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Sample records for manual wheelchair propulsion

  1. Biomechanics and physiology in active manual wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Dallmeijer, A J; Janssen, T W; Rozendaal, L A

    2001-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion in daily life and sports is increasingly being studied. Initially, an engineering and physiological perspective was taken. More recently a concomitant biomechanics interest is seen. Themes of biomechanical and physiological studies today are performance enhancing aspects

  2. Biomechanics and physiology in active manual wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Dallmeijer, A J; Janssen, T W; Rozendaal, L A

    2001-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion in daily life and sports is increasingly being studied. Initially, an engineering and physiological perspective was taken. More recently a concomitant biomechanics interest is seen. Themes of biomechanical and physiological studies today are performance enhancing aspects

  3. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby L. Soltau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free, level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast, and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded. All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding five degrees. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment.

  4. Wheelchairs propulsion analysis: review

    OpenAIRE

    Sagawa Júnior,Yoshimasa; Haupenthal,Alessandro; Borges Junior,Noé Gomes; Santos,Daniela Pacheco dos; Watelain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze aspects related with wheelchair propulsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to delineate this review the search for information was carried out within electronics databases, using the following descriptors: "wheelchair propulsion", "wheelchair biomechanics" e "wheelchair users". Full papers published in English and French were included in the study. RESULTS: The wheelchair propulsion is a complex movement that requires the execution of repeated bi manual forces applicat...

  5. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEJ VEEGER Dirkjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power. The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied subjects, simulating early rehabilitation. Instrumented wheels measured three-dimensional forces and torques on the handrim. During practice peak torques were reduced, work per cycle increased, while push frequency decreased, at a stable power output and speed of the treadmill. Over the three weeks of practice propulsion technique kept changing in combination with an increase of ME. Results suggest skill acquisition because of motor learning. The rise in ME seems logically related to propulsion technique, but is not yet fully understood. More insight in motor learning and skill acquisition will contribute to understanding and optimizing rehabilitation strategies in the light of wheelchair provision in early rehabilitation.

  6. Mechanical efficiency of two commercial lever-propulsion mechanisms for manual wheelchair locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordon Lui, BKin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 evaluate the mechanical efficiency (ME of two commercially available lever-propulsion mechanisms for wheelchairs and (2 compare the ME of lever propulsion with hand rim propulsion within the same wheelchair. Of the two mechanisms, one contained a torsion spring while the other used a roller clutch design. We hypothesized that the torsion spring mechanism would increase the ME of propulsion due to a passive recovery stroke enabled by the mechanism. Ten nondisabled male participants with no prior manual wheeling experience performed submaximal exercise tests using both lever-propulsion mechanisms and hand rim propulsion on two different wheelchairs. Cardiopulmonary parameters including oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR, and energy expenditure (En were determined. Total external power (Pext was measured using a drag test protocol. ME was determined by the ratio of Pext to En. Results indicated no significant effect of lever-propulsion mechanism for all physiological measures tested. This suggests that the torsion spring did not result in a physiological benefit compared with the roller clutch mechanism. However, both lever-propulsion mechanisms showed decreased VO2 and HR and increased ME (as a function of slope compared with hand rim propulsion (p < 0.001. This indicates that both lever-propulsion mechanisms tested are more mechanically efficient than conventional hand rim propulsion, especially when slopes are encountered.

  7. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  8. Impact of Mass and Weight Distribution on Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Huang, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Propulsion effort of manual wheelchairs, a major determinant of user mobility, is a function of human biomechanics and mechanical design. Human studies that investigate both variables simultaneously have resulted in largely inconsistent outcomes, motivating the implementation of a robotic propulsion system that characterizes the inherent mechanical performance of wheelchairs. This study investigates the impacts of mass and mass distribution on manual wheelchair propulsion by configuring an ultra-lightweight chair to two weights (12-kg and 17.6-kg) and two load distributions (70% and 55% on drive wheels). The propulsion torques of these four configurations were measured for a straight maneuver and a fixed-wheel turn, on both tile and carpet. Results indicated that increasing mass to 17.6-kg had the largest effect on straight acceleration, requiring 7.4% and 5.8% more torque on tile and carpet, respectively. Reducing the drive wheel load to 55% had the largest effect on steady-state straight motion and on both turning acceleration and steady-state turning; for tile and carpet, propulsion torque increased by 13.5% and 11.8%, 16.5% and 4.1%, 73% and 5.1%, respectively. These results demonstrate the robot's high sensitivity, and support the clinical importance of evaluating effects of wheelchair mass and axle position on propulsion effort across maneuvers and surfaces.

  9. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koontz, AM; Cooper, RA; Boninger, ML; Yang, YS; Impink, BG; van der Woude, LHV

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-LIP on select indoor and Outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to Push on a Course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet, indo

  10. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, R.J.K.; Lamoth, C.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; De Groot, S.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power). The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied

  11. Effects of variable practice on the motor learning outcomes in manual wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leving, Marika T.; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. It has been suggested that more variability in propulsion technique benefits the motor learning process of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of

  12. Effects of variable practice on the motor learning outcomes in manual wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leving, Marika T.; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. It has been suggested that more variability in propulsion technique benefits the motor learning process of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of va

  13. Effect Of Variable Practice On The Motor Learning Process In Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leving, Marika T; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. It has been suggested that a higher intra-individual variability benefits the motor learning process of wheelchair propulsion. PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to determine the effect of

  14. Manual wheelchair propulsion : effects of power output on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, H.E.J.; Hendrich, K M; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rozendal, R H; de Groot, G; Hollander, A P

    1988-01-01

    Eight wheelchair sportsmen conducted eight wheelchair exercise tests on a treadmill. Two workload strategies were followed: strategy 1--increments in speed at a constant slope and strategy 2--increments in slope at constant velocity. Thus, data on cardio-respiratory and propulsion technique paramete

  15. Echographic and Kinetic Changes in the Shoulder Joint after Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Under Two Different Workload Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; del-Ama Eng, Antonio J.; Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high prevalence of shoulder pain due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers, and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with SCI while they performed high- and low-intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental). Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high-intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics. PMID:25566539

  16. ECHOGRAPHIC AND KINETIC CHANGES IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AFTER MANUAL WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION UNDER TWO DIFFERENT WORKLOAD SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel eGil-Agudo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractManual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury have a high prevalence of shoulder pain, due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury while they performed high and low intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental. Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics.

  17. A Modeling Framework to Investigate the Radial Component of the Pushrim Force in Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of tangential to total pushrim force, the so-called Fraction Effective Force (FEF, has been used to evaluate wheelchair propulsion efficiency based on the fact that only the tangential component of the force on the pushrim contributes to actual wheelchair propulsion. Experimental studies, however, consistently show low FEF values and recent experimental as well as modelling investigations have conclusively shown that a more tangential pushrim force direction can lead to a decrease and not increase in propulsion efficiency. This study aims at quantifying the contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to the normal pushrim component. In order to achieve this goal, an inverse dynamics-based framework is proposed to estimate individual contributions to the pushrim forces using a model of the wheelchair-user system. The results show that the radial pushrim force component arise to a great extent due to purely mechanical effects, including inertial and gravitational forces. These results corroborate previous findings according to which radial pushrim force components are not necessarily a result of inefficient propulsion strategies or hand-rim friction requirements. This study proposes a novel framework to quantify the individual contributions of active, inertial and gravitational forces to pushrim forces during wheelchair propulsion.

  18. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rory A; Boninger, Michael L; Yang, Yusheng; Impink, Bradley G; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to push on a course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet, indoor tile, interlocking concrete pavers, smooth level concrete, grass, hardwood flooring, and a sidewalk with a 5-degree grade. Peak resultant force, wheel torque, mechanical effective force, and maximum resultant force rate of rise were analyzed during start-up for each surface and normalized relative to their steady-state values on the smooth level concrete. Additional variables included peak velocity, distance traveled, and number of strokes in the first 5 s of the trial. We compared biomechanical data between surfaces using repeated-measures mixed models and paired comparisons with a Bonferroni adjustment. Applied resultant force (p = 0.0154), wheel torque (p concrete, and high- and low-pile carpet. Users were found to travel shorter distances up the ramp and across grass (p < 0.0025) and had a higher stroke count on the ramp (p = 0.0124). While peak velocity was not statistically different, average velocity was slower for the ramp and grass, which indicates greater wheelchair/user deceleration between strokes. The differences noted between surfaces highlight the importance of evaluating wheelchair propulsion ability over a range of surfaces.

  19. Manual wheelchair propulsion by people with hemiplegia: within-participant comparisons of forward versus backward techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca; Kirby, R Lee; Thompson, Kara

    2013-09-01

    To test the hypotheses that people with hemiplegia using arms and legs to propel their wheelchairs perform better backward than forward and prefer the backward direction. Within-participant cross-sectional design. Manual wheelchair users (N=18) with hemiplegia caused by stroke, a sample of convenience. Rehabilitation center. Participants each performed 9 skills from the Wheelchair Skills Test (WST 4.1)-4 low-rolling-resistance skills (rolls 10m, turns 90° while moving, rolls 2m across 5° side slope, descends 5cm level change) and 5 high-rolling-resistance skills (ascends 5° incline, rolls 2m on soft surface, gets over 15-cm pothole, gets over 2-cm threshold, ascends 5cm level change)-in both the forward and backward directions, in random order. Total percentage capacity scores from the modified WST 4.1, success rates for individual skills, and responses from an orally administered questionnaire regarding direction preferences. The mean ± SD total WST 4.1 capacity scores were 53%±26% in the forward direction and 76%±30% in the backward direction (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system ...

  1. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  2. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven

  3. Optimum cycle frequencies in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, A J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n = 6) and non-wheelchair users (NW group; n = 6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven treadmill

  4. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life.

  5. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A.; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J.; Aurit, Christine M.; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI. PMID:26442251

  6. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI.

  7. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  8. Aspects of manual wheelchair configuration affecting mobility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users' actions and mobility.

  9. Physical strain and mechanical efficiency in hubcrank and handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Kranen, E; Ariëns, G; Rozendal, R H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    1995-01-01

    The physical strain and mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion using handrim and hubcrank propelled racing wheelchairs were studied during a submaximal wheelchair exercise test on a stationary roller ergometer. Ten healthy male able-bodied subjects conducted two exercise tests in a ra

  10. Physical strain and mechanical efficiency in hubcrank and handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Kranen, E; Ariëns, G; Rozendal, R H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    1995-01-01

    The physical strain and mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion using handrim and hubcrank propelled racing wheelchairs were studied during a submaximal wheelchair exercise test on a stationary roller ergometer. Ten healthy male able-bodied subjects conducted two exercise tests in a

  11. Wheelchair propulsion technique at different speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1989-01-01

    To study wheelchair propulsion technique at different speeds, five well-trained subjects propelled a wheelchair on a treadmill. Measurements were made at four belt speeds of 0.56-1.39 m/s and against slopes of 2 and 3 degrees. Cardiorespiratory data were collected. Three consecutive strokes were fil

  12. Biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke A. Slavens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the hand-rim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI.

  13. Engineering manual and electric powered wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R A

    1999-01-01

    The sophistication required to develop and properly configure a wheelchair is illustrated by the amount and complexity of the research being conducted. At this time there appears to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million full-time wheelchair users within the United States. The reliance of the user on the wheelchair and the amount of time in the wheelchair provide significant challenges for the wheelchair design engineer. Currently there are a wide variety of wheelchair designs that are commercially available. These wheelchairs accommodate a variety of people's needs, and represent significant progress. The current trend among manufacturers of manual wheelchairs seems to be cost-reduction engineering. The ergonomics of long-term wheelchair use are critical to the advancement of wheelchair design and to the clinical selection of wheelchairs. Electric powered wheelchairs appear to be progressing faster than nearly all other types of wheelchairs. This is due to the availability of computing power with low cost microcontrollers and associated peripherals. The greater range and availability of sensors are also making changes into the design of electric powered wheelchairs. The interaction between an electric powered wheelchair and the user can be extremely complex. In many cases, individual solutions are necessary. One of the more challenging questions is determining the abilities of the user required to drive an electric powered wheelchair effectively. There have been substantial improvements in the engineering of all wheelchairs. However, there remain significant issues to be addressed.

  14. Trunk and shoulder kinematic and kinetic and electromyographic adaptations to slope increase during motorized treadmill propulsion among manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany; Babineau, Annie-Claude; Champagne, Audrey; Desroches, Guillaume; Aissaoui, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC) propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°). Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions) and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers) was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments.

  15. Trunk and Shoulder Kinematic and Kinetic and Electromyographic Adaptations to Slope Increase during Motorized Treadmill Propulsion among Manual Wheelchair Users with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to quantify the effects of five different slopes on trunk and shoulder kinematics as well as shoulder kinetic and muscular demands during manual wheelchair (MWC propulsion on a motorized treadmill. Eighteen participants with spinal cord injury propelled their MWC at a self-selected constant speed on a motorized treadmill set at different slopes (0°, 2.7°, 3.6°, 4.8°, and 7.1°. Trunk and upper limb movements were recorded with a motion analysis system. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with the forces applied to the handrims measured with an instrumented wheel. To quantify muscular demand, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the pectoralis major (clavicular and sternal portions and deltoid (anterior and posterior fibers was recorded during the experimental tasks and normalized against maximum EMG values obtained during static contractions. Overall, forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion increased as the slope became steeper, whereas shoulder flexion, adduction, and internal rotation moments along with the muscular demand also increased as the slope became steeper. The results confirm that forward trunk flexion and shoulder flexion movement amplitudes, along with shoulder mechanical and muscular demands, generally increase when the slope of the treadmill increases despite some similarities between the 2.7° to 3.6° and 3.6° to 4.8° slope increments.

  16. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Dysterheft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten full time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18 completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak Resultant Force, Contact Angle, Stroke Frequency, and Velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in Contact Angle and Peak Total Force with decreased Stroke Frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in Contact Angle occurred, as well as decreases in Stroke Frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  17. A wheelchair with lever propulsion control for climbing up and down stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kai; Eguchi, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes a novel stair-climbing wheelchair based on lever propulsion control using the human upper body. Wheelchairs are widely used as supporting locomotion devices for people with acquired lower limb disabilities. However, steps and stairs are critical obstacles to locomotion, which restrict their activities when using wheelchairs. Previous research focused on power-assisted, stair-climbing wheelchairs, which were large and heavy due to its large actuators and mechanisms. In the previous research, we proposed a wheelchair with lever propulsion mechanism and presented its feasibility of climbing up the stairs. The developed stair-climbing wheelchair consists of manual wheels with casters for planar locomotion and a rotary-leg mechanism based on lever propulsion that is capable of climbing up stairs. The wheelchair also has a passive mechanism powered by gas springs for posture transition to shift the user's center of gravity between the desired positions for planar locomotion and stair-climbing. In this paper, we present an advanced study on both climbing up and going down using lever propulsion control by the user's upper body motion. For climbing down the stairs, we reassembled one-way clutches used for the rotary-leg mechanism to help a user climb down the stairs through lever operation. We also equipped the wheelchair with sufficient torque dampers. The frontal wheels were fixed while climbing down the stairs to ensure safety. Relevant experiments were then performed to investigate its performance and verify that the wheelchair users can operate the proposed lever propulsion mechanism.

  18. Evaluation of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility using advanced biomechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph J; Reiners, Kathryn; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM) at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H) of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training.

  19. Evaluation of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility Using Advanced Biomechanical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke A. Slavens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI. Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training.

  20. Design of a Robotic System to Measure Propulsion Work of Over-Ground Wheelchair Maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Howard; Huang, Morris; Caspall, Jayme; Sprigle, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    A wheelchair-propelling robot has been developed to measure the efficiency of manual wheelchairs. The use of a robot has certain advantages compared to the use of human operators with respect to repeatability of measurements and the ability to compare many more wheelchair configurations than possible with human operators. Its design and implementation required significant engineering and validation of hardware and control systems. The robot can propel a wheelchair according to pre-programmed accelerations and velocities and measures the forces required to achieve these maneuvers. Wheel velocities were within 0.1 m/s of programmed values and coefficients of variation . Torque measurements were also repeatable with . By determining the propulsion torque required to propel the wheelchair through a series of canonical maneuvers, task-dependent input work for various wheelchairs and configurations can be compared. This metric would serve to quantify the combined inertial and frictional resistance of the mechanical system.

  1. WHEEL-I : development of a wheelchair propulsion laboratory for rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Vuijk, Coen; van Dijk, Frank; Plaggenmarsch, Corien; Sloots, Maurits; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke; Woldring, Ferry; Tepper, Marga; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the enabling factors and barriers experienced in the Wheelchair Expert Evaluation Laboratory implementation (WHEEL-i) project, in which scientific knowledge, tools and associated systematic analyses of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion technique, user's wheelchair propulsion capa

  2. A COMPARISON OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION MUSCLE FORCE PREDICTIONS DURING WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Melissa M.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Neptune, Richard R.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic optimization muscle force and work predictions during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion. A secondary purpose was to compare the differences in predicted shoulder and elbow kinetics and kinematics and handrim forces. The forward dynamics simulation minimized differences between simulated and experimental data (obtained from 10 manual wheelchair users) and muscle co-contraction. For direct comparison between models, the s...

  3. Wheelchair propulsion: descriptive comparison of hemiplegic and two-hand patterns during selected activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R L; Ethans, K D; Duggan, R E; Saunders-Green, L A; Lugar, J A; Harrison, E R

    1999-01-01

    Most manual wheelchair users with hemiplegia use both the unaffected arm and leg to propel their wheelchairs. The objective of this study was to compare the wheelchair propulsion of subjects using the hemiplegic pattern (one arm and one leg) with subjects using two hands. In a case-controlled study in a kinesiologic laboratory, nine wheelchair users who used the hemiplegic pattern were compared with nine matched controls who used the two-handed pattern. Participants were tested for propelling and stopping the wheelchair, forward and backward, on a level surface and on a 5 degree incline. Video recording was used to assess deviation from the midline, foot slippage, the number of propulsive cycles, and the propelling velocity. Also, on the 5 degree incline, we noted the need for support when unlocking the wheel locks, instances of grabbing the side rail, or rollback between propulsions. The participants using the hemiplegic pattern when propelling up the incline deviated more to the hemiparetic side (P wheelchair users who use the hemiplegic pattern experience more difficulties than those using two hands, some of which may be amenable to improvements in wheelchair prescription and training.

  4. Initial Skill Acquisition of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion : A New Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces on

  5. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  6. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  7. Validation of an accelerometer-based method to measure the use of manual wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenblum, Sharon Eve; Sprigle, Stephen; Caspall, Jayme; Lopez, Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and validate a methodology for measuring manual wheelchair movement. The ability to study wheelchair movement is necessary across a number of clinical and research topics in rehabilitation, including the outcomes of rehabilitation interventions, the long-term effects of wheelchair propulsion on shoulder health, and improved wheelchair prescription and design. This study used a wheel-mounted accelerometer to continuously measure distance wheeled, and to continuously determine if the wheelchair is moving. Validation of the system and algorithm was tested across typical mobility-related activities of daily living, which included short slow movements with frequent starts, stops, and turns, and straight, steady state propulsion. Accuracy was found to be greater than 90% across wheelchair and wheel types (spoke and mag), propulsion techniques (manual and foot), speeds, and everyday mobility-related activities of daily living. Although a number of approaches for wheelchair monitoring are currently present in the literature, many are limited in the data they provide. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to a variety of commercially available products that record bi-axial accelerations, and used to answer many research questions in wheeled mobility.

  8. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelcha

  9. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  10. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  11. Evaluation of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility Using Advanced Biomechanical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with sp...

  12. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  13. Low-Intensity Wheelchair Training in Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury : A Randomized Controlled Trial on Propulsion Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Hartog, Johanneke; Tepper, Marga; Slootman, Hans; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a low-intensity wheelchair training on propulsion technique in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design Participants in this multicenter nonblinded randomized controlled trial were inactive manual wheelchair

  14. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  15. Effect of workload setting on propulsion technique in handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, DirkJan (H E. J); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the influence of workload setting (speed at constant power, method to impose power) on the propulsion technique (i.e. force and timing characteristics) in handrim wheelchair propulsion. Method: Twelve able-bodied men participated in this study. External forces were measured

  16. Physical strain and mechanical efficiency in hubcrank and handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, L H; van Kranen, E; Ariëns, G; Rozendal, R H; Veeger, H E

    1995-01-01

    The physical strain and mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion using handrim and hubcrank propelled racing wheelchairs were studied during a submaximal wheelchair exercise test on a stationary roller ergometer. Ten healthy male able-bodied subjects conducted two exercise tests in a random order and measurements of phyical strain (oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate) and gross mechanical efficiency were obtained. During the experiment torque data, speed and power output were determined at a sample frequency of 0.1 Hz. Analysis of variance for repeated measures (p higher gross mechanical efficiency in comparison with the handrim propulsion mechanism. The lower strain and higher efficiency in propelling the hubcrank partly seems to be due to the continuous biphasic cyclic propulsion movement, which allows both push and pull forces to be exerted. This involves flexor and extensor muscles around elbow and shoulder, leading to a reduced tendency to fatigue in individual muscles in the upper extremity. The more natural and neutral wrist-hand orientation also seems to diminish finger flexor activity and wrist-stabilizing muscle activity, and will thus reduce physical strain both with respect to the cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal systems. The latter may influence the tendency to develop carpal tunnel problems positively. The reduced strain of the hubcrank propulsion mechanism clearly has a number of advantages over handrims for the human engine in the short and long run. However, technical innovation should address current practical problems of steering and braking. Clearly, hubcranks can be used in low-seated wheelchairs (i.e. racing wheelchairs) only, and in subjects with a sufficiently large range of motion in the upper extremity. Moreover, the increased width is a drawback of hubcranks. Care should be taken while negotiating door posts.

  17. Submaximal physical strain and peak performance in handcycling versus handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Zentgraaff, I D B; Zijp, N I; van der Woude, L H V

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study in subjects with paraplegia and nondisabled subjects. OBJECTIVE: To compare submaximal physical strain and peak performance in handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion in wheelchair-dependent and nondisabled control subjects SETTING: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  18. Temporal Parameters Estimation for Wheelchair Propulsion Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Ojeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lower limb paralysis, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI rely on their upper limbs for mobility. The prevalence of upper extremity pain and injury is high among this population. We evaluated the performance of three triaxis accelerometers placed on the upper arm, wrist, and under the wheelchair, to estimate temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion. Twenty-six participants with SCI were asked to push their wheelchair equipped with a SMARTWheel. The estimated stroke number was compared with the criterion from video observations and the estimated push frequency was compared with the criterion from the SMARTWheel. Mean absolute errors (MAE and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement. Results showed reasonable accuracies especially using the accelerometer placed on the upper arm where the MAPE was 8.0% for stroke number and 12.9% for push frequency. The ICC was 0.994 for stroke number and 0.916 for push frequency. The wrist and seat accelerometer showed lower accuracy with a MAPE for the stroke number of 10.8% and 13.4% and ICC of 0.990 and 0.984, respectively. Results suggested that accelerometers could be an option for monitoring temporal parameters of wheelchair propulsion.

  19. Motion analysis of wheelchair propulsion movements in hemiplegic patients: effect of a wheelchair cushion on suppressing posterior pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kyohei; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Takanashi, Akira; Miyazima, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Sumiko

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to ascertain whether, in hemiplegic patients, the effect of a wheelchair cushion to suppress pelvic posterior tilt when initiating wheelchair propulsion would continue in subsequent propulsions. [Subjects] Eighteen hemiplegic patients who were able to propel a wheelchair in a seated position participated in this study. [Methods] An adjustable wheelchair was fitted with a cushion that had an anchoring function, and a thigh pad on the propulsion side was removed. Propulsion movements from the seated position without moving through three propulsion cycles were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and electromyography was used to determine the angle of pelvic posterior tilt, muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head, and propulsion speed. [Results] Pelvic posterior tilt could be suppressed through the three propulsion cycles, which served to increase propulsion speed. Muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head was highest when initiating propulsion and decreased thereafter. [Conclusion] The effect of the wheelchair cushion on suppressing pelvic posterior tilt continued through three propulsion cycles.

  20. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; De Groot, Janke F.; Backx, FJG; Westerveld, Rosalyne A.; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Design: Validity and reliability study. Subjects: Young

  1. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; De Groot, Janke F.; Backx, FJG|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039; Westerveld, Rosalyne A.; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Design: Validity and reliability study. Subjects: Young

  2. Effect of holding a racket on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Bos, F.; Koopman, J.; Hoekstra, A. E.; Vegter, R. J. K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in propulsion technique between propelling the wheelchair with and without a racket in the hand. Eight experienced wheelchair tennis players performed three submaximal exercise tests and six sprint tests on a wheelchair ergometer. Torqu

  3. Changes in surface electromyography signals and kinetics associated with progression of fatigue at two speeds during wheelchair propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Qi, PhD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle balance is influenced by fatigue in a recordable way, toward creating novel defensive activity strategies for manual wheelchair users (MWUs. Wheelchair propulsion to a point of mild fatigue, level 15 on the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, was investigated at two different speeds. Surface electromyographic (EMG activity of 7 muscles was recorded on 14 nondisabled participants. Kinetic variables were measured using a SmartWheel. No significant effect was found of percentage endurance time on kinetic variables for the two propulsion speeds. Fatigue-related changes in the EMG spectra were identified as an increase of EMG intensity and a decrease of mean power frequency as a function of percent endurance time for the tested muscles under both fast and slow speed conditions. The greater increases in activity for propulsive muscles compared with recovery muscles during fast speed wheelchair propulsion indicated muscle imbalance associated with fatiguing wheelchair propulsion. This study shows how kinetic and EMG information might be used as feedback to MWUs to ensure that they conduct activity in ways that do not precipitate injury.

  4. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana,Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetic...

  5. A comparison of static and dynamic optimization muscle force predictions during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M; Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-11-07

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic optimization muscle force and work predictions during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion. A secondary purpose was to compare the differences in predicted shoulder and elbow kinetics and kinematics and handrim forces. The forward dynamics simulation minimized differences between simulated and experimental data (obtained from 10 manual wheelchair users) and muscle co-contraction. For direct comparison between models, the shoulder and elbow muscle moment arms and net joint moments from the dynamic optimization were used as inputs into the static optimization routine. RMS errors between model predictions were calculated to quantify model agreement. There was a wide range of individual muscle force agreement that spanned from poor (26.4% Fmax error in the middle deltoid) to good (6.4% Fmax error in the anterior deltoid) in the prime movers of the shoulder. The predicted muscle forces from the static optimization were sufficient to create the appropriate motion and joint moments at the shoulder for the push phase of wheelchair propulsion, but showed deviations in the elbow moment, pronation-supination motion and hand rim forces. These results suggest the static approach does not produce results similar enough to be a replacement for forward dynamics simulations, and care should be taken in choosing the appropriate method for a specific task and set of constraints. Dynamic optimization modeling approaches may be required for motions that are greatly influenced by muscle activation dynamics or that require significant co-contraction.

  6. A COMPARISON OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION MUSCLE FORCE PREDICTIONS DURING WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Neptune, Richard R.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic optimization muscle force and work predictions during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion. A secondary purpose was to compare the differences in predicted shoulder and elbow kinetics and kinematics and handrim forces. The forward dynamics simulation minimized differences between simulated and experimental data (obtained from 10 manual wheelchair users) and muscle co-contraction. For direct comparison between models, the shoulder and elbow muscle moment arms and net joint moments from the dynamic optimization were used as inputs into the static optimization routine. RMS errors between model predictions were calculated to quantify model agreement. There was a wide range of individual muscle force agreement that spanned from poor (26.4 % Fmax error in the middle deltoid) to good (6.4 % Fmax error in the anterior deltoid) in the prime movers of the shoulder. The predicted muscle forces from the static optimization were sufficient to create the appropriate motion and joint moments at the shoulder for the push phase of wheelchair propulsion, but showed deviations in the elbow moment, pronation-supination motion and hand rim forces. These results suggest the static approach does not produce results similar enough to be a replacement for forward dynamics simulations, and care should be taken in choosing the appropriate method for a specific task and set of constraints. Dynamic optimization modeling approaches may be required for motions that are greatly influenced by muscle activation dynamics or that require significant co-contraction. PMID:25282075

  7. Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participan

  8. Inter-Individual Differences in the Initial 80 Minutes of Motor Learning of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Lamoth, Claudine J.; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied

  9. Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E; Nash, Mark S; Collinger, Jennifer L; Koontz, Alicia M; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Crossover trial. Biomechanics laboratory. Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65-87y); men, n=20; women, n=33. Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces: tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05 kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Delta0.08 m), and (4) 9.05 kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Delta0.08 m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Average self-selected velocity, push frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, as surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but was more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. The effects of weight and axle position are independent. The greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions.

  10. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint loading associated with adult manual transit wheelchair in rear impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Salipur, MEng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper securement of wheelchairs in motor vehicles is vital to providing wheelchair users an adequate level of safety in a crash. Thus far, wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS loading has mostly been examined under frontal impact conditions. Because of the inherent crash dynamic differences, rear-impact loading of WTORS is expected to differ greatly. In this study, three identical, reinforced, manual, folding, X-braced ANSI/RESNA WC19 wheelchairs were subjected to an International Organization for Standardization-proposed rear-impact crash pulse. WTORS loads (front tiedowns, rear tiedowns, lap belt, and shoulder belt were measured and compared with frontal impact WTORS loading. Rear impact produced substantially higher loads (up to 7,851 N in the front tiedowns than frontal impact. The rear tiedowns experienced relatively negligible loading (up to 257 N in rear impact, while rear-impact dynamics caused the lap belt (maximum load of 1,865 N to be loaded substantially more than the shoulder belt (maximum load of 68 N. Considering differences in frontal and rear impact WTORS loading is important to proper WTORS design and, thus, protection of wheelchair-seated occupants subjected to rear-impact events.

  11. Manual Wheelchair Use: Bouts of Mobility in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Eve Sonenblum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to describe how people move about in manual wheelchairs (MWCs during everyday life by evaluating bouts of mobility or continuous periods of movement. Methods. A convenience sample of 28 MWC users was recruited. Participants' everyday mobility was measured using a wheel-mounted accelerometer and seat occupancy switch for 1-2 weeks. Bouts of mobility were recorded and characterized. Results. Across 29,200 bouts, the median bout lasted 21 seconds and traveled 8.6 m at 0.43 m/s. 85% of recorded bouts lasted less than 1 minute and traveled less than 30 meters. Participants' daily wheelchair activity included 90 bouts and 1.6 km over 54 minutes. Average daily occupancy time was 11 hours during which participants wheeled 10 bouts/hour and spent 10% of their time wheeling. Spearman-Brown Prophecy analysis suggested that 7 days were sufficient to achieve a reliability of 0.8 for all bout variables. Conclusions. Short, slow bouts dominate wheelchair usage in a natural environment. Therefore, clinical evaluations and biomechanical research should reflect this by concentrating on initiating movement, maneuvering wheelchairs, and stopping. Bouts of mobility provide greater depth to our understanding of wheelchair use and are a more stable metric (day-to-day than distance or time wheeled.

  12. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground.

  13. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  14. The relationship between consistency of propulsive cycles and maximum angular velocity during wheelchair racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali

    2008-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing.

  15. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users : A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrume

  16. Development and evaluation of one-hand drivable manual wheelchair device for hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwa S; Park, Gemus; Kim, Young-Shim; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted for one-hand users including hemiplegic clients currently using standard manual wheelchairs, so as to analyze their specific problems and recommend solutions regarding usage. Thirty hemiplegic clients who were admitted to rehabilitation and convalescent hospitals participated as subjects. The research tools were standard manual wheelchairs commonly used by people with impaired gait and a "one-hand drivable manual wheelchair," which was developed for this study. The Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) was adopted for the objective assessment tool, while drivability, convenience, difference, and acceptability were developed for the subjective evaluation tools. The assessment procedures comprise two phases of pre-assessment and post-assessment. In the pre-assessment phase, the WST and subjective evaluation (drivability, convenience) were conducted using the existing standard manual wheelchair and with/without use of a foot to control the wheelchair. In the post-assessment phase, the WST and subjective evaluation (drivability, convenience, difference, acceptability) were also carried out using the developed one-hand drivable manual wheelchair. The results showed that the highest pass rate recorded for the WST items was 3.3% when the participants drove standard manual wheelchairs without the use of either foot and 96.7% when using the manual wheelchairs equipped with developed device. As compared to the existing wheelchair, statistical results showed significant effects on the WST, drivability, convenience, difference and acceptability when the participants drove wheelchairs equipped with the developed device. These findings imply that the one-hand drivable wheelchair equipped with the developed device can be an active and effective solution for hemiplegic clients using existing manual wheelchairs to increase their mobility and occupational performance.

  17. Wheelchair propulsion technique and mechanical efficiency after 3 wk of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkan H E J; Hollander, A Peter; Van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differences in gross mechanical efficiency between experienced and inexperienced wheelchair users may be brought about by differences in propulsion technique. The purpose of this experiment was to study changes in propulsion technique (defined by force application, left-right symmetry, inte

  18. Hand-Rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency in Asynchronous and Synchronous Wheelchair Propulsion : A Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; Fowler, N.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; van der Woude, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    To compare the force application characteristics at various push frequencies of asynchronous (ASY) and synchronous (SYN) hand-rim propulsion, 8 able-bodied participants performed a separate sub-maximal exercise test on a wheelchair roller ergometer for each propulsion mode. Each test consisted of a

  19. Wheelchair propulsion technique and mechanical efficiency after 3 wk of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkan H E J; Hollander, A Peter; Van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differences in gross mechanical efficiency between experienced and inexperienced wheelchair users may be brought about by differences in propulsion technique. The purpose of this experiment was to study changes in propulsion technique (defined by force application, left-right symmetry, inte

  20. Evaluation of physical load of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on barrier-free model courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikeda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sidewalk developments on the physical load of hand-rim wheelchair propulsion using a barrier-free model course. Non-wheelchair users performed wheelchair exercise tests and R–R interval time, discomfort rating, and postural changes of seating were measured. As a result, due to excessively heavy load on certain parts of the body during active propulsion on the sidewalk, it was shown that barrier-free developments did not lead to a reduction of physical load. The results suggest the importance of a well-balanced barrier-free sidewalk design that takes into account the individual character of the wheelchair user's seating posture and physical load at the time of maneuvering. In addition, it is shown that the reduction of physical load can be considered as an effective method of evaluation.

  1. The effects of rear-wheel camber on the kinematics of upper extremity during wheelchair propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chung-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rear-wheel camber, defined as the inclination of the rear wheels, is usually used in wheelchair sports, but it is becoming increasingly employed in daily propulsion. Although the rear-wheel camber can increase stability, it alters physiological performance during propulsion. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of rear-wheel cambers on temporal-spatial parameters, joint angles, and propulsion patterns. Methods Twelve inexperienced subjects (22.3±1.6 yr participated in the study. None had musculoskeletal disorders in their upper extremities. An eight-camera motion capture system was used to collect the three-dimensional trajectory data of markers attached to the wheelchair-user system during propulsion. All participants propelled the same wheelchair, which had an instrumented wheel with cambers of 0°, 9°, and 15°, respectively, at an average velocity of 1 m/s. Results The results show that the rear-wheel camber significantly affects the average acceleration, maximum end angle, trunk movement, elbow joint movement, wrist joint movement, and propulsion pattern. The effects are especially significant between 0° and 15°. For a 15° camber, the average acceleration and joint peak angles significantly increased (p Conclusions The rear-wheel camber affects propulsion patterns and joint range of motion. When choosing a wheelchair with camber adjustment, the increase of joint movements and the base of support should be taken into consideration.

  2. Is manual wheelchair satisfaction related to active lifestyle and participation in people with a spinal cord injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Post, M. W. M.; Bongers-Janssen, H. M. H.; Bloemen-Vrencken, J. H.; van der Woude, L. H. V.

    2011-01-01

    Study design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To describe the satisfaction of the manual wheelchair user with hand rim wheelchair-related aspects (for example, dimensions, weight and comfort) and wheelchair service-related aspects and to determine the relationship between wheelchair users' satisf

  3. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity.

  4. The Wheelchair Circuit : Construct validity and responsiveness of a test to assess manual wheelchair mobility in persons with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilkens, Olga J; Dallmeijer, Annet J; De Witte, Luc P; Van Der Woude, Lucas H; Post, Marcel W

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and responsiveness of the Wheelchair Circuit, a test to assess manual wheelchair mobility in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Longitudinal. Subjects performed the Wheelchair Circuit at the start (T1) and at the end (T3) of inpatient functional rehabili

  5. Coordination patterns of shoulder muscles during level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles change with level-ground and incline wheelchair propulsion. Wheelchair kinetics and electromyography (EMG) activity of seven muscles were recorded with surface electrodes for 15 nondisabled subjects during wheelchair propulsion on a stationary ergometer and wooden ramp (4 degree slope). Kinetic data were measured by a SmartWheel. The kinetics variables and the onset, cessation, and duration of EMG activity from seven muscles were compared with paired t-tests for two sessions. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. Push forces on the push rim and the percentage of push phase in the cycle increased significantly during incline propulsion. Propulsion condition and posture affected muscle coordination patterns. During incline propulsion, there was more intense and longer EMG activity of push muscles in the push phase and less EMG activity of the recovery muscles, which corresponded with the increased kinetic data total force output and longer push phase in the incline condition. This work establishes a framework for developing a performance feedback system for wheelchair users to better coordinate their muscle patterning activity.

  6. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Churton, Emily; Keogh, Justin Wl

    2013-01-01

    .... A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress...

  7. The development of an instrumented wheelchair propulsion testing and training device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, Joseph; Morgan, Kerri A; Gray, David B

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used several types of testing devices and training surfaces to examine wheelchair propulsion. Testing and training wheelchair users on the actual surface of interest, such as tile floors or ramps, is ideal but difficult. Devices such as treadmills, dynamometers, and ergometers allow for researchers and clinicians to observe wheelchair users in a controlled space. However, these devices often do not have the ability to realistically simulate the environment. This methodological article describes the instrumentation, development and function of a wheelchair dynamometer system, the WheelMill System (WMS), a uniquely adjustable roller system for wheelchairs. Three participants wheeled on the WMS, over a tile surface and up two different graded slopes with the SmartWheel to compare speed and forces. The WMS reasonably simulated propulsion over a tile floor, though the participants' speed was slightly faster on tile, and the peak forces for each propulsion stroke varied more on tile than on the WMS. For the slopes, the speed oscillated over a greater range and was slower, and the measured peak forces were higher than the values measured on the WMS. The WMS may have several applications, though additional studies on a greater and more diverse population are needed.

  8. Effects of Wheel and Hand-Rim Size on Submaximal Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Tolfrey, Keith; Lenton, John P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    MASON, B. S., L. H. V. VAN DER WOUDE, K. TOLFREY, J. P. LENTON, and V. L. GOOSEY-TOLFREY. Effects of Wheel and Hand-Rim Size on Submaximal Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 126-134, 2012. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of fixed gear

  9. Effects of Wheel and Hand-Rim Size on Submaximal Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Tolfrey, Keith; Lenton, John P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    MASON, B. S., L. H. V. VAN DER WOUDE, K. TOLFREY, J. P. LENTON, and V. L. GOOSEY-TOLFREY. Effects of Wheel and Hand-Rim Size on Submaximal Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 126-134, 2012. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of fixed gear

  10. Anaerobic power output and propulsion technique in spinal cord injured subjects during wheelchair ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Kappe, Y J; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Janssen, T W; van der Woude, L H

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the level of the spinal cord injury (SCI) on anaerobic or short-term power production and propulsion technique, 23 male SCI subjects performed a 30-second sprint test on a stationary wheelchair ergometer. Kinematic parameters were studied both inter- and intr

  11. Shoulder load during synchronous handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion in persons with paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.

    Objective: To compare the shoulder load during handcycling and wheelchair propulsion under similar conditions of external power in persons with spinal cord injury. Design: Cross-sectional. Subjects: Eight men with spinal cord injury. Methods: Kinetics and kinematics were measured during handbike and

  12. Effects of Camber on the Ergonomics of Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry; Van der Woude, Lucas; De Groot, Sonja; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    MASON, B., L. VAN DER WOUDE, S. DE GROOT, and V. GOOSEY-TOLFREY. Effects of Camber on the Ergonomics of Propulsion in Wheelchair Athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 319-326, 2011. Purpose: To examine the effects of rear-wheel camber on the physiological and biomechanical responses

  13. Identifying physical activity type in manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury by means of accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Massó, X; Serra-Añó, P; Gonzalez, L M; Ye-Lin, Y; Prats-Boluda, G; Garcia-Casado, J

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study. The main objective of this study was to develop and test classification algorithms based on machine learning using accelerometers to identify the activity type performed by manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted in the Physical Therapy department and the Physical Education and Sports department of the University of Valencia. A total of 20 volunteers were asked to perform 10 physical activities, lying down, body transfers, moving items, mopping, working on a computer, watching TV, arm-ergometer exercises, passive propulsion, slow propulsion and fast propulsion, while fitted with four accelerometers placed on both wrists, chest and waist. The activities were grouped into five categories: sedentary, locomotion, housework, body transfers and moderate physical activity. Different machine learning algorithms were used to develop individual and group activity classifiers from the acceleration data for different combinations of number and position of the accelerometers. We found that although the accuracy of the classifiers for individual activities was moderate (55-72%), with higher values for a greater number of accelerometers, grouped activities were correctly classified in a high percentage of cases (83.2-93.6%). With only two accelerometers and the quadratic discriminant analysis algorithm we achieved a reasonably accurate group activity recognition system (>90%). Such a system with the minimum of intervention would be a valuable tool for studying physical activity in individuals with SCI.

  14. Shoulder Pain among Rehabilitated Spinal Cord Injured Persons Using Manually Propelled Wheelchairs in the Gaza Strip: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Al Hawamdah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder pain among paraplegic persons has negative effects on their lives. The prevalence of shoulder pain among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI varies from 30% to 70% in different studies and may be related to repetitive use of the shoulder during self-care and wheelchair-related activities. Purpose: This study focused on the prevalence of shoulder pain and examined its effects on activities of daily living and social participation, and on functional, work and recreational or athletic activities. It also aimed to detect the degree of satisfaction with shoulder functioning wheelchair users who were paraplegic due to  spinal cord injury, in the Gaza strip.  Methods: Cross sectional study design was used to collect data from 80 persons with paraplegia, post rehabilitation, who were still using manual wheelchairs (MWC for ambulation. After giving informed consent, the selected persons were interviewed directly in their homes, and filled questionnaires which included the demographic data, Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ.Results: The prevalence rate of shoulder pain among paraplegics who use manual wheelchairs was 62%. Pushing a wheelchair for 10 minutes or more, and propulsion up ramps or inclines outdoors were the most common activities that caused and exacerbated shoulder pain. Sixty four percent from among the study sample mentioned that they had no limitation in shoulder-using ability during daily personal and household activities, while the rest experienced different degrees of limitation. Seventy-four percent reported no limitation during recreational or athletic activities, while the rest (26% agreed that pain has variably limited their participation in these activities. Fourteen percent from the sample rated the overall degree of satisfaction with their shoulder functioning as fair, and the rest rated their satisfaction from good to excellent.Conclusion: Shoulder pain, ranging

  15. Use of manual and powered wheelchair in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodby-Bousquet Elisabet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobility is important for the cognitive and psychosocial development of children. Almost one third of children with cerebral palsy (CP are non-ambulant. Wheelchairs can provide independent mobility, allowing them to explore their environment. Independent mobility is vital for activity and participation and reduces the dependence on caregivers. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors in relation to the degree of independent wheelchair mobility or need for assistance in a total population of children with CP. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including all children aged 3-18 years with CP living in southern Sweden during 2008. Data was extracted from a register and health care programme for children with CP (CPUP. There were a total of 562 children (326 boys, 236 girls in the register. Information on the child's use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors and the performance in self-propelling or need for assistance were analysed related to age, CP subtype and gross motor function. Results Wheelchairs for mobility indoors were used by 165 (29% of the 562 children; 61 used wheelchair for independent mobility (32 using manual only, 12 powered only, 17 both and 104 were pushed by an adult. For outdoor mobility wheelchairs were used by 228 children (41%; 66 used a wheelchair for independent mobility (18 using manual only, 36 powered only, 12 both and 162 were pushed. The use of wheelchair increased with age and was most frequent in the spastic bilateral and dyskinetic subtypes. Most powered wheelchairs were operated by children at GMFCS level IV. Conclusion In this total population of children with CP, aged 3-18 years, 29% used a wheelchair indoors and 41% outdoors. A majority using manual wheelchairs needed adult assistance (86% while powered wheelchairs provided independent mobility in most cases (86%. To achieve a high level of independent

  16. Use of manual and powered wheelchair in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mobility is important for the cognitive and psychosocial development of children. Almost one third of children with cerebral palsy (CP) are non-ambulant. Wheelchairs can provide independent mobility, allowing them to explore their environment. Independent mobility is vital for activity and participation and reduces the dependence on caregivers. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors in relation to the degree of independent wheelchair mobility or need for assistance in a total population of children with CP. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including all children aged 3-18 years with CP living in southern Sweden during 2008. Data was extracted from a register and health care programme for children with CP (CPUP). There were a total of 562 children (326 boys, 236 girls) in the register. Information on the child's use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors and the performance in self-propelling or need for assistance were analysed related to age, CP subtype and gross motor function. Results Wheelchairs for mobility indoors were used by 165 (29%) of the 562 children; 61 used wheelchair for independent mobility (32 using manual only, 12 powered only, 17 both) and 104 were pushed by an adult. For outdoor mobility wheelchairs were used by 228 children (41%); 66 used a wheelchair for independent mobility (18 using manual only, 36 powered only, 12 both) and 162 were pushed. The use of wheelchair increased with age and was most frequent in the spastic bilateral and dyskinetic subtypes. Most powered wheelchairs were operated by children at GMFCS level IV. Conclusion In this total population of children with CP, aged 3-18 years, 29% used a wheelchair indoors and 41% outdoors. A majority using manual wheelchairs needed adult assistance (86%) while powered wheelchairs provided independent mobility in most cases (86%). To achieve a high level of independent mobility, both

  17. Effect of handrim velocity on mechanical efficiency in wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    To study the effect of tangential speed of the handrims independent of external power output on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), nine able-bodied subjects performed wheelchair exercise tests on a stationary ergometer. The ergometer allowed for measurement of torque and three-dimensional forces on

  18. Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA-developed aerospace computerized structural-analysis techniques and aerospace composite materials have resulted in an advanced wheelchair that weighs only 25 pounds. With only half the weight of a normal wheelchair, this advanced wheelchair is as strong and durable as a 50-pound stainless steel wheelchair yet can be easily collapsed forauto stowage. Its features include a seat, wheelguards, dynamic brakes, shaped hand rims, and a footrest with smooth contours to aid in opening doors.

  19. Inter-individual differences in the initial 80 minutes of motor learning of handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Lamoth, Claudine J; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes.

  20. Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... select and maintain your wheelchair. > Picking the right wheelchair Selecting the right chair can be confusing. You need to consider style, ... many options to consider to find the right chair for you. > Webcast: Wheelchair selection Helpful tips to consider when reviewing your ...

  1. Kinematics of wheelchair propulsion in adults and children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, J H; Sanderson, D J

    1994-12-01

    This study examined the kinematic features of wheelchair propulsion in two neurologically matched groups of adults and children with uncomplicated spinal cord injury. The average mass and age of the pediatric group was much smaller than the adult group (37.4kg and 11.3 years vs 68.5kg and 33.5 years). Each subject propelled his/her own chairs and new, low-mass wheelchairs at a steady, nominal speed of 2 m/sec across a level surface. Three dimensional video analysis determined the movement of upper body angles (elbow, shoulder, trunk, and shoulder abduction) based on reflective markers placed on the subjects' shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hip joints. Analysis of the temporal factors showed that although the average group overground velocities of the adult group (2.4m/sec) were significantly greater than the pediatric group (2.3 m/sec), the two groups spent comparable proportions of the wheeling cycle in propulsion (24%). Analysis of the angular kinematics (elbow, shoulder, and shoulder abduction angular changes over a time normalized wheeling cycle) showed that whereas the pediatric group did show significant absolute angular differences from the adult group, the angular changes over time were the same in both groups. The implications of this work are that, for the first time, it can be said that children propel their wheelchairs in the same manner as adults. In addition, these data were similar to those previously reported in athletic adult populations. We conclude that published data from adult wheelchair users may be applied to pediatric wheelchair users, thus providing a basis for pediatric wheelchair prescription.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effects of visual feedback-induced variability on motor learning of handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leving, Marika T; Vegter, Riemer J K; Hartog, Johanneke; Lamoth, Claudine J C; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a higher intra-individual variability benefits the motor learning of wheelchair propulsion. The present study evaluated whether feedback-induced variability on wheelchair propulsion technique variables would also enhance the motor learning process. Learning was operationalized as an improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique, which are thought to be closely related during the learning process. 17 Participants received visual feedback-based practice (feedback group) and 15 participants received regular practice (natural learning group). Both groups received equal practice dose of 80 min, over 3 weeks, at 0.24 W/kg at a treadmill speed of 1.11 m/s. To compare both groups the pre- and post-test were performed without feedback. The feedback group received real-time visual feedback on seven propulsion variables with instruction to manipulate the presented variable to achieve the highest possible variability (1st 4-min block) and optimize it in the prescribed direction (2nd 4-min block). To increase motor exploration the participants were unaware of the exact variable they received feedback on. Energy consumption and the propulsion technique variables with their respective coefficient of variation were calculated to evaluate the amount of intra-individual variability. The feedback group, which practiced with higher intra-individual variability, improved the propulsion technique between pre- and post-test to the same extent as the natural learning group. Mechanical efficiency improved between pre- and post-test in the natural learning group but remained unchanged in the feedback group. These results suggest that feedback-induced variability inhibited the improvement in mechanical efficiency. Moreover, since both groups improved propulsion technique but only the natural learning group improved mechanical efficiency, it can be concluded that the improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique do not always appear

  3. A Better Engineering Design: Low Cost Assistance Kit for Manual Wheelchair Users with Enhanced Obstacle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryvendra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a better engineering design of an assistance kit for manual wheelchair users. The design is aimed to enhance the detection of obstacles in the travelling path of the wheelchair user at low cost. This is facilitated by microcontroller and sensor technologies. The proposed design provides the intended user with obstacle detection, light detection, a light emitting diode (LED emergency light system, and an emergency alarm system. The microcontroller is the main controller that receives input from the sensors and produces output to the light crystal display (LCD screen, the LED emergency light system, and the emergency alarm system. An ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the presence of obstacles directly behind the wheelchair. If any obstacle exists behind the wheelchair within a set range, the system will alert the wheelchair user through different alarm sounds. In the case of absence of light, the LED emergency light system is activated and turns on a light source, which is attached to the wheelchair to provide a bright and clear path for the user. The distance between the obstacle and the wheelchair, and the status of the LED emergency light system are displayed on the LCD screen.

  4. A compendium of energy costs of physical activities for individuals who use manual wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Scott A; Bassett, David R

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a compendium of wheelchair-related physical activities. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic review of the published energy costs of activities performed by individuals who use wheelchairs. A total of 266 studies were identified by a literature search using relevant keywords. Inclusion criteria were studies utilizing individuals who routinely use a manual wheelchair, indirect calorimetry as the criterion measurement, energy expenditure expressed as METs or VO₂, and physical activities typical of wheelchair users. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 63 different wheelchair activities were identified with energy expenditure values ranging from 0.8 to 12.5 kcal·kg-1·hr-1. The energy requirements for some activities differed between individuals who use wheelchairs and those who do not. The compendium of wheelchair-related activities can be used to enhance scoring of physical activity surveys and to promote the benefits of activity in this population.

  5. A Novel AHRS Inertial Sensor-Based Algorithm for Wheelchair Propulsion Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bruce Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, athletes, teams, and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training in order to find a competitive advantage. The use of inertial sensors has been proposed as a cost effective and adaptable measurement device for monitoring wheelchair kinematics; however, the outcomes are dependent on the reliability of the processing algorithms. Though there are a variety of algorithms that have been proposed to monitor wheelchair propulsion in court sports, they all have limitations. Through experimental testing, we have shown the Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS-based algorithm to be a suitable and reliable candidate algorithm for estimating velocity, distance, and approximating trajectory. The proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive, agnostic of wheel camber, not sensitive to sensor placement, and can be embedded for real-time implementations. The research is conducted under Griffith University Ethics (GU Ref No: 2016/294.

  6. Influence of accelerometer type and placement on physical activity energy expenditure prediction in manual wheelchair users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward Nightingale

    Full Text Available To assess the validity of two accelerometer devices, at two different anatomical locations, for the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in manual wheelchair users (MWUs.Seventeen MWUs (36 ± 10 yrs, 72 ± 11 kg completed ten activities; resting, folding clothes, propulsion on a 1% gradient (3,4,5,6 and 7 km·hr-1 and propulsion at 4km·hr-1 (with an additional 8% body mass, 2% and 3% gradient on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. GT3X+ and GENEActiv accelerometers were worn on the right wrist (W and upper arm (UA. Linear regression analysis was conducted between outputs from each accelerometer and criterion PAEE, measured using indirect calorimetry. Subsequent error statistics were calculated for the derived regression equations for all four device/location combinations, using a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis.Accelerometer outputs at each anatomical location were significantly (p < .01 associated with PAEE (GT3X+-UA; r = 0.68 and GT3X+-W; r = 0.82. GENEActiv-UA; r = 0.87 and GENEActiv-W; r = 0.88. Mean ± SD PAEE estimation errors for all activities combined were 15 ± 45%, 14 ± 50%, 3 ± 25% and 4 ± 26% for GT3X+-UA, GT3X+-W, GENEActiv-UA and GENEActiv-W, respectively. Absolute PAEE estimation errors for devices varied, 19 to 66% for GT3X+-UA, 17 to 122% for GT3X+-W, 15 to 26% for GENEActiv-UA and from 17.0 to 32% for the GENEActiv-W.The results indicate that the GENEActiv device worn on either the upper arm or wrist provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in MWUs. Variation in error statistics between the two devices is a result of inherent differences in internal components, on-board filtering processes and outputs of each device.

  7. Manual wheelchairs : Research and innovation in rehabilitation, sports, daily life and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, Lucas H V; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2006-01-01

    Those with lower limb disabilities are often dependent on manually propelled wheelchairs for their mobility, in Europe today some 3.3 million people. This implies a transfer from leg to arm work for ambulation and all other activities of daily living (ADL). Compared to the legs, arm work is less eff

  8. A description of manual wheelchair skills training: current practices in Canadian rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Krista L; Routhier, François; Miller, William C

    2015-01-01

    To describe current practices for manual wheelchair (MWC) skills training in Canadian rehabilitation centers. An online survey was sent to practice leaders in occupational (OT) and physical therapy (PT) at 87 Canadian rehabilitation centers. Responses were solicited from individuals who could report about wheelchair skills training at facilities with at least 10 beds designated for rehabilitation. Thirty-four questions asked about: (1) demographics, (2) components of MWC training, (3) amount of MWC skills training, (4) use of validated programs and (5) perceived barriers to using validated programs. Data were analyzed using summary statistics. About 68/87 responses were received primarily from OTs (42/68). Basic MWC skills training (e.g. wheel-locks) was consistently part of clinical practice (45/68), while advanced skills training (e.g. curb-cuts) was rare (8/68). On an average, 1-4 h of training was done (29/68). Validated training programs were used by 16/68, most of whom used them "rarely" (7/16). Common barriers to using validated programs were lack of time (43/68) and resources (39/68). Learning to use a wheelchair is important for those with ambulation impairments because the wheelchair enables mobility and social participation. Providing opportunities for advanced wheelchair skills training may enhance mobility and social participation in a safe manner. Implications for Rehabilitation There is evidence confirming the benefits of a validated wheelchair skills program, yet most clinicians do no not use them. A variety of perceived barriers may help to explain the limited use of existing programs, such as time, resources and knowledge. Effective knowledge translation efforts may help alleviate some of these barriers, and novel wheelchair training approaches may alleviate some burden on clinicians to help accommodate the increasing number of older wheelchair users.

  9. Effects of visual feedback-induced variability on motor learning of handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika T Leving

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a higher intra-individual variability benefits the motor learning of wheelchair propulsion. The present study evaluated whether feedback-induced variability on wheelchair propulsion technique variables would also enhance the motor learning process. Learning was operationalized as an improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique, which are thought to be closely related during the learning process.17 Participants received visual feedback-based practice (feedback group and 15 participants received regular practice (natural learning group. Both groups received equal practice dose of 80 min, over 3 weeks, at 0.24 W/kg at a treadmill speed of 1.11 m/s. To compare both groups the pre- and post-test were performed without feedback. The feedback group received real-time visual feedback on seven propulsion variables with instruction to manipulate the presented variable to achieve the highest possible variability (1st 4-min block and optimize it in the prescribed direction (2nd 4-min block. To increase motor exploration the participants were unaware of the exact variable they received feedback on. Energy consumption and the propulsion technique variables with their respective coefficient of variation were calculated to evaluate the amount of intra-individual variability.The feedback group, which practiced with higher intra-individual variability, improved the propulsion technique between pre- and post-test to the same extent as the natural learning group. Mechanical efficiency improved between pre- and post-test in the natural learning group but remained unchanged in the feedback group.These results suggest that feedback-induced variability inhibited the improvement in mechanical efficiency. Moreover, since both groups improved propulsion technique but only the natural learning group improved mechanical efficiency, it can be concluded that the improvement in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique do not

  10. Wheelchair Propulsion Biomechanics in Junior Basketball Players: A Method for the Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Specific Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergamini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As participation in wheelchair sports increases, the need of quantitative assessment of biomechanical performance indicators and of sports- and population-specific training protocols has become central. The present study focuses on junior wheelchair basketball and aims at (i proposing a method to identify biomechanical performance indicators of wheelchair propulsion using an instrumented in-field test and (ii developing a training program specific for the considered population and assessing its efficacy using the proposed method. Twelve athletes (10 M, 2 F, age = 17.1 ± 2.7 years, years of practice = 4.5 ± 1.8 equipped with wheelchair- and wrist-mounted inertial sensors performed a 20-metre sprint test. Biomechanical parameters related to propulsion timing, progression force, and coordination were estimated from the measured accelerations and used in a regression model where the time to complete the test was set as dependent variable. Force- and coordination-related parameters accounted for 80% of the dependent variable variance. Based on these results, a training program was designed and administered for three months to six of the athletes (the others acting as control group. The biomechanical indicators proved to be effective in providing additional information about the wheelchair propulsion technique with respect to the final test outcome and demonstrated the efficacy of the developed program.

  11. Effect of service dogs on manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffroy Hubert, MSc; Michel Tousignant, PT, PhD; François Routhier, PEng, PhD; Hélène Corriveau, PT, PhD; Noël Champagne, ED, MA Psy

    2013-01-01

    Service dogs help people with mobility impairments. They are trained to perform a variety of tasks, such as opening doors, retrieving the telephone, picking up objects, and pulling manual wheelchairs (MWCs). More specifically, using the traction provided by the service dog has physical benefits because MWC users can operate their MWCs with less effort. The objective of this study was to document the effect of a service dog on MWC mobility and user shoulder pain, social participation, and qual...

  12. A systematic review of wheelchair skills tests for manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury : towards a standardized outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Manor, Galia Lubel; Van Der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review, analyse, evaluate and critically appraise available wheelchair skill tests in the international literature and to determine the need for a standardized measurement tool of manual wheeled mobility in those with spinal cord injury. Data sources: A systematic review of literature

  13. Upper extremity biomechanics of children with spinal cord injury during wheelchair mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Slavens, Brooke A; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph; Vogel, Lawrence; Harris, Gerald F

    2014-01-01

    While much work is being done evaluating the upper extremity joint dynamics of adult manual wheelchair propulsion, limited work has examined the pediatric population of manual wheelchair users. Our group used a custom pediatric biomechanical model to characterize the upper extremity joint dynamics of 12 children and adolescents with spinal cord injury (SCI) during wheelchair propulsion. Results show that loading appears to agree with that of adult manual wheelchair users, with the highest loading primarily seen at the glenohumeral joint. This is concerning due to the increased time of wheelchair use in the pediatric population and the impact of this loading during developmental years. This research may assist clinicians with improved mobility assessment methods, wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with orthopaedic disabilities.

  14. Folding and unfolding manual wheelchairs: an ergonomic evaluation of health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather A; Lee Kirby, R

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses (i) that health-care workers vary greatly in the methods used to fold and unfold selected manual wheelchairs, and (ii) that many of the methods used include bent and twisted back postures that are known to be associated with a high risk of injury. We studied 20 health-care workers in a rehabilitation center. Subjects folded and unfolded two wheelchairs of cross-brace design, one with and one without a sling seat. As outcome measures, we used a questionnaire, time taken, visual analog scales of perceived exertion and back strain, folded width, videotape and Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) back scores (1-4). Subjects used up to 14 different combinations of approach, hand placement and back posture to accomplish the tasks. The mean OWAS scores were in the 2.4-3.1 range and 49 (42%) of the 118 scores recorded were class 4 (back simultaneously "bent and twisted", considered to be associated with the highest risk of injury). We also observed methods that appeared to be safe and effective. Age, gender, profession, experience and seat condition did not generally influence the outcome measures. We conclude that health-care workers use a variety of methods to fold and unfold wheelchairs, many of which include bent and twisted back postures that may carry a risk of injury. Further study is needed to confirm this risk, to identify more ergonomically sound wheelchair designs and to develop better methods of carrying out the common and important task of folding and unfolding wheelchairs.

  15. Adapted Manual Wheelchair Circuit : Test-Retest Reliability and Discriminative Validity in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H.

    2011-01-01

    Cowan RE, Nash MS, de Groot S, van der Woude LH. Adapted manual wheelchair circuit: test-retest reliability and discriminative validity in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1270-80. Objective: To assess the test-retest reliability and discriminative validity of a 14-item

  16. Comparison between performances of three types of manual wheelchairs often distributed in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen; Wee, Joy

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the performance of three types of chairs in a low-resource setting. The larger goal was to provide information which will enable more effective use of limited funds by wheelchair manufacturers and suppliers in low-resource settings. The Motivation Rough Terrain and Whirlwind Rough Rider were compared in six skills tests which participants completed in one wheelchair type and then a day later in the other. A hospital-style folding transport wheelchair was also included in one test. For all skills, participants rated the ease or difficulty on a visual analogue scale. For all tracks, distance traveled and the physiological cost index were recorded. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The Motivation wheelchair outperformed Whirlwind wheelchair on rough and smooth tracks, and in some metrics on the tight spaces track. Motivation and Whirlwind wheelchairs significantly outperformed the hospital transport wheelchair in all metrics on the rough track skills test. This comparative study provides data that are valuable for manufacturers and for those who provide wheelchairs to users. The comparison with the hospital-style transport chair confirms the cost to users of inappropriate wheelchair provision. Implications for Rehabilitation For those with compromised lower limb function, wheelchairs are essential to enable full participation and improved quality of life. Therefore, provision of wheelchairs which effectively enable mobility in the cultures and environments in which people with disabilities live is crucial. This includes low-resource settings where the need for appropriate seating is especially urgent. A repeated measures study to measure wheelchair performances in everyday skills in the setting where wheelchairs are used gives information on the quality of mobility provided by those wheelchairs. This study highlights differences in the performance of three types of wheelchairs often distributed in low

  17. Course of gross mechanical efficiency in handrim wheelchair propulsion during rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Kilkens, Olga J; van Asbeck, Floris W; Nene, Anand V; Angenot, Edmond L; Post, Marcel W; van der Woude, Luc H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course of mechanical efficiency of handrim wheelchair propulsion during rehabilitation of subjects with (in)complete paraplegia and tetraplegia. DESIGN: Subjects were tested at the start of active rehabilitation (t1), 3 months later (t2), and when discharged from inpati

  18. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  19. Mechanical advantage in wheelchair lever propulsion : effect on physical strain and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Botden, E; Vriend, I; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    1997-01-01

    In this experimental study on a prototype lever-propelled wheelchair, the effect of a range of mechanical advantages (MA) on physical strain, oxygen uptake, energy cost, mechanical efficiency, stroke frequency and perceived exertion was examined. Nine out of 10 male nonwheelchair users successfully

  20. Load on the shoulder complex during wheelchair propulsion and weight relief lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study focuses on the relationship between overuse in association with wheelchair activities of daily living and risks for osteoarthrosis in the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. The aim is to quantify the joint moments and joint reaction forces in all three joints of th

  1. Mechanical advantage in wheelchair lever propulsion : effect on physical strain and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Botden, E; Vriend, I; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    1997-01-01

    In this experimental study on a prototype lever-propelled wheelchair, the effect of a range of mechanical advantages (MA) on physical strain, oxygen uptake, energy cost, mechanical efficiency, stroke frequency and perceived exertion was examined. Nine out of 10 male nonwheelchair users successfully

  2. Mechanical advantage in wheelchair lever propulsion : effect on physical strain and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Botden, E; Vriend, I; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    In this experimental study on a prototype lever-propelled wheelchair, the effect of a range of mechanical advantages (MA) on physical strain, oxygen uptake, energy cost, mechanical efficiency, stroke frequency and perceived exertion was examined. Nine out of 10 male nonwheelchair users successfully

  3. Detailed shoulder MRI findings in manual wheelchair users with shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M B; Van Straaten, Meegan G; Murthy, Naveen S; Braman, Jonathan P; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities.

  4. Effect of service dogs on manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Geoffroy; Tousignant, Michel; Routhier, François; Corriveau, Hélène; Champagne, Noël

    2013-01-01

    Service dogs help people with mobility impairments. They are trained to perform a variety of tasks, such as opening doors, retrieving the telephone, picking up objects, and pulling manual wheelchairs (MWCs). More specifically, using the traction provided by the service dog has physical benefits because MWC users can operate their MWCs with less effort. The objective of this study was to document the effect of a service dog on MWC mobility and user shoulder pain, social participation, and quality of life. Eleven MWC users with spinal cord injury were assessed before and after training with a service dog and 7 mo later. Based on a standardized protocol, all study participants learned how to use the service dog safely and how to move around efficiently in different environments and under different conditions. Results showed that using a service dog increased the distance covered by the MWC users and also significantly decreased shoulder pain and intensity of effort. Using the service dog also produced slight but significant improvements in MWC user skills and social participation and may indicate a trend for improvement in quality of life. More extensive research is needed to precisely identify the effect of service dogs on the long-term management of MWC use.

  5. Sex, shoulder pain, and range of motion in manual wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla K. Wessels, MS, ATC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Upwards of 70% of manual wheelchair users (MWUs experience shoulder pain. Pain is more prevalent among females than males. The causes of this sex discrepancy are not understood. Decreased range of motion (ROM has been suggested as a major contributor, but the interaction of sex, ROM, and shoulder pain has not been investigated, thus the purpose of this investigation. We divided 30 MWUs (18 males, 12 females; 21.93 +/– 3.77 yr into two groups based on self-reported shoulder pain: pain group (n = 14; 9 males, 5 females and no pain group (n = 16; 9 males, 7 females. We used a digital goniometer to assess ROM. Participants’ shoulder active and passive ROMs were tested bilaterally on the following joint motions: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. We used a visual analog scale to assess shoulder pain. Of the participants, 47% reported shoulder pain. Overall, the no pain group had greater ROM than the pain group, with further analysis revealing this association was only significant in females during extension (p < 0.05. ROM impairments were only present in extension in females with shoulder pain. The mechanism underlying this sex difference is not clear.

  6. Detailed Shoulder MRI Findings in Manual Wheelchair Users with Shoulder Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. B. Morrow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities.

  7. The Influence of Glove Type on Simulated Wheelchair Racing Propulsion: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, I; Dysterheft, J; Bleakney, A W; Cooper, R A

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of glove type on kinetic and spatiotemporal parameters at the handrim in elite wheelchair racers. Elite wheelchair racers (n=9) propelled on a dynamometer in their own racing chairs with a force and moment sensing wheel attached. Racers propelled at 3 steady state speeds (5.36, 6.26 & 7.60 m/s) and performed one maximal effort sprint with 2 different glove types (soft & solid). Peak resultant force, peak torque, impulse, contact angle, braking torque, push time, velocity, and stroke frequency were recorded for steady state and sprint conditions. Multiple nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pair's tests were used to detect differences between glove types, while effect sizes were calculated based on Cohen's d. During steady state trials, racers propelled faster, using more strokes and larger contact angle, while applying less impulse with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. During the sprint condition, racers achieved greater top end velocities, applying larger peak force, with less braking torque with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. Use of solid gloves may provide some performance benefits to wheelchair racers during steady state and top end velocity conditions.

  8. Differences in participation based on self-esteem in power and manual wheelchair users on a university campus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ian M; Wong, Alex W K; Salentine, Benjamin A; Rice, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship of self-esteem and wheelchair type with participation of young adult manual and power wheelchair users with diverse physical disabilities. Cross-sectional survey study. Large University Campus. A convenience sample of college students (N = 39) with self-reported physical disabilities who are full time wheelchair users (>40 per week) and are two or more years post illness or injury. Not applicable. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem, and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to measure participation. Self-esteem correlated highly with cognitive independence (CI) (r = 0.58), mobility (r = 0.67) and social integration (SI) (r = 0.52). Use of manual wheelchair was significantly related to higher levels of CI and mobility while longer use of any wheelchair (power or manual) was significantly associated with higher levels of mobility and SI. In addition higher self-esteem independently predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI, mobility and SI, while type of wheelchair predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI (p self-esteem was found to be the strongest predictor of participation in a population of young adults with mobility limitations. Better understanding of the factors influencing participation may help to facilitate new interventions to minimize the disparities between persons with disabilities and their able bodied peers. Implication for Rehabilitation A total of 46.8% of wheelchair users report the desire for increased community participant but face significant barriers. The type of wheelchair has been identified as having a large impact on participation. This study found self-esteem to be the strongest predictor of participation, which is notable because self-esteem is a characteristic that is potentially modifiable with treatment.

  9. Association between self-efficacy and participation in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L; Eng, Janice J

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users...

  10. Cardio-respiratory and subjective strains sustained by paraplegic subjects, when travelling on a cross slope in a manual wheelchair (MWC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Benoît; Desbrosses, Kévin; Paysant, Jean; Meyer, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify cardiac, energetic and subjective strains during manual wheelchair (MWC) travel on cross slopes (Cs). 25 paraplegics achieved eight 300 m propulsion tests combining 4 Cs (0, 2, 8 and 12%) and 2 velocities (Vi = 0.97 m s(-1), Vc "comfortable"). Heart rate and oxygen uptake were recorded continuously. Subjective rating (RPE) was made on completion of each test. Vc exceeds Vi for all Cs. Cardiac and energetic strains at Vc also exceed those at Vi (p < 0.01). Mean cardiac cost (in bpm) at Vc is 34 (SD = 13) bpm for a 0/2% Cs and 55 (18) bpm for a 12% Cs. Mean energetic cost (in J m(-1) kg(-1)) is 1.20 (0.38) and 2.76 (0.97) for respectively 0/2% and 12% Cs at Vi and, at Vc 1.50 (0.43) and 3.37 (1.43) for 0/2% and 12% Cs respectively. Subjective rating was considered as moderate for a 12% Cs. MWC users with high level injuries travel faster as those with low level injuries. Strain increase is linear for Cs from 0% to 12%. The results suggest that 2% Cs is generally acceptable, while 8% would be a critical threshold.

  11. The influence of simulated rotator cuff tears on the risk for impingement in handbike and handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Schlüssel, Matthias; Arnet, Ursina; Veeger, Dirkjan

    2013-06-01

    Rotator cuff tears strongly affect the biomechanics of the shoulder joint in their role to regulate the joint contact force needed to prevent the joint from dislocation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of simulated progressed rotator cuff tears on the (in)stability of the glenohumeral joint and the risk for impingement during wheelchair and handbike propulsion. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model was used to calculate the magnitude of the glenohumeral joint reaction force and the objective function J, which is an indication of the effort needed to complete the task. Full-thickness tears were simulated by virtually removing muscles from the model. With larger cuff tears the joint reaction force was higher and more superiorly directed. Also extra muscle force was necessary to balance the external force such that the glenohumeral joint did not dislocate. A tear of only the supraspinatus leads only to a minor increase in muscle forces and a minor shift of the force on the glenoid, indicating that it is possible to function well with a torn supraspinatus muscle. A massive tear shifts the direction of the joint reaction force to the superior border of the glenoid, increasing the risk for impingement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  13. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  14. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  15. 手动轮椅车的质量要求和性能检测%Quality Requirements and Test Methods of Manual Wheelchairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文荣; 钟康坚; 陈能; 邢立镛

    2013-01-01

    对手动轮椅车国家标准G B/T 13800-2009规定的质量要求及检验方法进行分析,并结合我单位多年来的检测情况进行探讨,提出一些思考和建议,以期对规范和提高手动轮椅车的产品质量有所帮助。%Analyzed the quality requirements and test methods of manual wheelchairs according to national standard GB/T 13800-2009. Combine to our testing work, some thoughts and suggestions are given, with the hope of helping the criterion and product improvement of manual wheelchairs.

  16. Biomechanics and the wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, C A; Brubaker, C E

    1991-04-01

    Wheelchair biomechanics involves the study of how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility. Because a wheelchair can coast, power input need not be continuous, but each power strike can be followed by a period of recovery, with the stroking frequency depending on user preferences and the coasting characteristics of the wheelchair. The latter is described in terms of rolling resistance, wind resistance and the slope of the surface. From these three factors the power required to propel the wheelchair is determined, and must be matched by the power output of the user. The efficiency of propulsion is the ratio of this power output to the metabolic cost and is typically in the order of 5% in normal use. The features required in a wheelchair depend upon user characteristics and intended activities. The ideal wheelchair for an individual will have the features that closely match these characteristics and activities. Thus prescription is not just choosing a wheelchair, but choosing the components of the wheelchair that best serve the intended purpose. In this paper, each component is examined for available options and how these options effect the performance of the wheelchair for the individual. The components include wheels, tyres, castors, frames, bearings, materials, construction details, seats, backrests, armrests, foot and legrests, headrests, wheel locks, running brakes, handrims, levers, accessories, adjustments and detachable parts. Each component is considered in relation to performance characteristics including rolling resistance, versatility, weight, comfort, stability, maneouvrability, transfer, stowage, durability and maintenance. Where they exist, wheelchair standards are referred to as a source of information regarding these characteristics.

  17. Early motor learning changes in upper-limb dynamics and shoulder complex loading during handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, R.J.K.; Hartog, J.; De Groot, S.; Lamoth, C.J.; Bekker, M.J.; Van der Scheer, J.W.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To propel in an energy-efficient manner, handrim wheelchair users must learn to control the bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. Previous studies have found an increase in mechanical efficiency due to motor learning associated with ch

  18. Early motor learning changes in upper-limb dynamics and shoulder complex loading during handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Hartog, Johanneke; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Bekker, Michel J; van der Scheer, Jan W; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To propel in an energy-efficient manner, handrim wheelchair users must learn to control the bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. Previous studies have found an increase in mechanical efficiency due to motor learning associated with c

  19. Early motor learning changes in upper-limb dynamics and shoulder complex loading during handrim wheelchair propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Hartog, Johanneke; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J.; Bekker, Michel J.; van der Scheer, Jan W.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To propel in an energy-efficient manner, handrim wheelchair users must learn to control the bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. Previous studies have found an increase in mechanical efficiency due to motor learning associated with c

  20. Biomechanics and Physiology for Propelling Wheelchair Uphill Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Lee, Hokyoo; Ueda, Hisatoshi; Yoneda, Ikuo; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    A vertical slope of sidewalks significantly inhibits to the mobility of manual wheelchair users in their daily life. International guidelines of the vertical slope are specified approximately 4% or 5% (1:20) gradient or less as preferred, and allow 8.3% (1:12) as its maximum when it is impossible. Relevant research of the physical strain for wheelchair users with pushing on slopes, and the validity assessment of slope guidelines have been investigated. However, the analysis for the effect of a slope distance and their transient performance are still remained. The purpose of this study is to clarify the physiological and biomechanical characteristics of manual wheelchair users that propelling a wheelchair on an uphill slope. We measured these data by a metabolic analysis system, a heart rate monitor system and an instrumented wheelchair wheel. Sixteen unimpaired subjects (non-wheelchair users) were examined to investigate the effect of a long slope with 120m distance and 8% gradient. And five wheelchair users with cervical cord injury were examined to evaluate the influence of different gradients (5%, 6.7%, 8.3%, 10% and 12.5%) with 3m length in laboratory. Our experimental results of the long slope showed that wheelchair propulsion velocity and power increased considerably at the beginning of the slope where the peak mean value of them were 0.96 m/s and 70.8W and they decreased linearly to 0.55m/s and 33.6W at final interval. A mean oxygen uptake and heart rate were increased as the distance increased and their results indicated the extremely high exercise intensity at a final interval that were 1.2liter /min and 152bpm. While wheelchair pushing cadence reduced after an initial interval, mean of strokes per10m increased to compensate the decrease of upper limb's power. The results of different gradients indicated that the normalized power of subjects with cervical cord injury was significant difference between each subject in the ability to climb a slope. Mean

  1. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... wheelchair. (a) Identification. A mechanical wheelchair is a manually operated device with wheels that...

  2. Quality Testing and Analysis of Manual Wheelchairs:Based on ISO 7176-8%基于ISO 7176-8的手动轮椅车测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷慧茹; 单新颖; 闫和平

    2014-01-01

    目的:检测我国生产轮椅车的质量参数。方法选取20辆轮椅车按照国际标准ISO 7176-8,完成静态强度、冲击强度和疲劳强度测试。结果最终8辆轮椅车通过质量检测。结论轮椅车质量关键点是疲劳强度数据。%Objective To measure the quality of manual wheelchairs made in China. Methods 20 wheelchairs was tested with ISO 7176-8, focused on the static strength, impact strength and fatigue strength. Results 8 (40%) wheelchairs passed the test. Conclusion The fa-tigue strength is the key factor of the wheelchair quality.

  3. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rory A; De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-08-01

    Wheelchair sports are an important tool in the rehabilitation of people with severe chronic disabilities and have been a driving force for innovation in technology and practice. In this paper, we will present an overview of the adaptive technology used in Paralympic sports with a special focus on wheeled technology and the impact of design on performance (defined as achieving the greatest level of athletic ability and minimizing the risk of injury). Many advances in manual wheelchairs trace their origins to wheelchair sports. Features of wheelchairs that were used for racing and basketball 25 or more years ago have become integral to the manual wheelchairs that people now use every day; moreover, the current components used on ultralight wheelchairs also have benefitted from technological advances developed for sports wheelchairs. For example, the wheels now used on chairs for daily mobility incorporate many of the components first developed for sports chairs. Also, advances in manufacturing and the availability of aerospace materials have driven current wheelchair design and manufacture. Basic principles of sports wheelchair design are universal across sports and include fit; minimizing weight while maintaining high stiffness; minimizing rolling resistance; and optimizing the sports-specific design of the chair. However, a well-designed and fitted wheelchair is not sufficient for optimal sports performance: the athlete must be well trained, skilled, and use effective biomechanics because wheelchair athletes face some unique biomechanical challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Group, Allrisc; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inactive manual wheelchair use

  5. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  6. Development of a wheelchair maintenance training programme and questionnaire for clinicians and wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Bird, Emily; Oyster, Michelle; Worobey, Lynn; Lain, Michael; Bucior, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Purpose of state: The aims of this study were to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Programme (WMTP) as a tool for clinicians to teach wheelchair users (and caregivers when applicable) in a group setting to perform basic maintenance at home in the USA and to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Questionnaire (WMT-Q) to evaluate wheelchair maintenance knowledge in clinicians, manual and power wheelchair users. The WMTP and WMT-Q were developed through an iterative process. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 17), manual wheelchair (n ∞ 5), power wheelchair users (n = 4) and caregivers (n = 4) provided feedback on the training programme. A convenience sample of clinicians (n = 38), manual wheelchair (n = 25), and power wheelchair users (n = 30) answered the WMT-Q throughout different phases of development. The subscores of the WMT-Q achieved a reliability that ranged between ICC(3,1) = 0.48 to ICC(3,1) = 0.89. The WMTP and WMT-Q were implemented with 15 clinicians who received in-person training in the USA using the materials developed and showed a significant increase in all except one of the WMT-Q subscores after the WMTP (p maintenance knowledge. Implications for Rehabilitation The Wheelchair Maintenance Training Program can be used to educate rehabilitation clinicians and technicians to improve wheelchair service and delivery to end users. This training complements the World Health Organization basic wheelchair service curriculum, which only includes training of the clinicians, but does not include detailed information to train wheelchair users and caregivers. This training program offers a time efficient method for providing education to end users in a group setting that may mitigate adverse consequences resulting from wheelchair breakdown. This training program has significant potential for impact among wheelchair users in areas where access to repair services is limited.

  7. A web-based electronic patient record (ePR) system for data integration in movement analysis research on wheel-chair users to minimize shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Requejo, Philip; Sutisna, Erry; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Margaret; McNitt-Gray, Sarah; Ruparel, Puja; Liu, Brent J.

    2012-02-01

    Patients confined to manual wheel-chairs are at an added risk of shoulder injury. There is a need for developing optimal bio-mechanical techniques for wheel-chair propulsion through movement analysis. Data collected is diverse and in need of normalization and integration. Current databases are ad-hoc and do not provide flexibility, extensibility and ease of access. The need for an efficient means to retrieve specific trial data, display it and compare data from multiple trials is unmet through lack of data association and synchronicity. We propose the development of a robust web-based ePR system that will enhance workflow and facilitate efficient data management.

  8. Simulation model of a lever-propelled wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Ota, Yuki; Hase, Kazunori; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair efficiency depends significantly on the individual adjustment of the wheelchair propulsion interface. Wheelchair prescription involves reconfiguring the wheelchair to optimize it for specific user characteristics. Wheelchair tuning procedure is a complicated task that is performed usually by experienced rehabilitation engineers. In this study, we report initial results from the development of a musculoskeletal model of the wheelchair lever propulsion. Such a model could be used for the development of new advanced wheelchair approaches that allow wheelchair designers and practitioners to explore virtually, on a computer, the effects of the intended settings of the lever-propulsion interface. To investigate the lever-propulsion process, we carried out wheelchair lever propulsion experiments where joint angle, lever angle and three-directional forces and moments applied to the lever were recorded during the execution of defined propulsion motions. Kinematic and dynamic features of lever propulsion motions were extracted from the recorded data to be used for the model development. Five healthy male adults took part in these initial experiments. The analysis of the collected kinematic and dynamic motion parameters showed that lever propulsion is realized by a cyclical three-dimensional motion of upper extremities and that joint torque for propulsion is maintained within a certain range. The synthesized propulsion model was verified by computer simulation where the measured lever-angles were compared with the angles generated by the developed model simulation. Joint torque amplitudes were used to impose the torque limitation to the model joints. The results evidenced that the developed model can simulate successfully basic lever propulsion tasks such as pushing and pulling the lever.

  9. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  10. Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emma; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Obaga, Immaculate; Onguti, Brenda; Rivera, Adovich; Sy, Tyrone Reden L.; Kirby, R. Lee; Noon, Jamie; Tanuku, Deepti; Gichangi, Anthony; Bazant, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study’s purpose was to describe wheelchair users’ experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and pe...

  11. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  12. A fundamental model of quasi-static wheelchair biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, M; Gruijters, J; Mazur, M; Subic, A; Burton, M; Fuss, F K

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a wheelchair system is a function of user anatomy, including arm segment lengths and muscle parameters, and wheelchair geometry, in particular, seat position relative to the wheel hub. To quantify performance, researchers have proposed a number of predictive models. In particular, the model proposed by Richter is extremely useful for providing initial analysis as it is simple to apply and provides insight into the peak and transient joint torques required to achieve a given angular velocity. The work presented in this paper identifies and corrects a critical error; specifically that the Richter model incorrectly predicts that shoulder torque is due to an anteflexing muscle moment. This identified error was confirmed analytically, graphically and numerically. The authors have developed a corrected, fundamental model which identifies that the shoulder anteflexes only in the first half of the push phase and retroflexes in the second half. The fundamental model has been extended by the authors to obtain novel data on joint and net power as a function of push progress. These outcomes indicate that shoulder power is positive in the first half of the push phase (concentrically contracting anteflexors) and negative in the second half (eccentrically contracting retroflexors). As the eccentric contraction introduces adverse negative power, these considerations are essential when optimising wheelchair design in terms of the user's musculoskeletal system. The proposed fundamental model was applied to assess the effect of vertical seat position on joint torques and power. Increasing the seat height increases the peak positive (concentric) shoulder and elbow torques while reducing the associated (eccentric) peak negative torque. Furthermore, the transition from positive to negative shoulder torque (as well as from positive to negative power) occurs later in the push phase with increasing seat height. These outcomes will aid in the optimisation of manual

  13. Accessibilities of Wheelchair Users to Cross the Gaps and Steps between Platforms and Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Ikuo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Sueda, Osamu

    Gaps and steps between platforms and trains reduce the accessibility and mobility of people with wheelchairs in railway transportations. Using an experimental platform, the observations are performed how gaps and steps influence their capabilities for manual wheelchair or electric powered wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. A quantity of Normalized Driving Force (NDF) is introduced to evaluate the manual wheelchair user's abilities in the case of getting on or off the trains. Three types of electric powered wheelchairs are also tested under the same experimental conditions as the manual wheelchair. The dynamic wheelchair driving force is measured by using a torque meter equipped on a wheelchair to analyze the required force when getting on the trains. To improve practical accessibility of such people, an assistive device for boarding the trains is designed and its effect is verified.

  14. Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Obaga, Immaculate; Onguti, Brenda; Rivera, Adovich; Sy, Tyrone Reden L; Kirby, R Lee; Noon, Jamie; Tanuku, Deepti; Gichangi, Anthony; Bazant, Eva

    2017-08-17

    The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines. Local researchers in Nairobi and Manila interviewed 48 adult basic wheelchair users, with even distribution of those who had and had not received wheelchair services along with their wheelchair. Recordings were transcribed in the local language and translated into English. The study team coded transcripts for predetermined and emergent themes, using Atlas-ti software. A qualitative content analysis approach was taken with the WHO service delivery process as an organizing framework. Wheelchair users frequently described past experiences with ill-fitting wheelchairs and little formal training to use wheelchairs effectively. Through exposure to multiple wheelchairs and self-advocacy, they learned to select wheelchairs suitable for their needs. Maintenance and repair services were often in short supply. Participants attributed shorter duration of wheelchair use to lack of repair. Peer support networks emerged as an important source of knowledge, resources and emotional support. Most participants acknowledged that they received wheelchairs that would have been difficult or impossible for them to pay for, and despite challenges, they were grateful to have some means of mobility. Four themes emerged as critical for understanding the implementation of wheelchair services: barriers in the physical environment, the need for having multiple chairs to improve access, perceived social stigma, and the importance of peer support. Interventions are needed to

  15. All-terrain self-leveling wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Andrew; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Limited mobility is something that affects approximately 6.8 million Americans. Approximately 1.7 million are using wheelchairs or scooters of some kind to enhance mobility. Everyday obstacles present a challenge to those in a wheelchair. Also, outdoor environments such as campsites, lakes, or even grass fields provide additional challenges for those with limited mobility. This project provides a solution to some of the limitations faced by those in wheelchairs. The wheels and tires of the wheelchair allow navigation through most terrains such as grass, gravel, and sand. Furthermore, as a wheelchair climbs or descends a hill it becomes unstable and the user risks tipping the wheelchair causing injury or even death. The self-leveling wheelchair uses an accelerometer to determine its angle of inclination and depending on user interface choices will display the angle or raise the seat with linear actuators to keep the seat level. This will keep the center of gravity towards the front of the chair when going up a hill and towards the back of the chair when going down a hill. This enhanced stability will give the user the confidence and ability to go places where most traditional wheelchairs can not. The chair has the ability to self-level at up to 45 degree and can provide a manual lift of 6 inches. The design presented in this report is patent pending.

  16. Talking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Communication is made possible for disabled individuals by means of an electronic system, developed at Stanford University's School of Medicine, which produces highly intelligible synthesized speech. Familiarly known as the "talking wheelchair" and formally as the Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP). Wheelchair mounted system consists of a word processor, a video screen, a voice synthesizer and a computer program which instructs the synthesizer how to produce intelligible sounds in response to user commands. Computer's memory contains 925 words plus a number of common phrases and questions. Memory can also store several thousand other words of the user's choice. Message units are selected by operating a simple switch, joystick or keyboard. Completed message appears on the video screen, then user activates speech synthesizer, which generates a voice with a somewhat mechanical tone. With the keyboard, an experienced user can construct messages as rapidly as 30 words per minute.

  17. Airline Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  18. Effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving the wheelchair skills capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Lin; Wang, Wei; Du, He-Ping; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xu, Yan-Bing; Li, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To comprehensively assess the effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving wheelchair skills capacity. PubMed, OVID, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were searched up to March 2017. Controlled clinical trials that compared a wheelchair skills training program with a control group that received other interventions and used the wheelchair skills test scores to evaluate wheelchair skills capacity were included. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool in randomized controlled trial (RCT) and methodological index for non-randomized studies. The data results of wheelchair skills test scores were extracted. Data from 455 individuals in 10 RCTs and from 140 participants in seven non-randomized studies were included for meta-analysis using Stata version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). In the short term (immediately to one week) post-intervention, relative to a control group, manual wheelchair skills training could increase the total wheelchair skills test scores by 13.26% in RCTs (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.19%-20.34%; P skills training and the long-term (3-12 months) advantage of manual wheelchair skills training ( P = 0.755). The limited evidence suggests that wheelchair skills training program is beneficial in the short term, but its long-term effects remain unclear.

  19. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  20. Biomechanical Model for Evaluation of Pediatric Upper Extremity Joint Dynamics during Wheelchair Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair ...

  1. Análise diacrônica e sincrônica da cadeira de rodas mecanomanual Dyachronous and synchronous analysis of the manual mechanic standard turnable wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Bertoncello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo discute a evolução tanto histórica (análise diacrônica quanto atual (análise sincrônica da cadeira de rodas mecanomanual padrão dobrável - no Centro-Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil -, segundo as técnicas analíticas de Gui Bonsiepe et al. (1984. Tal estudo revela uma parte dos produtos destinados aos portadores de deficiência, pouco estudada tanto na área da Saúde como na de Tecnologia. No início apresenta uma classificação segundo o grau de complexidade tecnológica e na conclusão mostra que existe, hoje, uma lacuna na oferta de cadeira de rodas. Esta lacuna representa um nicho de mercado não conquistado pelas empresas fabricantes desse produto.This study discusses either the historical (dyachronous analysis or the current (synchronous analysis evolution of the manual mechanic standard turnable wheelchair, in the Center-west of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, according to the analytic techniques by Gui Bonsiepe et al. (1984. It reveals a part of the products destined to the handcaps, rarely studied either in the Health or in the Technological area. It begins presenting a classification according to the degree of technological complexity and it concludes showing that nowadays there is a gap in this wheelchair group. This gap represents a market niche, which has not been conquered by the manufacturing companies of wheelchairs.

  2. Employees Who Use Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Wheelchair Users How many people use wheelchairs? There are an estimated 1.4 million wheelchair users in ... nursing homes, curbing the number of cumulative trauma disorders in the ... are currently no specific federal requirements regarding ergonomics for ...

  3. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview

  4. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview tra

  5. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview tra

  6. Mechanical efficiency and wheelchair performance during and after spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S; Dallmeijer, A J; van Asbeck, F W A; Post, M W M; Bussmann, J B J; van der Woude, L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether mechanical efficiency (ME) relates to wheelchair propulsion capacity and wheelchair performance tasks during and after rehabilitation of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Eighty participants with a SCI were tested during rehabilitatio

  7. Keep on rolling: functional evaluation of power-assisted wheelchair use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke Geertruida Maria

    2016-01-01

    Prototype of newly developed power-assisted wheelchair wheels were evaluated to determine their potential alleviating value on shoulder load, daily activities and participation compared to hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Five research questions were answered: 1. What is the current knowledge of pow

  8. The consequences of shoulder pain intensity on quality of life and community participation in paraplegic wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nulle A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Shoulder overuse due weight-bearing loads – wheelchair propulsion and transfers – are supposed to cause shoulder pain in active wheelchair users. Consequently, shoulder pain has been found to have a high prevalence in the spinal cord-injured population. Severity of pain levels in individuals with spinal cord injury has been shown to impact quality of life. Aim of this study was to describe the consequences of shoulder pain intensity on quality of life, physical activity, and community activities in spinal cord-injured paraplegic wheelchair users. Materials and Methods: It was a qualitative, analytical one moment study where was involved persons after spinal cord injury below Th1 with lower paraplegia, who used manually operated wheelchairs for mobility at least 50% of the time. Main outcomes measure: SF-36textregistered Health Survey, Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Community Activities Checklist, Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index, Functional Independence Measure, Goniometry for shoulder joint. Results and analysis: 40 participants (9 female, 31 male after spinal cord injury (SCI, mean age – 30,8 years, one to twenty years after spinal cord injury. 20 participants had pain in shoulder, 20 participants without pain in shoulder. The intensity of shoulder pain was not related to duration of SCI or the duration of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain intensity scores were inversely related to quality of life. There was a moderate, inverse relationship between shoulder pain intensity and physical activity. There was no relationship, however, between shoulder pain intensity and community activities. The level of community activity was positively related to quality of life. Conclusions: Persons with spinal cord injury who reported lower subjective quality of life and physical activity scores experienced significantly higher levels of shoulder pain. Shoulder pain intensity did not relate to

  9. The impact of the World Health Organization 8-steps in wheelchair service provision in wheelchair users in a less resourced setting: a cohort study in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background For people who have a mobility impairment, access to an appropriate wheelchair is an important step towards social inclusion and participation. The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less Resourced Settings emphasize the eight critical steps for appropriate wheelchair services, which include: referral, assessment, prescription, funding and ordering, product preparation,fitting and adjusting, user training, and follow-up and maintenance/r...

  10. The impact of the World Health Organization 8-steps in wheelchair service provision in wheelchair users in a less resourced setting: a cohort study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Maria L; Eke, Chika; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2016-01-22

    For people who have a mobility impairment, access to an appropriate wheelchair is an important step towards social inclusion and participation. The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Provision of Manual Wheelchairs in Less Resourced Settings emphasize the eight critical steps for appropriate wheelchair services, which include: referral, assessment, prescription, funding and ordering, product preparation,fitting and adjusting, user training, and follow-up and maintenance/repairs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the provision of wheelchairs according to the World Health Organization's service provision process by United Cerebral Palsy Wheels for Humanity in Indonesia affects wheelchair recipients compared to wait-listed controls. This study used a convenience sample (N = 344) of Children, Children with proxies, Adults, and Adults with proxies who were on a waiting list to receive a wheelchair as well as those who received one. Interviews were conducted at baseline and a 6 month follow-up to collect the following data: Demographics and wheelchair use questions, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, Functional Mobility Assessment, Craig Handicap Assessment Recording Technique Short Form. The Wheelchair Assessment Checklist and Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire were administered at follow up only. 167 participants were on the waiting list and 142 received a wheelchair. Physical health domain in the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF improved significantly for women who received a wheelchair (p = 0.044) and environmental health improved significantly for women and men who received a wheelchair as compared to those on the waiting list (p resourced setting has a range of positive outcomes including increased satisfaction with the mobility device and better quality of life. Wheelchair provision service could be improved by providing more hours of wheelchair skills training. There is a need for outcome

  11. Wheelchair ergonomic hand drive mechanism use improves wrist mechanics associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Roper, Jaimie A; Shechtman, Orit; Otzel, Dana M; Hovis, Patty W; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Among conventional manual wheelchair (CMW) users, 49% to 63% experience carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is likely induced by large forces transmitted through the wrist and extreme wrist orientations. The ergonomic hand drive mechanism (EHDM) tested in this study has been shown to utilize a more neutral wrist orientation. This study evaluates the use of an EHDM in terms of wrist orientations that may predispose individuals to CTS. Eleven adult full-time CMW users with spinal cord injury participated. Motion data were captured as participants propelled across a flat surface, completing five trials in a CMW and five trials in the same CMW fitted with the EHDM. Average angular wrist orientations were compared between the two propulsion styles. Use of the EHDM resulted in reduced wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The shift to more neutral wrist orientations observed with EHDM use may reduce median nerve compression.

  12. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  13. Effect of wheelchair frame material on users' mechanical work and transmitted vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Félix; Aissaoui, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion exposes the user to a high risk of shoulder injury and to whole-body vibration that exceeds recommendations of ISO 2631-1:1997. Reducing the mechanical work required to travel a given distance (WN-WPM, weight-normalized work-per-meter) can help reduce the risk of shoulder injury, while reducing the vibration transmissibility (VT) of the wheelchair frame can reduce whole-body vibration. New materials such as titanium and carbon are used in today's wheelchairs and are advertised to improve both parameters, but current knowledge on this matter is limited. In this study, WN-WPM and VT were measured simultaneously and compared between six folding wheelchairs (1 titanium, 1 carbon, and 4 aluminium). Ten able-bodied users propelled the six wheelchairs on three ground surfaces. Although no significant difference of WN-WPM was found between wheelchairs (P wheelchair had the lowest VT. Contrarily to current belief, the titanium wheelchair VT was similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM.

  14. A computerized wheelchair ergometer. Results of a comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1992-01-01

    To determine the validity of propulsion simulation on a stationary wheelchair ergometer, nine male able-bodied subjects performed submaximal exercise tests on the ergometer and on a motor driven treadmill (MDT). Oxygen uptake, ventilation and stroke parameters were equal for both devices, but heart

  15. Wheelchair prescription guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisa, J A; Greenberg, S

    1982-04-01

    Few physicians are familiar with the components of wheelchairs. Consequently, they may prescribe wheelchairs that limit or impair their patients' functional abilities. Correct ordering requires use of catalogs, patient measurements, assessment of functional needs and a knowledge of the available modifications and accessories. Consultation with a rehabilitation specialist may be required for patients with special needs.

  16. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing

  17. Distribution and cost of wheelchairs and scooters provided by Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Sandra L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Vogel, Bruce; Reker, Dean M; Cooper, Rory A; Boninger, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    During fiscal years 2000 and 2001, the Veterans Health Administration provided veterans with more than 131,000 wheelchairs and scooters at a cost of $109 million. This national study is the first to investigate Veterans Health Administration costs in providing wheelchairs and scooters and to compare regional prescription patterns. With a retrospective design, we used descriptive methods to analyze fiscal years 2000 and 2001 National Prosthetics Patient Database data (cleaned data set of 113,724 records). Wheelchairs were categorized by function, weight, and adjustability options for meeting individual needs (e.g., axle position, camber, position of wheels, tilt, and recline options). Results displayed a cost distribution that was negatively skewed by low-cost accessories coded as wheelchairs. Of the standard manual wheelchairs, 3.5% could be considered beyond the customary cost. Regionally, 71% to 86% of all wheelchairs provided were manual wheelchairs, 5% to 11% were power wheelchairs, and 5% to 20% were scooters. The considerable variation found in the types of wheelchairs and scooters provided across Veterans Integrated Service Networks may indicate a need for evidence-based prescription guidelines and clinician training in wheeled-mobility technologies.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of powered wheelchairs: findings of a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Renzo; Salatino, Claudia; Converti, Rosa Maria; Saruggia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed a sample of 79 wheelchair users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from the National Health Service in an Italian Region in the period 2008-2013. The wheelchair prescriptions had been done on the basis of an assessment protocol agreed with the Local Health Authority. Follow-up interviews were carried out at the users' homes, in order to collect information about the wheelchair use and its effectiveness, usefulness and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire (describing the wheelchair use), the QUEST (measuring the user's satisfaction), the PIADS (measuring the psychosocial impact, in terms of perceived changes in ability, adaptability and self-esteem), the FABS/M (detecting environmental facilitators and barriers) and the SCAI (estimating the economic impact). Overall, positive outcomes were detected for most users, especially in relation to their satisfaction and the psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings (at home, in public places, in natural spaces, in public transportation) that sometimes restrict the user mobility and thus may claim for corrective actions. Several environmental factors acting as facilitators were also identified. In relation to the economic impact, the provision of a powered wheelchair generated remarkable savings in social costs for most of the users, on average about 36.000 Euros per person on a projected 5-years span. This estimate results from the comparison between the social cost of the intervention (sum of the costs of all material and human resources involved in the provision and usage of the wheelchair) and the cost of non-intervention (the presumed social cost incurred in case no powered wheelchair had been provided and the user had to carry on with just a manual wheelchair). The study was also an opportunity to develop and try out a follow-up method that proved applicable within service delivery practice.

  19. Employees Who Use Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dystrophy, lower limb spasticity from cerebral palsy, and missing limbs due to amputation. What types of wheelchairs ... and lower shelves and drawers Page turners and book holders for a person who cannot manipulate paper ...

  20. Children in wheelchairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wisbeach, A; Holt, K S

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five families replied to a questionnaire about the use of their disabled children's wheelchairs. Many problems were found, such as difficulty in folding the chair and placing it in the car boot and difficulty in using pulbic transport. These families need adequate guidance to anticipate and deal with the problems. Provision of a wheelchair does not solve the mobility problems. The parents are faced with the task of transporting both the disabled child and the wheelch...

  1. Factors associated with provision of wheelchairs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Amol M; Dicianno, Brad E; Graham, James E; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to identify the factors that are associated with prescription of wheeled mobility devices for older adults, and to determine the effect that living setting has on the types of devices that older adults receive. Retrospective medical chart review at the Center for Assistive Technology on 337 older individuals. These individuals were aged >60 years, and each of them received a new wheeled mobility device from the center during 2007 or 2008. Data were analyzed in three tiers: tier 1 (manual versus powered mobility devices); tier 2 (motorized scooters versus power wheelchairs); and tier 3 (customized versus standard power wheelchairs). For tier 1, the factor associated with higher odds for receipt of manual wheelchairs versus powered were: cognitive limitations (OR = .03). For tier 2, diagnosis of cardio-vascular and pulmonary conditions were associated with prescription of motorized scooters (OR = 3.9). For tier 3, neurological conditions (OR = 3.1), male gender (OR = .37), institutional living (OR = .23), and lower age (OR = .96) were associated with receipt of customized power wheelchairs. This study objectively describes factors associated with prescription of wheeled mobility for older adults. This information can aid in development of guidelines and improving standards of practice for prescription of wheelchairs for older adults.

  2. A robotic wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.; Grant, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Many people who are mobility impaired are incapable, for a variety of reasons, of using an ordinary wheelchair. These people must rely on either a power wheelchair, which they control, or another person to push and guide them while they are in an ordinary or power wheelchair. Power wheelchairs can be difficult to operate. If a person has additional disabilities, either in perception or fine motor control of their hands, a power chair can be difficult or impossible for them to use safely. Having one person push and guide a person who is mobility impaired is very expensive, and if the disabled person is otherwise independent, very inefficient and frustrating. This paper describes a low-cost robotic addition to a power wheelchair that assists the rider of the chair in avoiding obstacles, going to pre-designated places, and maneuvering through doorways and other narrow or crowded areas. This system can be interfaced to a variety of input devices, and can give the operator as much or as little moment by moment control of the chair as they wish.

  3. Is any wheelchair better than no wheelchair? A Zimbabwean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within a rights-based paradigm, wheelchairs are essential in the promotion of user autonomy, dignity, freedom, inclusion and participation. Objectives: This paper aimed to describe a group of Zimbabwean wheelchair users’ satisfaction with wheelchairs, wheelchair services and wheelchair function. Method: A mixed method, descriptive study was done. Quantitative data was collected from 94 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who accessed wheelchair services at 16 clinics in five Zimbabwean provinces between October 2013 and February 2014, using the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through two focus group discussions (22 participants and two case studies with participants purposively sampled from those who participated in the quantitative phase. Results: More than 60% of participants were dissatisfied with the following wheelchair features: durability (78.6%, weight (75.6%, ease of adjustment (69.1%, effectiveness (69.0%, safety (66.7%, reliability (66.7%, and meeting user needs (60.6%. Similarly, more than 66% of participants were dissatisfied with various services aspects: professional services (69.0%, follow-up (67.0%, and service delivery (68.3%. Although 60% of participants agreed that the wheelchair contributed to specific functions, more than 50% of participants indicated that the features of the wheelchair did not allow in- (53.2% and outdoor (52.7% mobility.Conclusion: Findings indicate high levels of dissatisfaction with wheelchair features and services, as well as mobility. It is recommended that policy and minimum service standards which incorporate evidence and good practice guidelines for wheelchair services and management of wheelchair donations are developed for Zimbabwe.

  4. A five-wheel wheelchair with an active-caster drive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Yu; Tanaka, Aki; Wada, Masayoshi

    2013-06-01

    A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel axis and a steering axis of a drive wheel independently are equipped on the active-caster. A coordinated control of the two motors enables the velocity vector on the steering shaft to direct in an arbitrary direction with an arbitrary magnitude. The generated velocity vector allows a wheelchair to go straight and/or rotate completely in a same way as a standard electric wheelchair. Namely 2DOF of the wheelchair can be controlled independently by a single drive wheel without any constraint, such as the orientation of the drive wheel which is well known as a non-holonomic constraint. In addition to the 2DOF mobility, the proposed system enables wheelchair users to change drive modes, a rear drive and a front drive. The drive wheel on the back side of the wheelchair is vertically actuated by a linear motor to change the height of the drive wheel that can vary load distribution and the number of wheels contacting to the ground. The five-wheel-contact makes the wheelchair to move as the normal mode in which the center of rotation is located at the midpoint of the main wheels. Depressing the drive wheel results in lost contacts of the main wheels from the ground in which the center of rotation is jumped at the midpoint of the front wheels, namely it performs as a front drive wheelchair. In this paper, kinematic models of the wheelchair and that with an active-caster drive system are analyzed and a control method by using a 2DOF joystick is derived. Based on the kinematic model, a prototype mechanism of the active-caster is designed and mounted on a manual wheelchair to realize the five-wheel wheelchair. In the experiments, the independent 2

  5. An experimental method for measuring the moment of inertia of an electric power wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwu; Grindle, Garrett G; Connor, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A

    2007-01-01

    This study describe an experiment measuring the moment of inertia of an electric powered wheelchair (EPW) using a torsional pendulum method. Inertia of the wheelchair is an important factor for control, which is a key issue in wheelchair driving. The experimental test platform consisted of a bottom circular wood plate, an upper metal plate, and four ropes. Materials with known moments of inertia such as the metal disk and cylinder were used to test the accuracy of the system. The EPW used in the experiment was Invacare G3 Torque SP Storm Series. The measured result of the moment inertia of the wheelchair was 5.2280 kg.m(2) and the errors of the system are less than 10% even when the object is only 25lbs. The results are consistent when compared with other approximate methods. In addition, the experimental method could be used to measure the moment of inertia of manual wheelchairs and other irregular objects.

  6. Immediate video feedback on ramp, wheelie, and curb wheelchair skill training for persons with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tai Wang, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the effects of immediate video feedback (IVF on training ramp, wheelie, and curb wheelchair skills for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI would be equivalent to or better than the traditional wheelchair skill training. Participants were manual wheelchair users with recent SCI (thoracic 1–lumbar 1 who were matched (9 pairs on motor function level, age, and sex and randomly assigned to a control group (conventional training or an experimental group (IVF training. Participants learned three wheelchair skills and then went through the wheelchair skill competency test, retention test, and transfer test. Paired t-tests were used to examine the differences in training time (minutes, spotter intervention needed (counts, and successful rate in performance between the two groups. A 2 (groups x 3 (skills x 3 (tests repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni adjustment test were used to examine differences between groups on wheelchair skills and tests. No differences were found between two groups in training times (minutes on three wheelchair skills (experimental vs control: ramp 14.92 +/– 5.80 vs 11.69 +/– 7.85, wheelie 17.79 +/– 6.03 vs 19.92 +/– 13.42, and curb 38.35 +/–23.01 vs 48.59 +/– 15.21. This study demonstrated that IVF for training manual wheelchair skills may produce similar results as the conventional training and may be an alternative training method for wheelchair skills.

  7. Análisis de la fuerza isométrica en la propulsión y tracción en slalom en silla de ruedas y su relación con el rendimiento y la clasificación funcional. [Isometric force in wheelchair slalom during traction and propulsion and their relationship with performance and functional classification].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Reina

    2013-10-01

    profiles of the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association, took part in the study (5 ♂ and 4 ♀. Participants performed two maximal isometric force tests (propulsion and traction with their competition wheelchairs in which maximum force (Fmax, average force (Fmed, execution time and time used to reach different Fmax percentages were recorded. In addition, participants carried out two specific performance tests: a 16 m linear sprint with an inversion door after 8 m; and two 4 m linear displacements with a zig-zag round trip. The measured variable was execution time using photocell gates. Significant differences were found between D3 and D4 in propulsion tests for Fmax (p = 0,007 and Fmean (p = 0,002, being this last one higher. Significant statistical differences were found between D2 and D3 in specific performance tests (inversion: p = 0,034 and zig-zag: p = 0,010, being D3 the quickest group. Results show a non-linear relationship between classification divisions and the performance.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03402

  8. Concussions in wheelchair basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Karla K; Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the incidence rate of concussions in wheelchair basketball. Survey. Wheelchair basketball tournaments during the 2009 to 2010 season. Wheelchair basketball players (N=263) ranging in age from 18 to 60 years. Not applicable. Participants completed a survey on their concussion history including how many concussions they have sustained, how many days they refrained from physical activity because of injury, to whom they reported their injury, and reasons for not reporting an injury if they did not. Participants also provided demographic information about their disability, age, sex, and length of wheelchair use and sports participation. Within the sample of 263 wheelchair basketball players, 6.1% reported experiencing a concussion in the current season. Of those experiencing concussions during the current season, 44% did not report their concussion. Of those not reporting the incident, 67% did not because they did not want to be removed from physical activity. Analysis by sex indicated that 5.82% of the male athletes sustained a concussion during the current season, and 14.36% had sustained an injury during their athletic career. Female athletes, however, sustained concussions at a higher rate, with 6.67% having concussions during the current season and 30.6% during their athletic careers. Women were also 2.5 times more likely to sustain a concussion than men. Athletes were most likely to report their concussion to their coach (60% of concussed athletes). The current investigation was consistent with previous research in that women were more likely to sustain a concussion than men, and injury rates were similar to those in able-bodied basketball. Further work is needed in concussion assessment in persons with disability, as well as greater education concerning concussion in disability sports. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Not your parent's wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Deborah I

    2004-01-01

    A pediatric wheelchair is indeed a smaller seating system mounted over a mobility base that helps a child get from point A to point B. The important thing to recognize is that the child is every day learning new things about how he or she fits in with the world. That child is making friends and exploring the playground and going to music or art class. He or she may be starting and ending the day with a parent, but midday is spent interacting with the school's bus driver, teachers, counselor, and therapists. It is the responsibility of the rehab specialist to make sure that, while using a wheelchair to get from point A to point B in all of these different settings and with all of these different people, that disability does not slow the child down.

  10. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  11. RESNA Wheelchair Service Provision Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arledge, Stan; Armstrong, William; Babinec, Mike; Dicianno, Brad E.; Digiovine, Carmen; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Pederson, Jessica; Piriano, Julie; Plummer, Teresa; Rosen, Lauren; Schmeler, Mark; Shea, Mary; Stogner, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Wheelchair Service Provision Guide is to provide an appropriate framework for identifying the essential steps in the provision of a wheelchair. It is designed for use by all participants in the provision process including consumers, family members, caregivers, social service and health care professionals, suppliers,…

  12. Biomechanical model for evaluation of pediatric upper extremity joint dynamics during wheelchair mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Slavens, Brooke A; Wang, Mei; Vogel, Lawrence C; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2014-01-03

    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair mobility using a SmartWheel instrumented handrim system. The bilateral model comprises thorax, clavicle, scapula, upper arm, forearm, and hand segments and includes the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow and wrist joints. A single 17 year-old male with a C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated while propelling his wheelchair across a 15-meter walkway. The subject exhibited wrist extension angles up to 60°, large elbow ranges of motion and peak glenohumeral joint forces up to 10% body weight. Statistically significant asymmetry of the wrist, elbow, glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints was detected by the model. As demonstrated, the custom bilateral UE pediatric model may provide considerable quantitative insight into UE joint dynamics to improve wheelchair prescription, training, rehabilitation and long-term care of children with orthopedic disabilities. Further research is warranted to evaluate pediatric wheelchair mobility in a larger population of children with SCI to investigate correlations to pain, function and transitional changes to adulthood. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.

  14. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Giesbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.

  15. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chagas de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with mobility impairments associated with lower limb disabilities often face enormous challenges to participate in routine activities and to move around various environments. For many, the use of wheelchairs is paramount to provide mobility and social inclusion. Nevertheless, they still face a number of challenges to properly function in our society. Among the many difficulties, one in particular stands out: navigating in complex internal environments (indoors. The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also capable of recording CAD drawings of the buildings and dealing with accessibility issues for that population. Methods Overall, five main functional requirements are proposed: the ability to allow for indoor navigation by means of Mobile Augmented Reality techniques; the capacity to register and configure building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers, points of interest and obstacles to be avoided by the wheelchair user; the capacity to find the best route for wheelchair indoor navigation, taking stairs and other obstacles into account; allow for the visualization of virtual directional arrows in the smartphone displays; and incorporate touch or voice commands to interact with the application. The architecture is proposed as a combination of four layers: User interface; Control; Service; and Infrastructure. A proof-of-concept application was developed and tests were performed with disable volunteers operating manual and electric wheelchairs. Results The application was implemented in Java for the Android operational system. A local database was used to store the test building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers and points of interest. The Android Augmented Reality library was used to implement Augmented Reality and the Blender open source

  16. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  17. SYSTHESIC OF TROLLEY CUM WHEELCHAIR FOR PATIENT HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanullah Khan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Handling of patient from hospital bed to CT-Scan, MR Scan, X-Ray, Sonography centre etc is a cumbersome and tedious job. Generally from bed, the patient is moved to trolley manually. Three to four persons lift the patient and keep him on the stretcher. The trolley is moved to lift if necessary. If the lift cannot accommodate, the trolley, the patient is transferred to the ground floor by a nursing staff on a stretcher, and the stretcher is kept on the trolley. Again the trolley takes the patient to ambulance but patient is to be liftedmanually with stretcher and put on ambulance platform. Again at the CT scan centre the patient with stretcher has to be lifted manually for X-Ray or CT scan. The procedure is repeated for moving the patient back to the hospital bed. The manual handling of patient is injurious to the patient as stresses are produced in the body of thepatient, especially in neck, back bone, limb joints etc along with the basic medical problem he has. Improper handling may cause injuries to the patient. Also the nursing staffs who handles patients, faces some health problems like pain in the shoulder, back bone etc. For safety of the patient, the manual handling of patient should be totally eliminated. If trolley cum wheelchair ,with adjustable height is available, once the patient is transferred to the trolley-cum-wheelchair from hospital bed, the patient will not be required to be handled manually till he reaches the CT Scan / X-Raycentre. The paper presents a schematic design of trolley cum wheelchair and discusses its salient features and applications.

  18. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple‐DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four‐axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt‐in‐space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure‐sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  19. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  20. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair. (a) Identification. A standup wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended for medical purposes to...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a) Identification. A powered wheelchair is a battery-operated device with wheels that is intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920 Wheelchair component. (a) Identification. A wheelchair component is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  4. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, pro

  5. Issues for the selection of wheelchair-specific activity and participation outcome measures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C; Auger, Claudine

    2008-06-01

    To use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework to identify and to evaluate wheelchair-specific outcome instruments that are useful for measuring activity and participation. CINHAL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Dissertation Abstracts Medline databases, and conference proceedings. Activity and participation measures that were specifically intended for adults who use wheelchairs and that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal were included in this review. Based on electronic database searches using a variety of search terms, articles were identified by title, and appropriate abstracts were retrieved. Articles were obtained for all relevant abstracts. For peer-reviewed measures included in the review, we obtained any instruction manuals and related publications, frequently published in conference proceedings and theses or available electronically, on the development and testing of the measure. Tools included in the review were evaluated based on their conceptual coverage, reliability, validity, responsiveness, usefulness, and wheelchair contribution, which indicated how well the tool isolated the effect of the wheelchair on activity and participation outcomes. A number of conceptual, psychometric, and applicability issues were identified with the 11 wheelchair-specific measures included in the review. A majority of the measures were mobility focused. No single tool received excellent ratings in all areas of the review. Some of the most frequent issues identified included a failure to account for differences attributable to different wheelchairs and wheelchair seating, limited psychometric testing, and high administrative and respondent burden. Good reliability evidence was reported for most of the measures, but validity information was only available for 6 of the 11 measures, and responsiveness information for 3. This review suggests that these measures could be improved with

  6. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  7. Wheelchair cushions: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, S L

    1985-07-01

    An important objective of occupational therapy practice is to maximise functional potential in patients who have physical disabilities. Pressure sores are a major complication in the medical course of these individuals. Therefore, prevention, or at least the proper management, of these sores becomes an important focus for occupational therapists who treat the physically disabled patient. Occupational therapists often prescribe wheelchair cushions to relieve pressure and reduce the risk of ulceration. Unfortunately, occupational therapy literature offers few articles dealing with this significant problem. This paper presents a historical review of wheelchair cushions and details some of the physiological and clinical research efforts that are the basis of prescription practice today.

  8. Development of Android Based Powered Intelligent Wheelchair for Quadriplegic Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tathagata; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhawna, Shruthi. S.

    2017-08-01

    Several surveys give us the view that both children and adults benefit substantially from access towards independent mobility. With the inventions of technology, no individuals are satisfied with traditional manual operated machines. To accommodate population, researchers are using technology, originally developed for mobile robots to create ‘intelligent wheelchairs’. It’s a major challenge for quadriplegic persons as they really find it difficult to manipulate powered wheelchair during the activities of their daily living. As the Smartphone era has evolved with innovative android based applications, engineers are improving and trying to make such machines simple and cheap to the next level. In this paper, we present a development of android based powered intelligent wheelchair to assist the quadriplegic person by making them self sufficient in controlling the wheelchair. The wheels of the chair can be controlled by the voice or gesture movement or by touching the screen of the android app by the challenged persons. The system uses the Bluetooth communication to interface the microcontroller and the inbuilt sensors in the android Smartphone. According to the commands received from android phone, the kinematics of the wheels are controlled.

  9. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  10. The Ergonomics of Wheelchair Configuration for Optimal Performance in the Wheelchair Court Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has

  11. Getting the Right Wheelchair for Travel: A WC19-Compliant Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.; Schneider, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adults who must remain seated in their wheelchairs while traveling are often at a disadvantage in terms of crash safety. The new voluntary wheelchair industry standard WC19 (short for Section 19 of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards) works to close the safety gap by providing design and performance criteria and test methods to assess…

  12. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  13. The Ergonomics of Wheelchair Configuration for Optimal Performance in the Wheelchair Court Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focu

  14. The Ergonomics of Wheelchair Configuration for Optimal Performance in the Wheelchair Court Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focu

  15. Effects of wheelchair posture on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin-Dreschnack, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Wheelchairs originally were designed to transport people from one place to another quickly and easily. They have evolved to rank among the most important therapeutic devices used in rehabilitation. Currently, an estimated 2.2 million people who use wheelchairs generally are living longer and moving about more. However, the increased use of wheelchairs has been accompanied by many types of adverse events and repetitive stress injuries. Wheelchair prescription, posture, training, and maintenance are critical components of safety in this population, and may be enhanced through increased awareness and education. Since nurses and nursing staff are most often involved directly with wheelchair users (particularly in long-term-care settings), providing specialized programs for adaptive wheelchair fitting allows for a proactive approach to seating problems.

  16. Control of a stair climbing wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Maniha Abdul Ghani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigations into the control of a stair climbing wheelchair particularly for indoor usage. A virtual wheelchair model is developed using Visual Nastran software and linked with Matlab/Simulink for control purposes. The goals are to have a simple, compact and stable stairs climbing wheelchair in order to complete the ascending and descending tasks. The challenges are to ensure the wheelchair seat always stay at the upright position and to control both the front and rear wheel motors while climbing. PID control is used to provide appropriate torque to both front and rear wheels as well as at to the wheelchair seat during climbing. Results show that the wheelchair movement can be controlled smoothly and the seat maintained at the desired position with the adapted approach.

  17. Locomotor-respiratory coupling in wheelchair racing athletes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ePerret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency, respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Methods: Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400m, 800m and 5000m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continu-ously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Results: Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an in-creased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 towards 2:1, and an increase in coupling ratio towards a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000m distance. A significant correlation (r=0.80, p<0.05 between respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400m and the 800m time-trials. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance.

  18. Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling in Wheelchair Racing Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Claudio; Wenger, Martin; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    In wheelchair racing, respiratory muscles of the rib cage are concomitantly involved in non-ventilatory functions during wheelchair propulsion. However, the relationship between locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC: the ratio between push and breathing frequency), respiratory parameters and work efficiency is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LRC in wheelchair racers over different race distances. Eight trained and experienced wheelchair racers completed three time-trials over the distances of 400, 800, and 5000 m on a training roller in randomized order. During the time trials, ventilatory and gas exchange variables as well as push frequency were continuously registered to determine possible LRC strategies. Four different coupling ratios were identified, namely 1:1; 2:1, 3:1 as well as a 1:1/2:1 alternating type, respectively. The 2:1 coupling was the most dominant type. The 1:1/2:1 alternating coupling type was found predominantly during the 400 m time-trial. Longer race distances tended to result in an increased coupling ratio (e.g., from 1:1 toward 2:1), and an increase in coupling ratio toward a more efficient respiration was found over the 5000 m distance. A significant correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.05) between respiratory frequency and the respiratory equivalent for oxygen was found for the 400 m and the 800 m time-trials. These findings suggest that a higher coupling ratio indicates enhanced breathing work efficiency with a concomitant deeper and slower respiration during wheelchair racing. Thus, the selection of an appropriate LRC strategy may help to optimize wheelchair racing performance.

  19. A preliminary model of wheelchair service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Sara L; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Burkitt, Kelly H; Tolerico, Michelle; Switzer, Galen E; Fine, Michael J; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    To integrate and expand on previously published models of wheelchair service delivery, and provide a preliminary framework for developing more comprehensive, descriptive models of wheelchair service delivery for adults with spinal cord injury within the U.S. health care system. Literature review and a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. Not applicable. Ten academic, clinical, regulatory, and industry experts (Department of Veterans Affairs [VA] and non-VA) in wheelchair service delivery. Not applicable. Interviewees were asked to discuss the full range of variables and stakeholders involved in wheelchair service delivery, and to limit their scope to the provision of primary subsequent or replacement chairs (not backup chairs) to adults within the United States. Most experts we interviewed stressed that clients who require a wheelchair play a central role in the wheelchair service delivery process. Providers (including clinicians, rehabilitation engineers, and rehabilitation counselors) are also critical stakeholders. More so than in other health care settings, suppliers play an integral role in the provision of wheelchairs to clients and may significantly influence the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. Suppliers often have a direct role in wheelchair service delivery through their interactions with the clinician and/or client. This model also identified a number of system-level factors (including facility administration and standards, policies, and regulations) that influence wheelchair service delivery and ultimately the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. We developed a detailed, descriptive model of wheelchair service delivery that integrates the delivery process and device outcomes, and includes the patient-level, provider-level, and system-level factors that may directly influence those processes and outcomes. We believe that this detailed model can help clinicians and researchers describe and consider the complexities of wheelchair

  20. Partitioning kinetic energy during freewheeling wheelchair maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto O; Dao, Phuc V; Caspall, Jayme J; Sprigle, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a systematic method to partition the kinetic energy (KE) of a free-wheeling wheelchair. An ultralightweight rigid frame wheelchair was instrumented with two axle-mounted encoders and data acquisition equipment to accurately measure the velocity of the drive wheels. A mathematical model was created combining physical specifications and geometry of the wheelchair and its components. Two able-bodied subjects propelled the wheelchair over four courses that involved straight and turning maneuvers at differing speeds. The KE of the wheelchair was divided into three components: translational, rotational, and turning energy. This technique was sensitive to the changing contributions of the three energy components across maneuvers. Translational energy represented the major component of total KE in all maneuvers except a zero radius turn in which turning energy was dominant. Both translational and rotational energies are directly related to wheelchair speed. Partitioning KE offers a useful means of investigating the dynamics of a moving wheelchair. The described technique permits analysis of KE imparted to the wheelchair during maneuvers involving changes in speed and direction, which are most representative of mobility in everyday life. This technique can be used to study the effort required to maneuver different types and configurations of wheelchairs.

  1. Prescription, shoice and using of wheelchairs

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Wheelchair is one of the most common equipments of welfare or assistive technology. In these couple years, it has become to be popular year by year, such as we can see some wheelchair users who are enjoying shopping in the grocery store and/or shopping mole. The improvements of the infrastructure and environments result the changing of disability people's mind to go out positively. However, there are lot of wheelchair users who use their wheelchair in wrong way, even some helth care worker do...

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Total wheelchair support system; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kurumaisu sogo shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on the element technologies for a total wheelchair support system. In the research of a manually operated wheelchair support system, the formula support system was verified of its operation, and its completion as a system that can be used practically. In the study on motorized wheelchairs, a questionnaire was given on disorders, remaining functions and environment in which the wheelchairs would be used to select the most suitable formula from among 14 types of basic wheelchairs. After having adjusted the seat and operation lever positions for optimization by using a specific wheelchair for measurement, the power was so outputted that image illustrations after values have been inputted can be checked on the screen. In studying a travel support system, based on the fact that anomaly has occurred in operation of the boarding and alighting device during a test by a third party laboratory, a review was given on the capacity of the device. As a result of changing the motor to the one higher by one rank, the required time was decreased by 25%. In addition, the boarding direction was limited to one direction, and the reverse speed was changed and improved to 60% of the forward speed. In developing the total system, studies were made on methods of binding, and methods of protecting surrounding environment. (NEDO)

  3. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  4. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-5 Remote propulsion-control systems. (a) Manual propulsion control. All vessels having remote propulsion control from the...

  5. Impact of structured wheelchair services on satisfaction and function of wheelchair users in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing wheelchairs without comprehensive support services might be detrimental to user satisfaction and function.Objectives: This paper compares wheelchair user satisfaction and function before and after implementation of comprehensive wheelchair services, based on the World Health Organization guidelines on wheelchair service provision in less resourced settings, in Zimbabwe.Method: A pre- and post-test study with a qualitative component was done. Quantitative data were collected with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and the ‘Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair Questionnaire’. Data were collected from 55 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who received a new wheelchair in the study period. Qualitative data were collected through two audio recorded focus groups and two case studies and are presented through narrative examples.Results: The proportion of adult users who were satisfied significantly increased for all wheelchair and service delivery aspects (p = 0.001 - 0.008, except follow-up (p = 0.128. The same was true for children’s post-test ratings on all variables assessed (p = 0.001 - 0.04, except training in the use of the device (p = 0.052. The biggest improvement in satisfaction figures were for comfort needs (44.3%, indoor mobility (43.2%, outdoor mobility (37.2%, safe and efficient, independent operation (33.5% and transport (31.4%. The qualitative data illustrated user satisfaction with wheelchair features and services.Conclusion: The wheelchair service programme resulted in significant positive changes in user satisfaction with the wheelchair, wheelchair services and function. It is recommended that the Zimbabwean government and partner organisations continue to support and develop wheelchair services along these guidelines.Keywords: Wheelchair; service delivery; function; satisfaction

  6. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.

  7. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Sørensen, Bodil; Jochumsen, Bente Würtz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for...

  9. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 4: Propulsion. Part 1: Theoretical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion system performance is computed during engine sizing and whenver aircraft performance is computed. The propulsion model user's and programmer's manual is presented. Routines are provided for jet and propeller driven aircraft.

  10. Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, R.

    2004-11-01

    Next Generation Electric Propulsion (NGEP) technology development tasks are working towards advancing solar-powered electric propulsion systems and components to levels ready for transition to flight systems. Current tasks within NGEP include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), Carbon Based Ion Optics (CBIO), NSTAR Extended Life Test (ELT) and low-power Hall Effect thrusters. The growing number of solar electric propulsion options provides reduced cost and flexibility to capture a wide range of Solar System exploration missions. Benefits of electric propulsion systems over state-of-the-art chemical systems include increased launch windows, which reduce mission risk; increased deliverable payload mass for more science; and a reduction in launch vehicle size-- all of which increase the opportunities for New Frontiers and Discovery class missions. The Dawn Discovery mission makes use of electric propulsion for sequential rendezvous with two large asteroids (Vesta then Ceres), something not possible using chemical propulsion. NEXT components and thruster system under development have NSTAR heritage with significant increases in maximum power and Isp along with deep throttling capability to accommodate changes in input power over the mission trajectory. NEXT will produce engineering model system components that will be validated (through qualification-level and integrated system testing) and ready for transition to flight system development. NEXT offers Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration and outer-planet missions a larger deliverable payload mass and a smaller launch vehicle size. CBIO addresses the need to further extend ion thruster lifetime by using low erosion carbon-based materials. Testing of 30-cm Carbon-Carbon and Pyrolytic graphite grids using a lab model NSTAR thruster are complete. In addition, JPL completed a 1000 hr. life test on 30-cm Carbon-Carbon grids. The NSTAR ELT was a life time qualification test started in 1999 with a goal of 88 kg

  11. Development of a Low-Cost Electronic Wheelchair with Obstacle Avoidance Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Romeroso Arboleda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A low-cost electronic wheelchair was designed and developed which can perform the similar functions and features as a commercially available wheelchair. It also provides obstacle avoidance capability as added value. The electronic wheelchair was  realized by modification of a lightweight manual wheelchair. It uses two electric motors each of 320 W 24 V DC, 5-24 VDC 6 A H-bride drivers, and a 12 V 17 Ah rechargeable lead acid battery. It equipped with switches, joystick, infrared sensors and ultrasonic sensors. A GizduinoAtMega 328 microcontroller is used to read and interpret commands. User’s acceptance evaluation results shows that the developed low-cost wheelchair is able to receive and interpret commands provided by the joystick, detect if a person  is seated on it, navigate to avoid obstacles as well as to detect edge and stairs. Technical evaluation result shows that on a flat surface it could move at the speed of around 39.9 m/minute without load and 32 m/minute with 80 kg load. At 10 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 30 kg with the speed of 12 m/minute. At 20 degrees inclined surface, the maximum weight limit is 10 kg with the speed of 3 m/minute. Regarding cost, it is just a fraction of a cost compared to the commercially available model. Therefore, the developed wheelchair offers an option for potential users who cannot afford to buy the commercially available one.

  12. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known... another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices,...

  13. Changing chairs: anticipating problems in prescribing wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batavia, M; Batavia, A I; Friedman, R

    2001-08-15

    This article presents a framework for prescribing, ordering, and adapting a new wheelchair, focusing on individual, environmental and wheelchair factors that must be taken into consideration to ensure optimal function. A review and analysis was conducted of all factors relevant to the transition to a new wheelchair. Without appropriate planning and implementation, this transition can result in unnecessary expenses, duplication of effort, and possibly even injury to the user and abandonment of the wheelchair. Recommendations are provided to manufacturers, therapists, technicians, users, insurers and physicians, who must work together throughout this process. To the extent feasible, the authors suggest that major changes from the previous wheelchair should be avoided, particularly for people with substantial functional limitations. Therapists and technicians must measure the user accurately, and anticipate those factors that can impede a smooth transition. Insurers and other payors must recognize that changing wheelchairs will often require substantial professional assistance, including several fittings to adjust the new chair to the needs of the user. Additional research and case reporting on outcomes of adjusting to a new wheelchair appear warranted.

  14. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  15. Research and Design of Combined Electric Wheelchair Head%组合型电动轮椅车头研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑶; 谢叻; 石运永

    2014-01-01

    The wheelchair is the most important means of transport for elderly and the disabled lower limb. At present, the manual wheelchair is lack of power, suitable for indoor or short distance movement; electric wheelchair is undetachable and huge, suitable for outdoor long distance movement. This paper will research a combined electric wheelchair vehicle, which is adaptable to common manual wheelchair,changing the manual wheelchair into electric one. The manual and electric model can be switched. The turning radius is small and the wheelchair is convenient to install and dismantle. According to the manual wheelchair type and the needs of users, the height, width and angle can be adjusted, realizing the versatility and comfort. Modules of the wheelchair can be splited, which is convenient for carrying.%轮椅是老年人和下肢残障人士最重要的代步工具。目前,手动轮椅没有外部动力,适合室内或短距离运动;电动轮椅不可拆卸体积庞大,适合室外长距离行走。将研发一种组合型电动轮椅车头,此轮椅车头配合普通手动轮椅使用,可实现手动轮椅电动化,手动电动双模式切换使用。车头回转半径小,安装拆卸方便。使用状态时,可根据手动轮椅的型号和使用者的需求,调整该车头的高度、宽度、角度,实现通用性与舒适性。在该车头与手动轮椅分离后,各模块可拆分,方便外出携带。

  16. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale: Italian translation, adaptation, and validation of the short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Anna; De Santis, Rita; Tofani, Marco; Maru, Marquez; Santilli, Valter; Rushton, Paula W; Mollica, Roberta; Galeoto, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    We developed an Italian version of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Users-Short Form (WheelCon-M-I-short form) and examined its reliability and validity. The original scale was translated from English to Italian using the "Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures-Principles of Good Practice" guidelines. The WheelCon-M-I-short form was administered to experienced manual wheelchair users who had a variety of diagnoses. Its internal consistency and test-retest reliability were examined. Its concurrent validity was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients with the Italian version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-I) and the Italian version of the Barthel index (BI). The WheelCon-M-I-short form was administered to 31 subjects. The mean ± SD of the WheelCon-M-I-short form score was 7.5 ± 1.9. All WheelCon-M-I-short form items were either identical or similar in meaning to the WheelCon-M-short form items. Cronbach's α for the WheelCon-M-I-short form was 0.95 (p Italian BI scores was 0.638 (p Italian population. Implication for Rehabilitation The WheelCon-M-I-short form is a valid outcome measure available for assessing wheelchair confidence, according to Bandura's social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is a better predictor of future behavior than skill itself. Translation of the WheelCon-M-short form into the WheelCon-M-I-short form provides a new tool for Italian professionals. Clinicians now have a method to measure this invisible barrier to wheelchair use, and they will be able to make informed decisions when prescribing the use of manual wheelchairs and when training clients in their use. The WheelCon-M-I-short form also provides researchers with a tool in an important and relevant area of study for future research.

  17. Haptic Feedback Control of a Smart Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed-Amine Hadj-Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptic feedback, which is natural in assistive devices intended for visually impaired persons, has been only recently explored for people with motor disability. The aim of this work is to study its potential, particularly for assistance in the driving of powered wheelchairs. After a review of the literature for the previous related work, we present the methodology and the implementation procedure of a haptic feedback control system on a prototype of a smart wheelchair. We will also describe the approaches utilized to determine the appropriate force feedback that will ensure a cooperative behaviour of the system, and we will detail the two haptic driving modes that were developed, namely the active and passive modes. Experiments on a real prototype were carried out to study the contribution of the method in powered wheelchair driving and to evaluate the interest of the force feedback on the control joystick of the wheelchair. They are discussed on the basis of performance measures.

  18. Review of real brain-controlled wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Á.; Velasco-Álvarez, F.; Ron-Angevin, R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the state of the art regarding wheelchairs driven by a brain-computer interface. Using a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW), disabled users could handle a wheelchair through their brain activity, granting autonomy to move through an experimental environment. A classification is established, based on the characteristics of the BCW, such as the type of electroencephalographic signal used, the navigation system employed by the wheelchair, the task for the participants, or the metrics used to evaluate the performance. Furthermore, these factors are compared according to the type of signal used, in order to clarify the differences among them. Finally, the trend of current research in this field is discussed, as well as the challenges that should be solved in the future.

  19. Within-cycle characteristics of the wheelchair push in sprinting on a wheelchair ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1991-01-01

    To investigate power output and torque production in wheelchair sprinting, six able-bodied subjects performed nine 20-s sprint tests on a stationary wheelchair ergometer (load 0-8 kg). Ergometer data were analyzed and combined with kinematic data and surface electromyography. Of all power and torque

  20. Within-cycle characteristics of the wheelchair push in sprinting on a wheelchair ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    1991-01-01

    To investigate power output and torque production in wheelchair sprinting, six able-bodied subjects performed nine 20-s sprint tests on a stationary wheelchair ergometer (load 0-8 kg). Ergometer data were analyzed and combined with kinematic data and surface electromyography. Of all power and torque

  1. How many people would benefit from a smart wheelchair?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Cooper, Rory A

    2008-01-01

    ..., multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Persons with different symptom combinations can benefit from different types of assistance from a smart wheelchair and different wheelchair form factors...

  2. Motion Evaluation Of A Wheelchair Prototype For Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented the design solution and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. It's developed a motion controller based on a PWM technology, which allows the user to control the wheelchair motion. The wheelchair has the ability of forward - backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it's implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video cameras recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  3. A Study of a Handrim-Activated Power-Assist Wheelchair Based on a Non-Contact Torque Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Tae Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for wheelchairs is increasing with growing numbers of aged and disabled persons. Manual wheelchairs are the most commonly used assistive device for mobility because they are convenient to transport. Manual wheelchairs have several advantages but are not easy to use for the elderly or those who lack muscular strength. Therefore, handrim-activated power-assist wheelchairs (HAPAW that can aid driving power with a motor by detecting user driving intentions through the handrim are being researched. This research will be on HAPAW that judge user driving intentions by using non-contact torque sensors. To deliver the desired motion, which is sensed from handrim rotation relative to a fixed controller, a new driving wheel mechanism is designed by applying a non-contact torque sensor, and corresponding torques are simulated. Torques are measured by a driving wheel prototype and compared with simulation results. The HAPAW prototype was developed using the wheels and a driving control algorithm that uses left and right input torques and time differences are used to check if the non-contact torque sensor can distinguish users’ driving intentions. Through this procedure, it was confirmed that the proposed sensor can be used effectively in HAPAW.

  4. Exploring the impact of wheelchair design on user function in a rural South African setting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wheelchairs provide mobility that can enhance function and community integration. Function in a wheelchair is influenced by wheelchair design.Objectives: To explore the impact of wheelchair design on user function and the variables that guided wheelchair prescription in the study setting.Method: A mixed-method, descriptive design using convenience sampling was implemented. Quantitative data were collected from 30 wheelchair users using the functioning every day with a Wheelchair S...

  5. Monocular vision for intelligent wheelchair indoor navigation based on natural landmark matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Luo, Yuan; Kong, Weixi

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a real-time navigation system in a behavior-based manner. We show that autonomous navigation is possible in different rooms with the use of a single camera and natural landmarks. Firstly the intelligent wheelchair is manually guided on a path passing through different rooms and a video sequence is recorded with a front-facing camera. A 3D structure map is then gotten from this learning sequence by calculating the natural landmarks. Finally, the intelligent wheelchair uses this map to compute its localization and it follows the learning path or a slightly different path to achieve the real-time navigation. Experimental results indicate that this method is effective even when the viewpoint and scale is changed.

  6. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  7. 21 CFR 890.3890 - Stair-climbing wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stair-climbing wheelchair. 890.3890 Section 890... wheelchair. (a) Identification. A stair-climbing wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended for... to climb stairs by means of two endless belt tracks that are lowered from under the chair and...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3940 - Wheelchair platform scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3940 Wheelchair platform scale. (a) Identification. A wheelchair platform scale is a device with a base designed...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3880 - Special grade wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special grade wheelchair. 890.3880 Section 890.3880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... wheelchair. (a) Identification. A special grade wheelchair is a device with wheels that is intended...

  10. High-tech wheelchairs gain the competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R A

    1991-01-01

    Some of the features of ultralight and rigid sports wheelchairs are described, and some of the rationale behind sport wheelchair design is explained. The discussion covers frame design, materials, geometry, locating the center of gravity, ride comfort and durability, the user-wheelchair interface, wheels and casters, alignment, and components.

  11. Design of a randomized-controlled trial on low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise for inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Postema, Klaas; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Purpose: To investigate effects and working mechanisms of low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise on fitness, (upper-body) health and active lifestyle in inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A multicenter randomized-controlled trial (RCT) in 40 inactive manual

  12. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  13. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint (WAnT)

  14. Development, construct validity and test-retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of

  15. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P. [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A. [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M. [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  17. Antiproton Annihilation Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    propulsion system, a nuclear thermal hydrogen propulsion system, and an antiproton annihilation propulsion system. Since hauling chemical fuel into low...greater. Section 8.4 and Appendix B contain a comparative cost study of a storable chemical fuel propulsion system, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen

  18. MOTION STUDY OF A WHEELCHAIR PROTOTYPE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  19. A paired outcomes study comparing two pediatric wheelchairs for low-resource settings: the regency pediatric wheelchair and a similarly sized wheelchair made in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen; Wee, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study of two similar wheelchairs designed for less-resourced settings provides feedback to manufacturers, informing ongoing improvement in wheelchair design. It also provides practical familiarity to clinicians in countries where these chairs are available, in their selection of prescribed wheelchairs. In Kenya, 24 subjects completed 3 timed skills and assessments of energy cost on 2 surfaces in each of 2 wheelchairs: the Regency pediatric chair and a pediatric wheelchair manufactured by the Association of the Physically Disabled of Kenya (APDK). Both wheelchairs are designed for and distributed in less-resourced settings. The Regency chair significantly outperformed the APDK chair in one of the energy cost assessments on both surfaces and in one of three timed skills tests.

  20. Electric Control Device Design of Electric Wheelchair%电动轮椅机械电控装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波锋; 接佳旭; 张德强

    2016-01-01

    Electric and manual operation rotating equipments were added to the front wheels of the normal manpower wheelchair. Electric device was added to the back wheel of the normal wheelchair too. Chain wheels, chains, lead screw, screwed cap and position switches were used in the mechanical drive equipment. Automatic control and manual operation model were used to design and manufacture the electric wheelchair. Some utilitarian functions just as manual brake and so on were still retained.%在普通人力轮椅之上增加前轮的电动转向驱动和手动转向装置,增加后轮电动驱动装置,机械传动装置包括链轮链条、丝杠螺母,行程开关等。机械设计首先进行三维样机和仿真设计,最终制造出成品。采用自动控制和手动双重工作方式的思想实现电动轮椅的设计制造,保留原轮椅的手动刹车等实用功能。

  1. Just a Body in a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This article has no direct link with academics, children, students or those who teach: I severed almost all such connections several years ago. It describes the rewards and challenges of leading a reminiscence group of elderly people, all of whom suffer some level of memory loss and/or severe physical disability; most are wheelchair-bound. It…

  2. Living aids: wheelchair evaluation and prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C

    This article reviews the assessment procedure for patients who require a wheelchair. The author, a medical specialist in prosthetics and orthotics, describes the important physical and social factors which must be considered, and defines what equipment is available from the National Health Service and elsewhere.

  3. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  4. Navigation system for a smart wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BONCI Andrea; LONGHI Sauro; MONTERI(U) Andrea; VACCARINI Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Recent results on the development of a navigation system for a smart wheelchair are presented in this paper. In order to reduce the development cost, a modular solution is designed by using commercial and low cost devices. The functionalities of the tracking control system are described. Experimental results of the proposed assistive system are also presented and discussed.

  5. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  6. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  7. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  8. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Barfield, DA; Laurie A. Malone, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-met...

  9. Locally manufactured wheelchairs in Tanzania - are users satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosun, Seyi; Ndosi, Aston; Buchanan, Helen

    2016-12-01

    The government of Tanzania created opportunity for the production of wheelchairs that would be appropriate to the local needs and environment. The study assessed the extent to which the wheelchairs met the activity and participation needs of the users, as well as the users' level of satisfaction with the provision, repair and maintenance of these wheelchairs. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical design was utilized to collect data through the administration of a questionnaire among 75 adult wheelchair users. Participants had used wheelchairs for an average period of 9.3 years. Most participants (61%) had sustained spinal cord injuries, and used three-wheeler chairs (76%). More than 90% reported that their wheelchairs positively influenced their activity and participation needs, and 85% were satisfied with their ability to carry out daily activities. Participants expressed satisfaction with the durability of the wheelchairs (89%), and the professional services received (71%), but not with follow-up services (77%). There was difference in satisfaction with features of 3-wheeler and 4-wheeler rigid chairs (p=0.030). The wheelchairs positively impacted participants' activity and participation needs. Participants were sat isfied with the features of the wheelchairs but not with follow-up services. The concerns of dissatisfied users should be addressed.

  10. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  11. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  12. Effect of the Height of a Wheelchair on the Shoulder and Forearm Muscular Activation During Wheelchair Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Seon-Chil; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Yoo, Jae-Seong

    2012-01-01

    [Purpose] The activations of the shoulder muscle and forearm muscle were analyzed at different chair heights with reference to the user's elbow joint flexion angle to provide fundamental kinematic data...

  13. Effect of the Height of a Wheelchair on the Shoulder and Forearm Muscular Activation During Wheelchair Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SANG-YEOL LEE; SEON-CHIL KIM; MYOUNG-HEE LEE; JAE-SEONG YOO

    2012-01-01

    「Abstract.」 [Purpose] The activations of the shoulder muscle and forearm muscle were analyzed at different chair heights with reference to the user's elbow joint flexion angle to provide fundamental kinematic data...

  14. Enhancing Wheelchair Manoeuvrability for Severe Impairment Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Tomari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of individuals with severe motor impairments are unable to control their wheelchair using a standard joystick. Even when they can facilitate the control input, navigation in a confined space or crowded environments is still a great challenge. Here we propose a wheelchair framework that enables the user to issue the command via a multi‐input hands free interface (HFI, which subsequently assists him/her to overcome difficult circumstances using a multimodal control strategy. Initially the HFI inputs are analysed to infer the desired control mode and the user command. Then environmental information is perceived using a combination of laser and Kinect sensors for determining all possible obstacle locations and outputting a safety map around the wheelchair’s vicinity. Eventually, the user’s command is validated with the safety map to moderate the final motion, which is collision free and the best for the user’s preference. The proposed method can reduce the burden of severe impairment users when controlling wheelchairs by continuously monitoring the surroundings and can make them move easily according to the users’ intention.

  15. Exercise Intensity During Power Wheelchair Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Newsome, Laura; Malone, Laurie A

    2016-11-01

    To determine exercise intensity during power wheelchair soccer among a sample of persons with mobility impairments. Cross-sectional descriptive. On-site training facilities of multiple power wheelchair soccer teams. Participants with severe mobility impairments (N=30) (mean ± SD, age: 29.40±15.51y, body mass index: 24.11±6.47kg/m(2), power soccer experience: 7.91±3.93y, disability sport experience: 12.44±9.73y) were recruited from multiple power wheelchair soccer teams. Portable metabolic carts were used to collect oxygen consumption (V˙o2) data during resting and game play conditions. Average V˙o2 (expressed in metabolic equivalent tasks [METs]) during resting and game play conditions and rating of perceived exertion for game play. V˙o2 increased from 1.35±0.47 METs at rest to 1.81±0.65 METs during game play. This 34% increase in exercise intensity was significant (Pfunctional capacity and performance of daily living activities (ie, 1.5 METs). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  17. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1 accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2 robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination

  18. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  19. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  20. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  1. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  2. Learning to Drive a Wheelchair in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Dean P.; Loge, Ken; Cram, Aaron; Peterson, Missy

    2011-01-01

    This research project studied the effect that a technology-based training program, WheelchairNet, could contribute to the education of children with physical disabilities by providing a chance to practice driving virtual motorized wheelchairs safely within a computer-generated world. Programmers created three virtual worlds for training. Scenarios…

  3. Capturing hand tremors with a fuzzy logic wheelchair joystick controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, B.J.; Corbett, Dan

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and built a fuzzy logic wheelchair controller which minimizes the effect of Multiple Sclerosis and tremors. The aim of our project has been to give people with Multiple Sclerosis better control of an electric wheelchair by removing tremors from the joystick signal. The system interc

  4. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-01-01

    their powered wheelchair in the summer; nearly all users regarded it as important and found that it gave them independence. The wheelchair made activity and participation possible for the users. The most frequent activity in the summer was going for a ride, and in the winter it was shopping. However, some could...

  5. Capturing hand tremors with a fuzzy logic wheelchair joystick controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaag, van der Berend-Jan; Corbett, Dan

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and built a fuzzy logic wheelchair controller which minimizes the effect of Multiple Sclerosis and tremors. The aim of our project has been to give people with Multiple Sclerosis better control of an electric wheelchair by removing tremors from the joystick signal. The system interc

  6. On the development of an expert system for wheelchair selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, Gregory R.; Bhansin, Charlotte A.; Alaraini, Sulaiman A.; Nour, Mohamed A.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of wheelchairs for the Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients involves the examination of a number of complicated factors including ambulation status, length of diagnosis, and funding sources, to name a few. Consequently, only a few experts exist in this area. To aid medical therapists with the wheelchair selection decision, a prototype medical expert system (ES) was developed. This paper describes and discusses the steps of designing and developing the system, the experiences of the authors, and the lessons learned from working on this project. Wheelchair Advisor, programmed in CLIPS, serves as diagnosis, classification, prescription, and training tool in the MS field. Interviews, insurance letters, forms, and prototyping were used to gain knowledge regarding the wheelchair selection problem. Among the lessons learned are that evolutionary prototyping is superior to the conventional system development life-cycle (SDLC), the wheelchair selection is a good candidate for ES applications, and that ES can be applied to other similar medical subdomains.

  7. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  8. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work.

  9. Space Propulsion and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    uniform dense plasmas ? Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Space Propulsion and Power - New Research Areas Non ...interactions of the Matters in Space Propulsion Systems Space Propulsion and Power Portfolio Coupled Materials and Plasma Processes Far From...primary electron  1 • Effective secondary electron emission * accounts for non - Maxwellian effects * > 1 * < 1 ~4 MHz Sheath Beams of SEE

  10. Home in a Wheelchair: House Design Ideas for Easier Wheelchair Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Joseph

    Intended to aid in the building or purchase of a home suitable for use by a handicapped individual in a wheelchair, the booklet provides detailed design guidelines. Included is information on the decision process, finances, ramps, a car shelter, doors communication devices, electrical needs, windows, elevators and chair lifts, the kitchen, an…

  11. The ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards: sample evaluation and guide to interpreting test data for prescribing power wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This study is a joint project of ECRI and the National Rehabilitation Hospital, supported by a grant from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR, U.S. Department of Education, Agreement No. H133E80016). ECRI is the first independent laboratory to test power wheelchairs according to the standards of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA), now known as the Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology (AART); these standards will ultimately be distributed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). We tested 10 power wheelchairs, which are similar in size and configuration, from seven manufacturers; all units are intended for adult use. Our testing showed that none of the sample wheelchairs are ideal for all environments in which these devices are typically needed. Each unit has advantages that should be carefully considered when specifying a power wheelchair. Numerous factors are involved in prescribing power wheelchairs, and learning the subtle differences in features and performance of a particular model and how they will affect the user is difficult. In addition, acquiring objective information about power wheelchairs from manufacturers is not typically easy. Considering these factors, and because the standards on which we based our testing do not generally provide criteria for passing or failing models under test, we did not rate the units. The purpose of this article is to present the data collected in our study, using wheelchair performance characteristics based on some parts of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards, as an example of what prescribers can expect to receive from manufacturers and to provide guidance in interpreting and applying the data in writing power wheelchair prescriptions. Thus, this article provides an overview of the types of problems faced by those who specify power wheelchairs for users, the problems faced by the users themselves, and the

  12. The control system of intelligent wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>A control system of intelligent wheelchair based on spce061A and C8051 is introduced in this discourse.It also introduces the theory of the control system,and the design of hardware and software.The control system including the speech control system of SPCE061 and the keyboard control system of C8051.The movement including marching,countermarching,speedup,slowdown,turning left,turning right,uphill and downhill were realized.The speech control system control based on SPCE061A and C8051 is simple,a high ratio of capability to price.The system can be easily realized and enlarged.

  13. Cold Gas Micro Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a micro propulsion system. The trend of miniaturization of satellites requires small sized propulsion systems. For particular missions it is important to maintain an accurate distance between multiple satellites. Satellites drift apart due to differences in

  14. Living with an electric wheelchair--the user perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla; Henje, Catharina; Levi, Richard; Lindström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of using an electric wheelchair in daily living. Fifteen participants, eight women and seven men, living in different parts of a Nordic country were interviewed. The interviews were conducted in the home or at the workplace. Open-ended questions were used. The data were collected and analyzed according to the grounded theory. Analysis resulted in one core category: "Integrating the electric wheelchair - a manifold process", describing a process commencing from initial resistance against use of an electric wheelchair, to acceptance with various extent of integration. Six categories emerged that represent this core process: incorporating the electric wheelchair into the self-identity process, calculating functional consequences, encountering the reactions of others, facing duality in movability, using proactive strategies, and being at the mercy of the system. Findings indicate that the integration process is complex and manifold. Practical, personal, and social dimensions were intertwined and significantly involved. Integrating an electric wheelchair is a process closely connected to symbolic value, usability, community mobility and identity. These aspects should be considered in the production, prescription, and adaptation processes. Implications for Rehabilitation Integrating an electric wheelchair is a process closely connected to symbolic value, usability, community mobility, and identity. These aspects should be considered in the wheelchair production, prescription, and adaptation processes.

  15. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  16. Operation assistance of a voice-controlled electric wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Takashi; Nishihara, Kazue

    2007-12-01

    We propose a voice-controlled electric wheelchair with a system for detecting its position and direction. Thus far, we have studied systems that incorporated voice instructions with our indoor navigation equipment using RF tags. The operability of a wheelchair was measured in the same environment for different operating methods. We found that one very effective method is to store the possible stopping positions and angles of rotation for the desired directions in RF cards, which could then adequately assist the movement of a wheelchair.

  17. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs – a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Sørensen, Bodil; Jochumsen, Bente Würtz;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the valu...... of occupation and identity are influenced by using a wheelchair. This will assist professionals in supporting the users living an autonomous and meaningful life....... and meaning attached. Method: Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with experienced electric wheelchair users. ValMo was used as the theoretical framework for both interviewing and the analysis. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Findings revealed key elements...... in electric wheelchair users’ experience of how the use of a wheelchair influences everyday life and occupation. Four central themes emerged from the participants’ experiences 1) The functionality of the wheelchair, 2) The wheelchair as an extension of the body, 3) The wheelchair and social life, and 4...

  18. Wheelchair skills performance between discharge and one year after inpatient rehabilitation in hand-rim wheelchair users with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Van Der Woude, Lucas H. V.; De Groot, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study possible changes in wheelchair skills in participants with spinal cord injury between discharge and 1 year after rehabilitation, and to determine whether changes in wheelchair skills performance are related to lesion and personal characteristics, self-efficacy, and wheelchair sat

  19. Collaborative path planning for a robotic wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Teo, Chee Leong; Rebsamen, Brice; Burdet, Etienne

    2008-11-01

    Generating a path to guide a wheelchair's motion faces two challenges. First, the path is located in the human environment and that is usually unstructured and dynamic. Thus, it is difficult to generate a reliable map and plan paths on it by artificial intelligence. Second, the wheelchair, whose task is to carry a human user, should move on a smooth and comfortable path adapted to the user's intentions. To meet these challenges, we propose that the human operator and the robot interact to create and gradually improve a guide path. This paper introduces design tools to enable an intuitive interaction, and reports experiments performed with healthy subjects in order to investigate this collaborative path learning strategy. We analyzed features of the optimal paths and user evaluation in representative conditions. This was complemented by a questionnaire filled out by the subjects after the experiments. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, and show the utility and complementarity of the tools to design ergonomic guide paths.

  20. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  1. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  2. The quest for the perfect lightweight wheelchair: ultralight rigid frame wheelchair specification strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven

    2011-03-01

    It is hoped that this information will encourage rehabilitation therapists learning to prescribe ultralight rigid frame to set aside some of the "rules" they have been taught in school and take a more practical approach that emphasizes a need to understand the person, their problems, and priorities, then match those with the most appropriate product for their needs. Experienced rigid frame users are often given credit for "knowing exactly what they want" when it is time for a new wheelchair. In reality, most base their specifications on an existing wheelchair using a "relativity" approach. They determine their optimal configuration based on what has worked and what has not worked in the past. They frequently go online for product information and advice from other end users. The CareCure poll referenced early in this article is open indefinitely. If we learn to follow their lead, it is hoped that fewer first chairs will fit inappropriately in the future.

  3. Laser propulsion: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ablation (HPLA) conferences, numbered I to VI, held in New Mexico, where laser propulsion is but one topic, under the auspices of the Society for Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). There is also a specialist conference on beamed energy... route to space. 1. Myrabo L.N. (1987). Air-breathing laser propulsion for trans-atmospheric vehicles. In Proc. SDIO Workshop on Laser Propulsion, Los Alamos, New Mexico, ed. J.T. Kare, pp. 173–208. Los Alamos. 2. Phipps C.R., Luke J.R., McDuff G...

  4. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    ...; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89...

  5. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p wheelchair users.

  6. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  7. Using Virtual Reality to Dynamically Setting an Electrical Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dir, S.; Habert, O.; Pruski, A.

    2008-06-01

    This work uses virtual reality to find or refine in a recurring way the best adequacy between a person with physically disability and his electrical wheelchair. A system architecture based on "Experiment→Analyze and decision-making→Modification of the wheelchair" cycles is proposed. This architecture uses a decision-making module based on a fuzzy inference system which has to be parameterized so that the system converges quickly towards the optimal solution. The first challenge consists in computing criteria which must represent as well as possible particular situations that the user meets during each navigation experiment. The second challenge consists in transforming these criteria into relevant modifications about the active or non active functionalities or into adjustment of intrinsic setting of the wheelchair. These modifications must remain most stable as possible during the successive experiments. Objectives are to find the best wheelchair to give a beginning of mobility to a given person with physically disability.

  8. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 496-3500 Share Science Highlight: January 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded ... Imaging and Bioengineering have demonstrated that their novel Tongue Drive System is superior to other assistive devices ...

  9. Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000428.htm Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair To use the sharing features on this ... move the footrests out of the way. Getting a Patient Ready to Transfer Before transferring into the ...

  10. Re-embodiment: incorporation through embodied learning of wheelchair skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2011-05-01

    In this article, the notion of re-embodiment is developed to include the ways that rearrangement and renewals of body schema take place in rehabilitation. More specifically, the embodied learning process of acquiring wheelchair skills serves as a starting point for fleshing out a phenomenological understanding of incorporation of assistive devices. By drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty, the reciprocal relation between acquisition habits and incorporation of instruments is explored in relation to the learning of wheelchair skills. On the basis of this, it is argued that through learning to manoeuvre the wheelchair, a reversible relation between is established between the moving body-subject and the wheelchair. In this sense, re-embodiment involves a gestalt switch from body image to body schema.

  11. Assessment of healthy students' locomotion in a wheelchair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michał Wychowański; Ryszard Biernat; Agnieszka Witke

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Efficient locomotion in a wheelchair is of great importance for the life quality of people with diseases that make them unable to walk, and also in many sport disciplines for the handicapped...

  12. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Onyango

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user’s steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results.

  13. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Luciene Chagas de; Soares, Alcimar Barbosa; Cardoso, Alexandre; Andrade, Adriano de Oliveira; Lamounier Júnior, Edgard Afonso

    2016-01-01

    ...). The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also...

  14. A survey of wheelchair use by paraplegic individuals in Japan. Part 1: Characteristics of wheelchair cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, T; Kawamura, K; Tokuhiro, A; Takechi, H; Ogata, H

    1997-09-01

    The characteristics of wheelchair cushions used by 218 paraplegic patients who lived independent lives were surveyed to clarify the present state of wheelchair cushioning for pressure sore prevention in Japan. Out of 586 cushions surveyed, 91.0% were ready-made and the rest were custom-made. The outstanding popularity of polyurethane foam ready-made cushions (76.3%) suggested that insufficient consideration was taken in the selection of cushions. Custom-made cushions displayed unique modifications to relieve contact pressure or to stabilize sitting posture, which should be systematically provided for all patients. The variety of cushion types and the frequent dissatisfaction with cushions seen in patients with current pressure sores suggested a strong demand for the effective prescription of cushions. Furthermore, 30% of all cushions had had an excessively prolonged use, indicating insufficient follow-up. A medical system including deliberate prescription and regular follow-up of wheelchair cushions should be established for the effective prevention of pressure sores.

  15. Wheelchair use: a physical sign in gastroenterological practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiotakakou-Faliakou, E; Dave, U; Forbes, A

    1996-01-01

    Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain requires exclusion of organic causes, and many patients undergo considerable investigation. A positive physical sign supporting a functional diagnosis could therefore be of benefit. Wheelchair use specifically for abdominal symptoms was suspected to represent such a sign. Review of 300 consecutive new referrals to a gastroenterology clinic revealed 10 wheelchair users. In four women the chair was used because of the abdominal condition. The final diagnos...

  16. Living with an electric wheelchair : the user perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the experiences of using an electric wheelchair in daily living. Methods: Fifteen participants, eight women and seven men, living in different parts of a Nordic country were interviewed. The interviews were conducted in the home or at the workplace. Open-ended questions were used. The data were collected and analyzed according to the grounded theory. Results: Analysis resulted in one core category: "Integrating the electric wheelchair - a manifold process", describing a pr...

  17. The Design of Wheelchair Lifting Mechanism and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cong; WANG Zheng-xing; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHANG Li; LIU Zheng-yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair lift function, this paper designs a tri-scissors mechanism. Through the so-called H-type transmission and L-type swing rod, the three scissors mechanisms lift in the same rate with only one liner motor while ensuring the stability of the lift. Finite element analysis in ANSYS is performed to verify the material strength. The control system with Sunplus SCM achieves the voice control of wheelchair walking and lifting.

  18. KINECTWheels: wheelchair-accessible motion-based game interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gerling, Kathrin M; Kalyn, Michael R.; Mandryk, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of full-body motion-based video games creates new challenges for game accessibility research. Many games strongly focus on able-bodied persons and require players to move around freely. To address this problem, we introduce KINECTWheels, a toolkit that facilitates the integration of wheelchair-based game input. Our library can help game designers to integrate wheelchair input at the development stage, and it can be configured to trigger keystroke events to make off-t...

  19. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  20. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  1. Exploring the impact of wheelchair design on user function in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs provide mobility that can enhance function and community integration. Function in a wheelchair is influenced by wheelchair design.Objectives: To explore the impact of wheelchair design on user function and the variables that guided wheelchair prescription in the study setting.Method: A mixed-method, descriptive design using convenience sampling was implemented. Quantitative data were collected from 30 wheelchair users using the functioning every day with a Wheelchair Scale and a Wheelchair Specification Checklist. Qualitative data were collected from ten therapists who prescribed wheelchairs to these users, through interviews. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify relationships, and content analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes in qualitative data.Results: Wheelchairs with urban designs were issued to 25 (83% participants. Wheelchair size, fit, support and functional features created challenges concerning transport, operating the wheelchair, performing personal tasks, and indoor and outdoor mobility. Users using wheelchairs designed for use in semi-rural environments achieved significantly better scores regarding the appropriateness of the prescribed wheelchair than those using wheelchairs designed for urban use (p = <0.01. Therapists prescribed the basic, four-wheel folding frame design most often because of a lack of funding, lack of assessment, lack of skills and user choice.Conclusion: Issuing urban type wheelchairs to users living in rural settings might have a negative effect on users’ functional outcomes. Comprehensive assessments, further training and research, on long term cost and quality of life implications, regarding provision of a suitable wheelchair versus a cheaper less suitable option is recommended.

  2. Wheelchair rider risk in motor vehicles: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the risk involved in riding different sizes and types of motor vehicles is required to make informed decisions regarding a reasonable level of protection for wheelchair riders. Wheelchair rider accident information that can be used to estimate risk is quite limited. This paper reviewed the resources available, including the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Motor vehicle accident data for the general public were analyzed in order to better characterize wheelchair rider risk. Using the National Safety Council annual transportation mode fatality rates and the (inverse) relationship of vehicle mass and occupant fatality rate, fatality rates for vehicles that transport wheelchair riders (minivans, vans, paratransit vans, and small and large buses) were estimated. Despite the large margins of error that must be assumed for accident data and the conclusions drawn from it, the available information suggests that 1) the majority of wheelchair rider injuries could be prevented by providing protection for abrupt vehicle maneuvers; 2) the type, size, and mass of the vehicle have a substantial effect on the fatality rate, although this effect decreases for heavier (<3,000 kg) vehicles; and 3) wheelchair riders who cannot properly use tiedown and occupant restraint systems or who are frail would face a lower risk of injury if transported in larger vehicles.

  3. The effect of knee-flexion angle on wheelchair turning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A H; Kirby, R L; Bell, A C; MacLeod, D A

    2001-05-01

    The increasingly popular hyperflexed knee-flexion angle was evaluated to determine its effects on wheelchair turning. Twenty able-bodied subjects were tested comparing the effect of full knee extension and full knee flexion on a number of parameters. We empirically measured the angular velocity of subjects spinning 720 degrees in place, subjects' perceived ease of wheelchair turning, the overall length of the wheelchair, the anteroposterior position of the center of mass (COM), rolling resistance, turning resistance and rear-wheel traction. The combined moment of inertia of the wheelchair and system was modeled. We found that, in comparison with full extension, fully flexing the knees increased angular velocity by 40% and was perceived to be 66% easier by subjects. Overall length decreased by 39%, COM moved rearward 38%, rolling and turning resistance decreased by 21% and 17% respectively, rear-wheel traction increased by 12% and moment of inertia decreased by 42%. All empirically tested parameters were statistically significant (pwheelchair turning. The implications of these findings for wheelchair design and prescription will need to be validated on actual wheelchair users and for smaller increments in knee-flexion range.

  4. Development of Electric Wheelchair with Input of Force Feedback Joystick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugihara Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to realize the high function of an electric wheelchair with the consideration of the driving environment. The orientation sensor is used to comprehend the driving environment. The estimated method can be obtained unknown parameters of the driving environment by the orientation sensor. The developed electric-wheelchair operates by the force-feedback joystick. When the marketed wheelchairs drive on the slope or the side-slope, the wheelchairs flow to the slope lower direction. In this case, the wheelchairs might go to roadway side in JAPAN, and such situations are very dangerous. The force-feedback joystick is developed to avoid dangerous situation. The force-feedback joystick is combined with the orientation sensor to the force feedback of joystick. The effectiveness of the force-feedback joystick is confirmed by comparison experiments with the control performance of the wheelchair without the force feedback. Therefore, this study is expected to be useful to social welfare in the future.

  5. Discriminatory validity of the Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test as demonstrated by a comparison of four wheelchair types designed for use in low-resource areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen L; Hamm, Elisa; Wee, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research on wheelchairs available in low-resource areas is needed to enable effective use of limited funds. Mobility on commonly encountered rolling environments is a key aspect of function. High variation in capacity among wheelchair users can mask changes in mobility because of wheelchair design. A repeated measures protocol in which the participants use one type of wheelchair and then another minimises the impact of individual variation. The Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test (AWMT) was designed to be used in repeated measures studies in low-resource areas. It measures the impact of different wheelchair types on physical performance in commonly encountered rolling environments and provides an opportunity for qualitative and quantitative participant response. This study sought to confirm the ability of the AWMT to discern differences in mobility because of wheelchair design. Participants were wheelchair users at a boarding school for students with disabilities in a low-resource area. Each participant completed timed tests on measured tracks on rough and smooth surfaces, in tight spaces and over curbs. Four types of wheelchairs designed for use in low-resource areas were included. The protocol demonstrated the ability to discriminate changes in mobility of individuals because of wheelchair type. Comparative effectiveness studies with this protocol can enable beneficial change. This is illustrated by design alterations by wheelchair manufacturers in response to results.

  6. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  7. Nuclear Pulse Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Atanas, Dilov; Hasan, Osman; Nickolai, Larsen; Tom, Edwards

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive insight into the potential of nuclear fuels to accelerate spacecraft propulsion, shorten journey times and broaden our exploration of space. The current methods of space propulsion offer little in the way of efficiency in terms of cost, time and henceforth investment and research. The dwindling resources of the planet plus the exponential rise of overpopulation will ultimately push us towards exploration of worlds further afield ...

  8. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  9. Collaborative Assistive Robot for Mobility Enhancement (CARMEN) The bare necessities assisted wheelchair navigation and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Urdiales, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In nowadays aging society, many people require mobility assistance. Sometimes, assistive devices need a certain degree of autonomy when users' disabilities difficult manual control. However, clinicians report that excessive assistance may lead to loss of residual skills and frustration. Shared control focuses on deciding when users need help and providing it. Collaborative control aims at giving just the right amount of help in a transparent, seamless way. This book presents the collaborative control paradigm. User performance may be indicative of physical/cognitive condition, so it is used to decide how much help is needed. Besides, collaborative control integrates machine and user commands so that people contribute to self-motion at all times. Collaborative control was extensively tested for 3 years using a robotized wheelchair at a rehabilitation hospital in Rome with volunteer inpatients presenting different disabilities, ranging from mild to severe. We also present a taxonomy of common metrics for wheelc...

  10. Exploring Winter Community Participation Among Wheelchair Users: An Online Focus Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons.

  11. Gender differences in wheelchair marathon performance – Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepers R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Romuald Lepers,1 Paul J Stapley,2 Beat Knechtle3,41INSERM U1093, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 2School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of the study was (1 to examine the changes in participation and performance of males and females at the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon in Oita, Japan, between 1983 and 2011, and (2 to analyze the gender difference in the age of peak wheelchair marathon performance.Methods: Age and time performance data for all wheelchair athletes completing the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011 were analyzed.Results: Mean annual number of finishers was 123 ± 43 for males and 6 ± 3 for females (5.0% ± 2.0% of all finishers, respectively. Mean age of overall finishers was significantly (P = 0.026 greater for males (41.3 ± 1.8 years compared to females (32.7 ± 1.4 years. In contrast, there was no difference in the mean age of the top three overall finishers between males (35.8 ± 3.2 years and females (31.6 ± 1.5 years. The race time of the top three overall finishers was significantly lower (P < 0.01 for males (1:34 ± 0:11 hours:minutes compared to females (1:59 ± 0:20 hours:minutes, but it was not significantly different between male (2:06 ± 0:12 hours:minutes and female (2:12 ± 0:18 hours:minutes overall finishers. The mean gender difference in time was 26.1% ± 9.7% for the top three overall finishers.Conclusion: Further studies are required to investigate the reasons for the low participation of females in wheelchair marathons and why the gender difference in marathon performance is much greater for disabled athletes than for able-bodied athletes.Keywords: endurance, sex difference, disabled athlete, spinal cord injury

  12. Fuel Effective Photonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, N.; Srivarshini, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the entry of miniaturization in electronics and ultra-small light-weight materials, energy efficient propulsion techniques for space travel can soon be possible. We need to go for such high speeds so that the generation’s time long interstellar missions can be done in incredibly short time. Also renewable energy like sunlight, nuclear energy can be used for propulsion instead of fuel. These propulsion techniques are being worked on currently. The recently proposed photon propulsion concepts are reviewed, that utilize momentum of photons generated by sunlight or onboard photon generators, such as blackbody radiation or lasers, powered by nuclear or solar power. With the understanding of nuclear photonic propulsion, in this paper, a rough estimate of nuclear fuel required to achieve the escape velocity of Earth is done. An overview of the IKAROS space mission for interplanetary travel by JAXA, that was successful in demonstrating that photonic propulsion works and also generated additional solar power on board, is provided; which can be used as a case study. An extension of this idea for interstellar travel, termed as ‘Star Shot’, aims to send a nanocraft to an exoplanet in the nearest star system, which could be potentially habitable. A brief overview of the idea is presented.

  13. Estimation of wheelchair states during movement using WELL-SphERE for evaluation of power wheelchair safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Kengo; Suzurikawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the usability and safety of a power wheelchair (PWC), monitoring multimodal data related to the PWC in a real environment is crucial. In most studies exploring actual wheelchair conditions, modification of PWCs has been required. Especially modification of controlling circuits aiming for measurement of joystick operation may lead to controller malfunction and thus increase safety risk. It is essential, therefore, to ensure the safety of PWC users during experiments so that they can measure PWC-related data with their own wheelchairs. To achieve this aim, we developed a recording device that is easily installed on PWCs without any electronic modifications. The device, called a "WELL-SphERE," has sensing units that can be attached to PWCs a data management unit that can store and transfer measurement data. Here, we focused on joystick operation logged by the system. Seven participants were pre-tested to examine the characteristics of logged operations during runs through four test courses. Subsequently, all participants completed a questionnaire regarding the difficulty of the test courses. From these results, we classified the logged operations into four categories of "wheelchair states." Two participants--a novice driver and a mature driver--were also evaluated to verify the accuracy of the estimated wheelchair states. The accuracies of the estimates by the mature and novice driver were 98.8% and 89.0%, respectively. The wheelchair states for both participants showed characteristic patterns. Therefore, the wheelchair states estimated with the data logged using WELL-SphERE are valid indicators of the wheelchair conditions during movement.

  14. A scoping review of international wheelchair and seating provision, policy guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: For people who use wheelchairs being supplied with an appropriate wheelchair that is well fitted and well designed to maximise occupational performance and participation is a basic human right. Wheelchair provision has a huge bearing on a person???s quality of life, health and well being. Every aspect of wheelchair provision is paramount from referral to follow up, maintenance and repair. Objective: At present in Ireland there is no national policy, standar...

  15. The oxygen uptake-heart rate relationship in trained female wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria Louise; Tolfrey, Keith

    2004-05-01

    We examined the relationship between the percentage of peak heart rate (HR) and the percentage of peak oxygen uptake VO2 during steady-rate incremental wheelchair propulsion in 10 trained female wheelchair athletes (WAs) to determine the appropriateness of using American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) target HRs for training prescription. Oxygen uptake was calculated during each submaximal exercise stage, and HR was monitored continuously. Peak VO2 was determined with the use of a separate protocol. Linear regression equations of percentage of peak HR versus percentage of peak VO2 were measured for each participant. Subsequently, we calculated the percentage of peak HR values corresponding with 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% peak VO2. The linear regression formula (derived as the group mean of the slope and intercept terms determined from each individual participant) was % peak HR = 0.652 x % peak VO2 + 35.2 (standard error of the estimate [SEE] 3.41). The group mean of the individual correlation coefficients for the VO2-HR relationship was r = 0.973. The percentage peaks of HRs for the WAs were slightly, though not significantly, greater than those suggested by the ACSM across the exercise intensity continuum. These findings suggest that training programs prescribed on the basis of ACSM target HR guidelines need not be altered for trained female WAs with lesions of T6 and below. Notably, the discrepancy between the WA values and the population norm (ACSM) decreased from 6% at 40% peak VO2 (i.e., 61% vs. 55%) to <1% at 85% peak VO2 (i.e., 90.6% vs. 90.0%). This discrepancy indicates a tendency for the use of percentage of HR peak at the lower exercise intensities to slightly underestimate the relative exercise intensity (i.e., percentage of peak VO2) in the WA population.

  16. Wheel skid correction is a prerequisite to reliably measure wheelchair sports kinematics based on inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match could be a significant factor in performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. To date, most systems for measuring wheelchair kinematics are not suitable for match applications or lack detail in key kinematic outcomes. This study describ

  17. Wheel skid correction is a prerequisite to reliably measure wheelchair sports kinematics based on inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match could be a significant factor in performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. To date, most systems for measuring wheelchair kinematics are not suitable for match applications or lack detail in key kinematic outcomes. This study

  18. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.

  19. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  20. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity... Entities § 37.91 Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains. (a) As soon as practicable... on each train a number of spaces— (1) To park wheelchairs (to accommodate individuals who wish...

  1. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  2. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  3. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  4. 77 FR 32644 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification: Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...: Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and..., Inc., for wheelchair elevator devices (commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical...

  5. Wheel skid correction is a prerequisite to reliably measure wheelchair sports kinematics based on inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match could be a significant factor in performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. To date, most systems for measuring wheelchair kinematics are not suitable for match applications or lack detail in key kinematic outcomes. This study describ

  6. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  7. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  8. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? As a carrier, you must not leave a... enplaning, deplaning, or connecting assistance in a ground wheelchair, boarding wheelchair, or other...

  9. Biosafety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce W.

    2010-05-18

    Work with or potential exposure to biological materials in the course of performing research or other work activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) must be conducted in a safe, ethical, environmentally sound, and compliant manner. Work must be conducted in accordance with established biosafety standards, the principles and functions of Integrated Safety Management (ISM), this Biosafety Manual, Chapter 26 (Biosafety) of the Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), and applicable standards and LBNL policies. The purpose of the Biosafety Program is to protect workers, the public, agriculture, and the environment from exposure to biological agents or materials that may cause disease or other detrimental effects in humans, animals, or plants. This manual provides workers; line management; Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division staff; Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) members; and others with a comprehensive overview of biosafety principles, requirements from biosafety standards, and measures needed to control biological risks in work activities and facilities at LBNL.

  10. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  11. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  12. Airbreathing Propulsion An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit

    2012-01-01

    Airbreathing Propulsion covers the physics of combustion, fluid and thermo-dynamics, and structural mechanics of airbreathing engines, including piston, turboprop, turbojet, turbofan, and ramjet engines. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to practice the fundamental concepts behind airbreathing propulsion, and the included PAGIC computer code will help the reader to examine the relationships between the performance parameters of different engines. Large amounts of data on many different piston, turbojet, and turboprop engines have been compiled for this book and are included as an appendix. This textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate students studying aeronautical engineering, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineering.

  13. An Omnidirectional Stereo Vision-Based Smart Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Satoh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To support safe self-movement of the disabled and the aged, we developed an electric wheelchair that realizes the functions of detecting both the potential hazards in a moving environment and the postures and gestures of a user by equipping an electric wheelchair with the stereo omnidirectional system (SOS, which is capable of acquiring omnidirectional color image sequences and range data simultaneously in real time. The first half of this paper introduces the SOS and the basic technology behind it. To use the multicamera system SOS on an electric wheelchair, we developed an image synthesizing method of high speed and high quality and the method of recovering SOS attitude changes by using attitude sensors is also introduced. This method allows the SOS to be used without being affected by the mounting attitude of the SOS. The second half of this paper introduces the prototype electric wheelchair actually manufactured and experiments conducted using the prototype. The usability of the electric wheelchair is also discussed.

  14. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerfeind Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1 wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102 that did not require a medical intervention, 2 only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3 sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4 offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

  15. Walking and wheelchair navigation in patients with left visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; Dewar, Sophie J; Lievesley, Alex; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Jude; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2009-04-01

    Patients with neglect veer to one side when walking or driving a wheelchair, however there is a contradiction in the literature about the direction of this deviation. The study investigated the navigational trajectory of a sample of neglect patients of mixed mobility status in an ecological setting. Fifteen patients with left-sided neglect after right hemisphere stroke were recorded walking or driving a powered wheelchair along a stretch of corridor. Their position in the corridor and the number of collisions was recorded. The results showed that the patients' path was dependent on their mobility status: wheelchair patients with neglect consistently deviated to the left of the centre of the corridor and walking patients with neglect consistently deviated to the right. A further two ambulant patients with neglect were recorded both walking and using the wheelchair to determine whether the differences were task or patient dependent. These two patients also exhibited leftward deviation when driving the wheelchair, but a rightward deviation when walking. These results suggest that the direction of the deviation is task dependent. Further work will be required to identify what features of the two modes of navigation lead to this dissociation.

  16. An approach to measure wheelchair stability. Concept and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Dimitar H; Pasco, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair stability is dependent on user's body characteristics that can shift significantly the original center of mass in the cases of limb amputation, severe skeletal deformities or obesity. The center of gravity may change with the installation of additional devices such as oxygen cylinders or ventilators on the wheelchair. Therefore, quantitative evaluation and prediction of the behavior of the user-wheelchair system in a variety of static and dynamic situations is essential for user's safety and for the optimal tuning of the human-wheelchair system. In this paper we discuss an approach for wheelchair stability assessment that only requires two inclinations and weight measurements. We also discuss the algorithm associated to the procedure based on the use of the reaction forces in the contact points of the wheels measured by the load cells. Further, the paper includes an analysis of the influence of the errors in measurement of the input parameters on the output results and demonstrates that the proposed approach possesses high accuracy. The advantage of the proposed approach is the use of a reliable procedure based on three simple steps and five weight measurements with four independent load scales which may lead to the design of an affordable and accurate measurement system.

  17. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-11-22

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

  18. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day. PMID:26834880

  19. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  20. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  1. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy bet...

  2. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  3. Epidemiology of Medicare abuse: the example of power wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, James S; Nguyen-Oghalai, Tracy U; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect of neighborhood ethnic composition on power wheelchair prescriptions. The 5% noncancer sample of Medicare recipients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, from 1994 to 2001. SEER regions. Individuals covered by Medicare living in SEER regions without a cancer diagnosis. Individual characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity, justifying diagnosis, and comorbidity), primary diagnoses, neighborhood characteristics (percentage black, percentage Hispanic, percentage with multilevel, multivariate analyses, individuals living in neighborhoods with higher percentages of blacks or Hispanics were more likely to receive power wheelchairs (odds ratios=1.09 for each 10% increase in black residents and 1.23 for each 10% increase in Hispanic residents) after controlling for ethnicity and other characteristics at the individual level. These results support allegations that marketers promoting power wheelchairs have specifically targeted minority neighborhoods.

  4. Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: "That's wheelie gross!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paula; Muller, Matthew P; Prior, Betty; So, Ken; Tooze, Jane; Eum, Linda; Kachur, Oksana

    2014-11-01

    Wheelchairs are complex equipment that come in close contact with individuals at increased risk of transmitting and acquiring antibiotic-resistant organisms and health care-associated infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities. Acute care hospitals (ACHs), chronic care hospitals (CCHs), and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were contacted and the individual responsible for oversight of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection was identified. A structured interview was conducted that focused on current practices and concerns, barriers to effective wheelchair cleaning and disinfection, and potential solutions. Interviews were completed at 48 of the 54 facilities contacted (89%), including 18 ACHs, 16 CCHs, and 14 LTCFs. Most (n = 24) facilities had 50-200 in-house wheelchairs. Respondents were very concerned about wheelchair cleaning as an infection control issue. Specific concerns included the lack of reliable systems for tracking and identifying dirty and clean wheelchairs (71%, 34/48), failure to clean and disinfect wheelchairs between patients (52%, 25/48), difficulty cleaning cushions (42%, 20/48), lack of guidelines (35%, 27/48), continued use of visibly soiled wheelchairs (29%, 14/48) and lack of resources (25%, 12/48). Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and Experimental Verification of Vibration Suppression Device on the Lift of Wheelchair-accessible Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the number of wheelchair-accessible vehicles has increased with the aging of the population. Such vehicles are effective in reducing the burden on caregivers because the wheelchair user does not have to move from his/her wheelchair to a seat of the vehicle. Wheelchair-accessible vehicles are expected to be widely used in the future. However, wheelchair users have reported poor ride comfort. It is thus necessary to suppress the vibration of the vehicle considering the wheelchair user. We designed a passive damping device on the lift of wheelchair-accessible vehicles to improve the ride comfort for wheelchair users. The vibration due to road disturbances reaches the wheelchair user's body through the vehicle and wheelchair. Our control device decreases the acceleration of the torso and improves the ride comfort by ensuring that the frequency of the vibration reaching the wheelchair user differs from the resonance frequency band of the acceleration of the torso, which is the body part that feels the most discomfort. The effectiveness of the control device is verified experimentally.

  6. Maneuverability and usability analysis of three knee-extension propelled wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloswick, D S; Erickson, J; Brown, D R; Howell, G; Mecham, W

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maneuverability and usability of three knee-extension propelled wheelchairs. The maneuverability of the knee-extension propelled wheelchairs was determined in a controlled test representing five standard wheelchair activities. The usability of the wheelchairs was evaluated in a field test with elderly residents of an extended care facility in Salt Lake City. The results indicate that the wheelchair designs using a swinging (four-bar linkage) or sliding belt mechanism are preferred to a sliding plate design. The use of knee-extension propelled wheelchairs is a feasible alternative to hand propelled wheelchairs. Further development and research is needed to address power requirements, maneuverability, and entrance/egress from the chairs.

  7. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  8. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles.

  9. A Star-Wheel Stair-Climbing Wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; WU Bo; JIN Ai-min; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHENG Yu-fei; ZHANG Shuai

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair climb stairs function, this paper designs a star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism. Through the effect of the lock coupling, the star-wheel stair-climbing mechanism is formed to be fixed axis gear train or planetary gear train achieving flat-walking and stair-climbing functions. Crossing obstacle analysis obtains the maximum height and minimum width of obstacle which the wheelchair can cross. Stress-strain analysis in Solidworks simulation is performed to verify material strength.

  10. Preliminary reliability and internal consistency of the Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen; Dittmer, Melanie; McLean, Jessica; Wee, Joy

    2017-11-01

    Wheelchair durability and maintenance condition are key factors of wheelchair function. Durability studies done with double drum and drop testers, although valuable, do not perfectly imitate conditions of use. Durability may be harvested from clinical records; however, these may be inconsistent because protocols for recording information differ from place to place. Wheelchair professionals with several years of experience often develop a good eye for wheelchair maintenance condition. The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQc) was developed as a professional report questionnaire to provide data specifically on the maintenance condition of a wheelchair. The goal of this study was to obtain preliminary test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the WCQc. Participants were a convenience sample of wheelchair professionals who self-reported more than two years' of wheelchair experience, and completed the WCQc on the same wheelchair twice. Results indicated preliminary reliability and internal consistency for domain related questions and the entire questionnaire. Implications for rehabilitation The WCQc, if administered routinely at regular intervals, can be used to monitor wheelchair condition and alert users and health professionals about the need for repair or replacement. The WCQc is not difficult to use, making early monitoring for wear or damage more feasible. The earlier a tool can detect need for maintenance, the higher likelihood that appropriate measures may be employed in a timely fashion to maximize the overall durability of wheelchairs and minimize clinical complications. Keeping wheelchairs appropriately maintained allows users to minimize effort expended when using them, and maximize their function. It also lowers the risk of injury due to component failure. When assessing groups of similar wheelchairs, organizations involved in funding wheelchairs can use data from the WCQc to make purchase decisions based on durability, and

  11. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2010-01-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  12. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  13. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    certainly worth further intensive study as a high risk/high payoff concept. 2. Solar Heated Plasmas - An approach to a solar thermal rocket that can obtain...metal and hydrogen gas. This is a near-term advanced propulsion concept suitable for the follow-on phase of the existing AFRPL solar thermal rocket program...will discuss various versions of the solar thermal rocket , where sunlight is collected and used to directly heat a working fluid. This solar heated

  14. Physical and Leisure Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Canadians Who Use Wheelchairs: A Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Best

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR=44.71 and leisure activity (OR=10.83. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR=10.56 and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  15. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  17. Student Attitudes toward Intimacy with Persons Who Are Wheelchair Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Irmo; Chan, Roy; Feist, Amber; Flores-Torres, Lelia

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored whether students would be attracted to having an intimate relationship with a wheelchair user if participants were able to first see a head shot photo and later read a short biography of the person. Four hundred and eight undergraduate students were surveyed regarding their interest in potentially being friends, dating…

  18. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  19. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  20. Funding to Make the Wheels Turn Round. 1990 Wheelchair Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Cliff

    1990-01-01

    This article presents tips on financing the purchase of wheelchairs and other adaptive equipment for physically disabled children. Parent/dealer cooperation, parental health insurance coverage, governmental programs, doctors' prescription letters, and community resources are discussed. Eight potential funding sources are listed along with contact…

  1. Wheelchair Athletes Need Special Treatment--But Only for Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Terry

    1986-01-01

    Disabled athletes now compete in many sports, but many physicians don't know what opportunities for sports participation are available for disabled people. Research into injuries is needed because wheelchair athletes have different needs in terms of injury management and rehabilitation. Resources for physicians are listed. (Author/MT)

  2. Contingent feedback for training children to propel their wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, D N; Dalke, B A

    1976-07-01

    Three multiply handicapped children were taught self-movement of their wheelchairs. This behavior was established through the use of contingent reinforcement within 30-minute therapy sessions. When a high number of self-movement responses were obtained, the reinforcement was systematically withdrawn to allow the responses to come under the control of the natural environmental consequences.

  3. Performance testing of collision-avoidance system for power wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund F. LoPresti, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Drive-Safe System (DSS is a collisionavoidancesystem for power wheelchairs designed to supportpeople with mobility impairments who also have visual, upperlimb,or cognitive impairments. The DSS uses a distributedapproach to provide an add-on, shared-control, navigationassistancesolution. In this project, the DSS was tested for engineeringgoals such as sensor coverage, maximum safe speed,maximum detection distance, and power consumption whilethe wheelchair was stationary or driven by an investigator.Results indicate that the DSS provided uniform, reliable sensorcoverage around the wheelchair; detected obstacles as small as3.2 mm at distances of at least 1.6 m; and attained a maximumsafe speed of 4.2 km/h. The DSS can drive reliably as close as15.2 cm from a wall, traverse doorways as narrow as 81.3 cmwithout interrupting forward movement, and reduce wheelchairbattery life by only 3%. These results have implicationsfor a practical system to support safe, independent mobility forveterans who acquire multiple disabilities during Active Dutyor later in life. These tests indicate that a system utilizing relativelylow cost ultrasound, infrared, and force sensors caneffectively detect obstacles in the vicinity of a wheelchair.

  4. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  5. Current Perspectives on Profiling and Enhancing Wheelchair Court Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Thomas; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the evidence base for supporting elite wheelchair sport performance remains in its infancy when compared with able-bodied (AB) sport. Subsequently, current practice is often based on theory adapted from AB guidelines, with a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence and practitioner experience. Many principles in training prescription and performance monitoring with wheelchair athletes are directly transferable from AB practice, including the periodization and tapering of athlete loads around competition, yet considerations for the physiological consequences of an athlete's impairment and the interface between athlete and equipment are vital when targeting interventions to optimize in-competition performance. Researchers and practitioners are faced with the challenge of identifying and implementing reliable protocols that detect small but meaningful changes in impairment-specific physical capacities and on-court performance. Technologies to profile both linear and rotational on-court performance are an essential component of sport-science support to understand sport-specific movement profiles and prescribe training intensities. In addition, an individualized approach to the prescription of athlete training and optimization of the "wheelchair-user interface" is required, accounting for an athlete's anthropometrics, sports classification, and positional role on court. In addition to enhancing physical capacities, interventions must focus on the integration of the athlete and his or her equipment, as well as techniques for limiting environmental influence on performance. Taken together, the optimization of wheelchair sport performance requires a multidisciplinary approach based on the individual requirements of each athlete.

  6. Mouse for Computer Control from the Joystick of the Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming autonomous is one of the biggest challenges for many people with disabilities. Increasing their autonomy usually involves the use of a wheelchair and any kind of digital assistant, such as a computer or a tablet, to communicate, to work or even for leisure. In such a situation, those people are obliged to use two different human interfaces to move a pointer and to drive the wheelchair. A joystick is the most common option to control a wheelchair. On the other hand, there are many different adapted interfaces to emulate the use of a mouse. This paper presents a system, BJoy Ring mouse, which captures the motion of the joystick on a wheelchair. The captured signal is used to move the cursor or the pointer of any digital device including an USB port. This system avoids any mechanical or electronic change in the joystick to keep its original safety and warranty. Communication between the device and the computer (or any other digital assistant uses the USB protocol, although it could be easily improved to a Bluetooth wireless connection. Validation tests with real users proved this system to be useful aid for people with motor disabilities.

  7. Propulsion for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  8. External Burning Propulsion Analysis (EBPA). User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    EPSP is the relative error between PIPI and POUTD and satisfies the criterion for convergence. AIPI is the cross sectional area of the flow at...turning point. PDREL gives a relative error for successive iterates in PIPI . THETWG, EPSG, RSTAR, HLREL, which have no meaning for annulus 1, MDTENT

  9. Space Propulsion Hazards Analysis Manual (SPHAM). Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    PESO T14ROUGH MACHINIDO SULNIHAD MEWALL hILSI~ ~~~~TIIC~ACINI (YICUL~fB MAYL- IGRTUIT EPOXYR ~ TYPICAL mug Im CA RVTh CU f FR ME SYSTEMIREACTION...Booster Jettison 156.7 2:36.7 33.0 50.7 8,222 3 Panels Jettison 178.6 2:58.6 43.0 79.1 8,596 4 Nose Fair Jett. 226.9 3:46.9 61.5 150.2 10,056 5 SECO 284.2...insulation panels have not been jettisoned prior to SECO -Il secotids, the sequencer will unconditionally set Switch 33 to jettison the panels at this time

  10. An exploratory study of the experiences of wheelchair users as aircraft passengers – implications for policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Davies

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Air travel has grown steadily in the region of 5–6% every year since 1970 meaning that in the UK alone, around 750,000 people use flying as a means of transport every day. Disability rates are also increasing in the UK, with over 13 million people having at least one. Air travel for the mobility impaired has been relatively unexplored, but with increasing rates of disability and passenger numbers, it is crucial to know what the most severely disabled people think of the current process. This study used qualitative interviews of a semi-structured nature with eight wheelchair-using participants who were invited to discuss their experiences of air travel as well as offering opinions. Key findings showed notable issues when wheelchair users interact with the aircraft. The manual handling, the equipment used, seating, communication and accessing the toilet on the aircraft led to physical pain and discomfort and in turn emotional distress. Recommendations include developing consistency, further disability training and a review of the equipment involved.

  11. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  12. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  13. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  14. Research on Optimization, Dynamics and Stability of Stairclimbing Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Shekhar Sahoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of the wheel, man has always sought to reduce effort to get things done easily. Ultimately, it has resulted in the invention of the Robot, an Engineering Marvel. Up until now, the major factor that hampers widespread usage of robots is locomotion and maneuverability. They are not fit enough to conform even to the most commonplace terrain such as stairs. To overcome this, we are proposing a stair climbing wheelchair robot that looks a lot like a normal wheelchair but with additional stair-climbing functionality to adjust itself according to the height of the step The primarily goal of the prescribed manuscript herewith is to analyze the functional requirements, optimization methods, dynamics and stability during a tracked robotic wheelchair’s climbing of stairs mechanism. At first, the mechanical structure of the wheelchair is designed and the hardware composition of its full control system is devised. Secondly, based on the analysis of its stairs‐climbing process, the dynamical model of stairs‐climbing is established by using the classical mechanics method. Next, through simulation and experiments, the effectiveness of the dynamical model, its stability evaluation and performance parameters is verified. Such procedures will help in establishing a strong fundamental foundation steps to design and develop a standalone semi-autonomous wheelchair that will help and enable a physically challenged person by leg to climb difficult terrains like staircase and speed-breakers with ease and comfort. This design encompasses Renesas’s Arduino compatible GR-KAEDE boards, servo motors, high torque DC motors and various peripheral devices as incorporated in design diagram. We have also extended the application of wheelchair by integrating collision avoidance mechanism.

  15. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal-Crespo Laura

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22 to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  19. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  20. Guatemalan caregivers' perceptions of receiving and using wheelchairs donated for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Lorraine K; Pennington, Sandra L; Sweeney, Jane K; Leavitt, Ronnie L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences, perceptions, and needs of caregivers receiving wheelchairs donated for nonambulatory children in a less-resourced country. A phenomenological research design was used with purposeful sampling of 14 participants living in urban and rural areas of Guatemala. Data were collected primarily by interviews and supplemented with observations in natural settings, photographs, and record reviews. Eight themes emerged uncovering the meaning and essence of caregivers' experiences: value of the wheelchair, relief for caregivers, enhancement of child participation, wheelchair as a form of "therapy," improvement of learning opportunities, challenges to inadequate disability awareness, impact of contextual barriers, and need for community-based supports. Caregivers in this sample perceived donated wheelchairs as beneficial to themselves and to their children. Support was found for the need to provide wheelchairs in collaboration with local services to support wheelchair use.

  1. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  2. Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB) capability centers on its suite of vacuum chambers, which are configured to meet the unique requirements related to...

  3. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  4. A new marine propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-shi; LIU Tao

    2003-01-01

    A new marine propulsion system is proposed . A small liquid sodium cooled reactor acts as prime mover; alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cells are employed to convert the heat energy to electricity; superconducting magneto-hydrodynamic thruster combined with spray-water thruster works as propulsion. The configuration and characteristics of this system are described. Such a nuclear-powered propulsion system is not only free of noise, but also has high reliability and efficiency. It would be a preferable propulsion system for ships in the future.

  5. Motion Control of a Four-wheel-drive Omnidirectional Wheelchair with High Step Climbing Capability

    OpenAIRE

    WADA, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism and omnidirectional control of a 4WD mechanism for wheelchairs are presented in this chapter. The omnidirectional wheelchair system is proposed for improving maneuverability of standard wheelchairs The 4WD mechanism has high mobility which equips four wheels, two omni-wheels in the front and two normal tires in the rear, and all wheels provide traction even with two motors to drive these wheels. To realize holonomic and omnidirectional motion of a chair by utilizing the 4WD mechanis...

  6. Development of safety concept of electric wheelchair driving support system based on assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurozumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Toru; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we pay attention to the electric wheelchair driving support. We look at the functional safety of the electric wheelchair. Based on intrinsically-safe electric wheelchair, we add driving support system to increase functional safety. The driving support system processes the environmental information sensor data including the 3D laser Range scanner and biological monitoring sensor data including electrooculogram, and assists avoidance of dangerous objects. We have developed safety concept that based on assessment of risk.

  7. Assessment of Joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Routhier François; Archambault Philippe S; Sorrento Gianluca U; Dessureault Danielle; Boissy Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Powered wheelchairs are essential for many individuals who have mobility impairments. Nevertheless, if operated improperly, the powered wheelchair poses dangers to both the user and to those in its vicinity. Thus, operating a powered wheelchair with some degree of proficiency is important for safety, and measuring driving skills becomes an important issue to address. The objective of this study was to explore the discriminate validity of outcome measures of driving skills ...

  8. “I Want That”: Human-in-the-Loop Control of a Wheelchair-Mounted Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair-mounted robotic arms have been commercially available for a decade. In order to operate these robotic arms, a user must have a high level of cognitive function. Our research focuses on replacing a manufacturer-provided, menu-based interface with a vision-based system while adding autonomy to reduce the cognitive load. Instead of manual task decomposition and execution, the user explicitly designates the end goal, and the system autonomously retrieves the object. In this paper, we present the complete system which can autonomously retrieve a desired object from a shelf. We also present the results of a 15-week study in which 12 participants from our target population used our system, totaling 198 trials.

  9. Machinist's Mate 1 and C: Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual covers the duties required to efficiently operate and maintain ship propulsion machinery and associated equipment and to maintain applicable records and reports. Chapters cover: turbines; reduction gears; steam-driven generators; heat exchangers and air ejectors; pumps; piping and valves; distilling plants; refrigeration…

  10. Merlin's 'invalid or gouty chair' and the origin of the self-propelled wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Marie-France; Silver, John R

    2016-08-01

    Wheelchairs are a major advance in enabling independence for people with walking difficulties. The first self-propelled wheelchair has been attributed to John Joseph Merlin, the 'ingenious mechanick', in the early 19th century and his 'gouty chair' is exhibited at Kenwood House. Research would suggest that comparable chairs existed in France as early as 1751 and the French Revolutionary, Georges Couthon, used one to get around Paris. A later design, also attributed to Merlin, the invalid wheelchair, features large wheels with outer hoops for the occupant to grasp and this is the true ancestor of the modern wheelchair. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Support of Wheelchairs Using Pheromone Information with Two Types of Communication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Nitta, Katsumi

    In this paper, we propose a communication framework which combined two types of communication among wheelchairs and mobile devices. Due to restriction of range of activity, there is a problem that wheelchair users tend to shut themselves up in their houses. We developed a navigational wheelchair which loads a system that displays information on a map through WWW. However, this wheelchair is expensive because it needs a solid PC, a precise GPS, a battery, and so on. We introduce mobile devices and use this framework to provide information to wheelchair users and to facilitate them to go out. When a user encounters other users, they exchange messages which they have by short-distance wireless communication. Once a message is delivered to a navigational wheelchair, the wheelchair uploads the message to the system. We use two types of pheromone information which represent trends of user's movement and existences of a crowd of users. First, when users gather, ``crowd of people pheromone'' is emitted virtually. Users do not send these pheromones to the environment but carry them. If the density exceeds the threshold, messages that express ``people gethered'' are generated automatically. The other pheromone is ``movement trend pheromone'', which is used to improve probability of successful transmissions. From results of experiments, we concluded that our method can deliver information that wheelchair users gathered to other wheelchairs.

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair for transfer of disabled passengers at a large airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmert, W; Löwenthal, I; Rückert, A

    1990-01-01

    Transferring disabled passengers to the aircraft, both arriving and departing, is one passenger service at a big airport. We use different ergonomic research methods (registration of heart rate, AET job analysis as well as a standardized questionnaire) to evaluate the present wheelchair design. Due to e.g. the high wheelchair backrest, the forces needed to handle the chair and other facts, the current wheelchair causes a strain bottleneck. The results of the AET analysis and the rating of the perceived exertion confirm this finding. A redesigned wheelchair based on ergonomic principles, which reduces stress on the employees and offers more comfort to disabled passengers, is presented.

  13. From big data to rich data: The key features of athlete wheelchair mobility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Veeger, H E J

    2016-10-03

    Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment, providing a large number of kinematic data. The goal of this research was to reduce that large amount of data to a set of key features best describing wheelchair mobility performance in match play and present them in meaningful way for both scientists and athletes. To test the discriminative power, wheelchair mobility characteristics of athletes with different performance levels were compared. The wheelchair kinematics of 29 (inter-)national level athletes were measured during a match using three inertial sensors mounted on the wheelchair. Principal component analysis was used to reduce 22 kinematic outcomes to a set of six outcomes regarding linear and rotational movement; speed and acceleration; average and best performance. In addition, it was explored whether groups of athletes with known performance differences based on their impairment classification also differed with respect to these key outcomes using univariate general linear models. For all six key outcomes classification showed to be a significant factor (pperformance in match play. The key kinematic outcomes were displayed in an easy to interpret way, usable for athletes, coaches and scientists. This standardized representation enables comparison of different wheelchair sports regarding wheelchair mobility, but also evaluation at the level of an individual athlete. By this means, the tool could enhance further development of wheelchair sports in general.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  15. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  16. Physical performance during rehabilitation in persons with spinal cord injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; van der Woude, L H; Hollander, A P; van As, H H

    PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation on physical capacity, mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion, and performance of standardized activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS: Nineteen recently injured subjects with spinal cord

  17. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample return...

  18. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  19. Noise Robust Speech Recognition Applied to Voice-Driven Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasou, Akira; Kojima, Hiroaki

    2009-12-01

    Conventional voice-driven wheelchairs usually employ headset microphones that are capable of achieving sufficient recognition accuracy, even in the presence of surrounding noise. However, such interfaces require users to wear sensors such as a headset microphone, which can be an impediment, especially for the hand disabled. Conversely, it is also well known that the speech recognition accuracy drastically degrades when the microphone is placed far from the user. In this paper, we develop a noise robust speech recognition system for a voice-driven wheelchair. This system can achieve almost the same recognition accuracy as the headset microphone without wearing sensors. We verified the effectiveness of our system in experiments in different environments, and confirmed that our system can achieve almost the same recognition accuracy as the headset microphone without wearing sensors.

  20. Data logger device applicability for wheelchair tennis court movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindall, Paul; Lenton, John; Cooper, Rory; Tolfrey, Keith; Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of movement logging devices is required to ensure suitability for the determination of court-movement variables during competitive sports performance and allow for practical recommendations to be made. Hence, the purpose was to examine wheelchair tennis speed profiles to assess data logger device applicability for court-movement quantification, with match play stratified by rank (HIGH, LOW), sex (male, female) and format (singles, doubles). Thirty-one wheelchair tennis players were monitored during competitive match play. Mixed sampling was employed (male = 23, female = 8). Friedman's test with Wilcoxon signed-rank post hoc testing revealed a higher percentage of time below 2.5 m · s(-1) [tennis match play are consistent with data logger accuracy. Hence, data logging is appropriate for court-movement quantification.

  1. A Framework for Controlling Wheelchair Motion by using Gaze Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razali Tomari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Users with severe motor ability are unable to control their wheelchair using standard joystick and hence an alternative control input is preferred. In this paper a method on how to enable the severe impairment user to control a wheelchair via gaze information is proposed. Since when using such an input, the navigation burden for the user is significantly increased, an assistive navigation platform is also proposed to reduce the user burden. Initially, user information is inferred using a camera and a bite-like switch. Then information from the environment is obtained using combination of laser and Kinect sensors. Eventually, both information from the environment and the user is analyzed to decide the final control operation that according to the user intention and safe from collision. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Mobility Assistance Design of the Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the “intelligent Robotic Wheelchair” (iRW, emphasizing its mobility assistance design. The vehicle uses four Mecanum wheels to facilitate movement in all directions, including sideways, and zero radius of rotation. The iRW requires much less space than ordinary electric wheelchairs in turning and sideways manoeuvres. Based on this moving vehicle, mobility assistance functions are designed for three different operators: the wheelchair user, caregivers, and the iRW itself in autonomous behaviours. Five operation modes, all mutually exclusive, are developed: obstacle avoidance, joystick mode, handlebar mode, teleoperation, and indoor navigation. Man‐machine collaborative control is reflected in the assignment of priorities to the three operators. The functional test performed in this research compared the operational efficiency of the five operation modes.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  4. Wheeled mobility (wheelchair) service delivery: scope of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Nancy; Brasure, Michelle; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-01-17

    Identifying the appropriate wheelchair for a person who needs one has implications for both disabled persons and society. For someone with severe locomotive problems, the right wheelchair can affect mobility and quality of life. However, policymakers are concerned about the increasing demand for unnecessarily elaborate chairs. The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, issued 4 reports between 2009 and 2011 detailing fraud and misapplication of Medicare funds for powered wheelchairs, more than a decade after similar concerns were first raised by 4 contractors who process claims for durable medical equipment. Subsequent concerns have arisen about whether some impaired persons who need wheeled mobility devices may now be inappropriately denied coverage. A transparent, evidence-based approach to wheeled mobility service delivery (the matching of mobility-impaired persons to appropriate devices and supporting services) might lessen these concerns. This review describes the process of wheeled mobility service delivery for long-term wheelchair users with complex rehabilitation needs and presents findings from a survey of the literature (published and gray) and interviews with key informants. Recommended steps in the delivery process were identified in textbooks, guidelines, and published literature. Delivery processes shared many commonalities; however, no research supports the recommended approaches. A search of bibliographic databases through March 2011 identified 24 studies that evaluated aspects of wheeled mobility service delivery. Most were observational, exploratory studies designed to determine consumer use of and satisfaction with the process. The evidence base for the effectiveness of approaches to wheeled mobility service delivery is insufficient, and additional research is needed to develop standards and guidelines.

  5. Sliding Mode Control for Trajectory Tracking of an Intelligent Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan SOLEA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with a robust sliding-mode trajectory tracking controller, fornonholonomic wheeled mobile robots and its experimental evaluation by theimplementation in an intelligent wheelchair (RobChair. The proposed control structureis based on two nonlinear sliding surfaces ensuring the tracking of the three outputvariables, with respect to the nonholonomic constraint. The performances of theproposed controller for the trajectory planning problem with comfort constraint areverified through the real time acceleration provided by an inertial measurement unit.

  6. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  7. Asphalt Raking. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet consists of the instructor and trainee manuals for an asphalt raking course. The instructor manual contains a course schedule for 4 days of instruction, content outline, and instructor outline. The trainee manual is divided into five sections: safety, asphalt basics, placing methods, repair and patching, and clean-up and maintenance.…

  8. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  9. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  10. Using fuzzy logic to mitigate the effect of multiple-sclerosis tremors on a wheelchair joystick controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbett, Dan; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Antoniou, Grigoris; Slaney, John

    1998-01-01

    We have designed a fuzzy logic wheelchair controller to minimise the effect of Multiple Sclerosis hand tremors on a wheelchair joystick controller. The aim is to give people with Multiple Sclerosis better control of an electric wheelchair by removing tremors from the joystick signal. This has been a

  11. IntellWheels: Modular development platform for intelligent wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Marques Braga, PhD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent wheelchairs (IWs can become an important solution to the challenge of assisting individuals who have disabilities and are thus unable to perform their daily activities using classic powered wheelchairs. This article describes the concept and design of IntellWheels, a modular platform to facilitate the development of IWs through a multiagent system paradigm. In fact, modularity is achieved not only in the software perspective, but also through a generic hardware framework that was designed to fit, in a straightforward manner, almost any commercial powered wheelchair. Experimental results demonstrate the successful integration of all modules in the platform, providing safe motion to the IW. Furthermore, the results achieved with a prototype running in autonomous mode in simulated and mixed-reality environments also demonstrate the potential of our approach. Although some future research is still necessary to fully accomplish our objectives, preliminary tests have shown that IntellWheels will effectively reduce users' limitations, offering them a much more independent life.

  12. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of different wheelchair seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative biomechanical analysis of four antidecubitus wheelchair cushions. Thirty wheelchair users were considered divided into three groups: paraplegic subjects (with no cutaneous sensation), neurologic subjects (with intact cutaneous sensation), and elderly subjects. The biomechanical evaluation was performed using a piezoresistive sensor matrix system to quantify parameters referred to pressure distribution, seating surface and posture. Dedicated software was developed for the automatic elaboration of the raw data and the computation of the parameters of interest. Differences among cushion types and subject groups were analyzed. An analysis of time-transient behaviors was also performed. Results showed that no significant differences in pressure peak reduction were found among the four cushions. Moreover, no time-transient behavior was shown by any cushions. However, both the location of pressure peaks and posture were dependent on cushion types. Comparison of the three subject groups showed that elderly subjects had the highest mean pressure and the lowest contact surface, while paraplegics presented the highest pressure peaks. This procedure appears indicated for individualizing the prescription of a wheelchair cushion and even for customizing a cushion to induce a specific posture.

  13. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.

  14. Transfer component skill deficit rates among Veterans who use wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Koontz, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the deficit rates for transfer component skills in a Veteran cohort and explore the relationship between deficit rates and subject characteristics. Seventy-four men and 18 women performed up to four transfers independently from their wheelchair to a mat table while a therapist evaluated their transfer techniques using the Transfer Assessment Instrument. The highest deficit rates concerned the improper use of handgrips (63%. Other common problems included not setting the wheelchair up at the proper angle (50% and not removing the armrest (58%. Veterans over 60 yr old and Veterans with moderate shoulder pain were more likely to set up their wheelchairs inappropriately than younger Veterans (p = 0.003 and Veterans with mild shoulder pain (p = 0.004. Women were less likely to remove their armrests than men (p = 0.03. Subjects with disabilities other than spinal cord injury were less inclined to set themselves up for a safe and easy transfer than the subjects with spinal cord injury (p

  15. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  16. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  17. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  19. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots.

  20. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in

  1. Peak oxygen uptake and maximal power output of Olympic wheelchair-dependent athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Hadj Yahmed, M; van der Woude, L H; Charpentier, P

    1991-01-01

    To extend the existing data base on the cardiovascular capacity of wheelchair-dependent athletes, a maximum wheelchair exercise test was conducted by 48 athletes (8 females and 40 males) on a motor driven treadmill. Athletes were selected on availability from the representatives of eight different

  2. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  3. Improving wheelchair prescription: an analysis of user needs and existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Louise; Woodcock, Andree; Heelis, Mike; Chichi, Cynthia; Fielden, Simon; Stefanov, Dimitar

    2012-01-01

    Wheelchair users experience many situations that affect the stability and associated performance of their wheelchair. Stability is affected by user characteristics and abilities, environmental features and conditions, and wheelchair modification and accessories. Wheelchair prescribers need effective tools and methods to provide quantitative evaluation and prediction of the behavior of the user-wheelchair system in a variety of static and dynamic situations. Such information is very important to guide efficient management of associated risks and adjust chairs accordingly. This project involves a user-centered approach for design and evaluation of a load cell based wheelchair stability assessment system (Wheel-SAS). Here, the current methods for assessing stability are described, and their shortcomings explained. The user-centered design approach being applied to the development of the associated Wheel-SAS hardware and software is described. Future work including semi-structured interviews and an online survey with wheelchair prescribers and associated healthcare professionals for deriving user requirements and a design specification for a load cell system for measuring dynamic wheelchair stability are detailed.

  4. RESNA Position on the Application of Seat-Elevating Devices for Wheelchair Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arva, Julianna; Schmeler, Mark R.; Lange, Michelle L.; Lipka, Daniel D.; Rosen, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in September 2005, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of seat-elevating devices for wheelchair users. Wheelchair mobility is often only considered from…

  5. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sandra L; Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre-post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving.

  6. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classificat

  7. Ethnic, Gender, and Contact Differences in Intimacy Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Irmo; Wang, Xiaohui; Etzbach, Colleen A.; Del Castillo, Alinka

    2013-01-01

    Student attitudes toward having a relationship with a wheelchair user were explored. Participants initially selected one of six opposite gender head shots and subsequently viewed their selection's whole body photograph in a wheelchair along with reading a short biography. Primarily undergraduate Hispanic and Caucasian students (N = 810) were…

  8. Effect of Wheelchair Frame Material on Users’ Mechanical Work and Transmitted Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Chénier

    2014-01-01

    similar to aluminium wheelchairs. A negative correlation between VT and WN-WPM was found, which means that reducing VT may be at the expense of increasing WN-WPM. Based on our results, use of carbon in wheelchair construction seems promising to reduce VT without increasing WN-WPM.

  9. 78 FR 35173 - Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...: Identification of patients who can effectively operate the device; and Instructions how to fit, modify, or...-climbing wheelchair. (a) Identification. A stair-climbing wheelchair is a device with wheels that is... the following: (i) Identification of patients who can effectively operate the device; and (ii...

  10. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current gl

  11. 78 FR 39649 - Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... of Stair-Climbing Wheelchairs; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... appeared in the Federal Register of June 12, 2013 (78 FR 35173). The document proposed to reclassify stair-climbing wheelchairs. The document was published with typographical errors in the DATES section of the...

  12. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  13. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  14. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in a

  15. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  16. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  17. SpinSafe: An unsupervised smartphone-based wheelchair path monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2016-01-01

    Movement and social life of wheelchair users are constrained by their disability and suitability of paths they can move on. Modern electric wheelchairs offer them assisted drive, making their movement easier and longer. They, however, do not prevent accidents, injuries, and inconveniences caused by

  18. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  19. Peak oxygen uptake and maximal power output of Olympic wheelchair-dependent athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Hadj Yahmed, M; van der Woude, L H; Charpentier, P

    1991-01-01

    To extend the existing data base on the cardiovascular capacity of wheelchair-dependent athletes, a maximum wheelchair exercise test was conducted by 48 athletes (8 females and 40 males) on a motor driven treadmill. Athletes were selected on availability from the representatives of eight different d

  20. Measurement of wheelchair rolling resistance with a handle bar push technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H V; Geurts, C; Winkelman, H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a technique of pushing a wheelchair at the level of the handle bars as a method for measuring rolling resistance of wheelchair-user systems under different field conditions. Under standardized conditions on a motor driven treadmill, rolling resistance was de

  1. Measurement of wheelchair rolling resistance with a handle bar push technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H V; Geurts, C; Winkelman, H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a technique of pushing a wheelchair at the level of the handle bars as a method for measuring rolling resistance of wheelchair-user systems under different field conditions. Under standardized conditions on a motor driven treadmill, rolling resistance was

  2. The Effect of Wheel Size on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Lenton, J. P.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of different wheel sizes, with fixed gear ratios, on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes. 13 highly trained wheelchair basketball players, grouped by classification level, performed a battery of 3 field tests in a

  3. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classificat

  4. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design: Pros

  5. Wheelchair racing : effects of rim diameter and speed on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rooth, F; van Nierop, P

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different hand rim diameters in wheelchair racing were studied with respect to physiological and technique parameters at five speed levels (N = 8 wheelchair sportsmen). In each of five subsequent 15-min exercise tests on a treadmill, a different sized hand rim was mounted to the rear whee

  6. Wheelchair racing : effects of rim diameter and speed on physiology and technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Rozendal, R H; van Ingen Schenau, G J; Rooth, F; van Nierop, P

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different hand rim diameters in wheelchair racing were studied with respect to physiological and technique parameters at five speed levels (N = 8 wheelchair sportsmen). In each of five subsequent 15-min exercise tests on a treadmill, a different sized hand rim was mounted to the rear

  7. Space vehicles propulsion; La propulsion des vehicules spatiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiou, A. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-09-01

    Various types of propulsion systems are used depending on the mission characteristics, mono-propellant, bi-propellant and electric. Mono-propellant is mainly used for low Earth orbit applications such as earth observation (SPOT program) or for mini-satellites carrying scientific payloads (PROTEUS platform). Bi-propellant systems which are more efficient are used for geostationary telecommunications satellites (TELECOM2, STENTOR) and can be associated to electrical propulsion for the station keeping of these platforms (STENTOR). The use of electric propulsion allows an important launch mass reduction. The future developments are mainly dedicated to the use of electric propulsion for the orbit raising of telecommunication satellites which leads to the development of thrusters with higher thrust than those existing today, the study of new propellants safer than the existing propellants (hydrazine, mono-methyl-hydrazine,...) and the study of new systems to pressurize the propellants. (authors)

  8. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  9. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  10. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  11. Preliminary inter-rater reliability of the wheelchair components questionnaire for condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen; DiFrancesco, John; Raymond, Lawrence A; Riseling, Kristopher; Wee, Joy

    2017-07-07

    The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQ-C) enables the collection of data on wheelchair maintenance condition and durability in resource-limited environments. It can be used in large studies to indicate typical patterns of wear at a location, or for a type of wheelchair. It can also be used in clinical settings as an evidence based indication that a wheelchair may need repair or replacement. This type of data can enable effective use of limited funds by wheelchair providers, manufacturers and users. The goal of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of the WCQ-C. Two therapists from North America who have worked extensively in low-resource areas used the WCQ-C to independently evaluate 46 wheelchairs at a primary school for children with disabilities in Kenya. Mean scores of ratings for each wheelchair by the two raters were used to calculate a two-way random interclass correlation coefficient. A value of 0.82 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.67-0.89 indicated good preliminary reliability. Preliminary results indicate that the WCQ-C is a reliable method of assessment. Additional studies are needed with larger and more diverse groups of raters. Because WCQ-C findings are specific to wheelchair wear and maintenance at each location, studies at other locations are also needed. Implications for rehabilitation The importance of inter-rater reliability testing in confirming the reliability of an assessment tool such as the WCQ-C. The use of the WCQ-C to monitor wheelchair condition in low-resource settings and other field settings. If used at regular interval can produce data that can be used to describe typical changes over time at each individual setting. This could enable proactive planning at that setting to avoid typical breakdowns and the injuries or clinical complications that could result. The use of the WCQ-C to monitor the condition of groups of wheelchairs of the same type. It can describe typical patterns of wear and

  12. Pilot study of strap-based custom wheelchair seating system in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, John E; Wittig, Becky L; Payette, Mark; Goldish, Gary D; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Custom wheelchair seats can be used to help prevent pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury. In this study, a strap-based system was evaluated in three Veterans with spinal cord injury. Interface pressure distributions were measured after transfers, wheeling, and pressure relief maneuvers and after fittings by three different therapists. We found that pressure distribution measures were not generally affected after transfers and wheeling using the strap-based wheelchair and that pressure relief maneuvers were able to be performed. Additionally, all therapists were able to customize the wheelchair seat to clinically acceptable levels in 4 to 40 min for the three subjects. Future studies can test the long-term effects of using the strap-based wheelchair seat and identifying individuals that would most benefit from a rapidly customizable wheelchair seat.

  13. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  14. Designing movement-based play with young people using powered wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerling, Kathrin M; Hicks, Kieran C; Kalyn, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Young people using powered wheelchairs have limited access to engaging leisure activities. We address this issue through a two-stage project; 1) the participatory development of a set of wheelchair-controlled, movement-based games (with 9 participants at a school that provides education for young...... people who have special needs) and 2) three case studies (4 participants) exploring player perspectives on a set of three wheelchair-controlled casual games. Our results show that movement-based playful experiences are engaging for young people using powered wheelchairs. However, the participatory design...... process and case studies also reveal challenges for game accessibility regarding the integration of movement in games, diversity of abilities among young people using powered wheelchairs, and the representation of disability in games. In our paper, we explore how to address those challenges...

  15. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Masahiro; Iio, Takamasa; Kamei, Koji; Sharma, Chandraprakash; Hagita, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.

  16. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, William Bennett; Hammell, Karen W; Luts, Anneli; Soles, Chelsea; Miller, William C

    2015-01-01

    Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu's theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use, and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible.

  17. Towards a new modality-independent interface for a robotic wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Filho, Teodiano Freire; Cheein, Fernando Auat; Müller, Sandra Mara Torres; Celeste, Wanderley Cardoso; de la Cruz, Celso; Cavalieri, Daniel Cruz; Sarcinelli-Filho, Mário; Amaral, Paulo Faria Santos; Perez, Elisa; Soria, Carlos Miguel; Carelli, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development of a robotic wheelchair that can be commanded by users in a supervised way or by a fully automatic unsupervised navigation system. It provides flexibility to choose different modalities to command the wheelchair, in addition to be suitable for people with different levels of disabilities. Users can command the wheelchair based on their eye blinks, eye movements, head movements, by sip-and-puff and through brain signals. The wheelchair can also operate like an auto-guided vehicle, following metallic tapes, or in an autonomous way. The system is provided with an easy to use and flexible graphical user interface onboard a personal digital assistant, which is used to allow users to choose commands to be sent to the robotic wheelchair. Several experiments were carried out with people with disabilities, and the results validate the developed system as an assistive tool for people with distinct levels of disability.

  18. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, WB; Hammell, KW; Luts, A; Soles, C; Miller, WC

    2015-01-01

    Background Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. Aims/Objectives A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. Methods A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Results Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. Conclusion/Significance These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible. PMID:26027749

  19. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Shiomi

    Full Text Available We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.

  20. Influence of wheelchair footrest height on ischial tuberosity pressure in individuals with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tederko, P; Besowski, T; Jakubiak, K; Łyp, M; Bobecka-Wesołowska, K; Kiwerski, J

    2015-06-01

    To describe the effect of wheelchair footrest height on sitting pressures in persons with paraplegia. Seventeen manual wheelchair users with paraplegia underwent a seat pressure examination while footrests were elevated from the initial position with the thighs parallel to the seat (p0), by 10% (position p10) and by 20% of the fibula length (position p20). We analyzed average pressure (AP), the contact surface of the body with the seat (CS), pressures on the ischial tuberosities-left (LIP) and right (RIP)--and average pressure on both ischial tuberosities (AIP). A gradual increase in footrest elevation was accompanied by significant increases in AP (p0: 57.24±14.31; p10: 60.65±14.85; p20: 62±15.3 mm Hg; Kendall coefficient of concordance W=0.962), AIP (p0: 159.35±54.95; p10: 176.35±53.3; p20: 184.26±54.09 mm Hg; W=0.896), LIP (p0: 165.24±54.05; p10: 183±52.08; p20: 193.18±56.32 mm Hg; W=0.751) and RIP (p0: 153.71±71.23; p10: 167.35±72.19; p20: 175.35±70.84 mm Hg; W=0.524) and a significant decrease in CS (p0: 1218.2±100.8; p10: 1131.8±134.6; p20: 1065±142.6 cm(2); W=0.985). There was a moderate correlation between the relative increase in LIP and RIP between p0 and p10, and between p10 and p20 (Pearson's correlation coefficient for LIP r=0.66; P=0.04, for RIP r=0.77; P=0.003), and a high correlation between relative changes in AIP (r=0.87; Ppressure differences changed variably, suggesting that the risk of pressure ulcers may increase disproportionately with footrest elevation.

  1. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA researchers recently demonstrated successful real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle main propulsion system. Using a...

  2. Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine...

  3. Propulsion Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 125

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is NASAs only ground test facility capable of providing true altitude and flight speed simulation for testing full scale gas...

  4. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS, IAA WHITE PAPER PARIS, FRANCE, MARCH 2005 Lt Col Timothy J. Lawrence U.S. Air Force Academy...YYYY) 18-03-2005 2. REPORT TYPE White Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Mar 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET PROPULSION...reduce radiation exposure, is to have a high energy system like a nuclear thermal rocket that can get the payload to the destination in the fastest

  5. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    AFTC/PA Clearance No. XXXX 8 Ion Engines & Hall Thrusters Operation Ion engines and Hall thrusters are electrostatic propulsion devices • Ion Engines... Hall thrusters are gridless electrostatic thrusters – Propellant ionized by electrons trapped in magnetic field – Ions accelerated by an electric field...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21 September 2015 – 13 October 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion 5a

  6. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  7. LISA propulsion module separation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkowitz, S M [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ahmad, A [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hyde, T T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sweetser, T [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ziemer, J [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Conkey, S [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); III, W Kelly [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Shirgur, B [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three sciencecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each sciencecraft is delivered to its operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently included in the sciencecraft design are micronewton level thrusters, such as field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 {mu}N of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the sciencecraft. Due to these thrusters' limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a study of the propulsion module separation system requirements that are necessary to safely deliver the three LISA sciencecraft to their final operational orbits.

  8. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  9. Man in Wheelchair Scales World’s Tallest Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾小庆

    2002-01-01

    加拿大残疾青年Jeff Adams花费了5小时左右的时间,坐着特制的轮椅,登上世界第一高楼Toronto’s CN Tower的1,776级的楼梯。 本文文笔较为随意,比如,It took some 5 hours to climb Thursday,movingbackwards in a specially made wheelchair,the inside staircase of the tower thatdominates the skyline of Canada’s most populous city. 本刊顾问Bill Hofmann,对此句有如下解释和分析: The one sentence is not typical:“It took some 5 hours to climb Thursday,moving backwards in a specially made wheelchair,the inside staircase of the towerthat dominates the skyline of Canada’s most populous city”The modifiers are out ofplace. I would write it this way:“Moving backwards in a specially madewheelchair,Adams took some 5 hours on Thursday to climb the inside staircase ofthe tower that dominates the skyline of Canada’s most populous city. 而接下去的一句(It’s so outside the box and also something you never thoughtwas possible in a wheelchair,“he said.)就更费解。究竟如何理解此句为好。请读本期“语法词汇新探”专栏的文章。Bill Hofmann和澳大利?

  10. Performance evaluation of biosignal measurement at the wheelchair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Kyoon; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure both ECG and BCG(Ballistocariograph) signal of a subject on moving or resting wheelchair and detect the heart rate and respiratory rate and transmit an event message to remote server on emergent situation. To acquire ECG and BCG data, amplifier circuits were composed to be suitable for their characteristics. 3-axial accelerometer was built in the developed device to measure the mechanical noise that can be generated on moving wheelchair.The output signals were converted to digital data and stored in bio-signal archiving media(SD card). CDMA module was used to transmit the event data on ECG electrode detachment and the received data was monitored by the developed C# application program. 8 volunteers participated in the experiment to evaluate the validity of the developed device. When the event occurs in each subject, 48 Kbyte data, stored for 32 seconds from that point, was transmitted to remote server through CDMA cellular phone network correctly. The received data of ECG , BCG, and 3-axial acceleration could be archived in server and the heart rate and respiratory rate could be measured and analyzed. The correlation coefficients of respiratory rate in resting and moving with the real value were 0.9636 and 0.9237, respectively. The correlation coefficient ofR-R intervals between the developed and reference device was 0.999.In conclusion, the developed device in this study could acquire the ECG and BCG data of subjects on wheelchair simultaneously and measure their heart rate and respiratory rate. In addition, event data was verified to be transmitted to remote server without any errors.

  11. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  14. Brain-Computer Interface for Control of Wheelchair Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nurullah; Aytac, Ersin; Günsel, Irfan; Çağman, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The design of brain-computer interface for the wheelchair for physically disabled people is presented. The design of the proposed system is based on receiving, processing, and classification of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and then performing the control of the wheelchair. The number of experimental measurements of brain activity has been done using human control commands of the wheelchair. Based on the mental activity of the user and the control commands of the wheelchair, the design of classification system based on fuzzy neural networks (FNN) is considered. The design of FNN based algorithm is used for brain-actuated control. The training data is used to design the system and then test data is applied to measure the performance of the control system. The control of the wheelchair is performed under real conditions using direction and speed control commands of the wheelchair. The approach used in the paper allows reducing the probability of misclassification and improving the control accuracy of the wheelchair. PMID:27777953

  15. Toward brain-computer interface based wheelchair control utilizing tactually-evoked event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe disabilities, e.g. due to neurodegenerative disease, depend on technology that allows for accurate wheelchair control. For those who cannot operate a wheelchair with a joystick, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) may offer a valuable option. Technology depending on visual or auditory input may not be feasible as these modalities are dedicated to processing of environmental stimuli (e.g. recognition of obstacles, ambient noise). Herein we thus validated the feasibility of a BCI based on tactually-evoked event-related potentials (ERP) for wheelchair control. Furthermore, we investigated use of a dynamic stopping method to improve speed of the tactile BCI system. Methods Positions of four tactile stimulators represented navigation directions (left thigh: move left; right thigh: move right; abdomen: move forward; lower neck: move backward) and N = 15 participants delivered navigation commands by focusing their attention on the desired tactile stimulus in an oddball-paradigm. Results Participants navigated a virtual wheelchair through a building and eleven participants successfully completed the task of reaching 4 checkpoints in the building. The virtual wheelchair was equipped with simulated shared-control sensors (collision avoidance), yet these sensors were rarely needed. Conclusion We conclude that most participants achieved tactile ERP-BCI control sufficient to reliably operate a wheelchair and dynamic stopping was of high value for tactile ERP classification. Finally, this paper discusses feasibility of tactile ERPs for BCI based wheelchair control. PMID:24428900

  16. Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

  17. Assessment of Joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routhier François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered wheelchairs are essential for many individuals who have mobility impairments. Nevertheless, if operated improperly, the powered wheelchair poses dangers to both the user and to those in its vicinity. Thus, operating a powered wheelchair with some degree of proficiency is important for safety, and measuring driving skills becomes an important issue to address. The objective of this study was to explore the discriminate validity of outcome measures of driving skills based on joystick control strategies and performance recorded using a data logging system. Methods We compared joystick control strategies and performance during standardized driving tasks between a group of 10 expert and 13 novice powered wheelchair users. Driving tasks were drawn from the Wheelchair Skills Test (v. 4.1. Data from the joystick controller were collected on a data logging system. Joystick control strategies and performance outcome measures included the mean number of joystick movements, time required to complete tasks, as well as variability of joystick direction. Results In simpler tasks, the expert group's driving skills were comparable to those of the novice group. Yet, in more difficult and spatially confined tasks, the expert group required fewer joystick movements for task completion. In some cases, experts also completed tasks in approximately half the time with respect to the novice group. Conclusions The analysis of joystick control made it possible to discriminate between novice and expert powered wheelchair users in a variety of driving tasks. These results imply that in spatially confined areas, a greater powered wheelchair driving skill level is required to complete tasks efficiently. Based on these findings, it would appear that the use of joystick signal analysis constitutes an objective tool for the measurement of powered wheelchair driving skills. This tool may be useful for the clinical assessment and training of powered

  18. Workplace Literacy Program. Administrative Manual. Teacher Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Suffolk BOCES, Northport, NY.

    These two manuals are designed to aid prospective providers of workplace literacy programs in program organization and implementation. The administrator's manual addresses the following topics: program philosophy, history, potential clients, advertising, guidelines for client meetings, instructor recruitment and training, client goals, learning…

  19. Hypersonic propulsion - Breaking the thermal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The challenges of hypersonic propulsion impose unique features on the hypersonic vehicle - from large volume requirements to contain cryogenic fuel to airframe-integrated propulsion required to process sufficient quantities of air. Additional challenges exist in the design of the propulsion module that must be capable of efficiently processing air at very high enthalpies, adding and mixing fuel at supersonic speeds and expanding the exhaust products to generate thrust greater than drag. The paper explores the unique challenges of the integrated hypersonic propulsion system, addresses propulsion cycle selection to cope with the severe thermal environment and reviews the direction of propulsion research at hypervelocity speeds.

  20. Propulsion Challenges for Small Spacecraft: 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vadim Zakirov; LI Luming

    2006-01-01

    Small (<100 kg) spacecrafts are being developed in many countries but their propulsion systems still have many challenges. Although there is demand for small spacecraft propulsion, the number of missions at present is small due to several commercial and technical reasons. Poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion systems is one of the main reasons for the small number of missions. Several reasons are given for the poor performance of existing small spacecraft propulsion. Suggested improvements focus on small spacecraft and propulsion hardware mass optimization rather than on specific impulse enhancement. Propellantless propulsion systems are also recommended for small spacecraft interplanetary missions.