment and limiting the use of energy and other resources at any stage of its life, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and disposal. Carbon footprint is a good measure of the impact that a product has on the environment, especially in climate change, in the entire lifetime of the product. Carbon footprint is directly linked to CO2 emission; thus, the reduction of CO2 emission must be considered in the product life cycle. Although more and more researchers are working on the green supply chain management in the past few years, few have incorporated CO2 emission or carbon footprint into the green supply chain system. Therefore, this research aims to propose an integrated model for facilitating the new product development (NPD) for green and low-carbon products. In this research, a systematic model based on quality function deployment (QFD) is constructed for developing green and low-carbon products in a TFT-LCD manufacturer. Literature review and interviews with experts are done first to collect the factors for developing and manufacturing green and low-carbon products. Fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is applied next to extract the important factors, and fuzzy interpretive structural modeling (FISM) is used subsequently to understand the relationships among factors. A house of quality (HOQ) for product planning is built last. The results shall provide important information for a TFT-LCD firm in designing a new product.

  9. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  10. PowerLight Corporation Lean Manufacturing, PV Manufacturing R&D Phase I Report: 6 December 2001--31 March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, L; Botkin, J.

    2005-06-01

    PowerLight Corporation (PowerLight) has completed Phase I of its PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, ''PowerGuard Lean Manufacturing,'' Subcontract No. NDO-1-30628-04. The overall technical goal of this project was to reduce the cost of PowerGuard manufacturing while simultaneously improving product quality. This will enable PowerLight to scale up production capacity as the market for PowerGuard continues to grow. Through the introduction of world-class lean manufacturing techniques, PowerLight was to cut out waste in the manufacturing process of PowerGuard. The manufacturing process was to be overhauled with an objective of removing as much as possible those steps that do not add value to the product. Quality of finished goods was also to be improved through the use of statistical process control and error-proofing in the manufacturing process. Factory operations were also to be addressed to streamline those factory activities that support the manufacturing process. This report de tails the progress made toward the above listed goals during the first phase of this subcontract.

  11. Productivity impact of headache on a heavy-manufacturing workforce in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Headache disorders cause substantial productivity losses through absenteeism and impaired effectiveness at work (presenteeism). We measured productivity losses from both causes at a heavy-manufacturing company with a largely male workforce in north-western Turkey. Methods We used the HALT Index as the survey instrument. We first assessed productivity losses by surveying the entire workforce. Because we anticipated much non-participation, we also applied HALT at the annual health-checks provided to all employees by the company’s on-site health clinic. Results Mean age of the workforce (N = 7,200) was 31 yr. About two thirds (90% male) were manual workers rotating weekly through early, late and night shifts. One third (50% male) were clerical/managerial, working a standard 5-day week. In the first assessment, 3,939 questionnaires (54.7%) were returned with usable data. In the previous 3 months, absenteeism of ≥1 day was reported by 360 respondents (9.1%), of whom 4 (0.10%) recorded ≥45 days (average per worker: 0.92 days/yr). Presenteeism equivalent to ≥1 day’s absence was reported by 1,187 respondents (29.4%) (average per worker: 6.0 days/yr). We estimated that 23,519 days/yr were lost in total among respondents (2.3% of workforce capacity). In the first 6 months of annual health-checks, 2,691 employees (37.4%) attended (94.4% male). Absenteeism was reported by 40 (1.5%), with 74 days lost, presenteeism by 348 (12.9%), with 1,240 days lost. We estimated that, altogether, 41,771 man-days/yr were lost in the entire workforce (2.4% of capacity; 94% due to presenteeism), closely matching the earlier estimate. A small minority (5.7%) of those with headache, who were only 2.5% of the workforce, accounted for >45% of presenteeism-related lost productivity. Conclusion The high productivity losses in a largely male workforce were surprising. Possible factors were the nature of the work – manual labour for two thirds, often heavy – and

  12. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; A. Blacha-Grzechnik; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  13. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  14. The balance between safety and productivity and its relationship with human factors and safety awareness and communication in aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, N.; Melis, Damien Jose; Kourousis, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the findings of a pilot research survey which assessed the degree of balance between safety and productivity, and its relationship with awareness and communication of human factors and safety rules in the aircraft manufacturing environment. Methods: The study was

  15. Production of porous sintered materials using wastes of manufacturing engineering in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Povstyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of wastes produced by the manufacturing engineering, as well as their physical and mechanical properties and restorability provide a search for sphere of their application. The actual problem of modern science is the utilization of wastes and using them in further production that will minimize their harmful impact on the environment and reduce the cost of expensive raw materials. Wastes are ideally suitable for the manufacture of porous permeable materials (filters. Powder metallurgy allows obtaining products with controlled filtration, physical and mechanical properties. Such materials are good filters for regeneration of technical liquids, oils, cooling fluids, sewage etc. The article analyzes the methods and technologies for the manufacture of porous ceramic materials and a new technology for their manufacture, which is based on use of mill scale and natural mineral – saponite as the main components. Compression technology provides products at low pressures and sintering by passing high-temperature synthesis. The proposed technology is characterized by low cost and good physical and mechanical properties of the product that gives a reason to use them for filtering and regeneration of technical liquids.

  16. Did technology shocks drive the great depression? Explaining cyclical productivity movements in US manufacturing, 1919-1939

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; de Jong, Herman; Gouma, Reitze

    2011-01-01

    Technology shocks and declining productivity have been advanced as important factors driving the Great Depression in the United States, based on real business cycle theory. We estimate an improved measure of technology for interwar manufacturing, using data from the U.S. census reports. There is

  17. Quantum mechanical streamlines. I - Square potential barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Christoph, A. C.; Palke, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Exact numerical calculations are made for scattering of quantum mechanical particles hitting a square two-dimensional potential barrier (an exact analog of the Goos-Haenchen optical experiments). Quantum mechanical streamlines are plotted and found to be smooth and continuous, to have continuous first derivatives even through the classical forbidden region, and to form quantized vortices around each of the nodal points. A comparison is made between the present numerical calculations and the stationary wave approximation, and good agreement is found between both the Goos-Haenchen shifts and the reflection coefficients. The time-independent Schroedinger equation for real wavefunctions is reduced to solving a nonlinear first-order partial differential equation, leading to a generalization of the Prager-Hirschfelder perturbation scheme. Implications of the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics are discussed, and cases are cited where quantum and classical mechanical motions are identical.

  18. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN FISH CANNING COMPANY: A CASE STUDY OF A CANNED SARDINES PRODUCTION COMPANY IN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Idrıssi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a powerful tool, which can bring significant benefit to manufacturing industries by creating value through reduction of waste. Although the lean concept has become very popular in mass production industries such as the automotive industry, more recently the concept has been adopted in different batch processing industries and service sectors. The application of lean tools into the food processing industry has not received the same level of attention compared to the traditional manufacturing industries. The paper discusses how the lean concept could be applied to a fish manufacturing company. The paper first presents the lean concept tools. The empirical section discusses how a case company, operating as a contract manufacturer in the food industry, has applied the lean production concept and tools. In the case study, three analysis tools are examined and the structures of demand chains of different customers are presented. The delivery times will decrease and more flexibility will be needed from the contract manufacturer. The case study shows that much movement is possible toward the lean supply chain and partnership-based cooperation. By implementing the lean concept, food companies can increase customer value through cost reduction or through provision of additional value-enhanced services.

  20. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  1. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  2. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed

  3. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric C; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-01

    Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes had RPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  4. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND VALUE CREATION IN THE METAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Francisco Aguiar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of the ratio of investments in intangible assets over GNP in the US economy from 1959 to 2007 – which reached 8 to 10% in 2007 - indicates a positive long term trend that is as relevant as the rate of investments in tangible assets in terms of the GNP, during the same timeframe.  The most surprising fact however, was the expansion beyond expectations over the last 40 years. According to international researchers, this trend is due to a combination of a series of causes, such as the financial globalization, market deregulation and exponential growth of technological changes, rousing the interest of entrepreneurs, scholars and researchers in becoming acquainted with indicators, classifying and ideating these so as to comprehend the value creation  process within companies. The purpose of this line of research was to test Pulic´s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient Model (2000, so as to evaluate its significance in creating value, as applied to the Metal Products Manufacturing segment, utilizing an adjusted data base obtained from the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute´s (IBGE Annual Industrial Research (PIA for the period 2000 to 2006, comprising companies with more than 100 employees throughout Brazil, resorting to a panel of static data. Results obtained demonstrate a positive relationship between VAIC and value creation as well as between the Calculated Intangible Value – CIV, (explanatory variable and value creation. Key-Words:  Intellectual Capital. VAIC. Value Creation. IBGE (Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute.

  5. A new study of the kinetics of curd production in the process of cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Torres, Maykel González; Guerrero, Francisco Quintanilla; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles. The results indicate that the formation of the aggregates for rennet cheese is strongly dependent on temperature and rennet concentration. The results revealed that at 35·5 °C the volume fraction of solids has the maximum slope, indicating that at this temperature the curd is formed rapidly. The optimal temperature throughout the process was established. Second-order kinetics were obtained for the process. We observed a quadratic dependence between the rennet volume and the volume fraction of solids (curd), thereby indicating that the kinetics of the curd production should be of order two.

  6. Inter-firm relations in global manufacturing: disintegrated production and its globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrigel, G.; Zeitlin, J.; Morgan, G.; Campbell, J.; Crouch, C.; Pedersen, O.K.; Whitley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter surveys the state of international scholarly debate on inter-firm relations in global manufacturing. It focuses on the evolving strategies of customers and suppliers within the value chains of core manufacturing industries, such as motor vehicles and complex mechanical engineering

  7. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato...

  8. Comparative labour productivity performance in Chinese manufacturing, 1952-1997 : An ICOP PPP approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Harry X.

    2001-01-01

    This study joins the debate of whether Chinese manufacturing has experienced a significant catch-up with or a process of falling behind the world’s advanced economies. It calculates a new set of industry-of-origin China-US PPPs for major manufacturing industries at 1987 prices. Then using a newly

  9. Analysis of manual material handling activity to increase work productivity (Case study: manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro Muhammad Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual material handling is one of work activities that have an effect on the physical aspect of workers in manufacturing industry, it is necessary to do the analysis of the risks from such activities. Analysis was performed on worker when performing manual lifting activity and when using two tools (Automatic Handlift and Manual Handlift. In addition to analyse in ergonomics aspect, time study analysis and productivity measurement were carried out to determine the effects of the equipment. Nordic Body Map (NBM questionnaire on worker using Automatic Handlift showed declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 22%. REBA method obtained score of 10 and was declined to 4 after using these tool. The results of MPL method showed declining of Fc value from 4756.37 N to 1346.56 N. The results of RWL method showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.84 and 1.18 to 1.12 and 0.89 respectively. As for worker using Manual Handlift, NBM questionnaire result shows declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 57%. REBA method obtained scores of 8 and was reduced to 5. For MPL methode result, the Fc value is 4906.99 N and reduced to 2047.88 N. RWL method results showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.02 and 0.67 to 0.74 and 0.58. The results of time study analysis showed declining of Standard Time when use the two tools and make the increasing productivity of 9% by worker using Automatic Hadlift and 4% by worker using Manual Handlift.

  10. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  11. Sustainable vaccine development: a vaccine manufacturer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2018-05-08

    Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing. However, these processes should be supported by a balanced project portfolio, and by managing sustainable vaccine procurement strategies for different types of markets. Collectively this will allow a gradual shift to a more streamlined and profitable vaccine production, which can significantly contribute to the worldwide effort to shape global health. Copyright © 2018 GlaxoSmithKine Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Busse, Reinhard; Güttler, Felix; Wintzer, Christian; Collettini, Federico; Kloeters, Christian; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgräber, Ulf K

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view.

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  14. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE ROLE OF COLLABORATION IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Anh Nguyen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new empirical evidence on the effects of internal collaboration (manufacturing involvement and external collaboration (supplier and customer involvement practices on NPD performance and success. Moreover, comparing the collaboration practices and their effects on NPD across 10 countries are provided. Data were collected from high-performance manufacturing (HPM project with the sample of 265 manufacturing companies from 10 countries across the world. Descriptive, variance, correlation and regression analysis were conducted by using SPSS 22.0. Significant linkage between three collaboration practices and NPD performance & NPD success was found by statistical analysis. In addition, the results of this study reveal the significant differences in the implementation of collaboration practices across countries and the effects of those practices on NPD performance and success among countries. This study suggests that high performance and high success rate of NPD process could be achieved by external and internal collaboration in manufacturing companies.

  15. Design and application of reconfigurable manufacturing systems in agile mass customization manufacturing environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available processes. Many manufacturing techniques are based on the principles of Flexible Manufacturing and Dedicated Manufacturing for mass production. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, (RMS), is a manufacturing system that can provide for Agile Manufacturing...

  16. [Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from electronic products processing and manufacturing factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ru; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Based on the EPA method T0-11 and 14/15 for measurement of toxic organics in air samples, fast VOCs detector, Summa canister and DNPH absorbent were used to determine the VOCs concentrations and the compositions in the ambient air of the workshops for different processes as well as the emission concentration in the exhaust gas. In all processes that involved VOCs release, concentrations of total VOCs in the workshops were 0.1-0.5 mg x m(-3), 1.5-2.5 mg x m(-3) and 20-200 mg x m(-3) for casting, cutting and painting respectively. Main compositions of VOCs in those workshops were alkanes, eneynes, aromatics, ketones, esters and ethers, totally over 20 different species. The main compositions in painting workshop were aromatics and ketones, among which the concentration of benzene was 0.02-0.34 mg x m(-3), toluene was 0.24-3.35 mg x m(-3), ethyl benzene was 0.04-1.33 mg x m(-3), p-xylene was 0.13-0.96 mg x m(-3), m-xylene was 0.02-1.18 mg x m(-3), acetone was 0.29-15.77 mg x m(-3), 2-butanone was 0.06-22.88 mg x m(-3), cyclohexene was 0.02-25.79 mg x m(-3), and methyl isobutyl ketone was 0-21.29 mg x m(-3). The VOCs emission from painting process was about 14 t x a(-1) for one single manufacturing line, and 840 t x a(-1) for the whole factory. According to the work flows and product processes, the solvent used during painting process was the main source of VOCs emission, and the exhaust gas was the main emission point.

  17. Quantification of Bufadienolides in Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaves and Manufactured Products by UHPLC-ESIMS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufir, Mouhssin; Seiler, Christina; Gerodetti, Manon; Gerber, Julia; Fürer, Karin; Mennet-von Eiff, Monica; Elsas, Siegward-M; Brenneisen, Rudolf; von Mandach, Ursula; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative assay for determination of the main bufadienolides bersaldegenin-1-acetate (1), bersaldegenin-3-acetate (2), bryophyllin A (3), and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (4) in Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves and manufactured products was developed and validated. The assay involved extraction by pressurised liquid extraction, followed by quantification by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. The ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method was applied to various batches of leaves harvested on several dates from plants grown at two locations (Brazil and Germany). In addition, press juices prepared from plants cultivated in Germany and Brazil were analysed. The total bufadienolide content ranged from 16.28 to 40.50 mg/100 g dry weight in leaves from plants grown in Brazil. The total content of these four bufadienolides was significantly lower in plants cultivated in Germany (3.78-12.49 mg/100 g dry weight, resp.). The total amounts of bufadienolides were 0.091-0.163 mg/100 mL and 0.89-1.16 mg/100 mL in press juices obtained from plants cultivated in Germany and Brazil, respectively. When analysing single leaves from individual plants, the content of bufadienolides was markedly higher in young leaves. For comparative purposes, the content of these bufadienolides was also determined in Bryophyllum daigremontianum and Bryophyllum tubiflorum. Bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (4) was predominant in the leaves of B. daigremontianum and in the stems of B. tubiflorum, while the leaves of B. tubiflorum contained very low amounts of 1-4. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prototype development of educational program for production manager leading new perspectives on manufacturing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Akinori; Shikida, Asami; Abe, Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    In this paper proposes the basic concept of an educational system and shows the result of educational program developed for manufacturing manager in leadership roles who wish to create new values in manufacturing technology. The basic concept combines an intelligent knowledge-based approach with the kaizen activity program in a framework of new value creation and comparative advantage models based on the ABC-G network (Academia, Business, Consultants, and Governmental officers). The education...

  19. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTS OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS PRODUCED USING ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of tests conducted on the elements of medical devices - slings used with medical lifts - manufactured using additive technologies. Project assumptions were: to produce 100 samples of clips with varying design, material and orientation parameter. Samples were manufactured using FDM and SLA processes and then tested for mechanical strength, load transmission and functionality, using certified equipment. Paper shows full methodology and obtained test results.

  1. Manufacture of immunoglobulin products for patients with primary antibody deficiencies – the effect of processing conditions on product safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eFarrugia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early preparations of immunoglobulin (IG manufactured from human plasma by ethanol (Cohn fractionation were limited in their usefulness for substitution therapy in patients with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD, as IG aggregates formed during manufacture resulted in severe systemic reactions in patients when given intravenously. Developments in manufacturing technology obviated this problem through the capacity to produce concentrated solutions of intact monomeric IG, revolutionizing PAD treatment and improving patient life expectancy and quality of life. As the need for IG has grown, manufacturers have refined further manufacturing technologies to improve yield from plasma and produce therapies which are easier and less expensive to deliver. This has led to the substitution, partly or wholly, of ethanol precipitation by other techniques such as chromatography, and has also stimulated the production of highly concentrated solutions capable of rapid infusion. IG products have been associated, since their inception, with certain adverse events, including infectious disease transmission, haemolysis and thromboembolism. The introduction of standardized manufacturing processes and dedicated pathogen elimination steps has removed the risk of infectious disease, and the focus of attention has shifted to other problems which appear to have increased over the past five years. These include haemolysis and thromboembolism, both the cause for substantial concern and the subject of recent regulatory scrutiny and actions. We review the development of manufacturing technology and the emerging evidence that changes for the optimization of yield and convenience has contributed to the recent incidents in certain adverse events. Industry measures under development will be discussed in terms of their potential to improve safety and optimize care for patients with PAD.

  2. Application of response surface methodology to maximize the productivity of scalable automated human embryonic stem cell manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Hourd, Paul; Guijarro-Leach, Juan; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Commercial regenerative medicine will require large quantities of clinical-specification human cells. The cost and quality of manufacture is notoriously difficult to control due to highly complex processes with poorly defined tolerances. As a step to overcome this, we aimed to demonstrate the use of 'quality-by-design' tools to define the operating space for economic passage of a scalable human embryonic stem cell production method with minimal cell loss. Design of experiments response surface methodology was applied to generate empirical models to predict optimal operating conditions for a unit of manufacture of a previously developed automatable and scalable human embryonic stem cell production method. Two models were defined to predict cell yield and cell recovery rate postpassage, in terms of the predictor variables of media volume, cell seeding density, media exchange and length of passage. Predicted operating conditions for maximized productivity were successfully validated. Such 'quality-by-design' type approaches to process design and optimization will be essential to reduce the risk of product failure and patient harm, and to build regulatory confidence in cell therapy manufacturing processes.

  3. Design of an Orthopedic Product by Using Additive Manufacturing Technology: The Arm Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Fernando; Pedro, Pilar San; Silva, Julia López; D'Amato, Roberto; Heras, Enrique Soriano; Juanes, Juan Antonio

    2018-02-05

    The traditional fabrication process of custom-made splints has hardly undergone any progress since the beginning of its use at the end of the eighteenth century. New manufacturing techniques and the new materials can help to modernize this treatment method of fractures. The use of Additive Manufacturing has been proposed in recent years as an alternative process for the manufacture of splints and there has been an increase in public awareness and exploration. For this reason, in this study a splint model printed in 3D, that replaces the deficiencies of the cast maintaining its virtues, has been proposed. The proposed methodology is based on three-dimensional digitalization techniques and 3D modeling with reverse engineering software. The work integrates different scientific disciplines to achieve its main goal: to improve life quality of the patient. In addition, the splint has been designed based on the principles of sustainable development. The design of splint is made of Polycarbonate by technique of Additive Manufacturing with fused deposition manufacturing, and conceived with organic shapes, customizing openings and closing buttons with rubber. In this preliminary study the final result is a prototype of the 3D printed arm splint in a reduced scale by using PLA as material.

  4. Development of manufacturing process for production of 500 MWe calandria sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, R.; Ramesh, P.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Pande, P.; Agarwala, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Calandria tubes made of zircaloy-2 are being used as structural components in pressurised heavy water power reactors. The sheets required for producing calandria tube for 235 MWe reactors are being manufactured at Zircaloy Fabrication Plant (ZFP), NFC utilizing a 2 Hi/4 Hi rolling mill procured for the purpose, by carrying out cold rolling process to achieve the required size after hot rolling suitable extruded slabs. Due to limitation of width of the sheet that can be rolled with the mill as well as the size of the slab that can be extruded with the existing press, difficulties arose in producing acceptable full length sheets of size 6600 mm long x 435 mm wide x 1.6 mm thick for manufacturing 500 MWe calandria tube. This paper deals with the details of the process problem resolved. They are: (a)designing of suitable hot and cold rolling pass schedules, (b)selection and standardization of process parameters such as beta quenching, hot rolling and cold rolling, and (c)details of the overall manufacturing process. Due to implementation of above, sheets required for manufacturing 500 MWe calandria tube sheets were successfully rolled. About 40 nos. of acceptable full length sheets have already been manufactured. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA for confectionery manufacturing in developing countries: Turkish delight production as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Ozilgen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was applied for risk assessment of confectionary manufacturing, in whichthe traditional methods and equipment were intensively used in the production. Potential failure modes and effects as well as their possible causes were identified in the process flow. Processing stages that involve intensive handling of food by workers had the highest risk priority numbers (RPN = 216 and 189, followed by chemical contamination risks in different stages of the process. The application of corrective actions substantially reduced the RPN (risk priority number values. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA (The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis model in confectionary manufacturing improved the safety and quality of the final products.

  6. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    the body's aerodynamic drag, the top speed is predicted at 226 mph. Further design considerations are also addressed, including the development of the component level layout of the motorcycle, weighing factors such as safety and ease of fabrication with that of performance and accessibility. At the time of composition, the Comet had started the fabrication process, and it is the intent of the author that the finished product competes in the 2016 Bonneville Motorcycle Speed Trials to set the first world record for a single track electric motorcycle streamliner.

  7. Estimating and Forecasting Production and Orders in Manufacturing Industry from Business Survey Data: Evidence from Switzerland, 1990-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Etter; Michael Graff

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental issue for policy-oriented business cycle research is access to leading - or at least coincident - and reliable indicators of economic activity in manufacturing industry. Therefore, we analyse how the quickly disposable, qualitative information of the business tendency survey conducted by the Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) is related to the official production and order statistics of Switzerland. Pairs of high cross-correlations were selected for further analys...

  8. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for confectionery manufacturing in developing countries: Turkish delight production as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozilgen,Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) was applied for risk assessment of confectionary manufacturing, in whichthe traditional methods and equipment were intensively used in the production. Potential failure modes and effects as well as their possible causes were identified in the process flow. Processing stages that involve intensive handling of food by workers had the highest risk priority numbers (RPN = 216 and 189), followed by chemical contamination risks in different stages of the ...

  9. Development of a PVD-based manufacturing process of monolithic LEU irradiation targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmer, Tobias

    2015-08-03

    {sup 99}Mo is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It is produced by fission of uranium in irradiation targets. The usage of cylindrical monolithic targets can ensure a safe supply of {sup 99}Mo and at the same reduce the amount of highly radioactive waste generated during production. To manufacture these targets, a novel PVD-based technique was developed. Both the feasibility and the high efficiency of this process were demonstrated in a prototype apparatus.

  10. Characterization and Conditions of the Internationalization Process of Companies in the Plastic Products Manufacturing Subsector in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Paul Pereira Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a qualitative research by conducting surveys in 30 companies from the plastic products manufacturing subsector, based on theories of internationalization. It aims to find the main determinants of internationalization of these companies, while characterizing and analyzing evidence by contrasting practice and theory, in order to explain how the dynamics in the sector and its current state are and to propose recommendations for greater competitiveness and efficiency in foreign trade.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN FISH CANNING COMPANY: A CASE STUDY OF A CANNED SARDINES PRODUCTION COMPANY IN MOROCCO

    OpenAIRE

    I. Idrıssi; A. Mesfioui; I. Aftais; B. Benazzouz

    2015-01-01

    Lean is a powerful tool, which can bring significant benefit to manufacturing industries by creating value through reduction of waste. Although the lean concept has become very popular in mass production industries such as the automotive industry, more recently the concept has been adopted in different batch processing industries and service sectors. The application of lean tools into the food processing industry has not received the same level of attention compared...

  12. Manufacturing Steps for Commercial Production of Nano-Structure Capacitors Final Report CRADA No. TC02159.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schena, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and TroyCap LLC, to develop manufacturing steps for commercial production of nano-structure capacitors. The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate high deposition rates of selected dielectric materials which are 2 to 5 times larger than typical using current technology.

  13. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  14. From e-manufacturing to Internet Product Process Development (IPPD) through remote – labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, Ernesto Córdoba; Parra, Paulo Andres Cifuentes; Díaz, Juan Camilo Parra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the research developed at Universidad Nacional de Colombia about the e-Manufacturing platform that is being developed and implemented at LabFabEx (acronym in Spanish as L aboratorio Fabrica Experimental ) . This platform besides has an approach to virtual-remote labs that have been tested by several students and engineers of different industrial fields. At this paper it is shown the physical and communication experimental platform, the general scope and characteristics of this e-Manufacturing platform and the virtual lab approach. This research project is funded by COLCIENCIAS (Administrative Department of science, technology and innovation in Colombia) and the enterprise IMOCOM S.A

  15. Introduction of a method for presenting health-based impacts of the emission from products, based on emission measurements of materials used in manufacturing of the products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming, E-mail: rikke.jorgensen@iot.ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    A method for presenting the health impact of emissions from furniture is introduced, which could be used in the context of environmental product declarations. The health impact is described by the negative indoor air quality potential, the carcinogenic potential, the mutagenic and reprotoxic potential, the allergenic potential, and the toxicological potential. An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed by testing both the materials used for production of the furniture and the complete piece of furniture, in order to compare the results gained by adding emissions of material with results gained from testing the finished piece of furniture. Calculating the emission from a product based on the emission from materials used in the manufacture of the product is a new idea. The relation between calculated results and measured results from the same products differ between the four pieces of furniture tested. Large differences between measured and calculated values are seen for leather products. More knowledge is needed to understand why these differences arise. Testing materials allows us to compare different suppliers of the same material. Four different foams and three different timber materials are tested, and the results vary between materials of the same type. If the manufacturer possesses this type of knowledge of the materials from the subcontractors it could be used as a selection criterion according to production of low emission products. -- Highlights: • A method for presenting health impact of emissions is introduced. • An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed. • Health impact is calculated based on sum of contribution from the materials used. • Calculated health impact is compared to health impact of the manufactured product. • The results show that health impact could be useful in product development and for presentation in EPDs.

  16. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  17. Good manufacturing practices production of a purification-free oral cholera vaccine expressed in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Koji; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Suzuki, Yuji; Minakawa, Satomi; Takeyama, Natsumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Tamura, Minoru; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    The first Good Manufacturing Practices production of a purification-free rice-based oral cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) from transgenic plants in a closed cultivation system yielded a product meeting regulatory requirements. Despite our knowledge of their advantages, plant-based vaccines remain unavailable for human use in both developing and industrialized countries. A leading, practical obstacle to their widespread use is producing plant-based vaccines that meet governmental regulatory requirements. Here, we report the first production according to current Good Manufacturing Practices of a rice-based vaccine, the cholera vaccine MucoRice-CTB, at an academic institution. To this end, we established specifications and methods for the master seed bank (MSB) of MucoRice-CTB, which was previously generated as a selection-marker-free line, evaluated its propagation, and given that the stored seeds must be renewed periodically. The production of MucoRice-CTB incorporated a closed hydroponic system for cultivating the transgenic plants, to minimize variations in expression and quality during vaccine manufacture. This type of molecular farming factory can be operated year-round, generating three harvests annually, and is cost- and production-effective. Rice was polished to a ratio of 95 % and then powdered to produce the MucoRice-CTB drug substance, and the identity, potency, and safety of the MucoRice-CTB product met pre-established release requirements. The formulation of MucoRice-CTB made by fine-powdering of drug substance and packaged in an aluminum pouch is being evaluated in a physician-initiated phase I study.

  18. Lessons learned in streamlining the preparation of SNM standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Johnson, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Improved safeguard measurements have produced a demand for greater quantities of reliable SNM solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the demand for these standards has been met by several innovations to improve the productivity and reliability of standards preparations. With the use of computer controlled balance, large batches of SNM stock solutions are prepared on a gravimetric basis. Accurately dispensed quantities of the stock solution are weighed and stored in bottles. When needed, they are quantitatively transferred to tared containers, matrix adjusted to target concentrations, weighed, and measured for density at 25 0 C. Concentrations of SNM are calculated both gravimetrically and volumetrically. Calculated values are confirmed analytically before the standards are used in measurement control program (MCP) activities. The lessons learned include: MCP goals include error identification and management. Strategy modifications are required to improve error management. Administrative controls can minimize certain types of errors. Automation can eliminate redundancy and streamline preparations. Prudence and simplicity enhance automation success. The effort expended to increase productivity has increased the reliability of standards and provided better documentation for quality assurance

  19. Survival of Private Sector Manufacturing Establishments in Africa: The Role of Productivity and Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shiferaw (Admasu)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the risk of exit for privately-owned manufacturing establishments in a small African economy. It shows that changes in the structure of ownership following an economic reform have important implications on stablishment survival. The risk of exit is lower for

  20. Production software that works a guide to the concurrent development of realtime manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Courtright, Ann; Behuniak, John

    1991-01-01

    This useful reference addresses the key tasks that are integral to realtime software development in manufacturing plants: managing the design of the system, setting up and coordinating a development organization, and implementing tools for successfulcompletion and management. Both new and experienced project managers will discover how to use concurrent methodologies to create realtime systems in half the time it usually takes.

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  2. Selection of Prediction Methods for Thermophysical Properties for Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yung-Chieh; Liu, Y. A.; Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel

    2011-01-01

    To optimize biodiesel manufacturing, many reported studies have built simulation models to quantify the relationship between operating conditions and process performance. For mass and energy balance simulations, it is essential to know the four fundamental thermophysical properties of the feed oil...... prediction methods on our group Web site (www.design.che.vt.edu) for the reader to download without charge....

  3. Case studies in geographic information systems for environmental streamlining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    This 2012 summary report addresses the current use of geographic information systems (GIS) and related technologies by State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) for environmental streamlining and stewardship, particularly in relation to the National...

  4. Industrial Production and Professional Application of Manufactured Nanomaterials-Enabled End Products in Dutch Industries: Potential for Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Tielemans, E.; Pronk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the

  5. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  6. Hydrometric characterization of the clays used in the manufacture of ceramic products in Ocaña, Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés García León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently in Ocaña, Norte de Santander exists a great variety of natural deposits that can be used to manufacture products of masonry as they are blocks, tiles, bricks, tiles, among others; But the manufacturing companies obtain a lot of waste due to the lack of technological analysis of the raw material to forecast the behavior of the ceramic pastes and to improve the quality of the final product. Objective: In the present work the physical characterization by hydrometry of the clays used in one of the companies dedicated to the manufacture of H-10 blocks in Ocaña, Norte de Santander, was carried out. Methodology: The development of the research was carried out by performing physical tests on samples of clays with which the percentages of sands, silts, and clays were determined; Which were located in the Winkler diagram to identify the types of existing clays according to their texture and the type of product that can be made to be able to formulate a paste of ceramic material. Results: The results obtained show that the clays currently used by the company are in the minimum indexes for the elaboration of blocks, reason why the addition of other clays with which the adequate level of quality with which they comply the requirements established by current standards. Conclusions: It is indispensable to characterize the clays to optimize the production pulp and to avoid imperfections in the final product (Block H-10, thus evidently improving the environmental and economic resources of the company.

  7. Teaming. The Key to World Class Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Lean manufacturing, a streamlined system of flow and job shop techniques, relies on self-directed work teams. Technology educators can prepare students for work in this environment by using problem-solving teams in the classroom to work on design briefs and other group projects. (SK)

  8. Streamline segment statistics of premixed flames with nonunity Lewis numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Wang, Lipo; Klein, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of flame and surrounding fluid motion is of central importance in the fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion. It is demonstrated here that this interaction can be represented using streamline segment analysis, which was previously applied in nonreactive turbulence. The present work focuses on the effects of the global Lewis number (Le) on streamline segment statistics in premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime. A direct numerical simulation database of freely propagating thin-reaction-zones regime flames with Le ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 is used to demonstrate that Le has significant influences on the characteristic features of the streamline segment, such as the curve length, the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points, and their correlations with the local flame curvature. The strengthenings of the dilatation rate, flame normal acceleration, and flame-generated turbulence with decreasing Le are principally responsible for these observed effects. An expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the streamline segment length, originally developed for nonreacting turbulent flows, captures the qualitative behavior for turbulent premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime for a wide range of Le values. The joint pdfs between the streamline length and the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points for both unweighted and density-weighted velocity vectors are analyzed and compared. Detailed explanations are provided for the observed differences in the topological behaviors of the streamline segment in response to the global Le.

  9. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of micron-sized polymer particles for additive manufacturing by melt emulsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanselow, Stephanie; Schmidt, Jochen; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Peukert@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstrasse 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Melt emulsification is an advanced top-down approach that permits to produce spherical particles and thus widens the availability of polymer feed materials for additive manufacturing. In the process the polymer is molten in a continuous phase and droplet breakup is realized in a rotor-stator-device. The stabilization of the newly formed surfaces is quite challenging. Therefore, a new method to identify an appropriate emulsifier by measuring the interfacial tension between the polymer and continuous phase using a high pressure / high temperature cell is presented. The obtained powders are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a Zimmermann tensile strength tester to determine the powder flowability. The processability of the polymer powders for additive manufacturing is investigated and demonstrated by building single layers by laser beam melting.

  11. The Production of Corporate Research to Manufacture Doubt About the Health Hazards of Products: An Overview of the Exponent Bakelite® Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David

    2018-01-01

    Although corporate sponsorship of research does not necessarily lead to biased results, in some industries, it has resulted in the publication of inaccurate and misleading data. Some companies have hired scientific consulting firms to retrospectively calculate exposures to hazardous products during use that are no longer manufactured or sold. As an example, this paper reviews one such study-a litigation-generated study of Union Carbide Corporation's asbestos-containing product, Bakelite®. This analysis is based on previously secret documents, produced as a result of litigation. The study generated asbestos fiber exposure measurements which resulted in underestimates of actual exposures to create doubt about the hazards associated with manufacture and manipulation of Bakelite®.

  12. Evaluating 8 pillars of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) implementation and their contribution to manufacturing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Prabowo, H. A.; Agusman, D.

    2018-01-01

    TPM is one method to improve manufacturing performance through an emphasis on maintenance that involves everyone in the organization. Research on the application of TPM and its relevance to the manufacturing performance has been performed quite a lot. However, to the best of our knowledge, a study that deliberates how the application of 8 pillars TPM (especially in developing countries) is still hard to find. This paper attempts to evaluate in more detail about how the 8 pillars of TPM are applied in Indonesia and their impact on manufacturing performance. This research is a pilot study with a target of 50 companies. From the results of data collection, only 22 companies (44%) are eligible to process. Data processing was performed using SPSS and Smart PLS tools. From the validity and reliability tests, it can be seen that all items/indicators for TPM pillars are valid and reliable with correlation value (R) of 0.614 - 0.914 and with Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.753. As for the Manufacturing Performance construct, the Delivery indicator was not valid. In overall, the model is reliable with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.710. From the results of Confirmatory Factors Analysis (CFA) for TPM, it can be seen that four indicators (pillars) are highly significant while four other indicators are less significant. For MP, three indicators are significant, and two are not significant. In general, the structural model of the relationship between TPM and MP is relatively strong and positive with values R = 0.791, and R squared = 0.626. This means that the TPM Pillars can explain 62.6% MP variability construct variable, while the other 37.4% can be explained by unrelated variables.

  13. Studies on the Wood-Based Furniture, Leather Products and Footwear Manufacturing Industries in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Poblador, Niceto; Solis, Adriano; Ybanez, Roy; Aragon, Bienvenido

    1983-01-01

    This paper aims to develop both the micro and macro data on the entire range of socioeconomic, managerial and technical issues faced by the wood-based furniture, footwear and leather tanning industry. The studies are intended to provide an initial base for policy formulation and implementation and to evolve a set of relevant guidelines for managerial and technical decisions. Findings show that the wood-based furniture industry is characterized by relative ease of entry that allows manufacture...

  14. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana; Misael Ruiz-Viramontes

    2015-01-01

    Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX), by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflecte...

  15. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. © 2012

  16. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  17. Rapid production of hollow SS316 profiles by extrusion based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Kedarnath; Cataldo, Salvatore; Parenti, Paolo; Sbaglia, Luca; Mussi, Valerio; Annoni, Massimiliano; Giberti, Hermes; Strano, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    Complex shaped stainless steel tubes are often required for special purpose biomedical equipment. Nevertheless, traditional manufacturing technologies, such as extrusion, lack the ability to compete in a market of customized complex components because of associated expenses towards tooling and extrusion presses. To rapid manufacture few of such components with low cost and high precision, a new Extrusion based Additive Manufacturing (EAM) process, is proposed in this paper, and as an example, short stainless steel 316L complex shaped and sectioned tubes were prepared by EAM. Several sample parts were produced using this process; the dimensional stability, surface roughness and chemical composition of sintered samples were investigated to prove process competence. The results indicate that feedstock with a 316L particle content of 92.5 wt. % can be prepared with a sigma blade mixing, whose rheological behavior is fit for EAM. The green samples have sufficient strength to handle them for subsequent treatments. The sintered samples considerably shrunk to designed dimensions and have a homogeneous microstructure to impart mechanical strength. Whereas, maintaining comparable dimensional accuracy and chemical composition which are required for biomedical equipment still need iterations, a kinematic correction and modification in debinding cycle was proposed.

  18. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.

    2011-09-01

    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  19. Automation of cellular therapy product manufacturing: results of a split validation comparing CD34 selection of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis product with a semi-manual vs. an automatic procedure

    OpenAIRE

    H?mmer, Christiane; Poppe, Carolin; Bunos, Milica; Stock, Belinda; Wingenfeld, Eva; Huppert, Volker; Stuth, Juliane; Reck, Kristina; Essl, Mike; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Background Automation of cell therapy manufacturing promises higher productivity of cell factories, more economical use of highly-trained (and costly) manufacturing staff, facilitation of processes requiring manufacturing steps at inconvenient hours, improved consistency of processing steps and other benefits. One of the most broadly disseminated engineered cell therapy products is immunomagnetically selected CD34+?hematopoietic ?stem? cells (HSCs). Methods As the clinical GMP-compliant autom...

  20. Production of recombinant antigens and antibodies in Nicotiana benthamiana using 'magnifection' technology: GMP-compliant facilities for small- and large-scale manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimyuk, Victor; Pogue, Gregory; Herz, Stefan; Butler, John; Haydon, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the adaptation of the plant virus-based transient expression system, magnICON(®) for the at-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical proteins. The system utilizes so-called "deconstructed" viral vectors that rely on Agrobacterium-mediated systemic delivery into the plant cells for recombinant protein production. The system is also suitable for production of hetero-oligomeric proteins like immunoglobulins. By taking advantage of well established R&D tools for optimizing the expression of protein of interest using this system, product concepts can reach the manufacturing stage in highly competitive time periods. At the manufacturing stage, the system offers many remarkable features including rapid production cycles, high product yield, virtually unlimited scale-up potential, and flexibility for different manufacturing schemes. The magnICON system has been successfully adaptated to very different logistical manufacturing formats: (1) speedy production of multiple small batches of individualized pharmaceuticals proteins (e.g. antigens comprising individualized vaccines to treat NonHodgkin's Lymphoma patients) and (2) large-scale production of other pharmaceutical proteins such as therapeutic antibodies. General descriptions of the prototype GMP-compliant manufacturing processes and facilities for the product formats that are in preclinical and clinical testing are provided.

  1. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  2. Productivity Measurement and Improvements: A Theoretical Model and Applications from the Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Almström , Peter

    2012-01-01

    Part V: Product and Asset Lifecycle Management; International audience; At many companies, workers associate productivity or efficiency increase with something negative, it is interpreted as an increase in speed and the “sweat factor”. Productivity is not only made up of the speed factor, but these misconceptions and lack of knowledge tend to put “a wet blanket” on all attempts to increase productivity. It is therefore important to clarify what productivity is and especially how it can be imp...

  3. A comparison of HK-CONWIP and BK-CONWIP control strategies in a multi-product manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonyelum Emmanuel Onyeocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of the Hybrid Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy and Basestock Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy operating Shared Kanban Allocation Policy (S-KAP and Dedicated Kanban Allocation Policy (D-KAP in a multi-product serial flow line. We explored the effect of an increase of product types on the WIP inventory in the system. A simulation-based optimisation technique was used in determining the optimal settings for the strategies. The strategies were compared via pairwise comparison technique and Nelson’s ranking and selection procedure. S-KAP responds quicker to demand than D-KAP. BK-CONWIP outperforms HK-CONWIP in a serial manufacturing system. It was shown that an increase in the number of product-type increases the number of PAC and WIP inventory.

  4. GMP-conformant on-site manufacturing of a CD133+ stem cell product for cardiovascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Anna; Müller, Paula; Gaebel, Ralf; Große, Jana; Lemcke, Heiko; Lux, Cornelia A; Bastian, Manuela; Hausburg, Frauke; Zarniko, Nicole; Bubritzki, Sandra; Ruch, Ulrike; Tiedemann, Gudrun; David, Robert; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2017-02-10

    CD133 + stem cells represent a promising subpopulation for innovative cell-based therapies in cardiovascular regeneration. Several clinical trials have shown remarkable beneficial effects following their intramyocardial transplantation. Yet, the purification of CD133 + stem cells is typically performed in centralized clean room facilities using semi-automatic manufacturing processes based on magnetic cell sorting (MACS®). However, this requires time-consuming and cost-intensive logistics. CD133 + stem cells were purified from patient-derived sternal bone marrow using the recently developed automatic CliniMACS Prodigy® BM-133 System (Prodigy). The entire manufacturing process, as well as the subsequent quality control of the final cell product (CP), were realized on-site and in compliance with EU guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice. The biological activity of automatically isolated CD133 + cells was evaluated and compared to manually isolated CD133 + cells via functional assays as well as immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the regenerative potential of purified stem cells was assessed 3 weeks after transplantation in immunodeficient mice which had been subjected to experimental myocardial infarction. We established for the first time an on-site manufacturing procedure for stem CPs intended for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases using an automatized system. On average, 0.88 × 10 6 viable CD133 + cells with a mean log 10 depletion of 3.23 ± 0.19 of non-target cells were isolated. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these automatically isolated cells bear proliferation and differentiation capacities comparable to manually isolated cells in vitro. Moreover, the automatically generated CP shows equal cardiac regeneration potential in vivo. Our results indicate that the Prodigy is a powerful system for automatic manufacturing of a CD133 + CP within few hours. Compared to conventional manufacturing processes, future clinical application of

  5. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX, by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflected about the new fiscal provisions and their effect on 6825 IMMEX companies in the country, regarding its location, people hired directly and surrogated, paid salaries, social security contributions, days and hours worked.

  6. Different Lactobacillus populations dominate in "Chorizo de León" manufacturing performed in different production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; De Filippis, Francesca; Sanz, José Javier; García-Fernández, María Del Camino; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Ercolini, Danilo; Hernández, Marta

    2018-04-01

    "Chorizo de Léon" is a high-value Spanish dry fermented sausage traditionally manufactured without the use of starter cultures, owing to the activity of a house-specific autochthonous microbiota that naturally contaminates the meat from the environment, the equipment and the raw materials. Lactic acid bacteria (particularly Lactobacillus) and coagulase-negative cocci (mainly Staphylococcus) have been reported as the most important bacterial groups regarding the organoleptic and safety properties of the dry fermented sausages. In this study, samples from raw minced meat to final products were taken from five different producers and the microbial diversity was investigated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The diverse microbial composition observed during the first stages of "Chorizo de Léon" evolved during ripening to a microbiota mainly composed by Lactobacillus in the final product. Oligotyping performed on 16S rRNA gene sequences of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus populations revealed sub-genus level diversity within the different manufacturers, likely responsible of the characteristic organoleptic properties of the products from different companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Product Development in Micro and Nano Manufacturing - The Challenge of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The development and design of micro and nano products becomes a more and more important issue. Many new technologies are developed these years and they create many visions for new products and applications. If these visions are to be transformed into industrial products on a larger scale...... it is very important that: • both the product driven and technology driven approach are used. • in the product driven approach methodologies and principles in design of micro products must be developed – both related to next generation of products and future generations. • in the technology driven approach...... a continuous development of materials and processes is promoted supporting the new design principles. New design principles as well as improved materials and technologies are necessary to realize the industrial potentials which are linked to mass production principles and low cost....

  8. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  9. Manufacturing lines under surplus-based control : multiple products and bounded buffers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkov, K.; Pogromskiy, A.Y.; Adan, I.J.B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Challenged by the scheduling complexity for production flow processes in industrial facilities, we study the performance of multi-product producing lines. We analyse the performance of multi-product lines that consist a number of machines and bounded buffers with preselected base stock levels. It is

  10. Modernization of the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Chile: Incorporating advanced concepts of safety and good manufacturing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos Espinoza, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    A radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production laboratory was established in Chile in the 1960s for research activities. From 1967 until January 2012, it was dedicated to the manufacturing of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnosis and treatment purposes. In 2012, modernization of the facility’s design and technology began as part of the IAEA technical cooperation project, Modernizing the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of La Reina Nuclear Centre by Incorporating Advanced Concepts of Safety and Good Manufacturing Practices, (CHI4022)

  11. National Institutes of Health–Sponsored Clinical Islet Transplantation Consortium Phase 3 Trial: Manufacture of a Complex Cellular Product at Eight Processing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A.N.; Szot, Gregory L.; Kin, Tatsuya; Liu, Chengyang; Czarniecki, Christine W.; Barbaro, Barbara; Bridges, Nancy D.; Cano, Jose; Clarke, William R.; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Hunsicker, Lawrence G.; Kaufman, Dixon B.; Khan, Aisha; Lafontant, David-Erick; Linetsky, Elina; Luo, Xunrong; Markmann, James F.; Naji, Ali; Korsgren, Olle; Oberholzer, Jose; Turgeon, Nicole A.; Brandhorst, Daniel; Chen, Xiaojuan; Friberg, Andrew S.; Lei, Ji; Wang, Ling-jia; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Willits, Jamie; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hering, Bernhard J.; Posselt, Andrew M.; Stock, Peter G.; Shapiro, A.M. James

    2016-01-01

    Eight manufacturing facilities participating in the National Institutes of Health–sponsored Clinical Islet Transplantation (CIT) Consortium jointly developed and implemented a harmonized process for the manufacture of allogeneic purified human pancreatic islet (PHPI) product evaluated in a phase 3 trial in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Manufacturing was controlled by a common master production batch record, standard operating procedures that included acceptance criteria for deceased donor organ pancreata and critical raw materials, PHPI product specifications, certificate of analysis, and test methods. The process was compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Current Good Tissue Practices. This report describes the manufacturing process for 75 PHPI clinical lots and summarizes the results, including lot release. The results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a harmonized process at multiple facilities for the manufacture of a complex cellular product. The quality systems and regulatory and operational strategies developed by the CIT Consortium yielded product lots that met the prespecified characteristics of safety, purity, potency, and identity and were successfully transplanted into 48 subjects. No adverse events attributable to the product and no cases of primary nonfunction were observed. PMID:27465220

  12. Gaps Analysis of Integrating Product Design, Manufacturing, and Quality Data in The Supply Chain Using Model-Based Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Asa; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Fischer, Kevin; Rosche, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in information technology triggered a digital revolution that holds promise of reduced costs, improved productivity, and higher quality. To ride this wave of innovation, manufacturing enterprises are changing how product definitions are communicated - from paper to models. To achieve industry's vision of the Model-Based Enterprise (MBE), the MBE strategy must include model-based data interoperability from design to manufacturing and quality in the supply chain. The Model-Based Definition (MBD) is created by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. This information is then shared with the supplier so that they can manufacture and inspect the physical parts. Today, suppliers predominantly use Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) models for these tasks. Traditionally, the OEM has provided design data to the supplier in the form of two-dimensional (2D) drawings, but may also include a three-dimensional (3D)-shape-geometry model, often in a standards-based format such as ISO 10303-203:2011 (STEP AP203). The supplier then creates the respective CAM and CMM models and machine programs to produce and inspect the parts. In the MBE vision for model-based data exchange, the CAD model must include product-and-manufacturing information (PMI) in addition to the shape geometry. Today's CAD tools can generate models with embedded PMI. And, with the emergence of STEP AP242, a standards-based model with embedded PMI can now be shared downstream. The on-going research detailed in this paper seeks to investigate three concepts. First, that the ability to utilize a STEP AP242 model with embedded PMI for CAD-to-CAM and CAD-to-CMM data exchange is possible and valuable to the overall goal of a more efficient process. Second, the research identifies gaps in tools, standards, and processes that inhibit industry's ability to cost-effectively achieve model-based-data interoperability in the pursuit of the

  13. Anti-infective medicine quality: analysis of basic product quality by approval status and country of manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bate R

    2012-07-01

    failure rates among WHO-approved products suggest there may be some weakness in post-marketing surveillance of these products, especially of Chinese-made WHO-approved products. The discrepancy between the failure rate of WHO-approved products from India (2.39% and China (17.65% is cause for concern. It is possible that more of the failures originating in China are counterfeit products, but this cannot be ascertained without greater help from the manufacturers themselves.Keywords: stringent regulatory authority, World Health Organization prequalification program, product approval, counterfeit, India, China

  14. Surface modification of additive manufactured metal products by an intense electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresov, A. D.; Koval, N. N.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Petrikova, E. A.; Krysina, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    On the example of VT6 titanium alloy it is shown that successive surface modification of additive manufactured metal specimens in vacuum at an argon pressure of 3.5·10-2 by ten pulses with 200 μs, 45 J/cm2 and then by three pulses with 50 μm, 20 J/cm2 provides a considerable decrease in their porosity and surface roughness (20 times for Ra) while their surface microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear level remain almost unchanged. After electron beam irradiation, the ultimate tensile strength of the material increases 1.33 times, and its tensile strain 1.18 times. For specimens obtained by conventional metallurgy and irradiated in the same modes, no such effects are observed.

  15. A novel scalable manufacturing process for the production of hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Rebecca E M; Larrañeta, Eneko; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Boyd, Peter; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-10-15

    A novel manufacturing process for fabricating microneedle arrays (MN) has been designed and evaluated. The prototype is able to successfully produce 14×14 MN arrays and is easily capable of scale-up, enabling the transition from laboratory to industry and subsequent commercialisation. The method requires the custom design of metal MN master templates to produce silicone MN moulds using an injection moulding process. The MN arrays produced using this novel method was compared with centrifugation, the traditional method of producing aqueous hydrogel-forming MN arrays. The results proved that there was negligible difference between either methods, with each producing MN arrays with comparable quality. Both types of MN arrays can be successfully inserted in a skin simulant. In both cases the insertion depth was approximately 60% of the needle length and the height reduction after insertion was in both cases approximately 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological indices of manufacture of Portland cement clinker and production of the dolomite clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnichenko Varvara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the production of dolomite clinker in comparison with that of Portland cement is environmentally appropriate. When calcining dolomite for cementitious binder, the pollution of the atmosphere by carbon dioxide is reduced due to its isolation during decarbonization reactions of calcium carbonates. Reducing fuel consumption for clinker burning provides less carbon dioxide emissions from combustion products. Reducing the firing temperature creates obstacles to the formation of nitrogen oxides. The production of binders from dolomite in comparison with the production of Portland cement helps to protect the environment from contamination

  17. Technological progress and challenges towards cGMP manufacturing of human pluripotent stem cells based therapeutic products for allogeneic and autologous cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation, characterization, and bioprocessing of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have created new hope for their use as a source for production of cell-based therapeutic products. To date, a few clinical trials that have used therapeutic cells derived from hESCs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but numerous new hPSC-based cell therapy products are under various stages of development in cell therapy-specialized companies and their future market is estimated to be very promising. However, the multitude of critical challenges regarding different aspects of hPSC-based therapeutic product manufacturing and their therapies have made progress for the introduction of new products and clinical applications very slow. These challenges include scientific, technological, clinical, policy, and financial aspects. The technological aspects of manufacturing hPSC-based therapeutic products for allogeneic and autologous cell therapies according to good manufacturing practice (cGMP) quality requirements is one of the most important challenging and emerging topics in the development of new hPSCs for clinical use. In this review, we describe main critical challenges and highlight a series of technological advances in all aspects of hPSC-based therapeutic product manufacturing including clinical grade cell line development, large-scale banking, upstream processing, downstream processing, and quality assessment of final cell therapeutic products that have brought hPSCs closer to clinical application and commercial cGMP manufacturing. © 2013.

  18. Product Costing in FMT: Comparing Deterministic and Stochastic Models Using Computer-Based Simulation for an Actual Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    This paper expands the traditional product costing technique be including a stochastic form in a complex production process for product costing. The stochastic phenomenon in flesbile manufacturing technologies is seen as an important phenomenon that companies try to decreas og eliminate. DFM has...... been used for evaluating the appropriateness of the firm's production capability. In this paper a simulation model is developed to analyze the relevant cost behaviour with respect to DFM and to develop a more streamlined process in the layout of the manufacturing process....

  19. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  20. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa, E-mail: jcft@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Secao de Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of {sup 18}FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  1. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of 18 FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  2. Usage of kitchen appliances for manufacturing products in kitchen environment : it is posssible to produce utilitarian products in the kitchen?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrisová, Vanda, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    Design thanks to mass production loses its central role – care about the humans and fulfill their needs. There are tons of products everywhere around us but huge number of them is unsatisfying because of their low quality, incorrect ergonomics, harmful materials or just lack of innovation. Designers in this age of technology driven by market must quickly design more and more products many times without proper brief and research. It is urgent to rethink these processes behind and sink into res...

  3. Alaska birch for edge-glued panel production—considerations for wood products manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Nicholls

    2010-01-01

    Edge-glued panels could become a natural extension for the birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber industry in Alaska, resulting in greater utilization of the birch resource while allowing producers to explore a wider variety of products and markets. Key advantages of edge-glued panel production include the relatively low cost of equipment, the...

  4. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  5. Product mix variability with correlated demand in two-stage food manufacturing with intermediate storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    In food processing, market demands are increasingly important, resulting in regular introductions of new products, or special offers. Often, such all introduction or promotional effort affects demand of other products or packaging types. Here we study the effect of such correlated demand. More

  6. Specific PVMaT R&D in CdTe Product Manufacturing: Final Subcontract Report, March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohland, J.; McMaster, A.; Henson, S.; Hanak, J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a 3+ year subcontract are presented. The research was conducted under Phase 5A2 of the subcontract. The three areas of effort in the subcontract were (1) manufacturing line improvements, (2) product readiness, and (3) environmental, safety, and health programs. The subcontract consisted of three phases, approximately 1 year each. Phase I included the development, design, and implementation of a high-throughput, low-cost lamination process. This goal was achieved using the support of key experts such as Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) to identify appropriate lamination equipment vendors, and material handling. Product designs were reviewed by Arizona State University Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory and Underwriters Laboratories. Modifications to the module designs were implemented to meet future testing requirements. A complete review of the Environmental, Health, and Safety programs was conducted, along with training by the Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Work conducted during Phase II included the implementation of an improved potting procedure for the wiring junction. The design of the equipment focused on high-throughput, low-cost operations. During Phase III , First Solar made significant progress in three areas: Manufacturing Readiness; Product Performance; and Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S). First Solar's accomplishments in laser scribing significantly exceeded the stated goals. Innovations implemented during Phase III were made possible by adopting a new type of high-frequency, low-pulse-width laser, galvanometer-driven laser-beam system, and numerous advanced, automated, equipment features. Because of the greater than one order of magnitude increase in the throughput and laser life, a factor of two decrease in equipment cost, and complete automation, a major impact on lowering the cost of the PV product is anticipated.

  7. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  8. Production Planning of a Failure-Prone Manufacturing System under Different Setup Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Richard Kibouka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control problem for the optimization of the production and setup activities of an industrial system operating in an uncertain environment. This system is subject to random disturbances (breakdowns and repairs. These disturbances can engender stock shortages. The considered industrial system represents a well-known production context in industry and consists of a machine producing two types of products. In order to switch production from one product type to another, a time factor and a reconfiguration cost for the machine are associated with the setup activities. The parts production rates and the setup strategies are the decision variables which influence the inventory and the capacity of the system. The objective of the study is to find the production and setup policies which minimize the setup and inventory costs, as well as those associated with shortages. A modeling approach based on stochastic optimal control theory and a numerical algorithm used to solve the obtained optimality conditions are presented. The contribution of the paper, for industrial systems not studied in the literature, is illustrated through a numerical example and a comparative study.

  9. VALUE STREAM MAPPING AS LEAN PRODUCTION TOOL TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTION PROCESS ORGANIZATION – CASE STUDY IN PACKAGING MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the method of the production process improvement with the use of lean production tools has been presented. The Value Stream Mapping (VSM for the cardboard packaging produc-tion process has been presented. On the basis of the current state map (CSM, areas for improvement have been designated - 5 organizational changes of the process were marked out. To minimize the three basic losses excessive storage, unnecessary movement and delays, the changes were introduced in the method of inter-operative transport, supervision of the storage condition (input and output of the process, control at the processing operation and the use of a production loop. As a result of the changes, it is possible to shorten the process time, shorten the total time of operations adding value and reduce the number of non-compliant products.

  10. White paper on continuous bioprocessing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin B; Cooney, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in realizing the benefits of continuous processing in biologics manufacturing, which is reflected by the significant number of industrial and academic researchers who are actively involved in the development of continuous bioprocessing systems. These efforts are further encouraged by guidance expressed in recent US FDA conference presentations. The advantages of continuous manufacturing include sustained operation with consistent product quality, reduced equipment size, high-volumetric productivity, streamlined process flow, low-process cycle times, and reduced capital and operating cost. This technology, however, poses challenges, which need to be addressed before routine implementation is considered. This paper, which is based on the available literature and input from a large number of reviewers, is intended to provide a consensus of the opportunities, technical needs, and strategic directions for continuous bioprocessing. The discussion is supported by several examples illustrating various architectures of continuous bioprocessing systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Contribution of various of manufacturing of food products to internal exposure dose of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrashevskaya, D.A.; Goncharova, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1986, considerable data have been produced and published on all the above aspects of the Cs 137 from soils to agricultural products. Today no critical evaluation of the available information has been undertaken. There is an obvious need to evaluate the relative importance of agricultural foodstuffs as a source of internal dose. The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocaesium was investigated in selected study sites in Belarus. This work considers approaches and methods of internal exposure dose evaluation for citizens of radioactive contaminated territories consuming food products of radioactive contaminated forests. (authors)

  12. Advance Manufacturing Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) brings together manufacturers, research institutions, suppliers, and universities to investigate manufacturing processes, information, and materials technologies critical to advance domestic manufacturing of clean energy products, and to support energy productivity across the entire manufacturing sector.

  13. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects

  14. Evaluation by nanoindentation of technological products manufactured by pulse injection molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natova Margarita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During conventional polymer injection molding, flow- and weld lines can arise at the molded parts caused by disturbed polymer melt flow when it crosses different parts of the equipment. Such processed plastic goods have discrete zones of inhomogeneities of very small dimensions. In order to stabilize the melt flow and to equalize dimensions of such defective products, an approach for pulse injection molding is applied during production of polymer packagings. Testing methods used for evaluation of macromechanical performance of processed polymer products are not readily applicable to estimate the changes in visual surface obtained during pulse injecting. To overcome this testing inconvenience the performance of processed packagings is evaluated by nanoindentation. Using this method, a quantitative assessment of the polymer properties is obtained from different parts of technological products.

  15. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  16. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiros, João Paulo Martin; da Silva, José Carlos Domingos; Nakaguma, Marcos Yamada

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coeffici...

  17. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  19. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-06-01

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  20. Recovery of Glycerol from Spent Soap LyeBy - Product of Soap Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of spent lye from soap manufacturing companies namely Paterson Zochonis Industries (PZ, International Equitable Association (IEA, Kitchen Soap Industries (KSI all in Aba, Abia State of Nigeria and one laboratory simulated sample (SSL were analyzed for the amount of glycerol and residual salts. The amount of glycerol in all the samples increases in the order bleached glycerin > crude glycerin > semi-crude glycerin > treated lye > spent soap lye while the reverse is the order for the amount of residual salts. For the SSL, PZ, IEA and KSL samples, the percentage of recovered glycerol were 91.00, 83.20, 82.80 and 81.40 while the residual salt content (% were 9.80, 6.00, 7.08 and 8.03 respectively. These values compare well with international standards. The results show that the amount of the recovered glycerin and residual salts depend on the quality of the spent lye and the technology employed in the recovery treatment used.

  1. Streamlining policies for enhancing rice production in Africa: Past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a consensus that African development confronts several challenges, which include alleviating widespread poverty and unemployment, providing basic foods for the people, containing the HIV/AIDS pandemic, eliminating gender disparities and ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. In order to ...

  2. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  4. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, M; Thevenoud, J M; Launay, N; Arnal, N; Godinat, P; Andrieu, B; Gruffat, J M

    2006-01-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones

  5. Manufacturing concepts and development trends in the industrial production of microelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Matthias; Grimme, Ralf; Kaufmann, Thomas; Schwaab, Gerhard; Baeder, Uwe; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Dorner, Johann

    1998-01-01

    During the past few years, remarkable affords have been made for the realization of microscale sensors, actuators and microelectromechanical system. Due to advances in solid state and micromachining technologies, significant advances in designing, fabricating and testing of microminiaturized devices have been achieved at laboratory level. However, the technical and economical realization of microelectromechanical systems is considerably impeded by the lack of satisfying device technology for their industrial production. A production concept for the industrial production of hybrid microelectromechanical systems was developed and investigated. The concept is based on the resources and requirements of medium-sized enterprises and is characterized by its flexibility. Microsystem fabrication is separated into microfabrication steps performed in-house and technological steps performed by external technology providers. The modularity of the concept allows for a gradual increase in the degree of automation and the in-house production depth, depending on market capacity and financial resources. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, the design and realization of a microfabrication process center, which includes tasks like transport and handling, processing, cleaning, testing and storing are discussed. Special attention is given to the supply and feeding of microparts, to the necessary magazines, trays and transport systems, to the implementation of homogeneous mechanical, environmental and information interfaces, to the employment of advanced control, scheduling, and lot tracking concepts, and to the application of highly modular and cost-efficient clean production concepts.

  6. Lean Manufacturing Implementation for Multinational Companies with Production Subsidiary in Brazil: Development of a Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McNamara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fashion industry, including the design, production, shipping, sales and marketing of clothing, is one of the largest on the planet. It is also extremely labour intensive. With regard to the fabrication of garments, ideally, if each item is processed on an assembly line in a predetermined order, with no two operators working on the same piece at the same time, no problems due to imbalance should occur. But this is rarely the case. It is believed that there is a great deal of lost productivity and decreased efficiency as a result of assembly lines being unbalanced (i.e. a misallocation or suboptimal use of resources exists. This article provides a review of the literature on assembly line balancing, more specifically, as it relates to the apparel industry. Relevant findings are provided in an attempt to aid production managers who are responsible for the efficient operation of apparel assembly lines.

  7. Internationalisation Barriers of Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Ethiopia: Leather and Leather Products Industry in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehualashet Demeke Lakew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine internationalisation barriers of manufacturing SMEs operating in Leather and Leather Products Industry located in the capital city of Ethiopia. The small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs sector in Ethiopia is a significant group within the economy in terms of firm numbers and total employment. However, the SMEs sector’s share of exports is disproportionately small, which raised considerable research concerns. Firm export propensity was the dependent variable and internal and external export barrier factors were used as explanatory variables. The study was conducted through mixed research design of quantitative survey and case study. From the population of manufacturing SMEs operating in the Leather and Leather products Industry, a sample was selected through the use of stratified random sampling to ensure the effective representation of the population of exporting and non-exporting SMEs in the capital of Ethiopia. In order to complement survey results nine (4 exporting and 5 non-exporting SMEs were selected through critical case purposive sampling and an in-depth interviews were conducted. Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 20 was used to analyse the quantitative data whereas, qualitative data were analysed manually. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation and Binary logistic regression analysis are the analytical methods used. The statistical result showed that, logistics problem, insufficient finance, functional barriers, lack of export knowledge and information, procedural barriers and international trade barriers are the most significant obstacles of export trade in Ethiopia. The overall results revealed that explanatory variables used in the analysis significantly predict the dependent variable at 95% confidence level. Taken together, these results prompted the presentation of numerous implications for theory, practice, and future research. Finally, the paper recommended

  8. Technology of new generation of manufacture of liquid products from coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given work the review about a condition of research and trial works on technology perfection hydrogenation coals is made. Done design work on processing 65 thousand tons / year Karazhyra coal to liquid fuels and other products of combustion purposes. The basic advantage of the Kazakhstan technology for producing motor fuels coal hydrogenation at low pressure hydrogen (up to 5 MPa compared to the processes developed in the USA, Germany, Japan, Great Britain, and Russia. An integrated low-waste technology and coal processing, which allows the production of industrially important: liquid and patent fuel, binders for briquetting, and allocate bitumen due to the utilization of sludge.

  9. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  10. Proof of concept for a banding scheme to support risk assessments related to multi-product biologics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jeffrey W; Fikree, Hana; Haighton, Lois A; Blackwell, James; Felice, Brian; Wright, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    A banding scheme theory has been proposed to assess the potency/toxicity of biologics and assist with decisions regarding the introduction of new biologic products into existing manufacturing facilities. The current work was conducted to provide a practical example of how this scheme could be applied. Information was identified for representatives from the following four proposed bands: Band A (lethal toxins); Band B (toxins and apoptosis signals); Band C (cytokines and growth factors); and Band D (antibodies, antibody fragments, scaffold molecules, and insulins). The potency/toxicity of the representative substances was confirmed as follows: Band A, low nanogram quantities exert lethal effects; Band B, repeated administration of microgram quantities is tolerated in humans; Band C, endogenous substances and recombinant versions administered to patients in low (interferons), intermediate (growth factors), and high (interleukins) microgram doses, often on a chronic basis; and Band D, endogenous substances present or produced in the body in milligram quantities per day (insulin, collagen) or protein therapeutics administered in milligram quantities per dose (mAbs). This work confirms that substances in Bands A, B, C, and D represent very high, high, medium, and low concern with regard to risk of cross-contamination in manufacturing facilities, thus supporting the proposed banding scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The climate change implications of manufacturing refrigerants. A calculation of 'production' energy contents of some common refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, N.J.; McCulloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) analysis has been shown to be a useful aid to quantifying the climate change effect of potential emissions from the operation of systems that involve the use of greenhouse gases and consume energy, so generating CO 2 emissions. It enables these systems to be optimized for minimum global warming impact. In previous studies, the energies required to manufacture the greenhouse gases themselves were not included; by analogy with other chemical manufacturing processes they were assumed to be small in the context of climate change. In the work described here, climate change impacts from the energy used to produce a number of common refrigerant fluids are evaluated. These impacts are compared with the potential impact on global warming from the other components of TEWI: use and disposal of the refrigerants, including direct release into the environment. It is shown that the implications for climate change of the production of traditional refrigerants like ammonia, hydrocarbons or CFC-12 and new refrigerating fluids, such as HFC-134a, are truly insignificant in comparison with other stages of the life cycle of a refrigerator and have no role in TEWI. (author)

  12. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  13. 48 CFR 12.602 - Streamlined evaluation of offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offers. 12.602 Section 12.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... for Commercial Items 12.602 Streamlined evaluation of offers. (a) When evaluation factors are used... evaluation factors. (b) Offers shall be evaluated in accordance with the criteria contained in the...

  14. Application-Tailored I/O with Streamline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, W.J.; Bos, H.J.; Bal, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Streamline is a stream-based OS communication subsystem that spans from peripheral hardware to userspace processes. It improves performance of I/O-bound applications (such as webservers and streaming media applications) by constructing tailor-made I/O paths through the operating system for each

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... materials, systems, processes, methods, equipment, tools and techniques that are intended for sale is also... techniques that are or are expected to be used in producing products or services; (2) Developing and..., inspection techniques, and tooling analysis (including tooling design and application improvements); and (4...

  16. 49 CFR 526.2 - U.S. production by foreign manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PETITIONS AND PLANS FOR RELIEF UNDER THE... product plan and the assumption that the petition will be granted: (1) A description of the model type...; (2) U.S. sales projected for the model type; (3) The average percentage of the cost to the...

  17. Productivity gains, intersectoral linkages, and trade : Indonesian manufacturing, 1980-1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Meister, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of R&D spillovers for productivity growth has been well-documented in the literature. While studies in the context of developed countries have extensively focused on sectoral linkages, research on North-South spillovers has been largely confined to the aggregate level. This paper

  18. Productivity gains, technology spillovers and trade: Indonesian manufacturing, 1980-96

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Meister, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of R&D spillovers for productivity growth has been well documented in the literature. While studies in the developed country context have focused extensively on sectoral linkages, research on North-South spillovers has largely been confined to the aggregate level. This paper assesses

  19. Evaluation of Manufacturing Process Performance by CONWIP Hybridization of Pull Controlled Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is pioneering an innovative tactic for the synchronization of multi-stage, multi-line, production system. This tactic is mainly depends on the optimization policy, by means of distinct event simulation process for modeling, analysis and distinction of the execution of two alternatives of Kanban control mechanism namely SEKCS (Simultaneous Extended Kanban Control System and IEKCS (Independent Extended Kanban Control System. At this juncture the authors putting forward the two variants of Extended Kanban control system with the hybridization of CONWIP control policy to incite HSEKCS (Hybrid Simultaneous Extended Kanban Control System and HIEKCS (Hybrid Independent Extended Kanban Control System to make use of pooled benefits of a representative production situation in addition to improve the outcome. Therefore in this study the comparison in between different systems of proposed HEKCS specifically are HSEKCS and HIEKCS compared with the Extended Kanban Control Systems variants SEKCS and IEKCS. Simulation studies were conducted for all the five control policies considered and modeled on a multi-line, multi-stage assembly production control system. The relative performance parameters like Throughput or Production rate, Average Waiting Time and Average Work-in-Process, were assessed by means of exponentially varying demands.

  20. R&D INVESTMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN U.S. AND CANADIAN FOOD MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Kang, Connie; Buccola, Steven T.

    1998-01-01

    Productivity growth in the Canadian processed food industry has lagged behind that in the United States because of a relatively low rate of R&D investment. Although U.S. firms generally have a technological advantage over Canadian firms, marginal rates of return to R&D are higher in Canada.

  1. Development of a Computer Vision Technology for the Forest Products Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...

  2. Reuse of ultrafine mineral wool production waste in the manufacture of refractory concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonys, R; Kuznetsov, D; Krasnikovs, A; Škamat, J; Baltakys, K; Antonovič, V; Černašėjus, O

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with the mineral wool production waste (cupola dust - CD), presents CD characterization and aims to reuse CD in production of refractory concrete with calcium aluminate cement. The study of CD covers its chemical, phase and thermal analyses along with the morphological study and determination of particles size distribution. Zeta-potential, electrical conductivity and pH values of CD suspension are presented in the paper as well. Commercial microsilica additive in refractory concrete has been replaced with cupola dust. Compositions of refractory concrete have been prepared by incorporating 1%, 2% and 3% of CD. The bulk density, ultrasonic wave velocity, cold crushing strength and thermal shock resistance of the created refractory concrete have been determined. Based on experimental results, it has been found that cupola dust may be used for the production of refractory concrete. The environmental impact related to the CD reuse in refractory concrete production has been evaluated as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 36079 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., plastic and rubber parts, mirrors, glass, wiring harnesses, fasteners, springs, electronic components... benefits through the use of weekly customs entry procedures. Customs duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced on foreign status production equipment. BMWMC would also be exempt from duty payments on...

  4. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... rule remains unchanged. AHAM argued that DOE has not explained what it considers to be de minimis, and... because the proposed amendments change what energy will be measured (i.e., the end of cycle energy... off of the ``Energy Star'' list, which may result in discontinuing production of the impacted models...

  5. Solid state laser applications in photovoltaics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, Corey; Colville, Finlay

    2008-02-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by increasing government and societal pressure to use renewable energy as part of an overall strategy to address global warming attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Initially supported in several countries by generous tax subsidies, solar cell manufacturers are relentlessly pushing the performance/cost ratio of these devices in a quest to reach true cost parity with grid electricity. Clearly this eventual goal will result in further acceleration in the overall market growth. Silicon wafer based solar cells are currently the mainstay of solar end-user installations with a cost up to three times grid electricity. But next-generation technology in the form of thin-film devices promises streamlined, high-volume manufacturing and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. Notwithstanding the modest conversion efficiency of thin-film devices compared to wafered silicon products (around 6-10% versus 15-20%), this cost reduction is driving existing and start-up solar manufacturers to switch to thin-film production. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. Lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. This paper examines these processes and discusses the optimization of industrial lasers to meet their specific needs.

  6. Optimal Manufacturing-Remanufacturing Production Policy for a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Fill Rate and Budget Constraint in Bifuzzy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a closed-loop supply chain involving a manufacturing facility and a remanufacturing facility. The manufacturer satisfies stochastic market demand by remanufacturing the used product into “as-new” one and producing new products from raw material in the remanufacturing facility and the manufacturing facility, respectively. The remanufacturing cost depends on the quality of used product. The problem is maximizing the manufacturer’s expected profit by jointly determining the collected quantity of used product and the ordered quantity of raw material. Following that we analyze the model with a fill rate constraint and a budget constraint separately and then with both the constraints. Next, to handle the imprecise nature of some parameters of the model, we develop the model with both constraints in bifuzzy environment. Finally numerical examples are presented to illustrate the models. The sensitivity analysis is also conducted to generate managerial insight.

  7. Novel active driven drop tower facility for microgravity experiments investigating production technologies on the example of substrate-free additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Christoph; Wessarges, Yvonne; Hermsdorf, Jörg; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2018-04-01

    Through the striving of humanity into space, new production processes and technologies for the use under microgravity will be essential in the future. Production of objects in space demands for new processes, like additive manufacturing. This paper presents the concept and the realization for a new machine to investigate microgravity production processes on earth. The machine is based on linear long stator drives and a vacuum chamber carrying up to 1000 kg. For the first time high repetition rate and associated low experimental costs can provide basic research. The paper also introduces the substrate-free additive manufacturing as a future research topic and one of our primary application.

  8. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods. PMID:27684196

  9. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are facing three challenges: low cost production of product, high quality standard and rapid responsiveness to customer requirements. These three goals are equally important for the manufacturing companies who want...

  10. The effect of thermal treatment on the quality changes of Antartic krill meal during the manufacturing process: High processing temperatures decrease product quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2015-01-01

    The quality of krill products is influenced by their manufacturing process and could be evaluated by their degradation products from lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on these two reacti...

  11. Inventory Modelling for a Manufacturer of Sweets : An Evaluation of an Adjusted Compund Renewal Approach for B-Items With A Relative Short Production Lead Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, R.M.J.; Luijten, M.L.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are especially interested how to optimize the production/inventory control for a manufacturer of sweets, under the following circumstances: short production lead times in combination with an intermittent demand pattern for the so-called B-taste items. As for A-taste items a compound

  12. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 3. Appendix D : Facilities Planning Data ; Operating Manpower, Manufacturing Budgets and Pre-Production Launch ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  13. Utilisation of drinking water treatment sludge for the manufacturing of ceramic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizinievič, O.; Kizinievič, V.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the additive of drinking water treatment sludge on the physical and mechanical properties, structural parameters, microstructure of the ceramic products is analysed in the research. Drinking water treatment sludge is renewable, environmentally-friendly, economical additive saving expensive natural raw materials when introduced into the ceramic products. The main drinking water treatment sludge component is amorphous Fe2O3 (70%). Formation masses are prepared by incorporating from 5 % to 60 % of drinking water treatment additive and by burning out at the temperature 1000 °C. Investigation showed that the physical and mechanical properties, microstructure of the ceramic bodies vary depending on the amount of drinking water treatment additive incorporated. In addition, drinking water treatment additive affects the ceramic body as a pigment that dyes the ceramic body in darker red colour.

  14. Design for manufacturability of macro and micro products: a case study of heat exchanger design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, F.; Weng Feng, L.; Hansen, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology in designing a micro heat exchanger is proposed by modifying a conventional design methodology for macro products with the considerations of differences between design of a micro and a macro product. The methodology starts with the identification of differences...... for fabricating micro heat exchangers are ranked based on the defined criteria. Following the design methodology, primary design ideas for micro heat exchangers are generated according to the heat transfer principles for macro heat exchangers. Taking micro design considerations into account, the designs from next...... iteration are created. Finally, the performances of the designs for micro heat exchangers are compared with their macro counterparts. The most appropriate designs for micro heat exchangers are finalized. The micro specific design guidelines obtained by the designer through evaluating the modeling results...

  15. Social Network Analysis on Lean Production and World Class Manufacturing: how are associated in the literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antiqueira Goes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR to identify how to configure the publications that relate WCM and Lean Production issues. Therefore, a search on the Brazilian metasearch portal called CAPES Periodicals was conducted focusing on articles of the last five years. They were identified after screening and filtering a total of 42 articles, which were analyzed. The construction of the network analysis has identified that the issues are still in an initial phase of association, with the characteristic part of decentralizes networks, with some points of greatest association. It was also identified that the theme Lean Production has greater representation between the two topics due its higher use by authors.

  16. Comparing two botulinum toxin type A formulations using manufacturers' product summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, R; Jones, D; Borrego, J A

    2007-08-01

    Because of the unique pharmacology and clinical versatility of botulinum toxin (BoNT), particularly BoNT serotype A (BoNTA), a need exists for discussion of the current data on similarities and differences between two BoNTA products, BOTOX and Dysport. We compared the physiochemical and pharmacological properties of BOTOX and Dysport using information from the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) documents from a number of countries around the world. Our analysis based on the SmPC documents demonstrated distinct differences in physical characteristics, breadth of approved indications, dosing and administration, and the incidence and severity of adverse events. BOTOX and Dysport are not bioequivalent. Many of the differences between BOTOX and Dysport discussed within are probably related to the differences in their physical characteristics.

  17. Towards Production of Additive Manufacturing Grade Metallic Powders on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    costs due to reduced transportation costs, especially for well-established industries and, support of local businesses and resource bases [1...reduce the burden of these hindrances. ARL submitted a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) entitled, “Production of AM-Grade Metallic Powder on...the melt chamber to increase the duty cycle to 50% and thus achieve a melt rate of 1 kg/hour with the current coil design. It is anticipated that

  18. Prospective of biogas production in the Mexican agroindustry : the traditional tortilla manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Baledón, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an assessment of the availability and quality of biomass from the wastewaters in a traditional corn mill in Mexico City for biogas production. To date, these wastewaters (called nejayote) are discharged untreated to the sewer with a chemical composition that surpasses the maximum permissible levels of pollutants established in the Official Mexican Standards (NOMs). From the study case four scenarios were proposed to tackle this problem: 1) separate the suspended solids (S...

  19. Insights from Machine Learning for Evaluating Production Function Estimators on Manufacturing Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Arreola, José Luis Preciado; Johnson, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Organizations like census bureaus rely on non-exhaustive surveys to estimate industry population-level production functions. In this paper we propose selecting an estimator based on a weighting of its in-sample and predictive performance on actual application datasets. We compare Cobb-Douglas functional assumptions to existing nonparametric shape constrained estimators and a newly proposed estimated presented in this paper. For simulated data, we find that our proposed estimator has the lowes...

  20. Benchmarking Naval Shipbuilding With 3D Laser Scanning, Additive Manufacturing, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    other technologies capturing as-built ship conditions in digital format to create 3D electronic models were evaluated. The project’s goals were to...referred to as 3D printing. In the automotive industry , Ford Motor Co. uses 3D printing in several areas, including the tooling used to create production...processes points into 3D image of the space. Processed into CADD format • Currently used in automotive, offshore construction and repair, civil and