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Sample records for mantle conundrum evidence

  1. The Hadean upper mantle conundrum: evidence for source depletion and enrichment from Sm-Nd, Re-Os, and Pb isotopic compositions in 3.71 Gy boninite-like metabasalts from the Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali; Meibom, Anders

    2004-04-01

    radiogenic Os isotopic signature is not known. Compared with the Sm-Nd and Re-Os isotope systems, the Pb isotope systematics show evidence for substantial perturbation by postformational hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration processes accompanying an early Archean metamorphic event at 3510 ± 65 Ma and indicate that the U-Th-Pb system was partially opened to Pb-loss on a whole rock scale. Single stage mantle evolution models fail to provide a solution to the Pb isotopic data, which requires that a high-μ component was mixed with the depleted mantle component before or during the extrusion of the basalts. Relatively high 207Pb/204Pb ratios (compared to contemporaneous mantle), support the hypothesis that erosion products of the ancient terrestrial protocrust existed for several hundred My before recycling into the mantle before ∼3.7 Ga. Our results are broadly consistent with models favoring a time-integrated Hadean history of mantle depletion and with the existence of an early Hadean protocrust, the complement to the Hadean depleted mantle, which after establishment of subduction-like processes was, at least locally, recycled into the upper mantle before 3.7 Ga. Thus, already in the Hadean, the upper mantle seems to be characterized by geochemical heterogeneity on a range of length scales; one property that is shared with the modern upper mantle. However, a simple two component mixing scenario between depleted mantle and an enriched-, crustal component with a modern analogue can not account for the complicated and contradictory geochemical properties of this particular Hadean upper mantle source.

  2. Sr-Nd evidence of paleoproterozoic mantle metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, M.H.B.M.; Pimentel, M.M.; Jardim de Sa, E.F

    2001-01-01

    In the Borborema Province (Northeastern Brazil), the Brasiliano/Pan-African Cycle is expressed by two prominent and penecontemporaneous features: a regional network of transcurrent shear zones and associated large granitoid magmatism. The Rio Grande do Norte Domain (RGND) is an orogenic domain located in the northeastern part of the Borborema Province, and its tectonic evolution is largely related to the Brasiliano orogeny (ca. 600 Ma). This domain includes four major tectonic terranes, which are represented by two metavolcanosedimentary sequences Jaguaribe-Oeste Potiguar and Serido belts, and its gneiss-migmatite Paleoproterozoic basement the Rio Piranhas and Sao Jose de Campestre massifs (Brito Neves et al., 2000). The rocks have been metamorphosed up to the amphibolite facies. Its deformational fabrics are dominated by extensive Brasiliano ductile shear zones displaying predominantly dextral transcurrent kinematic regime. These structures control the emplacement of several Neoproterozoic granitoid intrusions which are made up mainly by porphyritic granitoid suites with subalkaline monzonitic affinity. These occur as isolated plutons of various sizes or as composite intrusions, associated with basic-tointermediate suites. In the latter case, magma mingling and mixing attest that these are contemporaneous igneous suites. Several features suggest coeval relationships with granitic magmas, possibly implying processes such as assimilation or magma mixing. Field evidence of magma mixing include (i) extensive capture of feldspar phenocrysts of the acid mushes by the basic magmas, (ii) common presence of globular to ellipsoidal basic enclaves in the granitic suites, (iii) stockwork-type features consisting of felsic material veining through a diorite host and (iv) syn-plutonic basic dykes intruded into the porphyritic granites (Jardim de S 1994). In this work, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions from six distinct basic-to-intermediate suites were investigated to

  3. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogenic...... Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.-may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic-island basalt volcanoes....

  4. Seismic Evidence for Lower Mantle Plume Under the Yellowstone Hotspot

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    Nelson, P.; Grand, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle plume hypothesis for the origin of intraplate volcanism has been controversial since its inception in the 1970s. The hypothesis proposes hot narrow upwelling of rock rooted at the core mantle boundary (CMB) rise through the mantle and interact with the base of the lithosphere forming linear volcanic systems such as Hawaii and Yellowstone. Recently, broad lower mantle (>500 km in diameter) slow velocity conduits, most likely thermochemical in origin, have been associated with some intraplate volcanic provinces (French and Romanowicz, 2015). However, the direct detection of a classical thin thermal plume in the lower mantle using travel time tomography has remained elusive (Anderson and Natland, 2014). Here we present a new shear wave tomography model for the mantle beneath the western United States that is optimized to find short wavelength, sub-vertical structures in the lower mantle. Our approach uses carefully measured SKS and SKKS travel times recorded by dense North American seismic networks in conjunction with finite frequency kernels to build on existing tomography models. We find the presence of a narrow ( 300 km diameter) well isolated cylindrically shaped slow anomaly in the lower most mantle which we associate with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The conduit has a 2% reduction in shear velocity and is rooted at the CMB near the California/Arizona/Nevada border. A cross sectional view through the anomaly shows that it is slightly tilted toward the north until about 1300 km depth where it appears to weaken and deflect toward the surficial positon of the hotspot. Given the anomaly's strength, proximity to the Yellowstone Hotspot, and morphology we argue that a thermal plume interpretation is the most reasonable. Our results provide strong support for a lower mantle plume origin of the Yellowstone hotspot and more importantly the existence of deep thermal plumes.

  5. Ps mantle transition zone imaging beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains: Evidence for an upwelling hydrous mantle

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    Zhang, Zhu; Dueker, Kenneth G.; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S conversions for high-resolution imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains using data from a dense PASSCAL seismic broadband deployment. A total of 6,021 P-to-S converted receiver functions are constructed using a multi-channel minimum-phase deconvolution method and migrated using the common converted point technique with the 3-D teleseismic P- and S-wave tomography models of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010). The image finds that the average depths of the 410-km discontinuity (the 410) and 660-km discontinuity (the 660) at 408 ± 1.9 km and 649 ± 1.6 km respectively. The peak-to-peak topography of both discontinuities is 33 km and 27 km respectively. Additionally, prominent negative polarity phases are imaged both above and below the 410. To quantify the mean properties of the low-velocity layers about 410 km, we utilize double gradient layer models parameterization to fit the mean receiver function waveform. This waveform fitting is accomplished as a grid-search using anelastic synthetic seismograms. The best-fitting model reveals that the olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation width is 21 km, which is significantly larger than anhydrous mineral physics prediction (4-10 km) (Smyth and Frost, 2002). The findings of a wide olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation and the negative polarity phases above and below the 410, suggest that the mantle, at least in the 350-450 km depth range, is significantly hydrated. Furthermore, a conspicuous negative polarity phase below the 660 is imaged in high velocity region, we speculate the low velocity layer is due to dehydration flux melting in an area of convective downwelling. Our interpretation of these results, in tandem with the tomographic image of a Farallon slab segment at 800 km beneath the region (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2010), is that hydrous and upwelling mantle contributes to the high-standing Colorado Rocky Mountains.

  6. Late-orogenic mantle garnet pyroxenites evidence mantle refertilization during exhumation of orogenic belt

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    Chazot, G.; France, L.; Kornprobst, J.; Dallai, L.; Vannucci, R.

    2008-12-01

    The petrological and geochemical study of garnet bearing pyroxenites from four localities (FMC, Morocco, Jordan, Cameroon) demonstrates that these rocks are cumulates crystallised in the lithospheric mantle domain. Metamorphic reactions, exsolutions and trace elements WR analysis demonstrate that their crystallisation pressure ranges between 1 and 2GPa (30 to 60km). The elaboration of the PTt paths for the studied samples attests of important movements in the respective lithospheres. Replaced in the geodynamical contexts, the samples are interpreted to represent the crystallisation of melts formed during exhumation of orogenic domains. Radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd) show that in a very same region, the samples are isotopicaly heterogeneous but are similar to the respective regional lithosphere. Initial isotopic ratios lead to propose that the FMC samples have crystallised at the end of the Hercynian orogen and that the samples from the other localities (Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon) have crystallised at the end of the Pan-African orogen. After recalculation at the crystallisation time, the isotopic compositions are in good agreement with the respective regional lithosphere ones and so samples of this study could represent the product of the melting of these lithospheres. The analyses of oxygen stable isotopes allow to precise the model; they show that twelve of the samples come from the melting of a lherzolitic mantle and that the four others come from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle formed of lherzolites and eclogites. The presence of some hydrous minerals such as amphiboles and micas and the trace elements WR analyses show that some of the samples were affected by a late metasomatic event. Results of our study show that thermal relaxation following orogenic events lead to the crystallisation of pyroxenites in the lithosphere. The presence of lage amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions confers physical and chemical particularities to these

  7. Magma genesis at Gale Crater: Evidence for Pervasive Mantle Metasomatism

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    Filiberto, J.

    2017-12-01

    Basaltic rocks have been analyzed at Gale Crater with a larger range in bulk chemistry than at any other landing site [1]. Therefore, the rocks may have experienced significantly different formation conditions than those experienced by magmas at Gusev Crater or Meridiani Planum. Specifically, the rocks at Gale Crater have higher potassium than other Martian rocks, with a potential analog of the Nakhlite parental magma, and are consistent with forming from a metasomatized mantle source [2-4]. Mantle metasomatism would not only affect the bulk chemistry but mantle melting conditions, as metasomatism fluxes fluids into the source region. Here I will combine differences in bulk chemistry between Martian basalts to calculate formation conditions in the interior and investigate if the rocks at Gale Crater experienced magma genesis conditions consistent with metasomatism - lower temperatures and pressures of formation. To calculate average formation conditions, I rely on experimental results, where available, and silica-activity and Mg-exchange thermometry calculations for all other compositions following [5, 6]. The results show that there is a direct correlation between the calculated mantle potential temperature and the K/Ti ratio of Gale Crater rocks. This is consistent with fluid fluxed metasomatism introducing fluids to the system, which depressed the melting temperature and fluxed K but not Ti to the system. Therefore, all basalts at Gale Crater are consistent with forming from a metasomatized mantle source, which affected not only the chemistry of the basalts but also the formation conditions. References: [1] Cousin A. et al. (2017) Icarus. 288: 265-283. [2] Treiman A.H. et al. (2016) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 121: 75-106. [3] Treiman A.H. and Medard E. (2016) Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 48: doi: 10.1130/abs/2016AM-285851. [4] Schmidt M.E. et al. (2016) Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 48: doi: 10

  8. Oceanic mantle rocks reveal evidence for an ancient, 1.2-1.3 Ga global melting event

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    Dijkstra, A. H.; Sergeev, D.; McTaminey, L.; Dale, C. W.; Meisel, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is now increasingly being recognized that many oceanic peridotites are refertilized harzburgites, and that the refertilization often masks an extremely refractory character of the original mantle rock 'protolith'. Oceanic peridotites are, when the effects of melt refertilization are undone, often too refractory to be simple mantle melting residues after the extraction of mid-ocean ridge basalts at a spreading center. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis is a powerful method to look through the effects of refertilization and to obtain constraints on the age of the melting that produced the refractory mantle protolith. Rhenium-depletion model ages of such anomalously refractory oceanic mantle rocks - found as abyssal peridotites or as mantle xenoliths on ocean islands - are typically >1 Ga, i.e., much older than the ridge system at which they were emplaced. In my contribution I will show results from two case studies of refertilized anciently depleted mantle rocks (Macquarie Island 'abyssal' peridotites and Lanzarote mantle xenoliths). Interestingly, very refractory oceanic mantle rocks from sites all around the world show recurring evidence for a Mesoproterozoic (~1.2-1.3 Ga) melting event [1]. Therefore, oceanic mantle rocks seem to preserve evidence for ancient melting events of global significance. Alternatively, such mantle rocks may be samples of rafts of ancient continental lithospheric mantle. Laser-ablation osmium isotope 'dating' of large populations of individual osmium-bearing alloys from mantle rocks is the key to better constrain the nature and significance of these ancient depletion events. Osmium-bearing alloys form when mantle rocks are melted to high-degrees. We have now extracted over >250 detrital osmium alloys from placer gold occurrences in the river Rhine. These alloys are derived from outcrops of ophiolitic mantle rocks in the Alps, which include blocks of mantle rocks emplaced within the Tethys Ocean, and ultramafic lenses of unknown

  9. Mantle contamination and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) 'high-tide mark': evidence for mantle extrusion caused by Tethyan closure

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    Flower, M. F. J.; Russo, R. M.; Tamaki, K.; Hoang, N.

    2001-04-01

    Western Pacific basins are characterized by three remarkable attributes: (1) complex kinematic histories linked to global-scale plate interactions; (2) DUPAL-like contaminated mantle; and (3) rapid post-Mesozoic rollback of the confining arc-trench systems. The coincidence of slab steepening, extreme arc curvature, and vigorous basin opening associated with the Mariana convergent margin suggests that rollback continues in response to an east-directed mantle 'wind'. Against a backdrop of conflicting kinematic and genetic interpretations we explore the notion that eastward asthenospheric flow driven by diachronous Tethyan closure caused stretching of eastern Eurasia and concomitant opening of western Pacific basins. Marking the eastern boundary of the latter, the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc may be regarded as a litho-tectonic 'high-tide mark' comprising igneous and metamorphic products from successive episodes (since ca. 45 Ma.) of arc sundering and backarc basin opening. The forearc also forms an isotopic boundary separating contaminated western Pacific mantle from the N-MORB Pacific Ocean reservoir. While the isotopic composition of western Pacific mantle resembles that feeding Indian Ocean hotspot and spreading systems, its spatial-temporal variation and the presence of subduction barriers to the south appear to preclude northward flow of Indian Ocean mantle and require an endogenous origin for sub-Eurasian contaminated mantle. It is concluded that the extrusion of Tethyan asthenosphere, contaminated by sub-Asian cratonic lithosphere, was a major cause of western Pacific arc rollback and basin opening. The model is consistent with paleomagnetic and geologic evidence supporting independent kinematic histories for constituent parts of the Philippine Sea and Sunda plates although interpretation of these is speculative. Compounded by effects of the Australia-Indonesia collision, late-Tethyan mantle extrusion appears to have produced the largest DUPAL domain in the

  10. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. We present source-side shear wave splitting measurements for direct teleseismic S phases from earthquakes deeper than 300 km that have been corrected for the effects of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the receiver. In each region, we observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 s, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ˜600 km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as the transition zone. Beneath Japan, fast splitting directions are perpendicular or oblique to the slab strike and do not appear to depend on the propagation direction of the waves. Beneath South America and Izu-Bonin, splitting directions vary from trench-parallel to trench-perpendicular and have an azimuthal dependence, indicating lateral heterogeneity. Our results provide evidence for the presence of laterally variable anisotropy and are indicative of variable deformation and dynamics at mid-mantle depths in the vicinity of subducting slabs.

  11. Scattering beneath Western Pacific subduction zones: evidence for oceanic crust in the mid-mantle

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    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.

    2014-06-01

    Small-scale heterogeneities in the mantle can give important insight into the dynamics and composition of the Earth's interior. Here, we analyse seismic energy found as precursors to PP, which is scattered off small-scale heterogeneities related to subduction zones in the upper and mid-mantle. We use data from shallow earthquakes (less than 100 km depth) in the epicentral distance range of 90°-110° and use array methods to study a 100 s window prior to the PP arrival. Our analysis focuses on energy arriving off the great circle path between source and receiver. We select coherent arrivals automatically, based on a semblance weighted beampower spectrum, maximizing the selection of weak amplitude arrivals. Assuming single P-to-P scattering and using the directivity information from array processing, we locate the scattering origin by ray tracing through a 1-D velocity model. Using data from the small-aperture Eielson Array (ILAR) in Alaska, we are able to image structure related to heterogeneities in western Pacific subduction zones. We find evidence for ˜300 small-scale heterogeneities in the region around the present-day Japan, Izu-Bonin, Mariana and West Philippine subduction zones. Most of the detected heterogeneities are located in the crust and upper mantle, but 6 per cent of scatterers are located deeper than 600 km. Scatterers in the transition zone correlate well with edges of fast features in tomographic images and subducted slab contours derived from slab seismicity. We locate deeper scatterers beneath the Izu-Bonin/Mariana subduction zones, which outline a steeply dipping pseudo-planar feature to 1480 km depth, and beneath the ancient (84-144 Ma) Indonesian subduction trench down to 1880 km depth. We image the remnants of subducted crustal material, likely the underside reflection of the subducted Moho. The presence of deep scatterers related to past and present subduction provides evidence that the subducted crust does descend into the lower mantle at

  12. Helium evidences for mantle degassing in the groundwater of Madeira Island – Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Helena I.F.; Midões, Carla; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The Madeira Island is fed by an active hotspot, but there are no evidences of current volcanism and geothermal activity or, of a heat source at depth, which probably justifies why only low temperature and low TDS groundwater is found in Madeira. Nonetheless, Madeira is a relatively young island (≤7 Ma old), and a connection to the upper mantle through geological conduits, is likely to occur. To investigate whether such a connection exists, noble gases and stable isotopes were, so far as we know, for the first time measured in groundwater samples of the main (basal) aquifer of Madeira Is. Groundwater is the main supply of drinking water in Madeira Is., and the hydrogeology of the island has been well characterized in previous studies. In this study, groundwater was generically divided into ‘cold’ waters (<20 °C, near the coast) and ‘warm’ waters (20–25 °C, central part of the island). This division was based on field temperature, water chemistry and stable isotopic composition. Four ‘hot’ waters (23–25 °C) showed partly distinct characteristics. A bubbling spring was also sampled. Very low tritium values indicate groundwater recharged recently and/or mix with free-tritium waters. Groundwater is fed by rain recharged during autumn as indicated by δ"1"8O and δ"2H signatures. During infiltration, the waters dissolved soil CO_2 that according to the back-calculated δ"1"3C-CO_2 compositions corresponds mainly to CO_2 of biogenic origin. Nonetheless, a mantle CO_2 component cannot be excluded from samples from the inner part of the island. The noblegas helium was the sole tracer indicating a deep gas contribution to the groundwater. A strong mantle signal was detected in the ‘hot’ and bubbling waters, as indicated by their He-Ra values of 8 (being Ra the atmospheric "3He/"4He ratio), typical of the MORB. Thus, even if the last volcanic eruption occurred ca. 0,006 Ma, degassing of the upper-mantle was detected in the shallow cold waters of

  13. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  14. Intracratonic asthenosphere upwelling and lithosphere rejuvenation beneath the Hoggar swell (Algeria): Evidence from HIMU metasomatised lherzolite mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Azzouni-Sekkal, A.; Benhallou, A.; Bianchini, G.; Ellam, R. M.; Marzola, M.; Siena, F.; Stuart, F. M.

    2007-08-01

    The mantle xenoliths included in Quaternary alkaline volcanics from the Manzaz-district (Central Hoggar) are proto-granular, anhydrous spinel lherzolites. Major and trace element analyses on bulk rocks and constituent mineral phases show that the primary compositions are widely overprinted by metasomatic processes. Trace element modelling of the metasomatised clinopyroxenes allows the inference that the metasomatic agents that enriched the lithospheric mantle were highly alkaline carbonate-rich melts such as nephelinites/melilitites (or as extreme silico-carbonatites). These metasomatic agents were characterized by a clear HIMU Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signature, whereas there is no evidence of EM1 components recorded by the Hoggar Oligocene tholeiitic basalts. This can be interpreted as being due to replacement of the older cratonic lithospheric mantle, from which tholeiites generated, by asthenospheric upwelling dominated by the presence of an HIMU signature. Accordingly, this rejuvenated lithosphere (accreted asthenosphere without any EM influence), may represent an appropriate mantle section from which deep alkaline basic melts could have been generated and shallower mantle xenoliths sampled, respectively. The available data on lherzolite xenoliths and alkaline lavas (including He isotopes, Ra Pan-African basement. This can be considered a far-field foreland reaction of the Africa-Europe collisional system since the Eocene.

  15. Nickel and helium evidence for melt above the core-mantle boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude; Asimow, Paul D; Ionov, Dmitri A; Vidito, Chris; Jackson, Matthew G; Geist, Dennis

    2013-01-17

    High (3)He/(4)He ratios in some basalts have generally been interpreted as originating in an incompletely degassed lower-mantle source. This helium source may have been isolated at the core-mantle boundary region since Earth's accretion. Alternatively, it may have taken part in whole-mantle convection and crust production over the age of the Earth; if so, it is now either a primitive refugium at the core-mantle boundary or is distributed throughout the lower mantle. Here we constrain the problem using lavas from Baffin Island, West Greenland, the Ontong Java Plateau, Isla Gorgona and Fernandina (Galapagos). Olivine phenocryst compositions show that these lavas originated from a peridotite source that was about 20 per cent higher in nickel content than in the modern mid-ocean-ridge basalt source. Where data are available, these lavas also have high (3)He/(4)He. We propose that a less-degassed nickel-rich source formed by core-mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean, and that this source continues to be sampled by mantle plumes. The spatial distribution of this source may be constrained by nickel partitioning experiments at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary.

  16. Dynamical links between small- and large-scale mantle heterogeneity: Seismological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Daniel A.; Garnero, Edward J.; Rost, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    We identify PKP • PKP scattered waves (also known as P‧ •P‧) from earthquakes recorded at small-aperture seismic arrays at distances less than 65°. P‧ •P‧ energy travels as a PKP wave through the core, up into the mantle, then scatters back down through the core to the receiver as a second PKP. P‧ •P‧ waves are unique in that they allow scattering heterogeneities throughout the mantle to be imaged. We use array-processing methods to amplify low amplitude, coherent scattered energy signals and resolve their incoming direction. We deterministically map scattering heterogeneity locations from the core-mantle boundary to the surface. We use an extensive dataset with sensitivity to a large volume of the mantle and a location method allowing us to resolve and map more heterogeneities than have previously been possible, representing a significant increase in our understanding of small-scale structure within the mantle. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of scattering heterogeneities varies both radially and laterally. Scattering is most abundant in the uppermost and lowermost mantle, and a minimum in the mid-mantle, resembling the radial distribution of tomographically derived whole-mantle velocity heterogeneity. We investigate the spatial correlation of scattering heterogeneities with large-scale tomographic velocities, lateral velocity gradients, the locations of deep-seated hotspots and subducted slabs. In the lowermost 1500 km of the mantle, small-scale heterogeneities correlate with regions of low seismic velocity, high lateral seismic gradient, and proximity to hotspots. In the upper 1000 km of the mantle there is no significant correlation between scattering heterogeneity location and subducted slabs. Between 600 and 900 km depth, scattering heterogeneities are more common in the regions most remote from slabs, and close to hotspots. Scattering heterogeneities show an affinity for regions close to slabs within the upper 200 km of the

  17. Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

  18. Silicate Veining Above an Ascending Mantle Plume - Evidence from New Ethiopian Xenolith Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Furman, T.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2004-12-01

    Quaternary basaltic eruptions in the Debre Zeyit (Bishoftu) and Butajira regions of the Main Ethiopian Rift host Al-augite, norite and rare lherzolite xenoliths, xenocrysts and megacrysts. These explosive basaltic eruptions are located 20 km to the west of the main rift axis and are characterized by cinder cones and maars. The host basalt was generated as a small degree partial melt of fertile peridotite between 15 and 25 kb and host abundant Al-augite (Type II) xenoliths derived from pressures up to 10 kb. The central Main Ethiopian Rift lies in a transitional zone between the continental rifting of East Africa and the sea floor spreading associated with the Red Sea. Lithospheric and sub-lithospheric processes that occur during the transition from continental to oceanic magmatism may be investigated using these xenolith-bearing basalts. Neither carbonatitic nor hydrous (amphibole + phlogopite) metasomatism is evident in either the xenoliths or host basalts, suggesting that infiltration of silicate melts that produced Al-augite veining dominates the regional lower crust and lithospheric mantle. These veins are significantly hotter (200 - 300 ° C) than the lherzolite wall rock they intrude suggesting the thermal influence of the Afar plume. Recent geophysical tomography indicates that this veining is pervasive and segmented, supporting the association of these Al-augite veins with the formation of a proto-ridge axis. Al-augite xenoliths and megacrysts have been observed in other continental rift settings such as Durango (Luhr, 2001) and Lake Baikal (Litasov, 2000), indicating Al-augite silicate melt metasomatism is a fundamental process associated with continental rift development.

  19. Osmium-187 enrichment in some plumes: Evidence for core-mantle interaction?

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    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations with data for asteroidal cores indicate that Earth's outer core may have a rhenium/osmium ratio at least 20 percent greater than that of the chondritic upper mantle, potentially leading to an outer core with an osmium-187/osmium-188 ratio at least 8 percent greater than that of chondrites. Because of the much greater abundance of osmium in the outer core relative to the mantle, even a small addition of metal to a plume ascending from the D??? layer would transfer the enriched isotopic signature to the mixture. Sources of certain plume-derived systems seem to have osmium-187/osmium-188 ratios 5 to 20 percent greater than that for chondrites, consistent with the ascent of a plume from the core-mantle boundary.

  20. Constraining the potential temperature of the Archaean mantle: A review of the evidence from komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Cheadle, M. J.; Arndt, N. T.; Bickle, M. J.

    1993-09-01

    The maximum potential temperature of the Archaean mantle is poorly known, and is best constrained by the MgO contents of komatiitic liquids, which are directly related to eruptive temperatures. However, most Archaean komatiites are significantly altered and it is difficult to assess the composition of the erupted liquid. Relatively fresh lavas from the SASKMAR suite, Belingwe Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe (2.7 Ga) include chills of 25.6 wt.% MgO, and olivines ranging to Fo 93.6, implying eruption at around 1520°C. A chill sample from Alexo Township, Ontario (also 2.7 Ga) is 28 wt.% MgO, and associated olivines range to Fo 94.1, implying eruption at 1560°C. However, inferences of erupted liquids containing 32-33 wt.% MgO, from lavas in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (3.45 Ga) and from the Perseverance Complex, Western Australia (2.7 Ga) may be challenged on the grounds that they contain excess (cumulate) olivine, or were enriched in Mg during alteration or metamorphism. Re-interpretation of olivine compositions from these rocks shows that they most likely contained a maximum of 29 wt.% MgO corresponding to an eruption temperature of 1580°C. This composition is the highest liquid MgO content of an erupted lava that can be supported with any confidence. The hottest modern magma, on Gorgona Island (0.155 Ga) contained 18-20% MgO and erupted at circa 1400°C. If 1580°C is taken as the temperature of the most magnesian known eruption, then the source mantle from which the liquids rose would have been at up to 2200°C at pressures of 18 GPa corresponding to a mantle potential temperature of 1900°C. These temperatures are in excess of the mantle temperatures predicted by secular cooling models, and thus komatiites can only be formed in hot rising convective jets in the mantle. This result requires that Archaean mantle jets may have been 300°C hotter than the Archaean ambient mantle temperature. This temperature difference is similar to the 200-300

  1. Extreme incompatibility of helium during mantle melting: Evidence from undegassed mid-ocean ridge basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David W.; Michael, Peter J.; Shea, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We report total helium concentrations (vesicles + glass) for a suite of thirteen ultradepleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (UD-MORBs) that were previously studied for volatile contents (CO2, H2O) plus major and trace elements. The selected basalts are undersaturated in CO2 + H2O at their depths of eruption and represent rare cases of undegassed MORBs. Sample localities from the Atlantic (2), Indian (1) and Pacific (7) Oceans collectively show excellent linear correlations (r2 = 0.75- 0.92) between the concentrations of helium and the highly incompatible elements C, K, Rb, Ba, Nb, Th and U. Three basalts from Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic were also studied but show anomalous behavior marked by excess lithophile trace element abundances. In the Atlantic-Pacific-Indian suite, incompatible element concentrations vary by factors of 3-4.3, while helium concentration varies by a factor of 13. The strong correlations between the concentrations of helium and incompatible elements are explained by helium behavior as the most incompatible element during mantle melting. Partial melting of an ultradepleted mantle source, formed as a residue of earlier melt extraction, accounts for the observed concentrations. The earlier melting event involved removal of a small degree melt (∼1%) at low but non-zero porosity (0.01-0.5%), leading to a small amount of melt retention that strongly leveraged the incompatible element budget of the ultradepleted mantle source. Equilibrium melting models that produce the range of trace element and helium concentrations from this source require a bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium that is lower than that for other incompatible elements by about a factor of ten. Alternatively, the bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium could be similar to or even larger than that for other incompatible elements, but the much larger diffusivity of helium in peridotite leads to its more effective incompatibility and efficient extraction from a

  2. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  3. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*correspondence of

  4. Evidence of Arc Magma Genesis in a Paleo-Mantle Wedge, the Higashi-Akaishi Peridotite, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Guild, M. R.; Grove, T. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Located in the Sanbagawa subduction-related high-pressure metamorphic belt in SW Japan on the island of Shikoku, the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body is composed of dunite, lherzolite and garnet clinopyroxenite, interfingered in one locality with quartz-rich eclogite. Previous work indicates the P-T history of the peridotite includes rapid prograde metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-810°C and pressures of 2.9-3.8 GPa [1] at ~88-89 Ma followed by rapid exhumation at >2.5 cm/yr [2,3]. Major and trace element and isotopic data from samples within the Higashi-akaishi peridotite presented here and in another recent study [4] provide a record of subduction zone melting processes in a paleo-mantle wedge. Ultramafic samples range from 40-52 wt.% SiO2, 1-11 wt.% Al2O3 and 21-45 wt.% MgO with olivine and clinopyroxene Mg#'s as high as 0.93. The quartz-rich eclogite contains 62 wt.% SiO2, 6 wt.% MgO and 13 wt.% Al2O3 with trace element concentrations that are enriched relative to the ultramafic samples. 87Sr/86Sr (.703237-.704288), 143Nd/144Nd (ɛNd=+2 to +6) and Pb isotopic compositions are within the range of previously studied Japanese arc rocks. We interpret the pyroxenites as shallowly crystallized cumulates with varying amounts of trapped hydrous melt and the harzburgites as residues of melting. The peak P-T conditions of these rocks are similar to the solidus conditions of H2O-saturated fertile mantle near the base of the mantle wedge [5,6]. The presence of garnet porphyroblasts that enclose primary euhedral chlorite together with the chemical evidence, suggest these samples are associated with mantle melting in the presence of H2O. Major element modeling suggests the quartz-rich eclogite composition can be reproduced through mixing melts of subducted sediment with wet peridotite melts in the mantle wedge. Thus the Higashi-aikashi rock suite provides an in-situ record of the beginnings of hydrous melting and the mechanisms of metasomatism in the mantle wedge

  5. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  6. Evidence for a Significant Level of Extrinsic Anisotropy Due to Heterogeneities in the Mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, C.; Bodin, T.; Ricard, Y. R.; Capdeville, Y.; Debayle, E.; Montagner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy are used as a proxy for lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of anisotropic minerals in the Earth's mantle. In this way, it provides important constraints on the geometry of mantle deformation. However, in addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneities that cannot be resolved by long-period seismic waves may also produce anisotropy. The observed (i.e. apparent) anisotropy is then a combination of an intrinsic and an extrinsic component. Assuming the Earth's mantle exhibits petrological inhomogeneities at all scales, tomographic models built from long-period seismic waves may thus display extrinsic anisotropy. Here, we investigate the relation between the amplitude of seismic heterogeneities and the level of induced S-wave radial anisotropy as seen by long-period seismic waves. We generate some simple 1D and 2D isotropic models that exhibit a power spectrum of heterogeneities as what is expected for the Earth's mantle, i.e. varying as 1/k, with k the wavenumber of these heterogeneities. The 1D toy models correspond to simple layered media. In the 2D case, our models depict marble-cake patterns in which an anomaly in S-wave velocity has been advected within convective cells. The long-wavelength equivalents of these models are computed using upscaling relations that link properties of a rapidly varying elastic medium to properties of the effective, i.e. apparent, medium as seen by long-period waves. The resulting homogenized media exhibit extrinsic anisotropy and represent what would be observed in tomography. In the 1D case, we analytically show that the level of anisotropy increases with the square of the amplitude of heterogeneities. This relation is numerically verified for both 1D and 2D media. In addition, we predict that 10 % of chemical heterogeneities in 2D marble-cake models can induce more than 3.9 % of extrinsic radial S-wave anisotropy. We thus predict that a non-negligible part of the observed anisotropy in tomographic

  7. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  8. Development of heterogeneities in the subcontinental Mantle: Evidence from the Ferrar Group, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Philip R.

    1980-06-01

    Tholeiitic lava flows (Kirkpatrick Basalts) and dolerite sills and dikes (Ferrar Dolerites) of the Jurassic Ferrar Group from Antarctica and dolerite sills from Tasmania, Australia are characterised by initial strontium isotope ratios ranging from 0.7089 to 0.7153. The mean and standard deviation of 85 analyses is 0.7115±0.0012. Some of the scatter in the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be attributed to sample inhomogeneity, analytical uncertainties and sample alteration. The published major element data show well-defined trends that are consistent with an evolution by fractional crystallization. Recognition of a parental magma is difficult due to the fractionated nature of the rocks. Trace element analyses, particularly the rare earth elements (REE) support a differentiation model. Compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, Ferrar Group rocks are enriched in light REE. Kirkpatrick Basalts from the central Transantarctic Mountains show significant correlations between initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major elements only for SiO2 and CaO. The general lack of strong correlation is the basis for rejecting the possibility of wholesale contamination by sialic material as a possible cause of the high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Selective contamination of the basaltic magmas is a possibility and cannot be completely discounted. It would probably involve a fluid phase in order to transport and mix the light REE, Rb, 87Sr, and other elements. By analogy with selective contamination of ocean ridge basalts by sea water it is difficult to envisage a similar process acting on magma emplaced in a non-marine environment. Because of the elevated values of the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, their similar average value over 2,500 km and the large volume of magma involved (4× 105 km3) a mantle origin for the high Sr ratios is preferred. Models to account for the enrichment of Rb and light REE in the Antarctic mantle during or prior to the Jurassic include: 1. addition of continental material from a Palezoic

  9. Local Upper Mantle Upwelling beneath New England: Evidence from Seismic Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Long, M. D.; Lopez, I.; Li, Y.; Skryzalin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The upper mantle beneath eastern North America contains regions where seismic wave speed is significantly reduced. As they cut across the trend of the Appalachian terranes, these anomalies likely post-date the Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. Most prominent of them, the North Appalachian Anomaly (NAA), has been alternatively explained by the localized disruption of lithospheric fabric, the passage of the Great Meteor Hot Spot, and the current local upwelling of the asthenosphere. Comprehensive mapping of shear wave splitting identified a local perturbation of an otherwise uniform regional pattern, with no apparent splitting occurring at a site within the NAA. To evaluate the reality of this apparent localized disruption in the anisotropic fabric of the upper mantle beneath northeastern North America we used observations of shear wave splitting from a set of long-running observatories not included in previous studies. Three methods of evaluating shear wave splitting (rotation-correlation, minimization of the transverse component, and the splitting intensity) yield complementary results. We show that splitting of core-refracted shear waves within the outline of the NAA is significantly weaker than towards its edges and beyond them (Figure 1). Average fast orientations are close to the absolute plate motion in the hot-spot reference frame, thus we can attribute a large fraction of this signal to the coherently sheared sub-lithospheric upper mantle. A decrease in average delay we observe, from 1 s outside the NAA to under 0.2 s within it, translates into a reduction of the vertical extent of the sheared layer from 130 km to 16 km (assuming 4% anisotropy), or alternatively into a weakening of the azimuthal anisotropy from 5% to 0.6% (assuming a 100 km thick layer). The splitting reduction within the NAA is consistent with a localized change in anisotropic fabric that would be expected in case of geologically recent sub-vertical flow overprinting the broadly uniform upper

  10. Implications of 187Os isotopic heterogeneities in a mantle plume: evidence from Gorgona Island and Curaçao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard J.; Storey, Michael; Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1999-03-01

    Recent work has suggested that the mafic-ultramafic volcanism in evidence throughout portions of the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America, including the islands of Gorgona and Curaçao, was generated as part of a middle-Cretaceous, large igneous province. New Re-Os isochron results for tholeiitic basalts from Gorgona and Curaçao indicate crystallization ages of 89.2 ± 5.2 and 85.6 ± 8.1 Ma, respectively, consistent with reported Ar ages. The Gorgona ultramafic suite shows a large range in initial Os isotopic composition, with γ Os values ranging from -0.5 to +12.4. This large range reflects isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle source similar to those observed for modern ocean island basalts. In contrast to ocean island basalts, however, Os isotopic compositions do not correlate with variations in Nd, Sr, or Pb isotopic compositions, which are within the range of depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts. The processes that produced these rocks evidently resulted in the decoupling of Os isotopes from the Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic systems. Picrites from Curaçao have very uniform, chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions, with initial γ Os values ranging only from -0.4 to ±1.4. Basalts from Curaçao, however, define an isochron with a 187Os-enriched initial isotopic composition (γ Os = +9.5). In contrast to the 187Os-enriched ultramafic rocks from Gorgona, the enrichment in these basalts could have resulted from lithospheric contamination. If the Gorgona and Curaçao rocks were derived from the same plume, Os results, combined with Sr, Nd, and Pb data indicate a heterogeneous plume, with multiple compositionally and isotopically distinct domains. The Os isotopic results require derivation of Os from a minimum of two distinct reservoirs, one with a composition very similar to the chondritic average and one with long-term enriched Re/Os. Oceanic crustal recycling has been invoked to explain most of the 187Os enrichments that have been observed in

  11. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, O.; Huang, S.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Ma, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Shen, A. H.; Zhang, D.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Tait, K.

    2018-03-01

    Water-rich regions in Earth’s deeper mantle are suspected to play a key role in the global water budget and the mobility of heat-generating elements. We show that ice-VII occurs as inclusions in natural diamond and serves as an indicator for such water-rich regions. Ice-VII, the residue of aqueous fluid present during growth of diamond, crystallizes upon ascent of the host diamonds but remains at pressures as high as 24 gigapascals; it is now recognized as a mineral by the International Mineralogical Association. In particular, ice-VII in diamonds points toward fluid-rich locations in the upper transition zone and around the 660-kilometer boundary.

  12. Eclogitic inclusions in diamonds: Evidence of complex mantle processes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Sobolev, Vladimir N.; Yefimova, Emiliya S.; Sobolev, Nikolai V.

    1996-08-01

    The first ion-probe trace element analyses of clinopyroxene-garnet pairs both included within diamonds and from the eclogite host xenoliths are reported; these diamondiferous eclogites are from the Udachnaya and Mir kimberlite pipes, Yakutia, Russia. The major and trace element analyses of these diamond-inclusion and host-rock pairs are compared in order to determine the relative ages of the diamonds, confirm or deny genetic relationships between the diamonds and the eclogites, evaluate models of eclogite petrogenesis, and model igneous processes in the mantle before, during, and after diamond formation. The most striking aspect of the chemical compositions of the diamond inclusions is the diversity of relationships with their eclogite hosts. No single distinct pattern of variation from diamond inclusion minerals to host minerals is found for all four samples. Garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions in the diamonds from two samples (U-65/3 and U-66/3) have lower Mg#s, lower Mg, and higher Fe contents, and lower LREE than those in the host eclogite. We interpret such variations as due to metasomatism of the host eclogite after diamond formation. One sample, U-41/3 shows enrichment in diamond-inclusion MREE enrichment relative to the eclogite host and may indicate a metasomatic event prior to, or during, diamond formation. Bulanova [2] found striking differences between inclusions taken from within different portions of the very same diamond. Clinopyroxene inclusions taken from the central (early) portions of Yakutian diamonds were lower in Mg# and Mg contents (by up to 25%) than those later inclusions at the rims of diamonds. These trends are parallel to those between diamond inclusions and host eclogites determined for four of the five samples from the present study and may merely represent changing magmatic and/or P-T conditions in the mantle. Garnet trace element compositions are similar in relative proportions, but variable in abundances, between diamond inclusions

  13. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  14. Contamination of mantle magmas by crustal contributions: evidence from the brasiliano mobile belt in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, Cristina M.; mendes, Julio C.; Ludka, Isabel P.

    1995-01-01

    In the beginning of the late orogenic phase of the Pan african/Brasiliano Mobile Belt, in Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States, along the Brazilian coast, tholeiitic gabbros intruded the coast Small bodies of clinopyroxene -gabbro-norites, hornblendi-gabbros and clinoorthopyroxenes -pyroxenites/hornblendites typical tholeiitic AFM-trends. The series of rocks reveal evidence of crustal contamination, but no signs of in situ mixing with granitic melts. The geochemical characteristics of the tholeiitic series and suites of magmatites,- present in the different evolutionary stages of the post-collisional magmatic arc, in the Brasiliano Coastal Mobile belt, in the States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro-, are regarded as an important tool for the recognition of a further contamination process of an already enriched mantle, at crustal levels, during Late Proterozoic/Early Paleozoic times. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Widespread melt/rock interaction and seismic properties of the lithosphere above mantle plumes: Evidence from mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Godard, M.; Coromina, G.; Dautria, J. M.; Barczus, H.

    2003-04-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we studied the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from the Austral-Cook, Society and Marquesas islands. Olivine forsterite contents in our sp-peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83, the lowest Fo being observed in dunites and wehrlites. Yet, their high Ni content (up to 2500 ppm) precludes a cumulate origin. These rocks are rather interpreted as resulting from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution, the dunites indicating high melt-rock ratios. Moreover, wehrlites display poikiloblastic diopside enclosing corroded olivines. Late crystallization of clinopyroxene, also observed in lherzolites, may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction occurring at the boundary of a partial melting domain developed at the expenses of lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. Yet, crystal preferred orientations and thus seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Although dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO, very weak CPO are limited to a few dunites and wehrlites, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of intense magma-rock interaction due to localized flow or accumulation of magmas. Conversely, the compositional changes result in lower seismic velocities for P- and S-waves. Relative to normal mantle, seismic anomalies may attain -2.5 (2

  16. Duration of a Magma Ocean and Subsequent Mantle Overturn in Mars: Evidence from Nakhlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V.; Brandon, A. D.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Jacobsen, B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that the heat produced by accretion, short-lived radioactive elements such as Al-26, and gravitational energy from core formation was sufficient to at least partially melt the silicate portions of terrestrial planets resulting in a global-scale magma ocean. More particularly, in Mars, the geochemical signatures displayed by shergottites, are likely inherited from the crystallization of this magma ocean. Using the short-lived chronometer Sm-146 - Nd-142 (t(sup 1/2) = 103 Myr), the duration of the Martian magma ocean (MMO) has been evaluated to being less than 40 Myr, while recent and more precise ND-142/ND-144 data were used to evaluate the longevity of the MMO to approximately 100 Myr after the solar system formation. In addition, it has been proposed that the end of the crystallization of the MMO may have triggered a mantle overturn, as a result of a density gradient in the cumulate layers crystallized at different levels. Dating the mantle overturn could hence provide additional constraint on the duration of the MMO. Among SNC meteorites, nakhlites are characterized by high epsilon W-182 of approximately +3 and an epsilon Nd-142 similar to depleted shergottites of +0.6-0.9. It has hence been proposed that the source of nakhlites was established very early in Mars history (approximately 8-10 Myr). However, the times recorded in HF-182-W-182 isotope system, i.e. when 182Hf became effectively extinct (approximately 50 Myr after solar system formation) are less than closure times recorded in the Sm-146-Nd-142 isotope system (with a full coverage of approximately 500 Myr after solar system formation). This could result in decoupling between the present-day measured epsilon W-182 and epsilon Nd-142 as the SM-146 may have recorded later differentiation events in epsilon ND-142 not observed in epsilon W-182 values. With these potential complexities in short-lived chronological data for SNC's in mind, new Hf-176/Hf-177, Nd-143/Nd-144 and Nd

  17. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-07-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  18. Fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of upper-mantle magmatism: Evidence from xenoliths in kimberlites, inclusions in diamonds and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2017-04-01

    ultrabasic-basic magmatic evolution and petrogenesis may be controlled by the following melting relations: from Ol, Opx, L field to cotectic curve Ol, Opx, Cpx, L, peritectic point Ol, Opx, Cpx, Grt, L (loss of Opx), cotectic curve Ol, (Cpx+Jd), Grt, L, peritectic point Ol, (Cpx→Omph), Grt, L (loss of Ol), divariant field Omph,Grt,L, cotectic curve Ky, Omph, Grt, L, eutectic point Ky,Coe,Omph, Grt,L, subsolidus assemblage Ky,Coe,Omph, Grt. The fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of the upper-mantle silicate-carbonate-carbon melts-solutions, which are responsible for genesis of diamond-and-inclusions associations and diamond-bearing peridotites and eclogites, follows the similar physico-chemical mechanisms (Litvin et al., 2016). This is illustrated by fractional syngenesis diagram for diamonds and associated minerals which construction is based on evidence from high pressure experiments. References Gasparik T., Litvin Yu.A (1997). Stability of Na2Mg2Si2O7 and melting relations on the forsterite - jadeite join at pressures up to 22 GPa. Eur, J. Mineral. 9(2), 311-326. Litvin Yu.A. (1991). Physico-Chemical Study of Melting of Materials from the Deep Earth. Moscow: Nauka. 312 p. Litvin Yu.A., Spivak A.V., Kuzyura A.V. (2016). Fundamentals of the mantle-carbonatite concept of diamond genesis, Geochemistry Internat. 34(10), 839-857.

  19. Birch's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Francis Birch's 1952 paper started the sciences of mineral physics and physics of the Earth's interior. Birch stressed the importance of pressure, compressive strain and volume in mantle physics. Although this may seem to be an obvious lesson many modern paradoxes in the internal constitution of the Earth and mantle dynamics can be traced to a lack of appreciation for the role of compression. The effect of pressure on thermal properties such as expansivity can gravitational stratify the Earth irreversibly during accretion and can keep it chemically stratified. The widespread use of the Boussinesq approximation in mantle geodynamics is the antithesis of Birchian physics. Birch pointed out that eclogite was likely to be an important component of the upper mantle. Plate tectonic recycling and the bouyancy of oceanic crust at midmantle depths gives credence to this suggestion. Although peridotite dominates the upper mantle, variations in eclogite-content may be responsible for melting- or fertility-spots. Birch called attention to the Repetti Discontinuity near 900 km depth as an important geodynamic boundary. This may be the chemical interface between the upper and lower mantles. Recent work in geodynamics and seismology has confirmed the importance of this region of the mantle as a possible barrier. Birch regarded the transition region (TR ; 400 to 1000 km ) as the key to many problems in Earth sciences. The TR contains two major discontinuities ( near 410 and 650 km ) and their depths are a good mantle thermometer which is now being exploited to suggest that much of plate tectonics is confined to the upper mantle ( in Birch's terminology, the mantle above 1000 km depth ). The lower mantle is homogeneous and different from the upper mantle. Density and seismic velocity are very insensitive to temperature there, consistent with tomography. A final key to the operation of the mantle is Birch's suggestion that radioactivities were stripped out of the deeper parts of

  20. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  1. Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle domains beneath southern Patagonia: Isotopic evidence for its connection to Africa and Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mundl, A.; Ntaflos, T.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bizimis, M.; Bjerg, E. A.; Hauzenberger, Ch. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2015), s. 39-42 ISSN 0091-7613 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : lithospheric mantle * Mesoproterozoic * Paleoproterozoic Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2015

  2. A mantle origin for Paleoarchean peridotitic diamonds from the Panda kimberlite, Slave Craton: Evidence from 13C-, 15N- and 33,34S-stable isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, Pierre; Farquhar, James; Thomassot, Emilie; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Wing, Bozwell; Masterson, Andy; McKeegan, Kevin; Stachel, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    In order to address diamond formation and origin in the lithospheric mantle underlying the Central Slave Craton, we report N- and C-stable isotopic compositions and N-contents and aggregation states for 85 diamonds of known paragenesis (73 peridotitic, 8 eclogitic and 4 from lower mantle) from the Panda kimberlite (Ekati Mine, Lac de Gras Area, Canada). For 12 peridotitic and two eclogitic sulfide inclusion-bearing diamonds from this sample set, we also report multiple-sulfur isotope ratios. The 73 peridotitic diamonds have a mean δ13C-value of - 5.2‰ and range from - 6.9 to - 3.0‰, with one extreme value at - 14.1‰. The associated δ15N-values range from - 17.0 to + 8.5‰ with a mean value of - 4.0‰. N-contents range from 0 to 1280 ppm. The 8 eclogitic diamonds have δ13C-values ranging from - 11.2 to - 4.4‰ with one extreme value at - 19.4‰. Their δ15N ranges from - 2.1 to + 7.9‰ and N-contents fall between 0 and 3452 ppm. Four diamonds with an inferred lower mantle origin are all Type II (i.e. nitrogen-free) and have a narrow range of δ13C values, between - 4.5 and - 3.5‰. The δ34S of the 14 analyzed peridotitic and eclogitic sulfide inclusions ranges from - 3.5 to +5.7‰. None of them provide evidence for anomalous δ33S-values; observed variations in δ33S are from +0.19 to - 0.33‰, i.e. within the 2 sigma uncertainties of mantle sulfur ( δ33S = 0‰). At Panda, the N contents and the δ13C of sulfide-bearing peridotitic diamonds show narrower ranges than silicate-bearing peridotitic diamonds. This evidence supports the earlier suggestion established from eclogitic diamonds from the Kaapvaal that sulfide-(±silicate) bearing diamonds sample a more restricted portion of sublithospheric mantle than silicate-(no sulfide) bearing diamonds. Our findings at Panda suggest that sulfide-bearing diamonds should be considered as a specific diamond population on a global-scale. Based on our study of δ34S, Δ 33S, δ15N and δ13C, we find no

  3. Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic constraints on the origin of Hawaiian basalts and evidence for a unique mantle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stille, P.

    1986-01-01

    Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic relationships among basalts from the Hawaiian Islands suggest that these basalts were derived from three sources; the oceanic lithosphere (Kea end member), the depleted asthenosphere (posterosional end member) and a deep-mantle plume (Koolau end member). Hawaiian tholeiites are derived within the lithosphere and the isotopic trends collectively defined by the tholeiite data are interpreted as a plume-lithosphere mixing trend. The isotopic characteristics of late-stage basalts are derived from the tholeiite source (lithosphere + plume) with additional input from the lithosphere, asthenosphere, or both. These basalts probably originate from near the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary. Posterosional basalts are derived from the depleted asthenosphere, but their isotopic characteristics have been slightly modified by either the plume or the source of previously erupted volcanics. The isotopic data require little or no mixing of asthenospheric material into the plume during tholeiite production and thus are consistent with the concept of a rapidly ascending, fluid-rich plume. In addition to providing a source of heat, the plume may supply volatiles to both the sources of tholeiites and posterosional basalts. The isotopic characteristics of the Koolau (plume) component are unique among OIB sources. If undifferentiated or 'primitive' mantle material still exists, then the radiogenic-isotope data for Koolau in combination with rare gas data for Hawaiian basalts in general suggest that the Hawaiian plume may be derived from such material. In any case, the Hawaiian Islands data, when compared to those of other OIB, serve to illustrate the isotopically diverse nature of mantle sources. (author)

  4. Metasomatized mantle as the source of Mid-Miocene-Quaternary volcanism in NW-Iranian Azerbaijan: Geochronological and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Ulmer, Peter; Guillong, Marcel; Faridi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanic rocks cover large areas of the Azerbaijan Province in NW Iran. This study reports two separate age clusters out of 23 new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages: (1) Middle Miocene (16.2-10.6 Ma) and (2) Latest Miocene-Late Pleistocene (5.5-0.4 Ma). Major and trace element bulk rock geochemistry and initial Sr, Nd, Pb radiogenic isotope data on the dated rocks provide new constraints on the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in this region. The analyses are distributed over a large compositional range from low-K to high-K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites/rhyolites to more alkaline trachybasalts and dacites with shoshonitic affinities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are steep with significant enrichment in LREE and low abundances of HREE indicating a garnet control. Plots of primitive mantle-normalized trace elements show negative Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies indicative of an arc signature. The wide compositional range and the ubiquitous presence of an arc signature reveal that the source mantle is heterogeneous and metasomatically altered. Sr, Nd and Pb radiogenic isotope data further point towards an enriched mantle source and/or crustal contamination. Crustal contamination is best recognized by inherited zircon cores, which yield Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian ages typical for the Iranian basement. The occurrence of adakite-like compositions with elevated magnesium numbers, Cr and Ni concentrations argue against a fractionation-driven process but point to a subcrustal origin. Overall, the analyzed lavas show no spatial and temporal relation to a potential subduction zone, confirming the dated volcanics to be post-collisional and not related to singular processes such as slab retreat or delamination of a continuous lower crustal sliver. We propose three hypotheses to explain the reported disparity in distribution, age and composition and favour small-scale sublithospheric convection or incorporation of crustal material into the

  5. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    House, JI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available -form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree-grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums...

  6. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic data of Indian Ocean ridges: New evidence of large-scale mapping of mantle heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, B.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    A Pb-Sr-Nd isotope study of South West and East Indian Ridges confirms that the Indian Ocean belongs to a specific regional isotopic domain, as previously suggested by the results from islands of this ocean. The isotopic domain defined by the Indian MORB is indeed different from that of the North Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans. This demonstrates that the convective circulation of the upper mantle does not allow a rapid homogenization from one region to the other. The isotopic data of the Indian ridges can be interpreted by a contamination model, in which the depleted upper mantle (identical to that under the North Atlantic) is contaminated by two different types of contaminant, one corresponding to the source of the ''central Indian Ocean'' islands (Amsterdam, St. Paul, Marion, Prince Edward, Reunion, Rodriguez, Mauritius), and the other to a source similar to that of Walvis or Ninety East aseismic ridges. These two contaminants would have contributed to the ridge volcanism in different proportion over time. (orig.)

  7. Keweenaw hot spot: Geophysical evidence for a 1.1 Ga mantle plume beneath the Midcontinent Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; White, R.S.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System of North America is remarkably similar to Phanerozoic rifted continental margins and flood basalt provinces. Like the younger analogues, the volcanism within this older rift can be explained by decompression melting and rapid extrusion of igneous material during lithospheric extension above a broad, asthenospheric, thermal anomaly which we call the Keweenaw hot spot. Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution seismic reflection profiles constrain end-member models of melt thickness and stretching factors, which yield an inferred mantle potential temperature of 1500°–1570°C during rifting. Combined gravity modeling and subsidence calculations are consistent with stretching factors that reached 3 or 4 before rifting ceased, and much of the lower crust beneath the rift consists of relatively high density intruded or underplated synrift igneous material. The isotopic signature of Keweenawan volcanic rocks, presented in a companion paper by Nicholson and Shirey (this issue), is consistent with our model of passive rifting above an asthenospheric mantle plume.

  8. Solving the shape conundrum in $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a multi-step Coulomb-excitation study of $^{70}$Se at HIE-ISOLDE using the $^{208}$Pb( $^{70}$Se, $^{70}$Se*)$^{208}$Pb* reaction at a safe energy of 5.0 MeV/u. We aim at a precise measurement of the $\\left \\langle 2^{+}_{1} \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}\\hat{E}2 \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}2^{+}_{ 1} \\right \\rangle$ diagonal matrix element as well as gaining information on additional matrix elements. Such information will shed light onto the shape conundrum of the 2$^{+}_{1}$ state in $^{70}$Se as well as foreseeing the opportunity for a more detailed understanding of the shape-coexistence phenomenon in this region.

  9. Evidence for small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle from joint analysis of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Dalton, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    It has been long observed that the rate of seafloor subsidence in the Pacific Ocean is lower than predicted by half-space cooling at ages older than 70 Myr. The magnitude, geographical distribution, onset time, and physical origin of the flattening are fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of oceanic lithosphere, and give important constraints on the Earth's heat budget and ocean volume throughout its history. However, none of these quantities is well established even after a long history of debates. Here, we present evidence from bathymetry and seismic tomography for the wide-scale operation of small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle. We track the temporal evolution of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor topography along age trajectories, which connect each piece of seafloor with the ridge segment that created it. The half-space cooling model (HSCM) and plate cooling model are used to predict the age dependence of phase velocity and bathymetry and to identify, for each age trajectory, the age at which the HSCM fails to explain the observations. The phase velocity and bathymetry are analyzed independently and yet yield identical results for more than 80% of points. We observe a wide range of ages at which the HSCM fails in the Atlantic and a much narrower range in the Pacific. We find that the age at which the HSCM fails is anti-correlated with the present-day depth of the ridge axis, with younger failure ages corresponding to deeper ridge axes and therefore colder mantle beneath the ridge.Such dependence is best explained by the small-scale convection model in which the effective viscosity of the lithosphere is regulated by the dehydration process that happens at the mid-ocean ridges. Decompression melting at a ridge removes water from the mantle and generates a depleted, dehydrated, and viscous layer. Since high mantle potential temperatures cause decompression melting to begin at greater depths, the thickness of the

  10. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  11. Stochastic melting of the marble cake mantle: Evidence from local study of the East Pacific Rise at 12050'N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzhofer, A.; Lewin, E.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1989-01-01

    Isotopes (Nd, Sr and Pb) and trace elements (REE, Ba, Sr, Rb) have been measured on a set of basaltic glasses from a restricted area (40x10 km) at 12 0 50'N on the East Pacific Rise. The huge variation of incompatible element concentrations (factor 70 for Ba concentrations), and the variable degrees of correlation between element concentrations cannot be explained by usual models of melting and fractional crystallization. A rough correlation between the Ce/Yb ratio and the isotopic ratios favors a ''source effect'' for the genesis of the glasses. We have developed a model including both partial melting process acting on a heterogeneous mantle source with two components (peridotites and pyroxenites; ''marble cake mantle'' of Allegre and Turcotte) and fractional crystallization. The purpose of this model is not to obtain values of the four parameters involved (degree of melting in the peridotites, in the pyroxenites, proportion of pyroxenites involved in the melting, degree of fractional crystallization) for each analyzed glass, but to model the whole set of glasses by stochastic genesis and sampling of liquids. We have used the stochastic procedure for the four controlled parameters, currently generating 10,000 ''samples''. Our preferred model for this portion of the East Pacific Ridge is obtained with a degree of melting in the peridotites and in the pyroxenites varying uniformly from 6 to 20%, and from 6 to 50% respectively. The degree of mixing between liquids issued from the two sources varies from 0 to 100%, and the degree of fractional crystallization remains small, without noticeable effect on the concentrations, varying from 0 to 6%. (orig.)

  12. Direct evidence of hydration into mantle during shearing below a trasform fault: Prince Edward transform fault, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibayashi, K.; Kakihata, Y.; Dick, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is located to the southwest of Rodriguez Triple Junction, where three Indian ocean ridges meet (Zhou & Dick, 2013, Nature). SWIR is one of the slowest spreading ocean ridges in the world. In this study, we studied microstructural development of 21 peridotite samples obtained from Prince Edward transform fault of SWIR by PROTEA5 cruise in 1983. The peridotites consist dominantly of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with minor amounts of amphibole and plagioclase as well as secondary minerals such as serpentine and magnetite. The peridotites were classified into four groups based on their microstructures: 3 ultramylonites mostly consisting of extremely fine crystals (3-5µm), 13 heterogeneous tectonites consisting of coarse-grained crystals and fine-grained matrix, 1 cataclasite and 4 intensely serpentinized peridotites. Olivine Mg# is 0.90-0.91 and spinel Cr# is 0.1-0.35. Amphibole crystals have chemical compositions of tremolite and magnesio-hornblende and they were intensely deformed within the ultramylonites and the heterogeneous tectonites, indicating that they have occurred before or during intense shearing in mantle. Moreover, extremely fine grain sizes of olivine and microboudin textures in both pyroxene and spinel crystals suggest that these peridotites have been sheared under high stress conditions. Furthermore, olivine crystal-fabrics within the amphibole bearing peridotites have B and E types that could be developed under hydrous conditions, whereas olivine fabrics within the other peridotites have A and D types that could be developed under anhydrous conditions (Karato et al., 2008, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.). Consequently, the petrophysical characteristics of peridotites in this study indicate that the uppermost mantle below the Prince Edward transform fault has been locally but intensely hydrated during shearing due to transform movement.

  13. Noble Gas Isotope Evidence for Mantle Volatiles in the Cu-Mo Porphyry and Main Stage Polymetallic Veins at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, A. H.; Rusk, B. G.; Manning, A. H.; Hunt, A. G.; Landis, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that volatiles released from mafic intrusions may be important sources of heat, sulfur, and metals in porphyry Cu-Mo-Au and epithermal Au-Ag deposits associated with intermediate to silicic stocks. The huge Cu-Mo porphyry and Main Stage polymetallic vein deposits at Butte are well suited to test this hypothesis because there is no geologic or isotopic evidence of basaltic intrusions in the mine or drill holes. The Butte porphyry-vein system is associated with quartz monzonite stocks and dikes within the southwest part of the Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith. The Boulder batholith was emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Boulder batholith and Butte intrusions have Sri and eNd values indicative of crustal contamination. Eu and Ce anomalies in zircon from Butte intrusions provide evidence of oxidation due to magma degassing. To ascertain the source of volatiles in this system, 11 samples from the Cu-Mo porphyry and 16 from Main Stage veins were selected. The isotopic composition of Ar, Ne, and He extracted from fluid inclusions in quartz, magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, and covellite were determined. Helium isotopes exceed blank levels in all samples and Ne and Ar in some samples. On a 38Ar/36Ar vs. 40Ar/36Ar diagram, data plot near air. On a 20Ne/22Ne vs. 21Ne/22Ne diagram, data extend from air along the trajectories of OIB and MORB. On a 36Ar/4He vs. 3He/4He RA diagram, data extend from crust toward the air-mantle mixing line. The maximum 3He/4He RA values in the Cu-Mo porphyry (2.86) and Main Stage veins (3.46) are from pyrite and these values correspond to 36 and 43 % mantle helium. The Ne and He results show that fluid inclusions contain volatiles discharged from mantle magmas and that these volatiles were diluted by groundwater containing He derived from country rocks. Despite the lack of mafic intrusions in the Butte magmatic center, noble gas

  14. Isotopic evidence for the infiltration of mantle and metamorphic CO2-H2O fluids from below in faulted rocks from the San Andreas Fault System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pili, E.; Kennedy, B.M.; Conrad, M.E.; Gratier, J.-P.

    2010-12-15

    To characterize the origin of the fluids involved in the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system, we carried out an isotope study of exhumed faulted rocks from deformation zones, vein fillings and their hosts and the fluid inclusions associated with these materials. Samples were collected from segments along the SAF system selected to provide a depth profile from upper to lower crust. In all, 75 samples from various structures and lithologies from 13 localities were analyzed for noble gas, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions. Fluid inclusions exhibit helium isotope ratios ({sup 3}He/{sup 4}He) of 0.1-2.5 times the ratio in air, indicating that past fluids percolating through the SAF system contained mantle helium contributions of at least 35%, similar to what has been measured in present-day ground waters associated with the fault (Kennedy et al., 1997). Calcite is the predominant vein mineral and is a common accessory mineral in deformation zones. A systematic variation of C- and O-isotope compositions of carbonates from veins, deformation zones and their hosts suggests percolation by external fluids of similar compositions and origin with the amount of fluid infiltration increasing from host rocks to vein to deformation zones. The isotopic trend observed for carbonates in veins and deformation zones follows that shown by carbonates in host limestones, marbles, and other host rocks, increasing with increasing contribution of deep metamorphic crustal volatiles. At each crustal level, the composition of the infiltrating fluids is thus buffered by deeper metamorphic sources. A negative correlation between calcite {delta}{sup 13}C and fluid inclusion {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He is consistent with a mantle origin for a fraction of the infiltrating CO{sub 2}. Noble gas and stable isotope systematics show consistent evidence for the involvement of mantle-derived fluids combined with infiltration of deep metamorphic H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in faulting, supporting the involvement of

  15. Co-producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, A; Repper, J; Banks, D; Remnant, J

    2013-08-01

    There is a raft of policy guidelines indicating that mental health nurses should be increasing the social inclusion of mental health service users. Despite this there is no universally accepted definition of social inclusion and there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the successful outcome of increasing inclusion for mental health service users. Recognizing the lack of clarity surrounding the concept we have a produced a social inclusion framework to assist mental health professionals and service users to co-produce social inclusive outcomes. Although we agree that social inclusion can be a positive aspect of recovery, we question the extent to which mental health nurses and service users in co-production can overcome the social, economic and political structures that have created the social exclusion in the first place. An understanding and appreciation of the structure/agency conundrum is required if mental health nurses are to engage with service users in an attempt to co-produce socially inclusive outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Conundrums Approached from the Cognitive Perspective of "The Impartment and Inheritance of Connotation and Denotation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The most distinctive feature of conundrum is the deliberate misinterpretation in the course of its application. The present paper attempts a new cognitive approach to the understanding of conundrums. Based on psychological laws of mankind, the conundrum begins with the questioner's leaving a certain linguistic item on purpose, which will…

  17. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betton, P.J.; Civetta, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. (orig.)

  18. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weathering mantels are widespread worldwide and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved carbonate rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual content of associated trace elements in this type of weathering mantle. For instance, these enrichments can represent about five times the content of the underlying Bajocian to Oxfordian limestone/marl complexes, which have been relatively poorly studied compared to weathering mantle developed on magmatic bedrocks. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources (saprolite, Bajocian silty marls and limestones, atmospheric particles deposition...). Of special interest has also been the origin of trace metals and the processes causing their enrichments. Especially Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments shall help to identify mobile phases in the soil system. This may inform on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. Trace metal migration and enrichments were studied on a cambisol developing on an underlying Jurassic limestone. The base is strongly enriched among others in rare earth elements (ΣREE: 2640ppm) or redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (920ppm), Cr (700ppm), Zn (550ppm), As (260ppm), Co (45ppm

  19. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betton, P.J. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Civetta, L. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)

    1984-11-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio.

  20. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  1. On the Kohn–Luttinger conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So; He Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Kohn and Luttinger [Phys. Rev. 118, 41 (1960)] showed that the conventional finite-temperature extension of the second-order many-body perturbation theory had the incorrect zero-temperature limit in metals and, on this basis, argued that the theory was incorrect. We show that this inconsistency arises from the noninclusion of the temperature effect in the energies of the zeroth-order eigenstates of the perturbation theory, which causes not only the Kohn–Luttinger conundrum but also another inconsistency with the zero-temperature many-body perturbation theory, namely, the different rates of divergence of the correlation energy in a homogeneous electron gas (HEG). We propose a renormalized many-body perturbation theory derivable from the finite-temperature extension of the normal-ordered second quantization applied to the denominators of the energy expression, which involves the energies of the zeroth-order states, as well as to the numerators. The renormalized theory is shown to have the correct zero-temperature limit and the same rate of divergence in a HEG as the zero-temperature counterpart, and is, therefore, the correct finite-temperature many-body perturbation theory.

  2. A Methodological Conundrum: Comparing Schools in Scotland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bethan; Gibbons, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a conundrum in research methodology; the fact that, in the main, you have to use a social science-based research methodology if you want to look at what goes on in a classroom. This article proposes an alternative arts-based research method instead based on the work of Eisner, and before him Dewey, where one can use the more…

  3. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manel; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-03-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocity and gravity models along a transect that crosses the Gorringe Bank from the Tagus to the Horseshoe abyssal plains. The P-wave velocity structure of the basement is similar in the Tagus and Horseshoe plains. It shows a 2.5-3.0 km-thick top layer with a velocity gradient twice stronger than oceanic Layer 2 and an abrupt change to an underlying layer with a five-fold weaker gradient. Velocity and density is lower beneath the Gorringe Bank probably due to enhanced fracturing, that have led to rock disaggregation in the sediment-starved northern flank. In contrast to previous velocity models of this region, there is no evidence of a sharp crust-mantle boundary in any of the record sections. The modelling results indicate that the sediment overlays directly serpentinite rock, exhumed from the mantle with a degree of serpentinization decreasing from a maximum of 70-80% under the top of Gorringe Bank to less than 5% at a depth of ˜20 km. We propose that the three domains were originally part of a single serpentine rock band, of nature and possibly origin similar to the Iberia Abyssal Plain ocean-continent transition, which was probably generated during the earliest phase of the North Atlantic opening that followed continental crust breakup (Early Cretaceous). During the Miocene, the NW-SE trending Eurasia-Africa convergence resulted in thrusting of the southeastern segment of the exhumed serpentinite band over the northwestern one, forming the Gorringe Bank. The local deformation associated to plate

  4. Mantle heterogeneity in northeastern Africa: evidence from Nd isotopic compositions and hygromagmaphile element geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrat, J.A.; Jahn, B.M.; Auvray, B.; Hamdi, H.; Joron, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions have been analysed for their Nd isotopic compositions and major and trace element concentrations. The wide variation in isotopic and geochemical compositions of the basaltic rocks is best explained by the mixing phenomenon involving a variety of mantle source components. To test the mixing hypothesis, a combined use of Nd isotopes and hygromagmaphile elemental ratios is proven very powerful. Three reservoirs have been identified as minimum components in their petrogenesis: (1) DMM (depleted MORB mantle), a mantle source depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is the principal component of the N-MORB type basalts of this region; (2) REC (Ramad enriched component), equivalent to the hot-spot type of source detected in the south of Red Sea; (3) TEC (Tadjoura enriched component), a rather unique component located in the region of Tadjoura Gulf; it is characterised by a relative depletion in Rb, K, Th and U in a primitive mantle- or chondrite-normalised incompatible element pattern; this component could have been produced by mantle metasomatism of an originally depleted mantle. Mixing in various proportions of the above components is considered to be the principal mechanism for the formation of basalts with such diverse isotopic and trace element compositions. (orig.)

  5. A Safety Conundrum Illustrated: Logic, Mathematics, and Science Are Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.; Collins, Kristine R.

    2010-01-01

    In an ideal world, conversations about whether a particular system is safe, or whether a particular method or tool enhances safety, would be emotion-free discussions concentrating on the level of safety required, available evidence, and coherent logical, mathematical, or scientific arguments based on that evidence. In the real world, discussions about safety are often not emotion-free. Political and economic arguments may play a bigger role than logical, mathematical, and scientific arguments, and psychological factors may be as important, or even more important, than purely technical factors. This paper illustrates the conundrum that can result from this clash of the ideal and the real by means of an imagined conversation among a collection of fictional characters representing various types of people who may be participating in a safety discussion.

  6. Deep long-period earthquakes west of the volcanic arc in Oregon: evidence of serpentine dehydration in the fore-arc mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, John E.; Schmidt, David A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Moran, Seth C.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Houston, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) newly observed in four places in western Oregon. The DLPs are noteworthy for their location within the subduction fore arc: 40–80 km west of the volcanic arc, well above the slab, and near the Moho. These “offset DLPs” occur near the top of the inferred stagnant mantle wedge, which is likely to be serpentinized and cold. The lack of fore-arc DLPs elsewhere along the arc suggests that localized heating may be dehydrating the serpentinized mantle wedge at these latitudes and causing DLPs by dehydration embrittlement. Higher heat flow in this region could be introduced by anomalously hot mantle, associated with the western migration of volcanism across the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, entrained in the corner flow proximal to the mantle wedge. Alternatively, fluids rising from the subducting slab through the mantle wedge may be the source of offset DLPs. As far as we know, these are among the first DLPs to be observed in the fore arc of a subduction-zone system.

  7. Re — Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Echeverria, L. M.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.

    1991-04-01

    The Re — Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155±43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1±3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd+9±1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (γOs) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial μ values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re — Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions.

  8. Re - Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.; Echeverria, L.M.; Shirey, S.B.; Horan, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Re - Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155??43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1??3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (??Nd+9??1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (??Os) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial ?? values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re - Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  9. The PhD Conundrum in South African Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, Mignonne; Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    South African universities need more academics with PhDs, from historically disadvantaged population groups in particular, but they face a conundrum. In order to have more staff with PhDs, they need to produce more PhD graduates. But in order to produce more PhD graduates, they need more staff with PhDs to supervise. This article explores this…

  10. Transfer of subduction fluids into the deforming mantle wedge during nascent subduction: Evidence from trace elements and boron isotopes (Semail ophiolite, Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Guillot, S.; Agard, P.; Lemarchand, D.; Soret, M.; Ulrich, M.

    2018-02-01

    The basal part of the Semail ophiolitic mantle was (de)formed at relatively low temperature (LT) directly above the plate interface during "nascent subduction" (the prelude to ophiolite obduction). This subduction-related LT deformation was associated with progressive strain localization and cooling, resulting in the formation of porphyroclastic to ultramylonitic shear zones prior to serpentinization. Using petrological and geochemical analyses (trace elements and B isotopes), we show that these basal peridotites interacted with hydrous fluids percolating by porous flow during mylonitic deformation (from ∼850 down to 650 °C). This process resulted in 1) high-T amphibole crystallization, 2) striking enrichments of minerals in fluid mobile elements (FME; particularly B, Li and Cs with concentrations up to 400 times those of the depleted mantle) and 3) peridotites with an elevated δ11B of up to +25‰. These features indicate that the metasomatic hydrous fluids are most likely derived from the dehydration of subducting crustal amphibolitic materials (i.e., the present-day high-T sole). The rapid decrease in metasomatized peridotite δ11B with increasing distance to the contact with the HT sole (to depleted mantle isotopic values in <1 km) suggests an intense interaction between peridotites and rapid migrating fluids (∼1-25 m.y-1), erasing the initial high-δ11B subduction fluid signature within a short distance. The increase of peridotite δ11B with increasing deformation furthermore indicates that the flow of subduction fluids was progressively channelized in actively deforming shear zones parallel to the contact. Taken together, these results also suggest that the migration of subduction fluids/melts by porous flow through the subsolidus mantle wedge (i.e., above the plate interface at sub-arc depths) is unlikely to be an effective mechanism to transport slab-derived elements to the locus of partial melting in subduction zones.

  11. Large-scale compositional heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic imaging of subducted Farallon and Tethys lithosphere in the lower mantle has been taken as evidence for whole-mantle convection, and efficient mantle mixing. However, cosmochemical constraints point to a lower-mantle composition that has a lower Mg/Si compared to upper-mantle pyrolite. Moreover, geochemical signatures of magmatic rocks indicate the long-term persistence of primordial reservoirs somewhere in the mantle. In this presentation, I establish geodynamic mechanisms for sustaining large-scale (primordial) heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using numerical models. Mantle flow is controlled by rock density and viscosity. Variations in intrinsic rock density, such as due to heterogeneity in basalt or iron content, can induce layering or partial layering in the mantle. Layering can be sustained in the presence of persistent whole mantle convection due to active "unmixing" of heterogeneity in low-viscosity domains, e.g. in the transition zone or near the core-mantle boundary [1]. On the other hand, lateral variations in intrinsic rock viscosity, such as due to heterogeneity in Mg/Si, can strongly affect the mixing timescales of the mantle. In the extreme case, intrinsically strong rocks may remain unmixed through the age of the Earth, and persist as large-scale domains in the mid-mantle due to focusing of deformation along weak conveyor belts [2]. That large-scale lateral heterogeneity and/or layering can persist in the presence of whole-mantle convection can explain the stagnation of some slabs, as well as the deflection of some plumes, in the mid-mantle. These findings indeed motivate new seismic studies for rigorous testing of model predictions. [1] Ballmer, M. D., N. C. Schmerr, T. Nakagawa, and J. Ritsema (2015), Science Advances, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500815. [2] Ballmer, M. D., C. Houser, J. W. Hernlund, R. Wentzcovitch, and K. Hirose (2017), Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo2898.

  12. Helium isotope data from the Goldfield epithermal system, Nevada: Evidence for volatile input from a primitive mantle source during ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, A. H.; Manning, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Goldfield is the largest high sulfidation epithermal gold mining district in the United States with over 130 t of gold production and 23 sq. km. of argillic alteration (with alunite, pyrophyllite, or kaolinite). It formed at 20.0×0.5 Ma in an andesite to rhyolite volcanic field in the ancestral Cascades continental magmatic arc. Previous stable isotope studies of quartz, alunite, and sulfide minerals suggest that the gold ores formed in a magmatic vapor plume derived from a subjacent porphyry intrusion, which displaced and mixed with meteoric groundwater at shallow levels. The isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar trapped in fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals (Cu-sulfides and sulfosalts, pyrite, quartz) were measured to further constrain volatile source and migration processes. Gases were released by thermal decrepitation at 300°C and analyzed using a high resolution static sector mass spectrometer. The isotopic compositions of Ne and Ar are typical of air-saturated water (ASW), indicating that the samples contain little nucleogenic Ne or radiogenic Ar derived from underlying old crustal sources. In contrast, He/Ne and He/Ar ratios are much greater than ASW, indicating that a component of He was produced in the subsurface. The wide range of He R/Ra values, 0.4 to 20, suggests that He was derived from both crustal and mantle sources. 4He/40Ar* and 4He/21Ne* systematics are characteristic of magma degassing. The highest R/Ra values (15-20) are well above those previously reported for modern volcanic rocks and geothermal fluids in subduction-related arcs. Such R/Ra values indicate a primitive mantle source, perhaps below the subducting slab. We hypothesize that the discharge of metal-laden fluids from the subjacent porphyry intrusion was influenced by the input of hot volatiles from mafic mantle-derived magmas. This scenario implies a magma column that remained open to the flux of volatiles over a considerable depth range, from the mantle to the shallow

  13. Shear wave splitting and upper mantle deformation in French Polynesia: Evidence for small-scale heterogeneity related to the Society hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R. M.; Okal, E. A.

    1998-07-01

    We determined shear wave splitting parameters at four island sites in French Polynesia: Tiputa (TPT) on Rangiroa in the Tuamotu archipelago; Papeete (PPT) on Tahiti in the Society Islands; Tubuai (TBI) in the Cook-Austral island chain; and Rikitea (RKT) on Mangareva in the Gambier Islands. We also examined splitting at Pitcairn (PTCN) on Pitcairn Island; because of the short time of operation of PTCN, our results there are preliminary. We find substantial differences in splitting, most likely caused by variable upper mantle deformation beneath the five stations. At TPT the fast split shear wave (ϕ) direction is N66°W±4°, parallel to the current Pacific-hotspots relative motion (APM) vector; the delay time between fast and slow waves is 1.3±0.2 s. At PPT, on Tahiti, we could detect no splitting despite many clear SKS observations. At TBI, on Tubuai we detected splitting with a delay time of 1.1±0.1 s and a ϕ direction midway between the local APM direction and the fossil spreading direction (N86°W±2°), as locally indicated by the nearby Austral Fracture Zone. At RKT in the Gambier Islands, ϕ trends N53°W±6°, 16° clockwise of the local APM azimuth, and delay time at RKT is 1.1±0.1 s. Results at PTCN include ϕ near N38°W±9° and a delay time of 1.1±0.3 s. These different results imply variable upper mantle deformation beneath the five sites. We interpret splitting at TPT and, possibly, RKT as indicative of asthenospheric flow or shear in the APM direction beneath the stations. At PPT, azimuthal isotropy indicates deformed upper mantle with a vertical symmetry axis, or absence of strong or consistently oriented mantle deformation fabric beneath Tahiti. Either effect could be related to recent hotspot magmatism on Tahiti. At TBI, splitting may be complicated by juxtaposition of different lithospheric thicknesses along the nearby Austral Fracture Zone, resulting in perturbation of asthenospheric flow. The absence of splitting related to fossil

  14. Uranium in mantle processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortini, M.

    1984-01-01

    (1) Metasomatism is an effective process in the mantle. It controls the distribution of U, Th and Pb in the mantle before the onset of magma formation. (2) Radioactive disequilibria demonstrate that magma formation is an open-system very fast process in which Ra, U and Th are extracted in large amounts from a mantle source that is geochemically distinct from the mantle fraction from which the melt is formed. (3) Because the enrichment of U, Th and Ra in the magma is so fast, the concept of mineral-melt partition coefficient is not valid for these elements during magma formation. (4) Metasomatism seems to generally produce an increase in μ and a decrease in K of the metasomatized mantle region. (5) Magma formation at oceanic ridges and islands seems to generally produce a decrease in K, in its mantle source region. (6) The major source of U, Th, Ra and Pb in a magma probably is the metasomatic mantle component. Instead, the major source of Sr and Nd in a magma is the non-metasomatic, more 'refractory' mantle component. (7) This proposed model is testable. It predicts isotopic disequilibrium of Pb between coexisting minerals and whole rocks, and a correlation of Pb with Th isotopes. (author)

  15. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    -Rif cordillera crustal rocks that might have been potentially subducted beneath the Alborán domain before the emplacement of Ronda peridotites. Isotopic data rules out potential crustal sources coming from pre-early Miocene Flysch Trough sediments and crustal rocks from the Blanca Unit currently underlying peridotite. Crustal rocks from the Jubrique Unit overlying the Ronda peridotite are the only crustal samples that may account for the relatively high 207Pb-208Pb/204Pb and low 206Pb/204Pb characteristic of the crustal contaminant added to the mantle source of late Cr-pyroxenites. These data strongly support Alboran geodynamic models that envisage slab roll-back as the tectonic mechanism responsible for Miocene lithospheric thinning, and provides a scenario where back-arc inversion leading to self-subduction of crustal units at the front of the Alboran wedge. REFERENCES 1. Durand-Delga, M., P. Rossi, P. Olivier, and D. Puglisi, Situation structurale et nature ophiolitique de roches basiques jurassiques associées aux flyschs maghrébins du Rif (Maroc) et de Sicile (Italie). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 2000. 331(1): p. 29-38. 2. Lenoir, X., C. Garrido, J.L. Bodinier, J.M. Dautria, and F. Gervilla, The Recrystallization Front of the Ronda Peridotite: Evidence for Melting and Thermal Erosion of Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Alboran Basin. Journal of Petrology, 2001. 42(1): p. 141-158. 3. Garrido, C.J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J.A. Padrón-Navarta, and C. Marchesi, Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean. Geology, 2011. 4. Balanyá, J.C., V. García-Dueñas, J.M. Azañón, and M. Sánchez-Gómez, Alternating contractional and extensional events in the Alpujarride nappes of the Alboran Domain (Betics, Gibraltar Arc). Tectonics, 1997. 16(2): p. 226-238. 5. Platt, J

  16. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R

    2001-01-01

    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  17. Evolution of the mantle source in an evolving arc-backarc system (Torres del Paine, Patagonia): Evidence from Hf isotopes in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, T. A.; Muntener, O.; Leuthold, J.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Putlitz, B.; d'Abzac, F. X.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Miocene Torres del Paine intrusive complex (TPIC) in Patagonia is a transitional alkaline backarc intrusion1 emplaced on short timescales of 162 ± 11 ka2. It is subdivided into two units with distinct ages of ~12.6 Ma and ~12.45 Ma1. Smaller intrusive bodies in the area record a change in chemistry from calc-alkaline at ~16 Ma, to transitional alkaline at ~12.5 Ma. Zircons from ~16 Ma intrusives and the 12.6 Ma part of the TPIC have remarkably consistent, slightly enriched Hf isotope compositions with ɛHf(i) of -1 to +2. An abrupt shift towards more juvenile Hf isotope compositions is observed in the ~12.45 Ma part of the TPIC, with ɛHf(i) of +3 to +6. Bulk rock Nd and Sr isotopes for the TPIC show the same shift towards more juvenile compositions at this time1. The long-term consistency of ɛHf(i) from 16 to 12.6 Ma is surprising, given that in the same period the bulk rock chemistry changes from calc-alkaline to transitional alkaline. Conversely, the major shift in ɛHf(i) is not correlated with any change in bulk rock chemistry, which remains transitional alkaline from 12.6 to 12.45 Ma. The decoupling of major element chemical evolution and Hf isotope signatures suggests that the subsequent rapid influx of juvenile material recorded by our Hf isotope data must have occurred by renewed mantle melting. Subduction of the Chile ridge at ~12.5 Ma in this area caused arc magmatism to move westwards and back-arc extension to initiate. We propose that the first TPIC magmas (12.6 Ma) came from a mantle wedge with a residual subduction signature. Subsequent melting of more juvenile mantle, less contaminated by a subduction component, generated the 12.45 Ma TPIC magmas. These results demonstrate that magmatic complexes such as the TPIC may tap distinct mantle sources even on very short timescales, fingerprinting arc-backarc transition processes. 1Leuthold et al., 2013, JPET, 54: 273-303 2Leuthold et al., 2012, EPSL, 325: 85-92

  18. Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

  19. Pb sbnd Sr sbnd Nd isotopic data of Indian Ocean ridges: new evidence of large-scale mapping of mantle heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Bruno; Dupré, Bernard; Allègre, Claude J.

    1986-01-01

    A Pb sbnd Sr sbnd Nd isotope study of South West and East Indian Ridges confirms that the Indian Ocean belongs to a specific regional isotopic domain, as previously suggested by the results from islands of this ocean. The isotopic domain defined by the Indian MORB is indeed different from that of the North Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans. This demonstrates that the convective circulation of the upper mantle does not allow a rapid homogenization from one region to the other. The isotopic data of the Indian ridges can be interpreted by a contamination model, in which the depleted upper mantle (identical to that under the North Atlantic) is contaminated by two different types of contaminant, one corresponding to the source of the "central Indian Ocean" islands (Amsterdam, St. Paul, Marion, Prince Edward, Réunion, Rodriguez, Mauritius), and the other to a source similar to that of Walvis or Ninety East aseismic ridges. These two contaminants would have contributed to the ridge volcanism in different proportions over time.

  20. Petrogenesis of postcollisional magmatism at Scheelite Dome, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for a lithospheric mantle source for magmas associated with intrusion-related gold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, John L.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The type examples for the class of deposits termed intrusion-related gold systems occur in the Tombstone-Tungsten belt of Alaska and Yukon, on the eastern side of the Tintina gold province. In this part of the northern Cordillera, extensive mid-Cretaceous postcollisional plutonism took place following the accretion of exotic terranes to the continental margin. The most cratonward of the resulting plutonic belts comprises small isolated intrusive centers, with compositionally diverse, dominantly potassic rocks, as exemplified at Scheelite Dome, located in central Yukon. Similar to other spatially and temporally related intrusive centers, the Scheelite Dome intrusions are genetically associated with intrusion-related gold deposits. Intrusions have exceptional variability, ranging from volumetrically dominant clinopyroxene-bearing monzogranites, to calc-alkaline minettes and spessartites, with an intervening range of intermediate to felsic stocks and dikes, including leucominettes, quartz monzonites, quartz monzodiorites, and granodiorites. All rock types are potassic, are strongly enriched in LILEs and LREEs, and feature high LILE/HFSE ratios. Clinopyroxene is common to all rock types and ranges from salite in felsic rocks to high Mg augite and Cr-rich diopside in lamprophyres. Less common, calcic amphibole ranges from actinolitic hornblende to pargasite. The rocks have strongly radiogenic Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.711-0.714) and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb from 19.2-19.7), and negative initial εNd values (-8.06 to -11.26). Whole-rock major and trace element, radiogenic isotope, and mineralogical data suggest that the felsic to intermediate rocks were derived from mafic potassic magmas sourced from the lithospheric mantle via fractional crystallization and minor assimilation of metasedimentary crust. Mainly unmodified minettes and spessartites represent the most primitive and final phases emplaced. Metasomatic enrichments in the underlying lithospheric mantle

  1. The mantle source of island arc magmatism during early subduction: Evidence from Hf isotopes in rutile from the Jijal Complex (Kohistan arc, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya A.; Müntener, Othmar

    2018-05-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan arc complex, northern Pakistan, is renowned as one of the most complete sections through a preserved paleo-island arc. The Jijal Complex represents a fragment of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan arc, formed during its early intraoceanic history. We present the first Hf isotope determinations for the Jijal Complex, made on rutile from garnet gabbros. These lithologies are zircon-free, but contain rutile that formed as an early phase. Recent developments in analytical capabilities coupled with a careful analytical and data reduction protocol allow the accurate determination of Hf isotope composition for rutile with <30 ppm Hf for the first time. Rutile from the analysed samples contains 5-35 ppm Hf, with sample averages of 13-17 ppm. Rutile from five samples from the Jijal Complex mafic section, sampling 2 km of former crustal thickness, gave indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions with εHf(i) ranging from 11.4 ± 3.2 to 20.1 ± 5.7. These values are within error of or only slightly more enriched than modern depleted mantle. The analysed samples record variable degrees of interaction with late-stage melt segregations, which produced symplectitic overprints on the main mineral assemblage as well as pegmatitic segregations of hydrous minerals. The indistinguishable εHf(i) across this range of lithologies demonstrates the robust preservation of the Hf isotope composition of rutile. The Hf isotope data, combined with previously published Nd isotope data for the Jijal Complex garnet gabbros, favour derivation from an inherently enriched, Indian Ocean type mantle. This implies a smaller contribution from subducted sediments than if the source was a normal (Pacific-type) depleted mantle. The Jijal Complex thus had only a limited recycled continental crustal component in its source, and represents a largely juvenile addition of new continental crust during the early phases of intraoceanic magmatism. The ability to determine the Hf

  2. Preservation of an Archaean whole rock Re-Os isochron for the Venetia lithospheric mantle: Evidence for rapid crustal recycling and lithosphere stabilisation at 3.3 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Quinten H. A.; Klaver, Martijn; Reisberg, Laurie; Riches, Amy J. V.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-11-01

    Re-Os and platinum group element analyses are reported for peridotite xenoliths from the 533 Ma Venetia kimberlite cluster situated in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, the Neoarchaean collision zone between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. The Venetian xenoliths provide a rare opportunity to examine the state of the cratonic lithosphere prior to major regional metasomatic disturbance of Re-Os systematics throughout the Phanerozoic. The 32 studied xenoliths record Si-enrichment that is characteristic of the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle and can be subdivided into five groups based on Re-Os analyses. The most pristine group I samples (n = 13) display an approximately isochronous relationship and fall on a 3.28 ± 0.17 Ga (95 % conf. int.) reference line that is based on their mean TMA age. This age overlaps with the formation age of the Limpopo crust at 3.35-3.28 Ga. The group I samples derive from ∼50 to ∼170 km depth, suggesting coeval melt depletion of the majority of the Venetia lithospheric mantle column. Group II and III samples have elevated Re/Os due to Re addition during kimberlite magmatism. Group II has otherwise undergone a similar evolution as the group I samples with overlapping 187Os/188Os at eruption age: 187Os/188OsEA, while group III samples have low Os concentrations, unradiogenic 187Os/188OsEA and were effectively Re-free prior to kimberlite magmatism. The other sample groups (IV and V) have disturbed Re-Os systematics and provide no reliable age information. A strong positive correlation is recorded between Os and Re concentrations for group I samples, which is extended to groups II and III after correction for kimberlite addition. This positive correlation precludes a single stage melt depletion history and indicates coupled remobilisation of Re and Os. The combination of Re-Os mobility, preservation of the isochronous relationship, correlation of 187Os/188Os with degree of melt depletion and lack of radiogenic Os addition puts tight constraints on

  3. The 2014-15 eruption and the short-term geochemical evolution of the Fogo volcano (Cape Verde): Evidence for small-scale mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, J.; Martins, S.; Mattielli, N.; Madeira, J.; Faria, B.; Ramalho, R. S.; Silva, P.; Moreira, M.; Caldeira, R.; Moreira, M.; Rodrigues, J.; Martins, L.

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent eruptions at very active ocean island volcanoes provide the ideal means to gain insight on the scale of spatial variations at the mantle source and on temporal changes of magma genesis and evolution processes. In 2014, after 19 years of quiescence, Fogo volcano (Cape Verde Archipelago) experienced a new eruption, with the vents located 200 m from those of the 1995 eruption, and less than 2000 m from those of the 1951 event. This offered a unique opportunity to investigate the existence of small-scale mantle heterogeneities and the short-term compositional evolution of magmas erupted by a very active oceanic volcano like Fogo. Here we present petrological and geochemical data from the early stages of the Fogo's most recent eruption - started on November 23, 2014 - and compare them with the signature of previous eruptions (particularly those of 1995 and 1951). The magmas erupted in 2014 are alkaline (up to 23.4% and 0.94% of normative ne and lc, respectively) with somewhat evolved compositions (Mg # < 56), ranging from tephrites to phonotephrites. The eruption of phonotephritic lavas preceded the effusion of tephritic ones. Lavas carried to the surface clinopyroxene and kaersutite phenocrysts and cognate megacrysts, which indicate that the main stages of magma evolution occurred in magma chambers most probably located at mantle depths (25.6 ± 5.5 km below sea level). This was followed by a shallower (< 1.5 km below sea level) and shorter (≈ 50 days) magma stagnation before the eruption. 2014 magmas have more unradiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd compositions than those of the previous 1951 and 1995 eruptions, which generally have less radiogenic Pb ratios. These isotopic differences - coming from quasi-coeval materials erupted almost in the same place - are remarkable and reflect the small-scale heterogeneity of the underlying mantle source. Moreover, they reflect the limited isotopic averaging of the source composition during partial melting events as

  4. Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsiotis, Argirios; Grammatikopoulos, Tassos A.; Tsikouras, Basilios; Hatzipanagiotou, Konstantin; Zaccarini, Federica; Garuti, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Pindos ophiolite complex, located in the northwestern part of continental Greece, hosts various chromite deposits of both metallurgical (high-Cr) and refractory (high-Al) type. The Pefki chromitites are banded and sub-concordant to the surrounding serpentinized dunites. The Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al)] of magnesiochromite varies between 0.75 and 0.79. The total PGE grade ranges from 105.9 up to 300.0 ppb. IPGE are higher than PPGE, typical of mantle hosted ophiolitic chromitites. The PGM assemblage in chromitites comprises anduoite, ruarsite, laurite, irarsite, sperrylite, hollingworthite, Os-Ru-Ir alloys including osmium and rutheniridosmine, Ru-bearing oxides, braggite, paolovite, platarsite, cooperite, vysotskite, and palladodymite. Iridarsenite and omeiite were also observed as exsolutions in other PGM. Rare electrum and native Ag are recovered in concentrates. This PGM assemblage is of great petrogenetic importance because it is significantly different from that commonly observed in podiform mantle-hosted and banded crustal-hosted ophiolitic chromitites. PGE chalcogenides of As and S are primary, and possibly crystallized directly from a progressively enriched in As boninitic melt before or during magnesiochromite precipitation. The presence of Ru-bearing oxides implies simultaneous desulfurization and dearsenication processes. Chemically zoned laurite and composite paolovite-electrum intergrowths are indicative of the relatively high mobility of certain PGE at low temperatures under locally oxidizing conditions. The PGM assemblage and chemistry, in conjunction with geological and petrologic data of the studied chromitites, indicate that it is characteristic of chromitites found within or close to the petrologic Moho. Furthermore, the strikingly different PGM assemblages between the high-Cr chromitites within the Pindos massif is suggestive of non-homogeneous group of ores.

  5. Divergent Selection and Then What Not: The Conundrum of Missing Reproductive Isolation in Misty Lake and Stream Stickleback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Räsänen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In ecological speciation, reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of adaptation to different selective environments. A frequent contributor to this process is the evolution of positive assortative mate choice between ecotypes. We tested this expectation for lake and inlet stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from the Misty system (Vancouver Island, Canada, which show strong genetically based adaptive divergence and little genetic exchange in nature. This, and work on other stickleback systems, led us to expect positive assortative mating. Yet, our standard “no-choice” laboratory experiment on common-garden fish revealed no evidence for this—despite divergence in traits typically mediating assortative mating in stickleback. These results remind us that divergent natural selection may not inevitably lead to the evolution of positive assortative mate choice. The apparent lack of strong and symmetric reproductive barriers in this system presents a conundrum: why are such barriers not evident despite strong adaptive divergence and low gene flow in nature?

  6. Can Lower Mantle Slab-like Seismic Anomalies be Explained by Thermal Coupling Between the Upper and Lower Mantles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cízková, H. (Hana); Cadek, O.; Berg, A.P. van den; Vlaar, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    Below subduction zones, high resolution seismic tomographic models resolve fast anomalies that often extend into the deep lower mantle. These anomalies are generally interpreted as slabs penetrating through the 660-km seismic discontinuity, evidence in support of whole-mantle convection. However,

  7. Reconceiving myself: challenging conundrums and creating feminist community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This narrative describes how contexts in which I grew up influenced my pursuit of feminist community psychology and my work in a master's level community psychology program. Grappling inside and outside with longings that appear contradictory and contradictions that others do not experience has fueled passionate engagement with life and work. Growing up an Irish Catholic girl in the Midwest U.S. post World War II era informed and constrained my relational and vocational choices. Participation in consciousness raising and informal community building initiatives opened opportunities for personal, professional and political growth. These intensely personal interconnected stories describe conundrums that I experienced and the ways in which they were reconceived and repaired in the process of creating self, work and community.

  8. A German conundrum. In search for a final storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breloer, Bernd J.; Breyer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This article will recap the history of nuclear waste management and reveal why there was no solution and in what ways the disposal of nuclear waste is still being blocked even today. Despite all the efforts of the industry and the government bodies involved, the disposal of waste is being systematically thwarted by those who largely derive their political authority from being an anti-nuclear energy movement. They have been helped by their political coalition partners and, in the end, also the conservative and liberal parties for whom the topic has become a political nuisance. This paper is a revised and extended version of the article 'Die deutsche Zweifelsfrage' (A German Conundrum), which appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on 21 May 2013. (orig.)

  9. Reworking of Archean mantle in the NE Siberian craton by carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism: Evidence from a carbonate-bearing, dunite-to-websterite xenolith suite from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Doucet, Luc S.; Xu, Yigang; Golovin, Alexander V.; Oleinikov, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The Obnazhennaya kimberlite in the NE Siberian craton hosts a most unusual cratonic xenolith suite, with common rocks rich in pyroxenes and garnet, and no sheared peridotites. We report petrographic and chemical data for whole rocks (WR) and minerals of 20 spinel and garnet peridotites from Obnazhennaya with Re-depletion Os isotope ages of 1.8-2.9 Ga (Ionov et al., 2015a) as well as 2 pyroxenites. The garnet-bearing rocks equilibrated at 1.6-2.8 GPa and 710-1050 °C. Some xenoliths contain vermicular spinel-pyroxene aggregates with REE patterns in clinopyroxene mimicking those of garnet. The peridotites show significant scatter of Mg# (0.888-0.924), Cr2O3 (0.2-1.4 wt.%) and high NiO (0.3-0.4 wt.%). None are pristine melting residues. Low-CaO-Al2O3 (≤0.9 wt.%) dunites and harzburgites are melt-channel materials. Peridotites with low to moderate Al2O3 (0.4-1.8 wt.%) usually have CaO > Al2O3, and some have pockets of calcite texturally equilibrated with olivine and garnet. Such carbonates, exceptional in mantle xenoliths and reported here for the first time for the Siberian mantle, provide direct evidence for modal makeover and Ca and LREE enrichments by ephemeral carbonate-rich melts. Peridotites rich in CaO and Al2O3 (2.7-8.0 wt.%) formed by reaction with silicate melts. We infer that the mantle lithosphere beneath Obnazhennaya, initially formed in the Mesoarchean, has been profoundly modified. Pervasive inter-granular percolation of highly mobile and reactive carbonate-rich liquids may have reduced the strength of the mantle lithosphere leading the way for reworking by silicate melts. The latest events before the kimberlite eruption were the formation of the carbonate-phlogopite pockets, fine-grained pyroxenite veins and spinel-pyroxene symplectites. The reworked lithospheric sections are preserved at Obnazhennaya, but similar processes could erode lithospheric roots in the SE Siberian craton (Tok) and the North China craton, where ancient melting residues and

  10. Mantle-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barista, I; Romaguera, J E; Cabanillas, F

    2001-03-01

    During the past decade, mantle-cell lymphoma has been established as a new disease entity. The normal counterparts of the cells forming this malignant lymphoma are found in the mantle zone of the lymph node, a thin layer surrounding the germinal follicles. These cells have small to medium-sized nuclei, are commonly indented or cleaved, and stain positively with CD5, CD20, cyclin D1, and FMC7 antibodies. Because of its morphological appearance and a resemblance to other low-grade lymphomas, many of which grow slowly, this lymphoma was initially thought to be an indolent tumour, but its natural course was not thoroughly investigated until the 1990s, when the BCL1 oncogene was identified as a marker for this disease. Mantle-cell lymphoma is a discrete entity, unrelated to small lymphocytic or small-cleaved-cell lymphomas.

  11. The local enhancement conundrum: in search of the adaptive value of a social learning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-02-01

    Social learning mechanisms are widely thought to vary in their degree of complexity as well as in their prevalence in the natural world. While learning the properties of a stimulus that generalize to similar stimuli at other locations (stimulus enhancement) prima facie appears more useful to an animal than learning about a specific stimulus at a specific location (local enhancement), empirical evidence suggests that the latter is much more widespread in nature. Simulating populations engaged in a producer-scrounger game, we sought to deploy mathematical models to identify the adaptive benefits of reliance on local enhancement and/or stimulus enhancement, and the alternative conditions favoring their evolution. Surprisingly, we found that while stimulus enhancement readily evolves, local enhancement is advantageous only under highly restricted conditions: when generalization of information was made unreliable or when error in social learning was high. Our results generate a conundrum over how seemingly conflicting empirical and theoretical findings can be reconciled. Perhaps the prevalence of local enhancement in nature is due to stimulus enhancement costs independent of the learning task itself (e.g. predation risk), perhaps natural habitats are often characterized by unreliable yet highly rewarding payoffs, or perhaps local enhancement occurs less frequently, and stimulus enhancement more frequently, than widely believed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Lower-Crust or Mantle Source for Mineralizing Fluids Beneath the Olympic Dam IOCG Deposit, Australia: New Evidence From Magnetotelluric Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinson, G.

    2005-12-01

    The iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) Olympic Dam (OD) deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit, and sixth largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver and rare-earth elements (REE). Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic mineralisation is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal-settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses OD and the major crustal boundaries. We present results from 58 long-period (10-104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 to 10 km. A 2D inversion of all MT data to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (a) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (1000 Ω.m) Archaean crustal core, from a more conductive crust to the north (typically <500 Ω.m); (c) to the north of OD, the crust to about 20 km is quite resistive (~1000 Ω.m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (<100 Ω.m); and (d) beneath OD, we image a low-resistivity region (<100 Ω.m) throughout the crust, coincident with a seismically transparent region. We argue that the cause of the low-resistivity and low-reflectivity region beneath OD may be due to the upward movement of crustal-volatiles that have deposited conductive graphite mineralisation along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle-degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic crustal deformation.

  13. Re-Os systematics of komatiites and komatiitic basalts at Dundonald Beach, Ontario, Canada: Evidence for a complex alteration history and implications of a late-Archean chondritic mantle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Amitava; Sproule, Rebecca A.; Walker, Richard J.; Lesher, C. Michael

    2005-11-01

    Osmium isotopic compositions, and Re and Os concentrations have been examined in one komatiite unit and two komatiitic basalt units at Dundonald Beach, part of the 2.7 Ga Kidd-Munro volcanic assemblage in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada. The komatiitic rocks in this locality record at least three episodes of alteration of Re-Os elemental and isotope systematics. First, an average of 40% and as much as 75% Re may have been lost due to shallow degassing during eruption and/or hydrothermal leaching during or immediately after emplacement. Second, the Re-Os isotope systematics of whole rock samples with 187Re/ 188Os ratios >1 were reset at ˜2.5 Ga, possibly due to a regional metamorphic event. Third, there is evidence for relatively recent gain and loss of Re in some rocks. Despite the open-system behavior, some aspects of the Re-Os systematics of these rocks can be deciphered. The bulk distribution coefficient for Os (D Ossolid/liquid) for the Dundonald rocks is ˜3 ± 1 and is well within the estimated D values obtained for komatiites from the nearby Alexo area and stratigraphically-equivalent komatiites from Munro Township. This suggests that Os was moderately compatible during crystal-liquid fractionation of the magmas parental to the Kidd-Munro komatiitic rocks. Whole-rock samples and chromite separates with low 187Re/ 188Os ratios (Gorgona Island, arc-related rocks and present-day ocean island basalts. This suggests that the Kidd-Munro komatiites sampled a late-Archean mantle source region that was significantly more homogeneous with respect to Re/Os relative to most modern mantle-derived rocks.

  14. Carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism of the mantle surrounding the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from volatiles, trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in rejuvenated-stage lavas from Niihau, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jacqueline; Clague, David A.; Cousens, Brian; Monsalve, Maria Luisa; Uhl, Jessika

    2008-09-01

    produced and contribute to the metasomatic signature. The metasomatic component is best preserved at the margins of the plume, where low extents of melting of the metasomatized depleted mantle surrounding the plume are sampled during flexural uplift. Formation of carbonatite melts may provide a mechanism to transfer plume He to the margins of the plume.

  15. Hot N Sour Mantle Soup on Indian Plate During Cretaceous- Evidence from Clumped Isotope and Geochemical Studies of Sung Valley Carbonatite, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Banerjee, Y.; Tiwari, A.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Geological processes involved in the formation of Carbonatite rocks are complex and so is the understanding about its formational temperature. Fluid inclusion studies (1) on Carbonatite and their associated Ijolites showed a homogenization temperature of 1000-1100°C for Ijoltes and a temperature (T) range of 200-600°C was assigned to the carbonatite melts. Liquid immiscibility process is held responsible for the origin of parental carbonated (ijolititic/ nephelinitic) magma. The homogenization T signifies about a time interval during which there must be a considerable amount of T dropdown soon after the formation of Ijolite and subsequent crystallization of the residual carbonatite magma. However the lack of information about the T of the primary carbonated melt remains as an important area of petrological research. Experimental studies suggest a T range of 950-1400°C for the primary carbonate melt (2). Advent of Clumped isotope thermometry (3) allowed independent method for estimation of the formational T and provide avenues to derive composition of CO2 in equilibrium with carbonate melt. Earlier attempt involving carbonatites from several locations (4) captured range of T between 83°-416°C . Here we present our observation on calcite growth T in the carbonatites from the Cretaceous Sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex. Based on stable C,O isotope study and Sr, Nd isotopic composition a mantle origin- genetically linked with the Kerguelen plume was proposed (5). Clumped isotope study on the same samples revealed consistent C and O isotope compositions, providing Δ47 values ranging from 0.32 to 0.48. δ13C and δ18O (in VPDB) values of the present study falls within the "Primary Igneous Carbonatite Field" (6). Using high T thermometry equation (7) we obtained a T range of 137-474 °C for the calcite present in the samples. The T recorded in our study is lower than that deduced experimental values of 960-625°C at 0.1 GPa (8) and fluid inclusion

  16. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection.

  17. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  18. Collaborative Research on Sustainability: Myths and Conundrums of Interdisciplinary Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sherren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing interdisciplinary academic departments has been a common response to the challenge of addressing complex problems. However, the assumptions that guide the formation of such departments are rarely questioned. Additionally, the designers and managers of interdisciplinary academic departments in any field of endeavour struggle to set an organisational climate appropriate to the diversity of their members. This article presents a preliminary analysis of collaborative dynamics within two interdisciplinary university departments in Australia focused on sustainability. Social network diagrams and metrics of coauthorship and cosupervision are analysed qualitatively. A “vicarious interdisciplinarity” was identified among key academics working narrowly in order to earn the resources that allow them to support others working interdisciplinarily. Those supported in this way appear to benefit from the esteem and nonredundant collaborative connections their mentors provide via this strategy, but they experience uncertainty about their own career opportunities in similar settings. This article thus unearths a conundrum of succession for interdisciplinary academic environments, and suggests that simple colocation of diverse academic stars is an inadequate strategy to achieve effective intradepartmental collaboration.

  19. Dispersion bias, dispersion effect, and the aerosol-cloud conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Guo Huan; Peng Yiran

    2008-01-01

    This work examines the influences of relative dispersion (the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) on cloud albedo and cloud radiative forcing, derives an analytical formulation that accounts explicitly for the contribution from droplet concentration and relative dispersion, and presents a new approach to parameterize relative dispersion in climate models. It is shown that inadequate representation of relative dispersion in climate models leads to an overestimation of cloud albedo, resulting in a negative bias of global mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing that can be comparable to the warming caused by doubling CO 2 in magnitude, and that this dispersion bias is likely near its maximum for ambient clouds. Relative dispersion is empirically expressed as a function of the quotient between cloud liquid water content and droplet concentration (i.e., water per droplet), yielding an analytical formulation for the first aerosol indirect effect. Further analysis of the new expression reveals that the dispersion effect not only offsets the cooling from the Twomey effect, but is also proportional to the Twomey effect in magnitude. These results suggest that unrealistic representation of relative dispersion in cloud parameterization in general, and evaluation of aerosol indirect effects in particular, is at least in part responsible for several outstanding puzzles of the aerosol-cloud conundrum: for example, overestimation of cloud radiative cooling by climate models compared to satellite observations; large uncertainty and discrepancy in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect; and the lack of interhemispheric difference in cloud albedo.

  20. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  1. Pillars of the Mantle

    KAUST Repository

    Pugmire, David

    2017-07-05

    In this work, we investigate global seismic tomographic models obtained by spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation and adjoint methods. Global crustal and mantle models are obtained based on an iterative conjugate-gradient type of optimization scheme. Forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation simulations, which result in synthetic seismic data to make measurements and data sensitivity kernels to compute gradient for model updates, respectively, are performed by the SPECFEM3D-GLOBE package [1] [2] at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) to study the structure of the Earth at unprecedented levels. Using advances in solver techniques that run on the GPUs on Titan at the OLCF, scientists are able to perform large-scale seismic inverse modeling and imaging. Using seismic data from global and regional networks from global CMT earthquakes, scientists are using SPECFEM3D-GLOBE to understand the structure of the mantle layer of the Earth. Visualization of the generated data sets provide an effective way to understand the computed wave perturbations which define the structure of mantle in the Earth.

  2. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  3. Formation and modification of chromitites in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Shoji; Miura, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Podiform chromitites have long supplied us with unrivaled information on various mantle processes, including the peridotite-magma reaction, deep-seated magmatic evolution, and mantle dynamics. The recent discovery of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) chromitites not only sheds light on a different aspect of podiform chromitites, but also changes our understanding of the whole picture of podiform chromitite genesis. In addition, new evidence was recently presented for hydrothermal modification/formation chromite/chromitite in the mantle, which is a classical but innovative issue. In this context, we present here an urgently needed comprehensive review of podiform chromitites in the upper mantle. Wall-rock control on podiform chromitite genesis demonstrates that the peridotite-magma reaction at the upper mantle condition is an indispensable process. We may need a large system in the mantle, far larger than the size of outcrops or mining areas, to fulfill the Cr budget requirement for podiform chromitite genesis. The peridotite-magma reaction over a large area may form a melt enriched with Na and other incompatible elements, which mixes with a less evolved magma supplied from the depth to create chromite-oversaturated magma. The incompatible-element-rich magma trapped by the chromite mainly precipitates pargasite and aspidolite (Na analogue of phlogopite), which are stable under upper mantle conditions. Moderately depleted harzburgites, which contain chromite with a moderate Cr# (0.4-0.6) and a small amount of clinopyroxene, are the best reactants for the chromitite-forming reaction, and are the best hosts for podiform chromitites. Arc-type chromitites are dominant in ophiolites, but some are of the mid-ocean ridge type; chromitites may be common beneath the ocean floor, although it has not yet been explored for chromitite. The low-pressure (upper mantle) igneous chromitites were conveyed through mantle convection or subduction down to the mantle transition zone to form

  4. China’s financial conundrum and global imbalances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald; Mckinnon; Gunther; Schnabl

    2009-01-01

    China’s financial conundrum arises from two sources: (1) its large trade (saving) surplus results in a currency mismatch because it is an immature creditor that cannot lend in its own currency. Instead foreign currency claims (largely dollars) build up within domestic financial institutions. And (2) economists – both American and Chinese – mistakenly attribute the surpluses to an undervalued renminbi. To placate the United States, the result is a gradual appreciation of the renminbi against the dollar of 6% or more per year. This predictable appreciation since 2004, and the fall in US interest rates since mid 2007, not only attracts hot money inflows but inhibits private capital outflows from financing China’s huge trade surplus. This one-way bet in the foreign exchange markets can no longer be offset by relatively low interest rates in China compared to the United States, as had been the case in 2005-06. Thus, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) now must intervene heavily to prevent the renminbi from ratcheting upwards – and so becomes the country’s sole international financial intermediary. Despite massive efforts by the PBOC to sterilize the monetary consequences of the reserve buildup, inflation in China is increasing, with excess liquidity that spills over into the world economy. China has been transformed from a deflationary force on American and European price levels into an inflationary one. Because of the currency mismatch, floating the RMB is neither feasible nor desirable – and a higher RMB would not reduce China’s trade surplus. Instead, monetary control and normal private-sector finance for the trade surplus require a return to a credibly fixed nominal yuan/dollar rate similar to that which existed between 1995 and 2004. But for any newly reset yuan/dollar rate to be credible as a monetary anchor, foreign "China bashing" to get the RMB up must end. Currency stabilization would allow the PBOC to regain monetary control and quash

  5. The Earth's mantle and geoneutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Giovanni; Fogli, Gian Luigi; Lisi, Eligio; Mantovani, Fabio; Rotunno, Anna Maria; Xhixha, Gerti

    2013-01-01

    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have observed, each at ∼4σ level, signals of electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of thorium and uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle (Th and U geoneutrinos). Various pieces of geochemical and geophysical information allow an estimation of the crustal geoneutrino flux components with relatively small uncertainties. The mantle component may then be inferred by subtracting the estimated crustal flux from the measured total flux. We find that crust-subtracted signals show hints of a residual mantle component, emerging at ∼2.4σ level by combining the KamLAND and Borexino data. The inferred mantle flux, slightly favoring scenarios with relatively high Th and U abundances, within ∼1σ uncertainties is comparable to the predictions from recent mantle models

  6. Dynamical geochemistry of the mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Davies

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reconciliation of mantle chemistry with the structure of the mantle inferred from geophysics and dynamical modelling has been a long-standing problem. This paper reviews three main aspects. First, extensions and refinements of dynamical modelling and theory of mantle processing over the past decade. Second, a recent reconsideration of the implications of mantle heterogeneity for melting, melt migration, mantle differentiation and mantle segregation. Third, a recent proposed shift in the primitive chemical baseline of the mantle inferred from observations of non-chondritic 142Nd in the Earth. It seems most issues can now be resolved, except the level of heating required to maintain the mantle's thermal evolution.

    A reconciliation of refractory trace elements and their isotopes with the dynamical mantle, proposed and given preliminary quantification by Hofmann, White and Christensen, has been strengthened by work over the past decade. The apparent age of lead isotopes and the broad refractory-element differences among and between ocean island basalts (OIBs and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs can now be quantitatively accounted for with some assurance.

    The association of the least radiogenic helium with relatively depleted sources and their location in the mantle have been enigmatic. The least radiogenic helium samples have recently been recognised as matching the proposed non-chondritic primitive mantle. It has also been proposed recently that noble gases reside in a so-called hybrid pyroxenite assemblage that is the result of melt from fusible pods reacting with surrounding refractory peridotite and refreezing. Hybrid pyroxenite that is off-axis may not remelt and erupt at MORs, so its volatile constituents would recirculate within the mantle. Hybrid pyroxenite is likely to be denser than average mantle, and thus some would tend to settle in the D" zone at the base of the mantle, along with some old subducted

  7. Linking lowermost mantle structure, core-mantle boundary heat flux and mantle plume formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Zhong, Shijie; Olson, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of Earth's lowermost mantle exert significant control on the formation of mantle plumes and the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux. However, it is not clear if and how the variation of CMB heat flux and mantle plume activity are related. Here, we perform geodynamic model experiments that show how temporal variations in CMB heat flux and pulses of mantle plumes are related to morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles of large-scale compositional heterogeneities in Earth's lowermost mantle, represented by the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). We find good correlation between the morphologic changes of the thermochemical piles and the time variation of CMB heat flux. The morphology of the thermochemical piles is significantly altered during the initiation and ascent of strong mantle plumes, and the changes in pile morphology cause variations in the local and the total CMB heat flux. Our modeling results indicate that plume-induced episodic variations of CMB heat flux link geomagnetic superchrons to pulses of surface volcanism, although the relative timing of these two phenomena remains problematic. We also find that the density distribution in thermochemical piles is heterogeneous, and that the piles are denser on average than the surrounding mantle when both thermal and chemical effects are included.

  8. Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  9. Mantle dynamics following supercontinent formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Philip J.

    This thesis presents mantle convection numerical simulations of supercontinent formation. Approximately 300 million years ago, through the large-scale subduction of oceanic sea floor, continental material amalgamated to form the supercontinent Pangea. For 100 million years after its formation, Pangea remained relatively stationary, and subduction of oceanic material featured on its margins. The present-day location of the continents is due to the rifting apart of Pangea, with supercontinent dispersal being characterized by increased volcanic activity linked to the generation of deep mantle plumes. The work presented here investigates the thermal evolution of mantle dynamics (e.g., mantle temperatures and sub-continental plumes) following the formation of a supercontinent. Specifically, continental insulation and continental margin subduction are analyzed. Continental material, as compared to oceanic material, inhibits heat flow from the mantle. Previous numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a stationary supercontinent would elevate sub-continental mantle temperatures due to the effect of continental insulation, leading to the break-up of the continent. By modelling a vigorously convecting mantle that features thermally and mechanically distinct continental and oceanic plates, this study shows the effect of continental insulation on the mantle to be minimal. However, the formation of a supercontinent results in sub-continental plume formation due to the re-positioning of subduction zones to the margins of the continent. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that continental insulation is not a significant factor in producing sub-supercontinent plumes but that subduction patterns control the location and timing of upwelling formation. A theme throughout the thesis is an inquiry into why geodynamic studies would produce different results. Mantle viscosity, Rayleigh number, continental size, continental insulation, and oceanic plate boundary evolution are

  10. An inverted continental Moho and serpentinization of the forearc mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M G; Hyndman, R D; Rondenay, S; Peacock, S M

    2002-05-30

    Volatiles that are transported by subducting lithospheric plates to depths greater than 100 km are thought to induce partial melting in the overlying mantle wedge, resulting in arc magmatism and the addition of significant quantities of material to the overlying lithosphere. Asthenospheric flow and upwelling within the wedge produce increased lithospheric temperatures in this back-arc region, but the forearc mantle (in the corner of the wedge) is thought to be significantly cooler. Here we explore the structure of the mantle wedge in the southern Cascadia subduction zone using scattered teleseismic waves recorded on a dense portable array of broadband seismometers. We find very low shear-wave velocities in the cold forearc mantle indicated by the exceptional occurrence of an 'inverted' continental Moho, which reverts to normal polarity seaward of the Cascade arc. This observation provides compelling evidence for a highly hydrated and serpentinized forearc region, consistent with thermal and petrological models of the forearc mantle wedge. This serpentinized material is thought to have low strength and may therefore control the down-dip rupture limit of great thrust earthquakes, as well as the nature of large-scale flow in the mantle wedge.

  11. Light Stable Isotopic Compositions of Enriched Mantle Sources: Resolving the Dehydration Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kingsley, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    An outstanding puzzle in mantle geochemistry has been the origin and evolution of Earth's volatile components. The "dehydration paradox" refers to the following conundrum. Mantle compositions for some enriched mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and ocean island (OIB) basalts basalts require involvement of a mostly dehydrated slab component to explain the trace element ratios and radiogenic isotopic compositions, but a fully hydrated slab component to explain the stable isotopic compositions. Volatile and stable isotopic data on enriched MORB show a diversity of enriched components. Pacific PREMA-type basalts (H2O/Ce = 215 ± 30, δDSMOW = -45 ± 5 ‰) are similar to those in the north Atlantic (H2O/Ce = 220 ± 30; δDSMOW = -30 to -40 ‰). Basalts with EM-type signatures have regionally variable volatile compositions. North Atlantic EM-type basalts are wetter (H2O/Ce = 330 ± 30) and have isotopically heavier hydrogen (δDSMOW = -57 ± 5 ‰) than north Atlantic MORB. South Atlantic EM-type basalts are damp (H2O/Ce = 120 ± 10) with intermediate δDSMOW (-68 ± 2 ‰), similar to dDSMOW for Pacific MORB. North EPR EM-type basalts are dry (H2O/Ce = 110 ± 20) and isotopically light (δDSMOW = -94 ± 3 ‰). Boron and lithium isotopic ratios parallel the trends observed for dDSMOW. A multi-stage metasomatic and melting model accounts for the origin of the enriched components by extending the subduction factory concept down through the mantle transition zone, with slab temperature a key variable. The dehydration paradox is resolved by decoupling of volatiles from lithophile elements, reflecting primary dehydration of the slab followed by secondary rehydration and re-equilibration by fluids derived from subcrustal hydrous phases (e.g., antigorite) in cooler, deeper parts of the slab. The "expanded subduction factory" model includes melting at several key depths, including 1) 180 to 280 km, where EM-type mantle compositions are generated above slabs with average to hot thermal

  12. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism of central European lithospheric mantle: evidence from elemental and Li isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Magna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1925-1956 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central European lithospheric mantle * geochemistry * geothermometry * Li isotopes * spinel peridotite xenoliths Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  13. Circulation of carbon dioxide in the mantle: multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Yuen, D. A.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Much speculation has been put forward on the quantity and nature of carbon reservoirs in the deep Earth, because of its involvement in the evolution of life at the surface and inside planetary interiors. Carbon penetrates into the Earth's mantle mostly during subduction of oceanic crust, which contains carbonate deposits [1], however the form that it assumes at lower mantle depths is scarcely understood [2], hampering our ability to estimate the amount of carbon in the entire mantle by orders of magnitude. We present simulations of spontaneous degassing of supercritical CO2 using in-house developed novel implementations of the Fast-Multipole Boundary Element Method suitable for modeling two-phase flow (here mantle mineral and free CO2 fluid) through disordered materials such as porous rocks. Because the mutual interaction of droplets immersed either in a fluid or a solid matrix and their weakening effect to the host rock alters the strength of the mantle rocks, at the large scale the fluid phases in the mantle may control the creeping of mantle rocks [3]. In particular our study focuses on the percolation of supercritical CO2, estimated through the solution of the Laplace equation in a porous system, stochastically generated through a series of random Karhunen-Loeve decomposition. The model outcome is employed to extract the transmissivity of supercritical fluids in the mantle from the lowest scale up to the mantle scale and in combination with the creeping flow of the convecting mantle. The emerging scenarios on the global carbon cycle are finally discussed. [1] Boulard, E., et al., New host for carbon in the deep Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011. 108(13): p. 5184-5187. [2] Walter, M.J., et al., Deep Mantle Cycling of Oceanic Crust: Evidence from Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions. Science, 2011. 334(6052): p. 54-57. [3] Morra, G., et al., Ascent of Bubbles in Magma Conduits Using Boundary Elements and Particles. Procedia Computer

  14. Flow in the Deep Mantle from Seisimc Anisotropy: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy, or the directional dependence of seismic wavespeeds, provide one some of the most direct constraints on the pattern of flow in the Earth's mantle. In particular, as our understanding of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine aggregates under a range of deformation conditions has improved, our ability to exploit observations of upper mantle anisotropy has led to fundamental discoveries about the patterns of flow in the upper mantle and the drivers of that flow. It has been a challenge, however, to develop a similar framework for understanding flow in the deep mantle (transition zone, uppermost lower mantle, and lowermost mantle), even though there is convincing observational evidence for seismic anisotropy at these depths. Recent progress on the observational front has allowed for an increasingly detailed view of mid-mantle anisotropy (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle), particularly in subduction systems, which may eventually lead to a better understanding of mid-mantle deformation and the dynamics of slab interaction with the surrounding mid-mantle. New approaches to the observation and modeling of lowermost mantle anisotropy, in combination with constraints from mineral physics, are progressing towards interpretive frameworks that allow for the discrimination of different mantle flow geometries in different regions of D". In particular, observational strategies that involve the use of multiple types of body wave phases sampled over a range of propagation azimuths enable detailed forward modeling approaches that can discriminate between different mechanisms for D" anisotropy (e.g., CPO of post-perovskite, bridgmanite, or ferropericlase, or shape preferred orientation of partial melt) and identify plausible anisotropic orientations. We have recently begun to move towards a full waveform modeling approach in this work, which allows for a more accurate simulation for seismic wave propagation. Ongoing

  15. Complex Anisotropic Structure of the Mantle Wedge Beneath Kamchatka Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V.; Park, J.; Gordeev, E.; Droznin, D.

    2002-12-01

    A wedge of mantle material above the subducting lithospheric plate at a convergent margin is among the most dynamic environments of the Earth's interior. Deformation and transport of solid and volatile phases within this region control the fundamental process of elemental exchange between the surficial layers and the interior of the planet. A helpful property in the study of material deformation and transport within the upper mantle is seismic anisotropy, which may reflect both microscopic effects of preferentialy aligned crystals of olivine and orthopyroxene and macroscopic effects of systematic cracks, melt lenses, layering etc. Through the mapping of anisotropic properties within the mantle wedge we can establish patterns of deformation. Volatile content affects olivine alignment, so regions of anomalous volatile content may be evident. Indicators of seismic anisotropy commonly employed in upper mantle studies include shear wave birefringence and mode-conversion between compressional and shear body waves. When combined together, these techniques offer complementary constraints on the location and intensity of anisotropic properties. The eastern coast of southern Kamchatka overlies a vigorous convergent margin where the Pacific plate descends at a rate of almost 80 mm/yr towards the northwest. We extracted seismic anisotropy indicators from two data sets sensitive to the anisotropic properties of the uppermost mantle. Firstly, we evaluated teleseismic receiver functions for a number of sites, and found ample evidence for anisotropicaly-influenced P-to-S mode conversion. Secondly, we measured splitting in S waves of earthquakes with sources within the downgoing slab. The first set of observations provides constraints on the depth ranges where strong changes in anisotropic properties take place. The local splitting data provides constraints on the cumulative strength of anisotropic properties along specific pathways through the mantle wedge and possibly parts of

  16. Sublithospheric flows in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Sokolov, S. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    The estimated rates of upper mantle sublithospheric flows in the Hawaii-Emperor Range and Ethiopia-Arabia-Caucasus systems are reported. In the Hawaii-Emperor Range system, calculation is based on motion of the asthenospheric flow and the plate moved by it over the branch of the Central Pacific plume. The travel rate has been determined based on the position of variably aged volcanoes (up to 76 Ma) with respect to the active Kilauea Volcano. As for the Ethiopia-Arabia-Caucasus system, the age of volcanic eruptions (55-2.8 Ma) has been used to estimate the asthenospheric flow from the Ethiopian-Afar superplume in the northern bearing lines. Both systems are characterized by variations in a rate of the upper mantle flows in different epochs from 4 to 12 cm/yr, about 8 cm/yr on average. Analysis of the global seismic tomographic data has made it possible to reveal rock volumes with higher seismic wave velocities under ancient cratons; rocks reach a depth of more than 2000 km and are interpreted as detached fragments of the thickened continental lithosphere. Such volumes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean were submerged at an average velocity of 0.9-1.0 cm/yr along with its opening. The estimated rates of the mantle flows clarify the deformation properties of the mantle and regulate the numerical models of mantle convection.

  17. Thermally-Driven Mantle Plumes Reconcile Hot-spot Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Davies, J.

    2008-12-01

    Hot-spots are anomalous regions of magmatism that cannot be directly associated with plate tectonic processes (e.g. Morgan, 1972). They are widely regarded as the surface expression of upwelling mantle plumes. Hot-spots exhibit variable life-spans, magmatic productivity and fixity (e.g. Ito and van Keken, 2007). This suggests that a wide-range of upwelling structures coexist within Earth's mantle, a view supported by geochemical and seismic evidence, but, thus far, not reproduced by numerical models. Here, results from a new, global, 3-D spherical, mantle convection model are presented, which better reconcile hot-spot observations, the key modification from previous models being increased convective vigor. Model upwellings show broad-ranging dynamics; some drift slowly, while others are more mobile, displaying variable life-spans, intensities and migration velocities. Such behavior is consistent with hot-spot observations, indicating that the mantle must be simulated at the correct vigor and in the appropriate geometry to reproduce Earth-like dynamics. Thermally-driven mantle plumes can explain the principal features of hot-spot volcanism on Earth.

  18. Upper mantle fluids evolution, diamond formation, and mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    During mantle metasomatism, fluid-rock interactions in the mantle modify wall-rock compositions. Previous studies usually either investigated mineral compositions in xenoliths and xenocrysts brought up by magmas, or examined fluid compositions preserved in fluid inclusions in diamonds. However, a key study of Panda diamonds analysed both mineral and fluid inclusions in the diamonds [1] which we used to develop a quantitative characterization of mantle metasomatic processes. In the present study, we used an extended Deep Earth Water model [2] to simulate fluid-rock interactions at upper mantle conditions, and examine the fluids and mineral assemblages together simultaneously. Three types of end-member fluids in the Panda diamond fluid inclusions include saline, rich in Na+K+Cl; silicic, rich in Si+Al; and carbonatitic, rich in Ca+Mg+Fe [1, 3]. We used the carbonatitic end-member to represent fluid from a subducting slab reacting with an excess of peridotite + some saline fluid in the host environment. During simultaneous fluid mixing and reaction with the host rock, the logfO2 increased by about 1.6 units, and the pH increased by 0.7 units. The final minerals were olivine, garnet and diamond. The Mg# of olivine decreased from 0.92 to 0.85. Garnet precipitated at an early stage, and its Mg# also decreased with reaction progress, in agreement with the solid inclusions in the Panda diamonds. Phlogopite precipitated as an intermediate mineral and then disappeared. The aqueous Ca, Mg, Fe, Si and Al concentrations all increased, while Na, K, and Cl concentrations decreased during the reaction, consistent with trends in the fluid inclusion compositions. Our study demonstrates that fluids coming from subducting slabs could trigger mantle metasomatism, influence the compositions of sub-lithospherc cratonic mantle, precipitate diamonds, and change the oxygen fugacity and pH of the upper mantle fluids. [1] Tomlinson et al. EPSL (2006); [2] Sverjensky, DA et al., GCA (2014

  19. Titanium-bearing phases in the Earth's mantle (evidence from experiments in the MgO-SiO2-TiO2 ±Al2O3 system at 10-24 GPa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkina, Ekaterina; Bobrov, Andrey; Bindi, Luca; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Despite significant interest of experimentalists to the study of geophysically important phase equilibria in the Earth's mantle and a huge experimental database on a number of the model and multicomponent systems, incorporation of minor elements in mantle phases was mostly studied on a qualitative level. The influence of such elements on structural peculiarities of high-pressure phases is poorly investigated, although incorporation of even small portions of them may have a certain impact on the PT-parameters of phase transformations. Titanium is one of such elements with the low bulk concentrations in the Earth's mantle (0.2 wt % TiO2) [1]; however, Ti-rich lithologies may occur in the mantle as a result of oceanic crust subduction. Thus, the titanium content is 0.6 wt% in Global Oceanic Subducted Sediments (GLOSS) [2], and 1.5 wt% TiO2, in MORB [3]. In this regard, accumulation of titanium in the Earth's mantle is related to crust-mantle interaction during the subduction of crustal material at different depths of the mantle. Experimental methods At 10-24 GPa and 1600°C, we studied the full range of the starting materials in the MgSiO3 (En) - MgTiO3 (Gkl) system in increments of 10-20 mol% Gkl and 1-3 GPa, which allowed us to plot the phase PX diagram for the system MgSiO3-MgTiO3 and synthesize titanium-bearing phases with a wide compositional range. The experiments were performed using a 2000-t Kawai-type multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus at the Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University (Japan). The quenched samples were examined by single-crystal X-ray diffractometer, and the composition of phases was analyzed using SEM-EDS. Results The main phases obtained in experiments were rutile, wadsleyite, MgSiO3-enstatite, MgTiO3-ilmenite, MgTiSi2O7 with the weberite structure type (Web), Mg(Si,Ti)O3 and MgSiO3 with perovskite-type structure. At a pressure of 13 GPa for Ti-poor bulk compositions, an association of En+Wad+Rt is replaced by the

  20. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  1. Massive hemoptysis in a patient with pulmonary embolism, a real therapeutic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiolanda Herodotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive Hemoptysis and pulmonary embolism are two very severe and potentially fatal pulmonary emergencies requiring completely different treatments. We present the case of a 45-year old male transmitted to our Hospital for massive hemoptysis who at the same time was found to suffer from pulmonary embolism. Hemoptysis was treated with bronchial artery embolization which resulted in cessation of haemorrhage and allowed the administration of anticoagulant therapy a few days later. This case report gives an answer on how to manage a real therapeutic conundrum which is the coexistence of a massive hemoptysis and a concomitant pulmonary embolism.

  2. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  3. Pb isotope constaints on the extent of crustal recycling into a steady state mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galer, S.J.G.; Goldstein, S.L.; Onions, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic and geochemical evidence was discussed against recycling of continental crust into the mantle. Element ratios such as Sm/Nd, Th/Sc, and U/Pb in sedimentary masses have remained relatively constant throughout Earth history, and this can only be reconciled with steady state recycling models if new crustal materials added from the mantle have had similar ratios. Such recycling models would also require shorter processing times for U, Th, and Pb through the mantle than are geodynamically reasonable. Models favoring subduction of pelagic sediments as the only recycling mechanism fail to account for the Pb isotopic signature of the mantle. Recycling of bulk crust with Pb isotopic compositions similar to those expected for primitive mantle would be permissable with available data, but there appear to be no plausible tectonic mechanisms to carry this out

  4. Beta decay anomalies and the 17-keV conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hime, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in pursuance of the 17-keV neutrino are reviewed. Several different experiments found anomalies in β decay spectra which were consistently interpreted as evidence for a heavy neutrino. On the other hand, recent null results definitively rule out the existence of a 17-keV neutrino, as well as escaping criticisms applicable to earlier experiments. While missing links remain, it seems that any strong evidence for a 17-keV neutrino has vanished. Specifically, the anomalies observed in 35 S and 63 Ni spectra at Oxford can be reinterpreted in terms of electron scattering effects. In addition, the discrepancy amongst internal bremsstrahlung measurements has an instrumental origin, and recent results disfavour a 17-keV neutrino. Anomalies persist in the low energy region of the tritium spectrum which deserve further investigation

  5. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    on calculations with a CFD-model, which has earlier been validated by means of experiments. The CFD-model is used to determine the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle in all levels of the mantle as well as the heat transfer between the wall...... transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation......Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...

  6. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  7. The 2016 Case for Mantle Plumes and a Plume-Fed Asthenosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    The process of science always returns to weighing evidence and arguments for and against a given hypothesis. As hypotheses can only be falsified, never universally proved, doubt and skepticism remain essential elements of the scientific method. In the past decade, even the hypothesis that mantle plumes exist as upwelling currents in the convecting mantle has been subject to intense scrutiny; from geochemists and geochronologists concerned that idealized plume models could not fit many details of their observations, and from seismologists concerned that mantle plumes can sometimes not be 'seen' in their increasingly high-resolution tomographic images of the mantle. In the place of mantle plumes, various locally specific and largely non-predictive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origins of non-plate boundary volcanism at Hawaii, Samoa, etc. In my opinion, this debate has now passed from what was initially an extremely useful restorative from simply 'believing' in the idealized conventional mantle plume/hotspot scenario to becoming an active impediment to our community's ability to better understand the dynamics of the solid Earth. Having no working hypothesis at all is usually worse for making progress than having an imperfect and incomplete but partially correct one. There continues to be strong arguments and strong emerging evidence for deep mantle plumes. Furthermore, deep thermal plumes should exist in a mantle that is heated at its base, and the existence of Earth's (convective) geodynamo clearly indicates that heat flows from the core to heat the mantle's base. Here I review recent seismic evidence by French, Romanowicz, and coworkers that I feel lends strong new observational support for the existence of deep mantle plumes. I also review recent evidence consistent with the idea that secular core cooling replenishes half the mantle's heat loss through its top surface, e.g. that the present-day mantle is strongly bottom heated. Causes for

  8. The e-waste conundrum: Balancing evidence from the North and on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-waste is currently the fastest-growing waste stream, posing major global management challenges. One of the unintended outcomes of this growth in the developing world is the increasing presence of informal e-waste recyclers, providing livelihood opportunities, albeit under elevated health-threatening risks and limited ...

  9. Re–Os isotope geochronology of the Shangbao pyrite–flourite deposit in southeastern Hunan, South China: Evidence for multiple mineralization events and the role of crust–mantle interaction in polymetallic deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In South China, both crustal reworking and crust–mantle interaction were important geological processes during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. However, the relationships between these two processes and metal mineralization are still unknown. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data for pyrite grains from a pyrite deposit associated with a granite intrusion in the Shangbao area, southeastern Hunan Province (South China. Two pyrite samples, both containing many euhedral pyrite grains, were collected from the same locality, but the samples yield distinct ages. Six euhedral pyrite grains from one sample yield an isochronal age of 279 ± 12 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.39 ± 0.71, and Re and Os concentrations of 0.12–63.5 ppb and 2.14–185 ppt, respectively. This Early Permian age is in good agreement with the age of the strata that host the pyrite deposit. Five euhedral pyrite grains from the other sample yield an isochronal age of 75.2 ± 4.3 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.141 ± 0.030 and Re and Os concentrations of 0.15–0.43 ppb and 1.0–39.9 ppt, respectively. If one pyrite grain with the highest 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios is excluded, other four pyrite grains give an isochronal age of 85 ± 13 Ma. The Late Cretaceous age (75–85 Ma is consistent with the zircon U–Pb age of the Shangbao granites (80.1 ± 0.3 Ma to within uncertainties. Considering also the relatively lower radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratio of this sample, we suggest that the later stage pyrite ore was probably formed through crystallization from the magmatic hydrothermal fluids. Combined with other geological and associated magmatic data, we propose a skarn-related fluid–ore interaction process to explain the second stage of metallogenesis in the Shangbao pyrite deposit. The Early Permian pyrite ore was deposited in a brine basin with evaporites during the Early Permian. Later magmatic hydrothermal

  10. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eh Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  11. Molybdenum isotope fractionation in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Hsuan; Halliday, Alex N.; Siebert, Chris; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Burton, Kevin W.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Harvey, Jason

    2017-02-01

    We report double-spike molybdenum (Mo) isotope data for forty-two mafic and fifteen ultramafic rocks from diverse locations and compare these with results for five chondrites. The δ98/95Mo values (normalized to NIST SRM 3134) range from -0.59 ± 0.04 to +0.10 ± 0.08‰. The compositions of one carbonaceous (CI) and four ordinary chondrites are relatively uniform (-0.14 ± 0.01‰, 95% ci (confidence interval)) in excellent agreement with previous data. These values are just resolvable from the mean of 10 mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) (0.00 ± 0.02‰, 95% ci). The compositions of 13 mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole, Tariat and Vitim are more diverse (-0.39 to -0.07‰) with a mean of -0.22 ± 0.06‰ (95% ci). On this basis, the isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE or Primitive Mantle) is within error identical to chondrites. The mean Mo concentration of the ultramafic xenoliths (0.19 ± 0.07 ppm, 95% ci) is similar in magnitude to that of MORB (0.48 ± 0.13 ppm, 95% ci), providing evidence, either for a more compatible behaviour than previously thought or for selective Mo enrichment of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Intraplate and ocean island basalts (OIBs) display significant isotopic variability within a single locality from MORB-like to strongly negative (-0.59 ± 0.04‰). The most extreme values measured are for nephelinites from the Cameroon Line and Trinidade, which also have anomalously high Ce/Pb and low Mo/Ce relative to normal oceanic basalts. δ98/95Mo correlates negatively with Ce/Pb and U/Pb, and positively with Mo/Ce, explicable if a phase such as an oxide or a sulphide liquid selectively retains isotopically heavy Mo in the mantle and fractionates its isotopic composition in low degree partial melts. If residual phases retain Mo during partial melting, it is possible that the [Mo] for the BSE may be misrepresented by values estimated from basalts. This would be consistent with the high Mo

  12. Cracking the Conundrum of F-supergiant Coronae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2018-02-01

    Chandra X-ray and HST far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations of three early-F supergiants have shed new light on a previous puzzle involving a prominent member of the class: α Persei (HD 20902: F5 Ib). The warm supergiant is a moderately strong, hard coronal (T∼ {10}7 K) X-ray source, but has 10 times weaker “subcoronal” Si IV 1393 Å (T∼ 8× {10}4 K) emissions than early-G supergiants of similar high-energy properties. The α Per X-ray excess was speculatively ascribed to a close-in hyperactive G-dwarf companion, which could have escaped previous notice, lost in the glare of the bright star. However, a subsequent dedicated multi-wavelength imaging campaign failed to find any evidence for a resolved secondary. The origin of the α Per high-energy dichotomy then devolved to (1) an unresolved companion or (2) intrinsic coronal behavior. Exploring the second possibility, the present program has found that early-F supergiants do appear to belong to a distinct coronal class, characterized by elevated X-ray/FUV ratios, although sharing some similarities with Cepheid variables in their transitory X-ray “high states.” Remarkably, the early-F supergiants now are seen to align with the low-activity end of the X-ray/FUV sequence defined by late-type dwarfs, suggesting that the disjoint behavior relative to the G supergiants might be attributed to thinner outer atmospheres on the F types, as in dwarfs, but in this case perhaps caused by a weakened “ionization valve” effect due to overly warm photospheres.

  13. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  14. The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of

  15. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  16. Lower-mantle plume beneath the Yellowstone hotspot revealed by core waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter L.; Grand, Stephen P.

    2018-04-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot, located in North America, is an intraplate source of magmatism the cause of which is hotly debated. Some argue that a deep mantle plume sourced at the base of the mantle supplies the heat beneath Yellowstone, whereas others claim shallower subduction or lithospheric-related processes can explain the anomalous magmatism. Here we present a shear wave tomography model for the deep mantle beneath the western United States that was made using the travel times of core waves recorded by the dense USArray seismic network. The model reveals a single narrow, cylindrically shaped slow anomaly, approximately 350 km in diameter that we interpret as a whole-mantle plume. The anomaly is tilted to the northeast and extends from the core-mantle boundary to the surficial position of the Yellowstone hotspot. The structure gradually decreases in strength from the deepest mantle towards the surface and if it is purely a thermal anomaly this implies an initial excess temperature of 650 to 850 °C. Our results strongly support a deep origin for the Yellowstone hotspot, and also provide evidence for the existence of thin thermal mantle plumes that are currently beyond the resolution of global tomography models.

  17. Numerical simulations of the mantle lithosphere delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, C.; Doin, M.-P.

    2004-03-01

    Sudden uplift, extension, and increased igneous activity are often explained by rapid mechanical thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Two main thinning mechanisms have been proposed, convective removal of a thickened lithospheric root and delamination of the mantle lithosphere along the Moho. In the latter case, the whole mantle lithosphere peels away from the crust by the propagation of a localized shear zone and sinks into the mantle. To study this mechanism, we perform two-dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations of convection using a viscoplastic rheology with an effective viscosity depending strongly on temperature, depth, composition (crust/mantle), and stress. The simulations develop in four steps. (1) We first obtain "classical" sublithospheric convection for a long time period (˜300 Myr), yielding a slightly heterogeneous lithospheric temperature structure. (2) At some time, in some simulations, a strong thinning of the mantle occurs progressively in a small area (˜100 km wide). This process puts the asthenosphere in direct contact with the lower crust. (3) Large pieces of mantle lithosphere then quickly sink into the mantle by the horizontal propagation of a detachment level away from the "asthenospheric conduit" or by progressive erosion on the flanks of the delaminated area. (4) Delamination pauses or stops when the lithospheric mantle part detaches or when small-scale convection on the flanks of the delaminated area is counterbalanced by heat diffusion. We determine the parameters (crustal thicknesses, activation energies, and friction coefficients) leading to delamination initiation (step 2). We find that delamination initiates where the Moho temperature is the highest, as soon as the crust and mantle viscosities are sufficiently low. Delamination should occur on Earth when the Moho temperature exceeds ˜800°C. This condition can be reached by thermal relaxation in a thickened crust in orogenic setting or by corner flow lithospheric erosion in the

  18. Osmium Isotopic Evolution of the Mantle Sources of Precambrian Ultramafic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Walker, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Os isotopic composition of the modern mantle, as recorded collectively by ocean island basalts, mid- oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) and abyssal peridotites, is evidently highly heterogeneous (γ Os(I) ranging from +25). One important question, therefore, is how and when the Earth's mantle developed such large-scale Os isotopic heterogeneities. Previous Os isotopic studies of ancient ultramafic systems, including komatiites and picrites, have shown that the Os isotopic heterogeneity of the terrestrial mantle can be traced as far back as the late-Archean (~ 2.7-2.8 Ga). This observation is based on the initial Os isotopic ratios obtained for the mantle sources of some of the ancient ultramafic rocks determined through analyses of numerous Os-rich whole-rock and/or mineral samples. In some cases, the closed-system behavior of these ancient ultramafic rocks was demonstrated via the generation of isochrons of precise ages, consistent with those obtained from other radiogenic isotopic systems. Thus, a compilation of the published initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios reported for the mantle sources of komatiitic and picritic rocks is now possible that covers a large range of geologic time spanning from the Mesozoic (ca. 89 Ma Gorgona komatiites) to the Mid-Archean (e.g., ca. 3.3 Ga Commondale komatiites), which provides a comprehensive picture of the Os isotopic evolution of their mantle sources through geologic time. Several Precambrian komatiite/picrite systems are characterized by suprachondritic initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios (e.g., Belingwe, Kostomuksha, Pechenga). Such long-term enrichments in ^{187}Os of the mantle sources for these rocks may be explained via recycling of old mafic oceanic crust or incorporation of putative suprachondritic outer core materials entrained into their mantle sources. The relative importance of the two processes for some modern mantle-derived systems (e.g., Hawaiian picrites) is an issue of substantial debate. Importantly, however, the

  19. Interaction of the lithospheric mantle and crustal melts for the generation of the Horoz pluton (Niğde, Turkey: whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Kocak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Horoz pluton includes granitic and granodioritic rocks, with widespread mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs. Petrochemically, the rocks of the pluton show calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous composition. The rocks also exhibit an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements, e.g. Rb, K, and depletions of high field strength elements such as Y, Lu, and Mg#, Ni, with a slightly concave-upward rare earth element pattern. Both granitic and granodioritic rocks exhibit geochemical characteristics of tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite assemblages, possibly developed by the partial melting of a thickened lower crust. The granitoids have high concentrations of Na2O (2.6–4.5 wt%, Sr (347–599 ppm, intermediate-high (La/YbN (8.2–18.1, mostly >11 , Al2O3 (13.2–16.9 wt%, average 15.3 wt%, low MgO (0.2–1.4 wt%, average 0.84 wt% and Co (0.7–10.3 ppm. The MMEs include higher Na2O (4.5–5.5 wt%, Sr (389–1149 ppm, Al2O3 (16.9–19.2 wt%, average 17.8 wt%, MgO (1.4–4.4 wt%, average 2.75 wt% and Co (6.2–18.7 ppm contents in comparison with that of their hosts. There is a lack of negative Eu anomalies, except a few samples. Both host rocks and MMEs have a low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (respectively 0.7046–0.7051 and 0.7047–0.7058, low eNd value (–1.8 to –0.2 and –0.6 to 0.7 at 50 Ma and highly radiogenic 208Pb/204Pb ratios (39.43–39.47 and 39.39–39.54. Whole-rock chemistry and isotopic data suggest that parent magmas of both MMEs and their hosts have derived from melts of the mixing between the lithospheric mantle and crustal end members, than fractional crystallization processes in crustal levels.

  20. How to manage mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyling, M; Ferrero, S; Hermine, O

    2014-11-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is no longer a hopeless disease. Considered to carry a uniformly dismal prognosis so far, during the last years it has been rediscovered as a heterogeneous clinical and biological entity. Such a complexity has been highlighted by molecular genetics, unraveling different pathways of cell survival and progression. Concurrently, the application of new therapeutic paradigms including rituximab, high-dose cytarabine and stem cell transplantation dramatically improved treatment activity and the introduction of innovative targeted molecules has already led to new patient perspectives. In this completely new and continually evolving landscape, the clinical hemato-oncologist might feel disoriented on what are the best current strategies to handle such a critical disease and the gold standard therapeutic options for MCL. Here we address some burning questions on how to manage MCL patients, spacing from prognostic issues to the dilemma of personalized treatment in different scenarios of the disease: how to diagnose an MCL? Which are the fundamental staging procedures? What are the most reliable prognosticators? Is there a place for watch and wait? Which are the best treatment options for younger, elderly and frail patients? Which patients are addressable to high-dose therapy? What is the role of allogeneic transplantation? What is the most appropriate approach for relapsing disease in different categories of patients? What novelties are going to be introduced in the near future? The practical algorithms here discussed represent an evidence-based approach derived from results of multicenter and randomized trials.

  1. Response of mantle transition zone thickness to plume buoyancy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Sharma, S.; Ramesh, D. S.; Li, X.; Yuan, X.; Sreenivas, B.; Kind, R.

    2010-01-01

    The debate concerning thermal plumes in the Earth's mantle, their geophysical detection and depth characterization remains contentious. Available geophysical, petrological and geochemical evidence is at variance regarding the very existence of mantle plumes. Utilizing P-to-S converted seismic waves (P receiver functions) from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we investigate disposition of these boundaries beneath a number of prominent hotspot regions. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), measured as P660s-P410s differential times (tMTZ), is determined. Our analyses suggest that the MTZ thickness beneath some hotspots correlates with the plume strength. The relationship between tMTZ, in response to the thermal perturbation, and the strength of plumes, as buoyancy flux B, follows a power law. This B-tMTZ behavior provides unprecedented insights into the relation of buoyancy flux and excess temperature at 410-660 km depth below hotspots. We find that the strongest hotspots, which are located in the Pacific, are indeed plumes originating at the MTZ or deeper. According to the detected power law, even the strongest plumes may not shrink the transition zone by significantly more than ~40 km (corresponding to a maximum of 300-400° excess temperature).

  2. The mantle-plume model, its feasibility and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsteren, van P.W.C.

    1981-01-01

    High beat-flow foci on the Earth have been named ‘hot-spots’ and are commonly correlated with ‘mantle-plumes’ in the deep. A mantle plume may be described as a portion of mantle material with a higher heat content than its surroundings. The intrusion of a mantle-plume is inferred to be similar to

  3. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  4. Characteristics of Vertical Mantle Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, M.

    1999-01-01

    - The flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the mantle were measured using a particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A CFD simulation model of vertical mantle heat...... exchangers was also developed for detailed evaluation of the heat flux distribution over the mantle surface. Both the experimental and simulation results indicate that distribution of the flow around the mantle gap is governed by buoyancy driven recirculation in the mantle. The operation of the mantle...

  5. MODELLING MANTLE TANKS FOR SDHW SYSTEMS USING PIV AND CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Morrison, G.L.; Behnia, Masud

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical mantle heat exchanger tanks for SDHW systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD modelling. A glass model of a mantle heat exchanger tank was constructed so that the flow distribution in the mantle could...... be studied using the PIV test facility. Two transient three-dimensional CFD-models of the glass model mantle tank were developed using the CFD-programmes CFX and FLUENT.The experimental results illustrate that the mantle flow structure in the mantle is complicated and the distribution of flow in the mantle...

  6. Simplified dose calculation method for mantle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, L.A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified dose calculation method for mantle technique is described. In the routine treatment of lymphom as using this technique, the daily doses at the midpoints at five anatomical regions are different because the thicknesses are not equal. (Author) [pt

  7. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  8. Thermoconvective waves in the earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, B. I.

    1980-06-01

    The thermoconvective instability of the Earth's mantle is analysed. The mantle is modelled as an infinite horizontal layer with a free upper surface, heated from below. The creep in the mantle is supposed to be transient when strains are small. This transient creep is described by Lomnitz's law modified by Jeffreys (1958a). It is shown that disturbances, in the form of thermoconvective waves with a period of 10 8 - 10 9y and wavelength of the order 10 3 km, can propagate through the mantle without attenuation. These waves induce oscillations of the Earth's surface. The pattern of flows differs greatly from that suggested by plate tectonics. An attempt is made to give a new explanation for the linear magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges.

  9. Temperature Profile of the Upper Mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    Following the procedure outlined by Magnitsky [1971], thermal profiles of the upper mantle are computed by deriving the thermal gradient from the seismic data given as dv/sub s//drho used along with the values of (dv/sub s//dT9/sub p/ and (dv/sub s//dP)/sub T/ of selected minerals, measured at high temperature. The resulting values of dT/dZ are integrated from 380 km upward toward the surface, where the integrating constant is taken from Akagi and Akimoto's work, T=1400 0 C at 380 km. The resulting geotherms for minerals are used to derive geotherms for an eclogite mantle and a lherzolite mantle, with and without partial melting in the low-velocity zone. The geotherms are all subadiabatic, and some are virtually isothermal in the upper mantle. Some are characterized by a large thermal hump at the lithosphere boundary

  10. The composition of interstellar grain mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular composition of interstellar grain mantles employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions has been calculated. The calculated mixtures consist mainly of the molecules H 2 O H 2 CO, N 2 , CO, O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O 2 , NH 3 , and their deuterated counterparts in varying ratios. The exact compositions depend strongly on the physical conditions in the gas phase. The calculated mixtures are compared to the observations by using laboratory spectra of grain mantle analogs. (author)

  11. Mantle flow influence on subduction evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, Maria V.; Spakman, Wim; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The impact of remotely forced mantle flow on regional subduction evolution is largely unexplored. Here we investigate this by means of 3D thermo-mechanical numerical modeling using a regional modeling domain. We start with simplified models consisting of a 600 km (or 1400 km) wide subducting plate surrounded by other plates. Mantle inflow of ∼3 cm/yr is prescribed during 25 Myr of slab evolution on a subset of the domain boundaries while the other side boundaries are open. Our experiments show that the influence of imposed mantle flow on subduction evolution is the least for trench-perpendicular mantle inflow from either the back or front of the slab leading to 10-50 km changes in slab morphology and trench position while no strong slab dip changes were observed, as compared to a reference model with no imposed mantle inflow. In experiments with trench-oblique mantle inflow we notice larger effects of slab bending and slab translation of the order of 100-200 km. Lastly, we investigate how subduction in the western Mediterranean region is influenced by remotely excited mantle flow that is computed by back-advection of a temperature and density model scaled from a global seismic tomography model. After 35 Myr of subduction evolution we find 10-50 km changes in slab position and slab morphology and a slight change in overall slab tilt. Our study shows that remotely forced mantle flow leads to secondary effects on slab evolution as compared to slab buoyancy and plate motion. Still these secondary effects occur on scales, 10-50 km, typical for the large-scale deformation of the overlying crust and thus may still be of large importance for understanding geological evolution.

  12. CALCIUM-RICH GAP TRANSIENTS: SOLVING THE CALCIUM CONUNDRUM IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray measurements suggest that the abundance of calcium in the intracluster medium is higher than can be explained using favored models for core-collapse and Type Ia supernovae alone. We investigate whether the ''calcium conundrum'' in the intracluster medium can be alleviated by including a contribution from the recently discovered subclass of supernovae known as calcium-rich gap transients. Although the calcium-rich gap transients make up only a small fraction of all supernovae events, we find that their high calcium yields are sufficient to reproduce the X-ray measurements found for nearby rich clusters. We find the χ 2 goodness-of-fit metric improves from 84 to 2 by including this new class. Moreover, calcium-rich supernovae preferentially occur in the outskirts of galaxies making it easier for the nucleosynthesis products of these events to be incorporated in the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping. The discovery of calcium-rich gap transients in clusters and groups far from any individual galaxy suggests that supernovae associated with intracluster stars may play an important role in enriching the intracluster medium. Calcium-rich gap transients may also help explain anomalous calcium abundances in many other astrophysical systems including individual stars in the Milky Way, the halos of nearby galaxies, and the circumgalactic medium. Our work highlights the importance of considering the diversity of supernovae types and corresponding yields when modeling the abundance of the intracluster medium and other gas reservoirs

  13. Carbonate stability in the reduced lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Susannah M.; Badro, James; Nabiei, Farhang; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Cantoni, Marco; Gillet, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Carbonate minerals are important hosts of carbon in the crust and mantle with a key role in the transport and storage of carbon in Earth's deep interior over the history of the planet. Whether subducted carbonates efficiently melt and break down due to interactions with reduced phases or are preserved to great depths and ultimately reach the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. In this study, experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) on layered samples of dolomite (Mg, Ca)CO3 and iron at pressure and temperature conditions reaching those of the deep lower mantle show that carbon-iron redox interactions destabilize the MgCO3 component, producing a mixture of diamond, Fe7C3, and (Mg, Fe)O. However, CaCO3 is preserved, supporting its relative stability in carbonate-rich lithologies under reducing lower mantle conditions. These results constrain the thermodynamic stability of redox-driven breakdown of carbonates and demonstrate progress towards multiphase mantle petrology in the LHDAC at conditions of the lowermost mantle.

  14. Lowermost mantle anisotropy near the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP: constraints from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (∼10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP

  15. Lithosphere erosion atop mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusta, R.; Arcay, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle plumes are traditionally proposed to play an important role in lithosphere erosion. Seismic images beneath Hawaii and Cape Verde show a lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary (LAB) up to 50 km shallower than the surroundings. However, numerical models show that unless the plate is stationary the thermo-mechanical erosion of the lithosphere does not exceed 30 km. We use 2D petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models based on a finite-difference method on a staggered grid and marker in cell method to study the role of partial melting on the plume-lithosphere interaction. A homogeneous peridotite composition with a Newtonian temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity is used to simulate both the plate and the convective mantle. A constant velocity, ranging from 5 to 12.5 cm/yr, is imposed at the top of the plate. Plumes are created by imposing a thermal anomaly of 150 to 350 K on a 50 km wide domain at the base of the model (700 km depth); the plate right above the thermal anomaly is 40 Myr old. Partial melting is modeled using batch-melting solidus and liquidus in anhydrous conditions. We model the progressive depletion of peridotite and its effect on partial melting by assuming that the melting degree only strictly increases through time. Melt is accumulated until a porosity threshold is reached and the melt in excess is then extracted. The rheology of the partially molten peridotite is determined using viscous constitutive relationship based on a contiguity model, which enables to take into account the effects of grain-scale melt distribution. Above a threshold of 1%, melt is instantaneously extracted. The density varies as a function of partial melting degree and extraction. Besides, we analyze the kinematics of the plume as it impacts a moving plate, the dynamics of time-dependent small-scale convection (SSC) instabilities developing in the low-viscosity layer formed by spreading of hot plume material at the lithosphere base, and the resulting thermal

  16. Survival of the primitive mantle reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The high-3He lavas are thought to originate from a deep primitive mantle source that has not been much modified since the formation of Earth’s core. Comparison of 4He/3He in MORBs and plume lavas indicate that the plume sources must be a lower mantle feature, in agreement with most geophysical inferences. However, the lithophile element isotope systems of plume lavas are not primitive. The idea that the high-3He source is significantly less processed and more primitive than MORB source is clearly supported by mixing trends in plots of 4He/3He versus Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, which have been extrapolated to an inferred 4He/3He of ~17,000 (~43x the atmospheric ratio), a mantle reservoir named PHEM (Primitive HElium Mantle). Slightly lower 4He/3He, ~15,000, were reported for Baffin Island picrites. Recently, Jackson et al. (2010) claimed that some Baffin Island and Greenland picrites with single-stage Pb model ages of ~4.5 Ga have low 4He/3He, and argued that “their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth’s mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs”. However, the available data are insufficient to make such a claim, and we suggest an alternative interpretation. Specially: 1. Four out of ten Baffin Island and Greenland picrites used by Jackson et al. (2010) have 4He/3He higher than average MORB value and all are far removed from the lowest measured value of 15,000. 2. Five Greenland picrites which cluster around the 4.50 Gyr geochron (Jackson et al., 2010) form a curved 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He trend. This trend is best explained as a mixing line, implying that the single-stage Pb ages of these lavas are meaningless. 3. In a 207Pb*/206Pb*-4He/3He plot, Koolau lavas from Hawaii overlap with Baffin Island and Greenland picrites. If Baffin Island and Greenland picrites represent melts from the primitive mantle based on their Pb and He isotopes (Jackson et al., 2010), a similar argument can be applied to Koolau lavas. However, it

  17. Mantle strength of the San Andreas fault system and the role of mantle-crust feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzaras, V.; Tikoff, B.; Newman, J.; Withers, A.C.; Drury, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In lithospheric-scale strike-slip fault zones, upper crustal strength is well constrained from borehole observations and fault rock deformation experiments, but mantle strength is less well known. Using peridotite xenoliths, we show that the upper mantle below the San Andreas fault system

  18. Compositional Variation of Terrestrial Mantle Apatites and Implications for the Halogen and Water Budgets of the Terrestrial Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, M.; Patino Douce, A. E.; Chaumba, J. B.; Fleisher, C.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Apatite in ultramafic xenoliths from various tectonic enviroments including arc (Kamchatka), plume (Hawaii), and intraplate (Lunar Crater, Nunivak, Colorado Plateau) were analyzed by electron microprobe with the aim of characterizing the Cl and F contents, and from these measured compositions to infer the nature of fluids/melts that the apatites equilibrated with. The impetus for the study derived from the generalization of O'Reilly and Griffin (1) that mantle-derived metasomatic apatites tend to be Cl-rich and mantle-derived igneous apatites tend to be F-rich. Our work largely corroborates their generalization with Cl- and/or H2O-rich compositions characterizing the apatites from Nunivak and Kamchatka while apatites from igneous or Group II xenoliths tend to be Cl-poor and be either nearly pure fluorapatite or a mix of hydroxylapatite and fluorapatite. We attribute the Cl-rich nature of the Kamchatka apatites to formation from Cl-rich fluids generated from subducted lithosphere; however the Nunivak occurrence is far removed from subducted lithosphere and may reflect a deep seated source for Cl as also indicated by brine inclusions in diamonds, Cl-rich apatites in carbonate-bearing xenoliths and a Cl-rich signature in some plumes such as Iceland, Azores and Samoa. One curious aspect of mantle-derived apatite compositions is that xenoliths with evidence of carbonatitic metasomatism commonly have Cl-rich apatites while apatites from carbonatites are invariably Cl-poor - perhaps reflecting loss of Cl in fluids evolved from the carbonatitic magma. Apatites from Group II xenoliths at Hawaii are solid solutions between fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite and show no evidence for deep-seated Cl at Hawaii. Samples of the terrestrial mantle are almost uniformly characterized by mineral assemblages with a single Ca-rich phosphate phase but the mantles of Mars, Vesta and the Moon have two Ca-rich phosphates, apatite and volatile-poor merrillite - apatite compositions existing

  19. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ganiyu; Akintunde Oluwafemi; Afolabi Ademola; Okikiola Olatunji

    2018-01-01

    Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to th...

  20. Geochemical Constraints on Core-Mantle Interaction from Fe/Mn Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, M.; Qin, L.

    2003-12-01

    The greater density of liquid iron alloy, and its immiscibility with silicate, maintains the physical separation of the core from the mantle. There are no a priori reasons, however, why the Earth's mantle should be chemically isolated from the core. Osmium isotopic variations in mantle plumes have been interpreted in terms of interaction between outer core and the source regions of deep mantle plumes. If chemical transport occurs across the core-mantle boundary its mechanism remains to be established. The Os isotope evidence has also been interpreted as the signatures of subducted Mn-sediments, which are known to have relatively high Pt/Os. In the mantle, Fe occurs mainly as the divalent ferrous ion, and Mn occurs solely as a divalent ion, and both behave in a geochemically coherent manner because of similarity in ionic charge and radius. Thus, the Fe/Mn ratio is a planetary constant insensitive to processes of mantle differentiation by partial melting. Two processes may perturb the ambient mantle Fe/Mn of 60: a) the subduction of Mn-sediments should decrease the Fe/Mn ratio in plume sources, while b) chemical transport from the outer core may increase the Fe/Mn ratio. The differentiation of the liquid outer core to form the solid inner core may increase abundances of the light element constituents (FeS, FeO, etc.) to the point of exsolution from the core at the CMB. The exact rate of this process is determined by the rate of inner core growth. Two end-member models include 1) inner core formation mainly prior to 3.5 Ga with heat release dominated by radioactive sources, or 2) inner core formation occurring mainly in the last 1.5 Ga with heat release dominated by latent heat. This latter model would imply large fluxes of Fe into the sources of modern mantle plumes. Existing Fe/Mn data for Gorgona and Hawaiian samples place limits on both these processes. We describe a new procedure for the precise determination of the Fe/Mn ratio in magmatic rocks by ICP-MS. This

  1. Mantle End-Members: The Trace Element Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Stracke, A.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of their isotopic composition, ocean island basalts (OIB) have been classified into three to four end-members; HIMU with the most radiogenic Pb isotope ratios of OIB and Enriched Mantle 1 and 2 (EM1, EM2) with less radiogenic but variable Pb isotope and highly radiogenic Sr isotope signatures. It has also been argued that each of these isotopic families has common trace element characteristics that distinguish them from one another and so substantiated this classification. Here, we present new high-precision trace element data for samples from St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Gough in the Atlantic Ocean. The overall data-set is augmented by OIB data from the GEOROC database and includes data from all major isotopic families (HIMU: St. Helena, Mangaia, Tubuai, and Rururtu; EM1: Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Pitcairn; and EM2: Samoa, Marquesas, and Society). For each locality we use only islands defining the most extreme isotopic compositions. The entire data-set has been screened to exclude altered and highly differentiated samples. HIMU basalts have a very uniform trace element composition. Compared to HIMU-type basalts, EM-type basalts are enriched in Rb, Ba, and K, and depleted in U, Nb, and Ta, relative to La. Different EM-type OIBs from the same isotopic family (EM1 or EM2), have distinct trace element characteristics that can ultimately only be caused by different source compositions. For example, Ba/Th ratios in samples from both Tristan da Cunha (EM1) and Samoa (EM2) are similarly high (ca. 110) whereas Ba/Th ratios in samples from Pitcairn (EM1) and Society (EM2) samples are consistently lower (ca. 70). Thus on the basis of their trace element composition, EM-type OIB cannot be classified into EM1 and EM2 type basalts, nor can any other grouping be identified. The remarkably uniform isotopic and trace element composition of HIMU-type basalts suggests derivation from a single common source reservoir, most likely subduction-modified oceanic crust

  2. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  3. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  4. The mantle cells lymphoma: a proposed treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Martinez, Marlene Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on mantle cells lymphoma in the therapeutic schemes. The literature that has been used is published in journals of medicine specializing in hematology, oncology, radiation therapy, molecular biology and internal medicine. The literature review was performed to propose a scheme of treatment according to Costa Rica. Epigenetic alterations have been revealed in patients with mantle lymphoma on current researches. The mantle lymphoma pathology has been described in various forms of clinical and histological presentation, stressing the importance of detailing the different methods and diagnostic reports. Working groups have proposed and developed various chemotherapy regimens and concluded that CHOP alone is without effect in mantle cell lymphoma unlike R-hyper-CVAD, CHOP / DHAP, high-dose Ara-C. Researchers have tried to develop new treatments based vaccines, use of modified viruses, specific monoclonal antibodies. The classic treatment has been triple intrathecal therapy. The central nervous system has been one of the most momentous sites of mantle cell lymphoma infiltration because poorer patient prognosis [es

  5. Radiation doses from radioactivity in incandescent mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Thorium nitrate is used in the production of incandescent mantles for gas lanterns. In this report dose estimates are given for internal and external exposure that result from the use of the incandescent mantles for gas lanterns. The collective, effective dose equivalent for all users of gas mantles is estimated to be about 100 Sv per annum in the Netherlands. For the population involved (ca. 700,000 persons) this is roughly equivalent to 5% to 10% of the collective dose equivalent associated with exposure to radiation from natural sources. The major contribution to dose estimates comes from inhalation of radium during burning of the mantles. A pessimistic approach results in individual dose estimates for inhalation of up to 0.2 mSv. Consideration of dose consequences in case of a fire in a storage department learns that it is necessary for emergency personnel to wear respirators. It is concluded that the uncontrolled removal of used gas mantles to the environment (soil) does not result in a significant contribution to environmental radiation exposure. (Auth.)

  6. Preface: Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig R.; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas A.

    2010-11-01

    We are pleased to publish this special issue of the journal Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors entitled "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics". This issue is an outgrowth of the international symposium "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics", which was held on February 25-27, 2009, in Kyoto, Japan. This symposium was organized by the "Stagnant Slab Project" (SSP) research group to present the results of the 5-year project and to facilitate intensive discussion with well-known international researchers in related fields. The SSP and the symposium were supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16075101) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government. In the symposium, key issues discussed by participants included: transportation of water into the deep mantle and its role in slab-related dynamics; observational and experimental constraints on deep slab properties and the slab environment; modeling of slab stagnation to constrain its mechanisms in comparison with observational and experimental data; observational, experimental and modeling constraints on the fate of stagnant slabs; eventual accumulation of stagnant slabs on the core-mantle boundary and its geodynamic implications. This special issue is a collection of papers presented in the symposium and other papers related to the subject of the symposium. The collected papers provide an overview of the wide range of multidisciplinary studies of mantle dynamics, particularly in the context of subduction, stagnation, and the fate of deep slabs.

  7. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  8. Mantle plumes on Venus revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    1992-01-01

    The Equatorial Highlands of Venus consist of a series of quasicircular regions of high topography, rising up to about 5 km above the mean planetary radius. These highlands are strongly correlated with positive geoid anomalies, with a peak amplitude of 120 m at Atla Regio. Shield volcanism is observed at Beta, Eistla, Bell, and Atla Regiones and in the Hathor Mons-Innini Mons-Ushas Mons region of the southern hemisphere. Volcanos have also been mapped in Phoebe Regio and flood volcanism is observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in Ovda and Thetis Regiones. Extensional tectonism is also observed in many of these regions. It is now widely accepted that at least Beta, Atla, Eistla, and Bell Regiones are the surface expressions of hot, rising mantel plumes. Upwelling plumes are consistent with both the volcanism and the extensional tectonism observed in these regions. The geoid anomalies and topography of these four regions show considerable variation. Peak geoid anomalies exceed 90 m at Beta and Atla, but are only 40 m at Eistla and 24 m at Bell. Similarly, the peak topography is greater at Beta and Atla than at Eistla and Bell. Such a range of values is not surprising because terrestrial hotspot swells also have a side range of geoid anomalies and topographic uplifts. Kiefer and Hager used cylindrical axisymmetric, steady-state convection calculations to show that mantle plumes can quantitatively account for both the amplitude and the shape of the long-wavelength geoid and topography at Beta and Atla. In these models, most of the topography of these highlands is due to uplift by the vertical normal stress associated with the rising plume. Additional topography may also be present due to crustal thickening by volcanism and crustal thinning by rifting. Smrekar and Phillips have also considered the geoid and topography of plumes on Venus, but they restricted themselves to considering only the geoid-topography ratio and did not

  9. Mantle Upwellings Below the Ibero-Maghrebian Region with a Common Deep Source from P Travel-time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiero, C.; Custodio, S.; Silveira, G. M.; Rawlinson, N.; Arroucau, P.

    2017-12-01

    The processes responsible for the geodynamical evolution of the Ibero-Maghrebian domain are still enigmatic. Several geophysical studies have improved our understanding of the region, but no single model has been accepted yet. This study takes advantage of the dense station networks deployed from France in the north to Canary Islands and Morocco in the south to provide a new high-resolution P-wave velocity model of the structure of the upper-mantle and top of the lower mantle. These images show subvertical small-scale upwellings below Atlas Range, Canary Islands and Central Iberia that seem to cross the transition zone. The results, together with geochemical evidence and a comparison with previous global tomographic models, reveal the ponding or flow of deep-plume material beneath the transition zone, which seems to feed upper-mantle "secondary" pulses. In the upper mantle the plumes, in conjunction with the subduction-related upwellings, allow the hot mantle to rise in the surrounding zones. During its rising, the mantle interacts with horizontal SW slab-driven flow which skirts the Alboran slab and connects with the mantle upwelling below Massif Central through the Valencia Trough rift.

  10. Dissonance and harmony between global and regional-scale seismic anisotropy and mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Huge numbers of SKS splitting observations and improved surface-wave based models of azimuthal anisotropy have advanced our understanding of how convection is recorded in mantle fabrics in the upper mantle. However, we are still debating the relative importance of frozen to actively forming olivine fabrics, subduction zone anisotropy lacks a clear reference model, and regional marine studies yield conflicting evidence as to what exactly is going on at the base of the plates and below. Here, I review the degree of agreement between regional and global observations of seismic anisotropy and how well those may be matched by first-order mantle convection models. Updated bean counting can help contextualize the spatial scales of alignment, and I discuss several examples of the relative roles of plate shear to mantle density anomalies and frozen-in structure for oceanic and continental plates. Resolution of seismological models is globally uneven, but there are some locales where such exercises may yield information on the relative strength of asthenosphere and mantle. Another long-standing question is how olivine fabrics record flow under different stress and volatile conditions. I illustrate how different petrological assumptions might be used to reconcile observations of azimuthal dependency of wave speeds for both Love and Rayleigh waves, and how this could improve our models of the upper mantle, much in the spirit of Montagner's vectorial tomography. This is but one approach to improve the regional realism of global geodynamic background models to understand where in space and time dissonance arises, and if a harmonious model may yet be constructed given our assumptions about the workings of the mantle.

  11. Lusatia and the coal conundrum: The lived experience of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Tom; Müller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The German Energiewende, or energy transition, is an ambitious suite of policy measures which aim to decarbonize the German economy and achieve an almost complete transition to an energy system based on renewable energy by mid-century. This article contends that the energy transition is also a social process. We develop a provisional local ethnography of the Energiewende, an account of the lived experience of this social process from the perspective of villagers in Atterwasch, Kerkwitz and Grabko, in the region of Lusatia in Eastern Germany. Their experiences are particularly salient, since their villages are facing demolition to make way for the expansion of the nearby Jänschwalde coal mine. The villagers’ struggle to defend their homes highlights a fundamental contradiction in the energy transition, sometimes referred to as the “coal conundrum”. The contest over the future of coal in Lusatia can be seen as a struggle to control key cultural ‘scripts’ or narratives, of home, belonging, ecological modernization, climate change, and democratic deficit. Our research suggests that any resolution of the coal conundrum, and effective implementation of the Energiewende, must be informed by an understanding of these scripts, and how they underpin the motivations and mentalities of different social actors. - Highlights: • The German energy transition is a social process as well as a set of policy measures. • Lusatia, in Eastern Germany, is a social laboratory of the Energiewende. • The contestation of coal in Lusatia is a struggle to control cultural ‘scripts'. • Home and belonging, ecological modernization, and climate change are key scripts. • More “energy democracy” would bolster the legitimacy of the energy transition.

  12. Dynamo Tests for Stratification Below the Core-Mantle Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P.; Landeau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from seismology, mineral physics, and core dynamics points to a layer with an overall stable stratification in the Earth's outer core, possibly thermal in origin, extending below the core-mantle boundary (CMB) for several hundred kilometers. In contrast, energetic deep mantle convection with elevated heat flux implies locally unstable thermal stratification below the CMB in places, consistent with interpretations of non-dipole geomagnetic field behavior that favor upwelling flows below the CMB. Here, we model the structure of convection and magnetic fields in the core using numerical dynamos with laterally heterogeneous boundary heat flux in order to rationalize this conflicting evidence. Strongly heterogeneous boundary heat flux generates localized convection beneath the CMB that coexists with an overall stable stratification there. Partially stratified dynamos have distinctive time average magnetic field structures. Without stratification or with stratification confined to a thin layer, the octupole component is small and the CMB magnetic field structure includes polar intensity minima. With more extensive stratification, the octupole component is large and the magnetic field structure includes intense patches or high intensity lobes in the polar regions. Comparisons with the time-averaged geomagnetic field are generally favorable for partial stratification in a thin layer but unfavorable for stratification in a thick layer beneath the CMB.

  13. Update on the Search for Chemical Interactions Between the Core and Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent tomographic studies provide strong geophysical evidence for deep mantle upwellings, commonly referred to as "plumes", rising from the core-mantle boundary to regions underlying some ocean island basalt occurrences. Nevertheless, the existence of plumes and their association with ocean islands remains questioned by some. In addition, the occurrence and extent of chemical exchange between the core and lowermost mantle remains essentially un-constrained. If some plumes rise from the core-mantle boundary and there has been some level of chemical interaction between the core and mantle at some point in time, then it is possible that plumes could contain a unique chemical or isotopic fingerprint that is characteristic of the core. There is currently no strong evidence supporting this possibility. The short-lived 182Hf→182W (t½ = 9 m.y.) system has been proposed as a geochemical tool for detecting possible core-mantle interactions. Mass balance constraints suggest the 182W/184W and W concentration of the core are 200 ppm lower and 20 times higher, respectively, than the bulk silicate Earth. Recent discovery of negative correlations between 182W/184W and 3He/4He in ocean island basalts (OIB) from Hawaii and Samoa suggests that these volcanic systems may access a primordial component inside the Earth with W-He isotopic characteristics broadly consistent with the core. However, direct contribution of metal from the outer core to a rising plume is inconsistent with the concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE) in the isotopically anomalous lavas. In order for the isotopically anomalous W and He to be tied to the core, a transfer mechanism for isotopic signal, other than metal infiltration into the mantle is needed, as is a present day storage site for the signal. The possible existence of one or more basal magma oceans at some points in Earth history present opportunity for isotopic exchange between the lowermost mantle and core, without collateral

  14. Phylogenetic analysis at deep timescales: unreliable gene trees, bypassed hidden support, and the coalescence/concatalescence conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, John; Springer, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Large datasets are required to solve difficult phylogenetic problems that are deep in the Tree of Life. Currently, two divergent systematic methods are commonly applied to such datasets: the traditional supermatrix approach (= concatenation) and "shortcut" coalescence (= coalescence methods wherein gene trees and the species tree are not co-estimated). When applied to ancient clades, these contrasting frameworks often produce congruent results, but in recent phylogenetic analyses of Placentalia (placental mammals), this is not the case. A recent series of papers has alternatively disputed and defended the utility of shortcut coalescence methods at deep phylogenetic scales. Here, we examine this exchange in the context of published phylogenomic data from Mammalia; in particular we explore two critical issues - the delimitation of data partitions ("genes") in coalescence analysis and hidden support that emerges with the combination of such partitions in phylogenetic studies. Hidden support - increased support for a clade in combined analysis of all data partitions relative to the support evident in separate analyses of the various data partitions, is a hallmark of the supermatrix approach and a primary rationale for concatenating all characters into a single matrix. In the most extreme cases of hidden support, relationships that are contradicted by all gene trees are supported when all of the genes are analyzed together. A valid fear is that shortcut coalescence methods might bypass or distort character support that is hidden in individual loci because small gene fragments are analyzed in isolation. Given the extensive systematic database for Mammalia, the assumptions and applicability of shortcut coalescence methods can be assessed with rigor to complement a small but growing body of simulation work that has directly compared these methods to concatenation. We document several remarkable cases of hidden support in both supermatrix and coalescence paradigms and argue

  15. Experimental investigation of the stability of Fe-rich carbonates in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, E.; Menguy, N.; Auzende, A.; Benzerara, K.; Bureau, H.; Antonangeli, D.; Corgne, A.; Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Perrillat, J.; Guyot, F. J.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonates are the main C-bearing minerals that are transported deep in the Earth's mantle via subduction of the oceanic lithosphere [1]. The fate of carbonates at mantle conditions plays a key role in the deep carbon cycle. Decarbonation, melting or reduction of carbonates will affect the extent and the way carbon is recycled into the deep Earth. To clarify the fate of carbonates in the deep mantle, high-pressure high-temperature experiments were carried out up to 105 GPa and 2850 K on oxide assemblages of (Mg,Fe)O + CO2. The presence of Fe(II) in starting materials induces redox reactions from which Fe(II) is oxidized and a part of the carbon is reduced. This leads to an assemblage of magnetite, diamonds, and carbonates or, pressure depending, their newly discovered Fe(III)-bearing high-pressure polymorphs based on a silicate-like chemistry with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon [2]. Our results show the possibility for carbon to be recycled in the lowermost mantle and provide evidence of a possible coexistence of reduced and oxidized carbon at lower mantle conditions. [1] Sleep, N. H., and K. Zahnle (2001) J. Geophys. Res.-Planets 106(E1), 1373-1399. [2] Boulard et al. (2011) PNAS, 108, 5184-5187.

  16. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  17. Heat flow study of the Emeishan large igneous province region: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2018-01-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.

  18. Identification and observations of the plasma mantle at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, Ching-I.; Sanchez, E.R.; Burke, W.J.; Greenspan, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The direct injection of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp produces at low altitude a precipitation regime with an energy-latitude dispersion-the more poleward portion of which the authors herein term the cusp plume. An extensive survey of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F7 and F9 32 eV to 30 keV precipitating particle data shows that similar dispersive signatures exist over much of the dayside, just poleward of the auroral oval. Away from noon (or more precisely, anywhere not immediately poleward of the cusp) the fluxes are reduced by a factor of about 10 as compared to the cusp plume, but other characteristics are quite similar. For example, the inferred temperatures and flow velocities, and the characteristic decline of energy and number flux with increasing latitude is essentially the same in a longitudinally broad ring of precipitation a few degrees thick in latitude over much of the dayside. They conclude that the field lines on which such precipitation occurs thread the magnetospheric plasma mantle over the entire longitudinally extended ring. Besides the location of occurence (i.e., immediately poleward of the dayside oval), the identification is based especially on the associated very soft ion spectra, which have densities from a few times 10 -2 to a few times 10 -1 /cm 3 ; on the temperature range, which is form from a few tens of eV up to about 200 eV; amd on the characteristic gradients with latitude. Further corroborating evidence that the precipitation is associated with field lines which thread the plasma mantle includes drift meter observations which show that regions so identified based on the particle data consistently lie on antisunward convecting field lines. The observations indicate that some dayside high-latitude auroral features just poleward of the auroral oval are embedded in the plasma mantle

  19. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...... that a temperature stratification in the hot water tank, above the mantle is built up. This phenomenon may be important, but it is not taken into calculation in the programme. Therefore, theoretical and practical work is continuing in order to make a more precise model for the whole mantle tank....

  20. Mixing properties of thermal convection in the earth's mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmalzl, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of mantle convection will greatly influence the generation and the survival of compositional heterogeneities. Conversely, geochemical observations can be used to obtain information about heterogeneities in the mantle and then, with certain model assumptions, information about the

  1. The Earth's heterogeneous mantle a geophysical, geodynamical, and geochemical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights and discusses recent developments that have contributed to an improved understanding of observed mantle heterogeneities and their relation to the thermo-chemical state of Earth's mantle, which ultimately holds the key to unlocking the secrets of the evolution of our planet. This series of topical reviews and original contributions address 4 themes. Theme 1 covers topics in geophysics, including global and regional seismic tomography, electrical conductivity and seismic imaging of mantle discontinuities and heterogeneities in the upper mantle, transition zone and lower mantle. Theme 2 addresses geochemical views of the mantle including lithospheric evolution from analysis of mantle xenoliths, composition of the deep Earth and the effect of water on subduction-zone processes. Theme 3 discusses geodynamical perspectives on the global thermo-chemical structure of the deep mantle. Theme 4 covers application of mineral physics data and phase equilibrium computations to infer the regional-scale ...

  2. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  3. Geodynamo Modeling of Core-Mantle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Angular momentum exchange between the Earth's mantle and core influences the Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer, in particular in the length of day (LOD) which have been measured with progressively increasing accuracy for the last two centuries. There are four possible coupling mechanisms for transferring the axial angular momentum across the core-mantle boundary (CMB): viscous, magnetic, topography, and gravitational torques. Here we use our scalable, modularized, fully dynamic geodynamo model for the core to assess the importance of these torques. This numerical model, as an extension of the Kuang-Bloxham model that has successfully simulated the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, is used to obtain numerical results in various physical conditions in terms of specific parameterization consistent with the dynamical processes in the fluid outer core. The results show that depending on the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle and the amplitude of the boundary topography at CMB, both magnetic and topographic couplings can contribute significantly to the angular momentum exchange. This implies that the core-mantle interactions are far more complex than has been assumed and that there is unlikely a single dominant coupling mechanism for the observed decadal LOD variation.

  4. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  5. Constitution and structure of earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Khan, Amir; Cupillard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    the inaccessible parts of the Earth. Computation of physical properties using thermodynamic models is described and discussed, and an application of the joint inverse methodology is illustrated in a case study where mantle composition and thermal state beneath continental Australia is determined directly from...

  6. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  7. Executive Summary: “Mantle Frontier” Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workshop Report Writing Group

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop on “Reaching the Mantle Frontier: Moho and Beyond” was held at the Broad Branch Road Campus of the Carnegie Institution of Washington on 9–11 September 2010. The workshop attracted seventy-four scientists and engineers from academia and industry in North America, Asia, and Europe.Reaching and sampling the mantle through penetration of the entire oceanic crust and the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho has been a longstanding goal of the Earth science community. The Moho is a seismic transition, often sharp, from a region with compressional wave velocities (Vp less than 7.5 km s-1 to velocities ~8 km s-1. It is interpreted in many tectonic settings, and particularly in tectonic exposures of oceanic lower crust, as the transition from igneous crust to mantle rocks that are the residues of melt extraction. Revealing the in situ geological meaning of the Moho is the heart of the Mohole project. Documenting ocean-crust exchanges and the nature and extent of the subseafloor biosphere have also become integral components of the endeavor. The purpose of the “Mantle Frontier” workshop was to identify key scientific objectives associated with innovative technology solutions along with associated timelines and costs for developments and implementation of this grandchallenge.

  8. Constraints on mantle convection from seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kárason, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of global seismic tomography some 25 years ago, advances in technology, seismological theory, and data acquisition have allowed spectacular progress in our ability to image seismic heterogeneity in Earth's mantle. We briefly review some concepts of seismic tomography, such as

  9. European Lithospheric Mantle; geochemical, petrological and geophysical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Th.; Puziewicz, J.; Downes, H.; Matusiak-Małek, M.

    2017-04-01

    The second European Mantle Workshop occurred at the end of August 2015, in Wroclaw, Poland, attended by leading scientists in the study the lithospheric mantle from around the world. It built upon the results of the first European Mantle Workshop (held in 2007, in Ferrara, Italy) published in the Geological Society of London Special Publication 293 (Coltorti & Gregoire, 2008).

  10. Mineralogy of the Hydrous Lower Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, S. H.; Chen, H.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Kunz, M.; Prakapenka, V.; Bechtel, H.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrous ringwoodite inclusions found in diamonds suggest water storage in the mantle transition zone. However, water storage in the lower mantle remains unclear. Bridgmanite and magnesiowustite appear to have very little storage capacity for water. Here, we report experimental results indicating significant changes in the lower-mantle mineralogy under the presence of water. We have synthesized Mg2SiO4 ringwoodite with 2 wt% water in multi-anvil press at 20 GPa and 1573 K at ASU. The hydrous ringwoodite sample was then loaded to diamond anvil cells with Ar or Ne as a pressure medium. We heated the pure hydrous ringwoodite samples at lower-mantle pressure using a CO2 laser heating system at ASU. We measured X-ray diffraction patterns at the GSECARS sector of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and 12.2.2 sector of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). For the separate Pt-mixed samples, we have conducted in situ heating at the beamlines using near IR laser heating systems. We measured the infrared spectra of the heated samples at high pressure and after pressure quench at 1.4.4 sector of ALS. In the in situ experiments with hydrous ringwoodite + Pt mixture as a starting material, we found formation of stishovite together with bridgmanite and periclase during heating with a near IR laser beams at 1300-2500 K and 35-66 GPa. However, some hydrous ringwoodite still remains even after a total of 45 min of heating. In contrast, the hydrous ringwoodite samples heated without Pt by CO2 laser beams are transformed completely to bridgmanite, periclase and stishovite at 31-55 GPa and 1600-1900 K. We have detected IR active OH mode of stishovite from the samples heated at lower-mantle pressures. The unit-cell volume of stishovite measured after pressure quench is greater than that of dry stishovite by 0.3-0.6%, supporting 0.5-1 wt% of H2O in stishovite in these samples. Stishovite is a thermodynamically forbidden phase in the dry lower mantle because of the existence of periclase and

  11. Distribution of lithium in the Cordilleran Mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Jean, M. M.; Seitz, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Enriched fluid-mobile element (i.e., B, Li, Be) concentrations in peridotites from the Coast Range ophiolite are compelling evidence that this ophiolite originated in a subduction environment. A new method presented in Shervais and Jean (2012) for modeling the fluid enrichment process, represents the total addition of material to the mantle wedge source region and can be applied to any refractory mantle peridotite that has been modified by melt extraction and/or metasomatism. Although the end-result is attributed to an added flux of aqueous fluid or fluid-rich melt phase derived from the subducting slab, in the range of tens of parts per million - the nature and composition of this fluid could not be constrained. To address fluid(s) origins, we have analyzed Li isotopes in bulk rock peridotite and eclogite, and garnet separates, to identify possible sources, and fluid flow mechanisms and pathways. Bulk rock Li abundances of CRO peridotites (δ7Li = -14.3 to 5.5‰; 1.9-7.5 ppm) are indicative of Li addition and δ7Li-values are lighter than normal upper mantle values. However, Li abundances of clino- and orthopyroxene appear to record different processes operating during the CRO-mantle evolution. Low Li abundances in orthopyroxene (2 ppm) record subsequent interaction with Li-enriched fluids (or melts). The preferential partitioning of lithium in clinopyroxene could be indicative of a particular metasomatic agent, e.g., fluids from a dehydrating slab. Future in-situ peridotite isotope studies via laser ablation will further elucidate the fractionation of lithium between orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and serpentine. To obtain a more complete picture of the slab to arc transfer processes, we also measured eclogites and garnet separates to δ7Li= -18 to 3.5‰ (11.5-32.5 ppm) and δ7Li= 1.9 to 11.7‰ (0.7-3.9 ppm), respectively. In connection with previous studies focused on high-grade metamorphic assemblages within the Franciscan complex, an overall framework exists

  12. Evidence for upper mantle intrusion in the west African coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bouguer anomaly map of the region between latitudes 30N and 3045'N and longitudes 9030'E and 10010'E and which forms the southern part of the Douala Basin, shows ring-like positive contour lines. The Bouguer gravity profiles obtained across the gravity anomaly contour lines in the region have been interpreted ...

  13. Mapping mantle-melting anomalies in Baja California: a combined subaereal-submarine noble gas geochemistry new data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Hilton, D. R.; Virrueta, C.; Tellez, M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Clague, D. A.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Neumann, F.

    2017-12-01

    In active tectonic settings, the presence of helium in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values ( 0.05 RA where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the contribution of mantle-derived volatiles to the total volatile inventory. This is an indicative of the presence of mantle-derived melts, which act to transfer volatiles from the solid Earth towards the surface. Thus, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle which are undergoing partial melting - a phenomenon which should also be evident in the seismic record. Reports of high 3He/4He in hot springs in Baja California (BC) has prompted us to initiate a survey of the region to assess relationship(s) between He isotopes and geophysical images of the underlying mantle. Previous studies report 3He/4He ratios of 0.54 RA for submarine hot springs (Punta Banda 108oC) and 1.3 RA for spring waters (81oC) at Bahia Concepcion. Our new survey of hot springs in northern BC has revealed that all 12 localities sampled to date, show the presence of mantle He with the highest ratio being 1.74RA (21% mantle-derived) at Puertecitos on the Gulf coast. He ratios are generally lower on the Pacific coast with the minimum mantle He contribution being 5% at Santa Minerva (0.11RA). Thus, preliminary trends are of a west-to-east increase in the mantle He signal across the peninsula. In the Gulf of California, recent He analyses from the newly discovered Meyibo (350 °C) and Auka (250-290 °C) hydrothermal fields at Alarcon rise and Pescadero basin, respectively, show high 3He/4He ratios ( 8RA), typical of MORB's. These ratios are higher than the ones reported for Guaymas Basin (6.95 RA), suggesting that primordial He signal from the mantle increases following a North-South direction along the Gulf axis. He results presented in this study correlate well with high resolution Rayleigh wave tomography images by DiLuccio et al (2014). Shear velocity variations in the BC crust and upper mantle

  14. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  15. Density Anomalies in the Mantle and the Gravitational Core-Mantle Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Liu, Lanbo

    2003-01-01

    Seismic studies suggest that the bulk of the mantle is heterogeneous, with density variations in depth as well as in horizontal directions (latitude and longitude). This density variation produces a three- dimensional gravity field throughout the Earth. On the other hand, the core density also varies in both time and space, due to convective core flow. Consequently, the fluid outer core and the solid mantle interact gravitationally due to the mass anomalies in both regions. This gravitational core-mantle interaction could play a significant role in exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle, and thus the change in Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer. Aiming at estimating the significance of the gravitational core-mantle interaction on Earth's rotation variation, we introduce in our MoSST core dynamics model a heterogeneous mantle, with a density distribution derived from seismic results. In this model, the core convection is driven by the buoyancy forces. And the density variation is determined dynamically with the convection. Numerical simulation is carried out with different parameter values, intending to extrapolate numerical results for geophysical implications.

  16. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  17. Receptor units responding to movement in the octopus mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P R

    1976-08-01

    1. A preparation of the mantle of Octopus which is inverted over a solid support and which exposes the stellate ganglion and associated nerves is described. 2. Afferent activity can be recorded from stellar nerves following electrical stimulation of the pallial nerve. The latency and frequency of the phasic sensory response is correlated with the contraction of the mantle musculature. 3. It is proposed that receptors cells located in the muscle, and their activity following mantle contraction, form part of a sensory feedback system in the mantle. Large, multipolar nerve cells that were found between the two main layers of circular muscle in the mantle could be such receptors.

  18. Modelling the possible interaction between edge-driven convection and the Canary Islands mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, A. M.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Fullea, J.; Van Hunen, J.

    2017-12-01

    The close location between many hotspots and the edges of cratonic lithosphere has led to the hypothesis that these hotspots could be explained by small-scale mantle convection at the edge of cratons (Edge Driven Convection, EDC). The Canary Volcanic Province hotspot represents a paradigmatic example of this situation due to its close location to the NW edge of the African Craton. Geochemical evidence, prominent low seismic velocity anomalies in the upper and lower mantle, and the rough NE-SW age-progression of volcanic centers consistently point out to a deep-seated mantle plume as the origin of the Canary Volcanic Province. It has been hypothesized that the plume material could be affected by upper mantle convection caused by the thermal contrast between thin oceanic lithosphere and thick (cold) African craton. Deflection of upwelling blobs due to convection currents would be responsible for the broader and more irregular pattern of volcanism in the Canary Province compared to the Madeira Province. In this study we design a model setup inspired on this scenario to investigate the consequences of possible interaction between ascending mantle plumes and EDC. The Finite Element code ASPECT is used to solve convection in a 2D box. The compositional field and melt fraction distribution are also computed. Free slip along all boundaries and constant temperature at top and bottom boundaries are assumed. The initial temperature distribution assumes a small long-wavelength perturbation. The viscosity structure is based on a thick cratonic lithosphere progressively varying to a thin, or initially inexistent, oceanic lithosphere. The effects of assuming different rheologies, as well as steep or gradual changes in lithospheric thickness are tested. Modelling results show that a very thin oceanic lithosphere (models assuming temperature-dependent viscosity and large viscosity variations evolve to large-scale (upper mantle) convection cells, with upwelling of hot material being

  19. Evolution of the earliest mantle caused by the magmatism-mantle upwelling feedback: Implications for the Moon and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    The two most important agents that cause mantle evolution are magmatism and mantle convection. My earlier 2D numerical models of a coupled magmatism-mantle convection system show that these two agents strongly couple each other, when the Rayleigh number Ra is sufficiently high: magmatism induced by a mantle upwelling flow boosts the upwelling flow itself. The mantle convection enhanced by this positive feedback (the magmatism-mantle upwelling, or MMU, feedback) causes vigorous magmatism and, at the same time, strongly stirs the mantle. I explored how the MMU feedback influences the evolution of the earliest mantle that contains the magma ocean, based on a numerical model where the mantle is hot and its topmost 1/3 is partially molten at the beginning of the calculation: The evolution drastically changes its style, as Ra exceeds the threshold for onset of the MMU feedback, around 107. At Ra 107, however, the mantle remains compositionally more homogeneous in spite of the widespread magmatism, and the deep mantle remains hotter than the shallow mantle, because of the strong convective stirring caused by the feedback. The threshold value suggests that the mantle of a planet larger than Mars evolves in a way substantially different from that in the Moon does. Indeed, in my earlier models, magmatism makes the early mantle compositionally stratified in the Moon, but the effects of strong convective stirring overwhelms that of magmatism to keep the mantle compositionally rather homogeneous in Venus and the Earth. The MMU feedback is likely to be a key to understanding why vestiges of the magma ocean are so scarce in the Earth.

  20. Role of mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.

  1. Deep Mantle Origin for the DUPAL Anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, S.; Weis, D.

    2002-12-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of the Dupal Anomaly, its origin remains a geochemical and geophysical enigma. This anomaly is associated with the Southern Hemisphere oceanic mantle and is recognized by basalts with geochemical characteristics such as low 206Pb/204Pb and high 87Sr/86Sr. Both mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) are affected, despite originating from melting at different depths and of different mantle sources. We compile geochemical data for both MORB and OIB from the three major oceans to help constrain the physical distribution and chemical composition of the Dupal Anomaly. There is a clear decrease in 206Pb/204Pb and an increase in 87Sr/86Sr with more southerly latitude for Indian MORB and OIB; these correlations are less obvious in the Atlantic and non-existent in the Pacific. The average* 143Nd/144Nd for Pacific and Atlantic OIB is 0.5129, but is lower for Indian OIB (0.5128). Interestingly, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian OIB all have 176Hf/177Hf averages of 0.2830. Indian MORB also record this phenomenon of low Nd with normal Hf isotopic compositions (Chauvel and Blichert-Toft, EPSL, 2001). Hf isotopes appear, therefore, to be a valid isotopic proxy for measuring the presence and magnitude of the Dupal Anomaly at specific locations. Wen (EPSL, 2001) reported a low-velocity layer at the D'' boundary beneath the Indian Ocean from which the Dupal Anomaly may originate. This hypothesis may be consistent with our compilations demonstrating that the long-lived Dupal Anomaly does not appear to be either mixing efficiently into the upper mantle or spreading to other ocean basins through time. We suggest that the Dupal source could be continually tapped by upwelling Indian Ocean mantle plumes. Plumes would then emplace pockets of Dupal material into the upper mantle and other ascending plumes might further disperse this material into the shallow asthenosphere. This could explain both the presence of the Dupal signature in MORB

  2. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  3. Pb evolution in the Martian mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snape, J. F.; Bland, P.; Benedix, G. K.; Roszjar, J.

    2018-03-01

    The initial Pb compositions of one enriched shergottite, one intermediate shergottite, two depleted shergottites, and Nakhla have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). These values, in addition to data from previous studies using an identical analytical method performed on three enriched shergottites, ALH 84001, and Chassigny, are used to construct a unified and internally consistent model for the differentiation history of the Martian mantle and crystallization ages for Martian meteorites. The differentiation history of the shergottites and Nakhla/Chassigny are fundamentally different, which is in agreement with short-lived radiogenic isotope systematics. The initial Pb compositions of Nakhla/Chassigny are best explained by the late addition of a Pb-enriched component with a primitive, non-radiogenic composition. In contrast, the Pb isotopic compositions of the shergottite group indicate a relatively simple evolutionary history of the Martian mantle that can be modeled based on recent results from the Sm-Nd system. The shergottites have been linked to a single mantle differentiation event at 4504 Ma. Thus, the shergottite Pb isotopic model here reflects a two-stage history 1) pre-silicate differentiation (4504 Ma) and 2) post-silicate differentiation to the age of eruption (as determined by concordant radiogenic isochron ages). The μ-values (238U/204Pb) obtained for these two different stages of Pb growth are μ1 of 1.8 and a range of μ2 from 1.4-4.7, respectively. The μ1-value of 1.8 is in broad agreement with enstatite and ordinary chondrites and that proposed for proto Earth, suggesting this is the initial μ-value for inner Solar System bodies. When plotted against other source radiogenic isotopic variables (Sri, γ187Os, ε143Nd, and ε176Hf), the second stage mantle evolution range in observed mantle μ-values display excellent linear correlations (r2 > 0.85) and represent a spectrum of Martian mantle mixing-end members (depleted

  4. The evolution and ascent paths of mantle xenolith-bearing magma: Observations and insights from Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pu; Niu, Yaoling; Guo, Pengyuan; Cui, Huixia; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju

    2018-06-01

    Studies have shown that mantle xenolith-bearing magmas must ascend rapidly to carry mantle xenoliths to the surface. It has thus been inferred inadvertently that such rapid ascending melt must have undergone little crystallization or evolution. However, this inference is apparently inconsistent with the widespread observation that xenolith-bearing alkali basalts are variably evolved with Mg# ≤72. In this paper, we discuss this important, yet overlooked, petrological problem and offer new perspectives with evidence. We analyzed the Cenozoic mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts from several locations in Southeast China that have experienced varying degrees of fractional crystallization (Mg# = 48-67). The variably evolved composition of host alkali basalts is not in contradiction with rapid ascent, but rather reflects inevitability of crystallization during ascent. Thermometry calculations for clinopyroxene (Cpx) megacrysts give equilibrium temperatures of 1238-1390 °C, which is consistent with the effect of conductive cooling and melt crystallization during ascent because TMelt > TLithosphere. The equilibrium pressure (18-27 kbar) of these Cpx megacrysts suggests that the crystallization takes place under lithospheric mantle conditions. The host melt must have experienced limited low-pressure residence in the shallower levels of lithospheric mantle and crust. This is in fact consistent with the rapid ascent of the host melt to bring mantle xenoliths to the surface.

  5. The Oxidation State of Fe in Glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago: Variable Oxygen Fugacity as a Function of Mantle Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. E.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Saal, A. E.; Kurz, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation state of the mantle plays an intrinsic role in the magmatic evolution of the Earth. Here we present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios (a proxy for ƒO2) in a suite of submarine glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago. Using previously presented major, trace, and volatile elements and isotopic data for 4 groups of glass that come from distinct mantle sources (depleted upper mantle, 2 recycled, and a primitive mantle source) we show that Fe3+/ΣFe ratios vary both with the influence of shallow level processes and with variations in mantle source. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios increase with differentiation (i.e. decreasing MgO), but show a large variation at a given MgO. Progressive degassing of sulfur accompanies decreasing Fe3+/ΣFe ratios, while assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust (as indicated by increasing Sr/Sr*) is shown to increase Fe3+/ΣFe ratios. After taking these processes into account, there is still variability in the Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of the isotopically distinct sample suites studied, yielding a magmatic ƒO2 that ranges from ΔQFM = +0.16 to +0.74 (error ITE = enriched Sr and Pb isotopes) shows evidence of mixing between oxidized and reduced sources (ITE oxidized end-member = 0.177). This suggests that mantle sources in the Galapagos that are thought to contain recycled components (i.e., WD and ITE groups) have distinct oxidation states. The high 3He/4He Fernandina samples (HHe group) are shown to be the most oxidized (ave. 0.175 ± 0.006). With C/3He ratios an order of magnitude greater than MORB this suggests that the primitive mantle is a more carbonated and oxidized source than the depleted upper mantle.

  6. Mantle differentiation and thermal evolution of Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the present models for the thermal evolution of Mercury, Venus, and Mars encompass core and mantle chemical differentiation, lithospheric growth, and volcanic heat-transfer processes. Calculation results indicate that crust and lithosphere thicknesses are primarily dependent on planet size as well as the bulk concentration of planetary radiogenic elements and the lithosphere's thermal conductivity. The evidence for Martian volcanism for at least 3.5 Gyr, and in Mercury for up to 1 Gyr, in conjunction with the presence of a magnetic field on Mercury and its absence on Mars, suggest the dominance of a lithospheric conduction heat-transfer mechanism in these planets for most of their thermal history; by contrast, volcanic heat piping may have been an important heat-transfer mechanism on Venus. 50 refs

  7. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  8. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  9. Mantle convection patterns reveal the enigma of the Red Sea rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, Alexey; Kaban, Mikhail; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-04-01

    explained either by the asthenospheric upwelling due to the Red Sea floor spreading or by a secondary plume rising from the transition zone. According to our model, there is no obvious evidence for a direct connection of the hot anomaly below the central part of the RSR and the Afar plume in the upper mantle. In the northern part of the RSR, we found the ridge-axis aligned downstream flow contradicting the hypothesis of the intra-continental rifting in this area. Likely, the tectonics of this area implies a complex interplay of the Dead Sea transform fault development and the Sinai and Mediterranean tectonics. Kaban, M. K., S. El Khrepy, N. Al-Arifi, M. Tesauro, and W. Stolk (2016), Three dimensional density model of the upper mantle in the Middle East: Interaction of diverse tectonic processes, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JB012755. Petrunin, A. G.; Kaban, M. K.; Rogozhina, I.; Trubitsyn, V. (2013). Revising the spectral method as applied to modeling mantle dynamics. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems (G3), EDOC: 21048.

  10. Interactions between magma and the lithospheric mantle during Cenozoic rifting in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Romain; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2010-05-01

    During the Cenozoic, extensive intraplate volcanic activity occurred throughout Central Europe. Volcanic eruptions extend over France (the Massif Central), central Germany (Eifel, Vogelsberg, Rhön; Heldburg), the Czech Republic (the Eger graben) and SW Poland (Lower Silesia), a region ~1,200 km wide. The origin of this predominantly alkaline intraplate magmatism is often genetically linked to one or several mantle plumes, but there is no convincing evidence for this. We have measured Pb isotope ratios, together with major and trace elements, in a representative set of mafic to felsic igneous rocks from the intra-plate Cenozoic Rhön Mts. and the Heldburg dike swarm in order to gain insight into the melting source and petrogenetic history of these melts. Three different mafic rock types (tholeiitic basalt, alkali basalt, basanite) were distinguished based on petrography and geochemistry within the investigated areas. Except for the lherzolite-bearing phonolite from the Veste Heldburg all other evolved magmas are trachytes. REE geochemistry and calculated partial melting modeling experiments for the three mafic magma types point to different degrees of partial melting in a garnet-bearing mantle source. In addition a new version of the ternary Th-Hf-Ta diagram is presented in this study as a useful petrological tool. This diagram is not only able to define potentially involved melting source end-members (e.g. asthenosphere, sub-continental lithospheric mantle and continental crust) but also interactions between these members are illustrated. An advantage of this diagram compared to partial melting degree sensitive multi-element diagrams is that a ternary diagram is a closed system. An earlier version of this diagram has been recently used to establish the nature and extent of crust mantle melt interaction of volcanic rifted margins magmas (Meyer et al. 2009). The Th-Hf-Ta geochemistry of the investigated magmas is similar to spinel and garnet xenoliths from different

  11. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2010-06-01

    deformation. From geological evidence that a cratonic root survives at the surface for billions of years, the WCM may have existed in the past supercontinent throughout the Earth's geologic history. The preliminary model presented here should represent an important step toward realizing a more realistic model that could be used to address many outstanding geodynamic problems about the thermal and mechanical feedbacks between the mantle and continents and the temporal evolution of the Earth's mantle structure.

  12. Conjecture with water and rheological control for subducting slab in the mantle transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Tajima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic observations have shown structural variation near the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ where subducted cold slabs, as visualized with high seismic speed anomalies (HSSAs, flatten to form stagnant slabs or sink further into the lower mantle. The different slab behaviors were also accompanied by variation of the “660 km” discontinuity depths and low viscosity layers (LVLs beneath the MTZ that are suggested by geoid inversion studies. We address that deep water transport by subducted slabs and dehydration from hydrous slabs could affect the physical properties of mantle minerals and govern slab dynamics. A systematic series of three-dimensional numerical simulation has been conducted to examine the effects of viscosity reduction or contrast between slab materials on slab behaviors near the base of the MTZ. We found that the viscosity reduction of subducted crustal material leads to a separation of crustal material from the slab main body and its transient stagnation in the MTZ. The once trapped crustal materials in the MTZ eventually sink into the lower mantle within 20–30 My from the start of the plate subduction. The results suggest crustal material recycle in the whole mantle that is consistent with evidence from mantle geochemistry as opposed to a two-layer mantle convection model. Because of the smaller capacity of water content in lower mantle minerals than in MTZ minerals, dehydration should occur at the phase transformation depth, ∼660 km. The variation of the discontinuity depths and highly localized low seismic speed anomaly (LSSA zones observed from seismic P waveforms in a relatively high frequency band (∼1 Hz support the hypothesis of dehydration from hydrous slabs at the phase boundary. The LSSAs which correspond to dehydration induced fluids are likely to be very local, given very small hydrogen (H+ diffusivity associated with subducted slabs. The image of such local LSSA zones embedded in HSSAs may not

  13. Hydrogen storage in Earth's mantle and core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Two different approaches to explaining how hydrogen might be stored in the mantle are illustrated by a number of papers published over the past 25-30 years, but there has been little attempt to provide objective comparisons of the two. One approach invokes the presence in the mantle of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMS) stable at elevated pressures and temperatures. The other involves nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) that contain hydrogen as a minor constituent on the ppm level. Experimental studies on DHMS indicate these phases may be stable to pressures and temperatures as high at 16 GPa and 1200 C. This temperature is lower than that indicated by a mantle geotherm at 16 GPa, but may be reasonable for a subducting slab. It is possible that other DHMS could be stable to even higher pressures, but little is known about maximum temperature limits. For NAM, small amounts of hydrogen (up to several hundred ppm) have been detected in olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet recovered from xenoliths in kimberlites, eclogites, and alkali basalts; it has been demonstrated that synthetic wadsleyite and perovskite can accommodate significant amounts of hydrogen. A number of problems are associated with each possibility. For NAM originating in the mantle, one would like to assume that the hydrogen measured in samples recovered on Earth's surface was incorporated when the phase-crystallized at high temperatures and pressures, but it could have been introduced during transport to the surface. Major problems for the DHMS proponents are that none of these phases have been found as minerals and little is yet known about their stabilities in systems containing other cations such as Fe, Al, and Ca.

  14. Physics and Chemistry of Mantle Plumes

    OpenAIRE

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Stolper, Edward M.; Thomas, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    Hot spot volcanic chains are a fundamental feature of the Earth's crust, but their origins are still poorly understood [Okal and Batiza, 1987]. The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, which dominates the topography of the central Pacific ocean floor, is the best developed and most intensely studied of the known hot spot tracks. It continues to be one of the world's most important field laboratories for the study of igneous processes, plate movements, mantle convection, structure, geochemical evo...

  15. Water in Earth's mantle: Hydrogen analysis of mantle olivine, pyroxenes and garnet using the SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen (or water) in the Earth's interior plays a key role in the evolution and dynamics of the planet. However, the abundance and the existence form of the hydrogen have scarcely been clear in practice. Hydrogen in the mantle was incorporated in the interior during the formation of the Earth. The incorporated hydrogen was hardly possible to concentrate locally inside the Earth considering its high mobility and high reactivity. The hydrogen, preferably, could be distributed homogeneously over the mantle and the core by the subsequent physical and chemical processes. Therefore, hydrogen in the mantle could be present in the form of trace hydrogen in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals. The hydrogen and the other trace elements in mantle olivines, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, and garnets were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for elucidating (1) the exact hydrogen contents, (2) the correlation between the hydrogen and the other trace elements, (3) the dependence of the hydrogen contents on the depth, and (4) the dependence of the whole rock water contents on the depth.

  16. Evolution of depleted mantle: The lead perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, George R.

    1983-07-01

    Isotopic data have established that, compared to estimated bulk earth abundances, the sources of oceanic basaltic lavas have been depleted in large ion lithophile elements for at least several billions of years. Various data on the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Cretaceous Oka carbonatite show that those rocks also sample depleted mantle sources. This information is used by analogy to compare Pb isotopic data from 2.6 billion year old komatiite and carbonatite from the Suomussalmi belt of eastern Finland and Munro Township, Ontario that are with associated granitic rocks and ores that should contain marked crustal components. Within experimental error no differences are detected in the isotopic composition of initial Pb in either of the rock suites. These observations agree closely with Sr and Nd data from other laboratories showing that depleted mantle could not have originated in those areas more than a few tenths of billions of years before the rocks were emplaced. On a world-wide basis the Pb isotope data are consistent with production of depleted mantle by continuous differentiation processes acting over approximately the past 3 billion years. The data show that Pb evolution is more complex than the simpler models derived from the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems. The nature of the complexity is still poorly understood.

  17. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  18. Mantle updrafts and mechanisms of oceanic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Don L.; Natland, James H.

    2014-10-01

    Convection in an isolated planet is characterized by narrow downwellings and broad updrafts-consequences of Archimedes' principle, the cooling required by the second law of thermodynamics, and the effect of compression on material properties. A mature cooling planet with a conductive low-viscosity core develops a thick insulating surface boundary layer with a thermal maximum, a subadiabatic interior, and a cooling highly conductive but thin boundary layer above the core. Parts of the surface layer sink into the interior, displacing older, colder material, which is entrained by spreading ridges. Magma characteristics of intraplate volcanoes are derived from within the upper boundary layer. Upper mantle features revealed by seismic tomography and that are apparently related to surface volcanoes are intrinsically broad and are not due to unresolved narrow jets. Their morphology, aspect ratio, inferred ascent rate, and temperature show that they are passively responding to downward fluxes, as appropriate for a cooling planet that is losing more heat through its surface than is being provided from its core or from radioactive heating. Response to doward flux is the inverse of the heat-pipe/mantle-plume mode of planetary cooling. Shear-driven melt extraction from the surface boundary layer explains volcanic provinces such as Yellowstone, Hawaii, and Samoa. Passive upwellings from deeper in the upper mantle feed ridges and near-ridge hotspots, and others interact with the sheared and metasomatized surface layer. Normal plate tectonic processes are responsible both for plate boundary and intraplate swells and volcanism.

  19. A model for osmium isotopic evolution of metallic solids at the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, Munir

    2011-03-01

    Some plumes are thought to originate at the core-mantle boundary, but geochemical evidence of core-mantle interaction is limited to Os isotopes in samples from Hawaii, Gorgona (89 Ma), and Kostomuksha (2.7 Ga). The Os isotopes have been explained by physical entrainment of Earth's liquid outer core into mantle plumes. This model has come into conflict with geophysical estimates of the timing of core formation, high-pressure experimental determinations of the solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients (D), and the absence of expected 182W anomalies. A new model is proposed where metallic liquid from the outer core is partially trapped in a compacting cumulate pile of Fe-rich nonmetallic precipitates (FeO, FeS, Fe3Si, etc.) at the top of the core and undergoes fractional crystallization precipitating solid metal grains, followed by expulsion of the residual metallic liquid back to the outer core. The Os isotopic composition of the solids and liquids in the cumulate pile is modeled as a function of the residual liquid remaining and the emplacement age using 1 bar D values, with variable amounts of oxygen (0-10 wt %) as the light element. The precipitated solids evolve Os isotope compositions that match the trends for Hawaii (at an emplacement age of 3.5-4.5 Ga; 5%-10% oxygen) and Gorgona (emplacement age < 1.5 Ga; 0%-5% oxygen). The Fe-rich matrix of the cumulate pile dilutes the precipitated solid metal decoupling the Fe/Mn ratio from Os and W isotopes. The advantages to using precipitated solid metal as the Os host include a lower platinum group element and Ni content to the mantle source region relative to excess iron, miniscule anomalies in 182W (<0.1 ɛ), and no effects for Pb isotopes, etc. A gradual thermomechanical erosion of the cumulate pile results in incorporation of this material into the base of the mantle, where mantle plumes subsequently entrain it. Fractional crystallization of metallic liquids within the CMB provides a consistent explanation of

  20. Upper Mantle Dynamics of Bangladesh by Splitting Analyzes of Core Refracted SKS and SKKS Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A. K.; Bhushan, K.; Eken, T.; Singh, A.

    2017-12-01

    New shear wave splitting measurements are obtained from hitherto less studied Bengal Basin using core refracted SKS and SKKS phases. Splitting parameters, time delays (δt) and fast polarization directions (Φ) were estimated through analysis of 64 high-quality waveforms (≥ 2.5 signal to noise ratio) from 29 earthquakes with magnitude ≥5.5 recorded at eight seismic stations deployed over Bangladesh. We found no evidence of splitting which indicates azimuthal isotropy beneath the region. Null measurements can be explained by near vertical axis of anisotropy or by the presence of multiple anisotropic layers with different fast polarization directions, where combined effect results in null. We consider that the presence of partial melts within the upper mantle due to Kerguelen mantle plume activities may be the potential geodynamic cause for observed null measurements. It locally perturbed mantle convection flow beneath the region and reoriented the lattice preferred orientation of the upper mantle mineral mainly olivine as this disabled the core refracted SKS and SKKS phases to scan the anisotropic characteristics of the region, and hence null measurements are obtained.

  1. A >100 Ma Mantle Geochemical Record: Retiring Mantle Plumes may be Premature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Hanan, B. B.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Koppers, A. A.; Plank, T.; Staudigel, H.

    2006-12-01

    Hotspot volcanism has long been attributed to mantle plumes, but in recent years suggestions have been made that plate tectonic processes, such as extension, can account for all hotspot tracks. This explanation involves a profoundly less dynamic lower mantle, which justifies a critical evaluation before the plume model is dismissed. Such an evaluation has to involve a wide range of geochemical, geological, and geophysical techniques, broadly investigating the products of volcanism as well as the underlying lithosphere and mantle. We argue here that the combined geological record and geochemistry of intraplate volcanoes holds some important clues that help us decide between models of plume-like upwelling versus passive upwelling with lithospheric extension. The best of these integrated datasets can be obtained from the long seamount chains in the Pacific Ocean. A new combined dataset of trace element and isotopic compositions, along with modern 40Ar/39Ar ages from seamounts in the Gilbert Ridge, Tokelau chain, and West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) provides a record of current to Cretaceous volcanism in the South Pacific. We have reconstructed the eruptive locations of the seamounts using a range of absolute plate motion models, including some models with hotspot motion and others that use the Indo-Atlantic hotspot reference frame. Our results show that the backtracked locations consistently form clusters (300km radius) around the active ends of the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hotspot chains, while closely matching their distinct C-HIMU and C-EM1 signatures. The oldest WPSP seamounts (older than 100 Ma) form the only exception and backtrack, with larger uncertainty, to north of Rarotonga. Therefore, the mantle currently underlying the Cook-Austral islands has produced volcanoes in three geochemically distinct areas for at least 100 m.y. Furthermore, we find the shortest mantle residence time, 0.6 Ga, for a source of mixed recycled DMM and an EM1-like

  2. Lenalidomide-bendamustine-rituximab in untreated mantle cell lymphoma > 65 years with untreated mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years with untr......For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years...

  3. Mantle mixing and thermal evolution during Pangaea assembly and breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Li, M.; Zhong, S.; Manga, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continents insulate the underlying mantle, and it has been suggested that the arrangement of the continents can have a significant effect on sub-continental mantle temperatures. Additionally, the dispersal or agglomeration of continents may affect the efficacy of continental insulation, with some studies suggesting warming of 100K beneath supercontinents. During the most recent supercontinent cycle, Pangaea was encircled by subduction, potentially creating a `curtain' of subducted material that may have prevented mixing of the sub-Pangaea mantle with the sub-Panthalassa mantle. Using 3D spherical shell geometry mantle convection simulations, we quantify the effect of insulation by continents and supercontinents. We explore the differences in model predictions for purely thermal vs. thermochemical convection, and we use tracers to quantify the exchange of material between the sub-oceanic to the sub-continental mantle.

  4. Effect of Mantle Wedge Hybridization by Sediment Melt on Geochemistry of Arc Magma and Arc Mantle Source - Insights from Laboratory Experiments at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.; Nelson, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Generation of arc magmas involves metasomatism of the mantle wedge by slab-derived H2O-rich fluids and/or melts and subsequent melting of the modified source. The chemistry of arc magmas and the residual mantle wedge are not only regulated by the chemistry of the slab input, but also by the phase relations of metasomatism or hybridization process in the wedge. The sediment-derived silica-rich fluids and hydrous partial melts create orthopyroxene-rich zones in the mantle wedge, due to reaction of mantle olivine with silica in the fluid/melt [1,2]. Geochemical evidence for such a reaction comes from pyroxenitic lithologies coexisting with peridotite in supra-subduction zones. In this study, we have simulated the partial melting of a parcel of mantle wedge modified by bulk addition of sediment-derived melt with variable H2O contents to investigate the major and trace element chemistry of the magmas and the residues formed by this process. Experiments at 2-3 GPa and 1150-1300 °C were conducted on mixtures of 25% sediment-derived melt and 75% lherzolite, with bulk H2O contents varying from 2 to 6 wt.%. Partial reactive crystallization of the rhyolitic slab-derived melt and partial melting of the mixed source produced a range of melt compositions from ultra-K basanites to basaltic andesites, in equilibrium with an orthopyroxene ± phlogopite ± clinopyroxene ± garnet bearing residue, depending on P and bulk H2O content. Model calculations using partition coefficients (from literature) of trace elements between experimental minerals and silicate melt suggest that the geochemical signatures of the slab-derived melt, such as low Ce/Pb and depletion in Nb and Ta (characteristic slab signatures) are not erased from the resulting melt owing to reactive crystallization. The residual mineral assemblage is also found to be similar to the supra-subduction zone lithologies, such as those found in Dabie Shan (China) and Sanbagawa Belt (Japan). In this presentation, we will also

  5. Coldspots and hotspots - Global tectonics and mantle dynamics of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Schubert, Gerald; Kaula, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Based on geologic observations provided by Magellan's first cycle of data collection and recent models of mantle convection in spherical shells and crustal deformation, the major topographic and geologic features of Venus are incorporated into a model of global mantle dynamics. Consideration is given to volcanic rises, such as Beta Regio and Atla Regio, plateau-shaped highlands dominated by complex ridged terrain (e.g., Ovda Regio and Alpha Regio), and circular lowland regions, such as Atalanta Planitia. Each of these features is related to either mantle plumes (hotspots) or mantle downwellings (coldspots).

  6. Atlas of the Underworld : Paleo-subduction, -geography, -atmosphere and -sea level reconstructed from present-day mantle structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe G.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I aimed at searching for new ways of constraining paleo-geographic, -atmosphere and -sea level reconstructions, through an extensive investigation of mantle structure in seismic tomographic models. To this end, I explored evidence for paleo-subduction in these models and how this may

  7. Probing Mantle Heterogeneity Across Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, A.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Inferences of mantle heterogeneity in terms of temperature, composition, grain size, melt and crystal structure may vary across local, regional and global scales. Probing these scale-dependent effects require quantitative comparisons and reconciliation of tomographic models that vary in their regional scope, parameterization, regularization and observational constraints. While a range of techniques like radial correlation functions and spherical harmonic analyses have revealed global features like the dominance of long-wavelength variations in mantle heterogeneity, they have limited applicability for specific regions of interest like subduction zones and continental cratons. Moreover, issues like discrepant 1-D reference Earth models and related baseline corrections have impeded the reconciliation of heterogeneity between various regional and global models. We implement a new wavelet-based approach that allows for structure to be filtered simultaneously in both the spectral and spatial domain, allowing us to characterize heterogeneity on a range of scales and in different geographical regions. Our algorithm extends a recent method that expanded lateral variations into the wavelet domain constructed on a cubed sphere. The isolation of reference velocities in the wavelet scaling function facilitates comparisons between models constructed with arbitrary 1-D reference Earth models. The wavelet transformation allows us to quantify the scale-dependent consistency between tomographic models in a region of interest and investigate the fits to data afforded by heterogeneity at various dominant wavelengths. We find substantial and spatially varying differences in the spectrum of heterogeneity between two representative global Vp models constructed using different data and methodologies. Applying the orthonormality of the wavelet expansion, we isolate detailed variations in velocity from models and evaluate additional fits to data afforded by adding such complexities to long

  8. Magnesium isotopic composition of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, F.; Li, W.; Ke, S.; Marty, B.; Huang, S.; Dauphas, N.; Wu, F.; Helz, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of Mg isotopic composition of the Earth not only are important for understanding its geochemistry but also can shed light on the accretion history of the Earth as well as the evolution of the Earth-Moon system. However, to date, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth is still poorly constrained and highly debated. There is uncertainty in the magnitude of Mg isotope fractionation at mantle temperatures and whether the Earth has a chondritic Mg isotopic composition or not. To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the mantle and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during igneous differentiation, we report >200 high-precision (δ26Mg French Polynesian volcanoes (Society island and Cook Austral chain); 3) olivine grains from Hawaiian volcanoes (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and 4) peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA. Global oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have a limited (<0.2 ‰) variation in Mg isotopic composition, with an average δ26Mg = -0.25 relative to DSM3. Olivines from Hawaiian lavas have δ26Mg ranging from -0.43 to +0.03, with most having compositions identical to basalts and peridotites. Therefore, the mantle’s δ26Mg value is estimated to be ~ -0.25 ± 0.1 (2SD), different from that reported by Wiechert and Halliday (2007; δ26Mg = ~ 0) but similar to more recent studies (δ26Mg = -0.27 to -0.33) (Teng et al. 2007; Handler et al. 2009; Yang et al., 2009). Moreover, we suggest the Earth, as represented by the mantle, has a Mg isotopic composition similar to chondrites (δ26Mg = ~-0.33). The need for a model such as that of Wiechert and Halliday (2007) that involves sorting of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the proto planetary disc is thus not required to explain the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth.

  9. Hawaiian lavas: a window into mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tim; Davies, Rhodri; Campbell, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of double track volcanism at Hawaii has traditionally posed two problems: (i) the physical emergence of two parallel chains of volcanoes at around 3 Ma, named the Loa and Kea tracks after the largest volcanoes in their sequence, and (ii) the systematic geochemical differences between the erupted lavas along each track. In this study, we dissolve this distinction by providing a geodynamical explanation for the physical emergence of double track volcanism at 3 Ma and use numerical models of the Hawaiian plume to illustrate how this process naturally leads to each volcanic track sampling distinct mantle compositions, which accounts for much of the geochemical characteristics of the Loa and Kea trends.

  10. MicroRNAs in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Geisler, Christian; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. New treatment modalities, including intensive induction regimens with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, have improved survival. However, many patients still relapse, and there is a need...... for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCL. Comparisons of tumor samples from patients with MCL with their normal counterparts (naive B-cells) have identified differentially expressed miRNAs with roles in cellular growth...

  11. Thyorid function after mantle field radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnert, W.; Kutzner, J.; Grimm, W.

    1981-01-01

    48 patients with malignant lymphoma received a 60 Co-radiation dose of 30 to 50 Gy using the mantle field technique. Thyroid function tests were performed 34 to 92 months after radiation therapy. One patient developed myxedema, ten (20.8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and six (12.5%) latent hypothyroidism. The incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment of malignant lymphomas is summarized in a review of the literature. Discrepancies on the incidence of hypothyroidism were found, and their possible cause is discussed. Periodic examinations of all patients with thyroid radiation exposure are recommended. The examination can be limited to measurement of TSH concentration and palpation of the thyroid for nodules. (orig.) [de

  12. Isotope geochemistry of xenoliths from East Africa. Implications for development of mantle reservoirs and their interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R S; O' Nions, R K [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Dawson, J B [Sheffield Univ. (UK). Dept. of Geology

    1984-05-01

    Pd, Nd and Sr isotope analyses together with U, Pb, Sm, Nd, Rb and Sr concentrations have been obtained for separated phases of lherzolite and bulk rock mafic granulite xenoliths in Recent volcanics from Tanzania. A garnet lherzolite from the Lashaine vent has yielded the least radiogenic Pb (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/PB=15.55) and Nd (/sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd=0.51127; epsilon/sup 0/sub(Nd)=-26.7) isotope compositions recorded so far for an ultramafic xenolith, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=0.83604. The Pb isotope compositions of the mafic granulites are variable 15.77evidence for depletion of U relative to Pb up to 2.0 Ga ago. Overall the isotope results suggest that the mantle part of the continental lithosphere beneath Tanzania has components that have undergone a complex history that includes major chemical fractionations ca. 2.0 Ga ago. A phlogopite-amphibole vein from the Pello Hill sample has Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts, indicating both a young emplacement age for the vein material and a source which had an isotopic signature characteristic of depleted mantle. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systematics of ultramafic xenoliths do not conform with those of MORB, particularly in terms of their Pb-Sr, and Nd-Pb relationship. In this regard they are similar to some ocean islands and could be a viable source material for some ocean island basalts at least. The mantle part of the continental lithosphere is as likely to contain recycled components derived from the continental crust as are other regions of mantle. If the mantle part of continental lithosphere is invoked as a source for ocean islands, it does not negate the possibility that substantial recycled components are involved.

  13. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the mantle propels kimberlite magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2015-06-01

    Kimberlite is a rare volcanic rock renowned as the major host of diamonds and originated at the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Although kimberlite magmas are dense in crystals and deeply-derived rock fragments, they ascend to the surface extremely rapidly, enabling diamonds to survive. The unique physical properties of kimberlite magmas depend on the specific compositions of their parental melts that, in absence of historical eruptions and due to pervasive alteration of kimberlite rocks, remain highly debatable. We explain exceptionally rapid ascent of kimberlite magma from mantle depths by combining empirical data on the essentially carbonatite composition of the kimberlite primary melts and experimental evidence on interaction of the carbonate liquids with mantle minerals. Our experimental study shows that orthopyroxene is completely dissolved in a Na2CO3 melt at 2.0-5.0 GPa and 1000-1200 °C. The dissolution of orthopyroxene results in homogeneous silicate-carbonate melt at 5.0 GPa and 1200 °C, and is followed by unmixing of carbonate and carbonated silicate melts and formation of stable magmatic emulsion at lower pressures and temperatures. The dispersed silicate melt has a significant capacity for storing a carbonate component in the deep mantle (13 wt% CO2 at 2.0 GPa). We envisage that this component reaches saturation and is gradually released as CO2 bubbles, as the silicate melt globules are transported upwards through the lithosphere by the carbonatite magma. The globules of unmixed, CO2-rich silicate melt are continuously produced upon further reaction between the natrocarbonatite melt and mantle peridotite. On decompression the dispersed silicate melt phase ensures a continuous supply of CO2 bubbles that decrease density and increase buoyancy and promote rapid ascent of the magmatic emulsion.

  14. Mantle melting and melt refertilization beneath the Southwest Indian Ridge: Mineral composition of abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhu, Jihao; Chu, Fengyou; Dong, Yan-hui; Liu, Jiqiang; Li, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhimin; Tang, Limei

    2017-04-01

    As one of the slowest spreading ridges of the global ocean ridge system, the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is characterized by discontinued magmatism. The 53°E segment between the Gallieni fracture zone (FZ) (52°20'E) and the Gazelle FZ (53°30'E) is a typical amagmatic segment (crustal thickness 1cm) Opx, and Mg-rich mineral compositions akin to harzburgite xenoliths that sample old continental lithospheric mantle (Kelemen et al., 1998). Melt refertilization model shows that Group 2 peridotites were affected by an enriched low-degree partial melt from the garnet stability field. These results indicate that depleted mantle which experiences ancient melting event are more sensitive to melt refertilization, thus may reduce the melt flux, leading to extremely thin crust at 53°E segment. This research was granted by the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 programme) (grant No. 2013CB429705) and the Fundamental Research Funds of Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (JG1603, SZ1507). References: Johnson K T M, Dick H J B, Shimizu N. Melting in the oceanic upper mantle: An ion microprobe study of diopsides in abyssal peridotites[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95(B3):2661-2678. Kelemen P B, Hart S R, Bernstein S. Silica enrichment in the continental upper mantle via melt/rock reaction[J]. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 1998, 164(1-2):387-406. Zhou H, Dick H J. Thin crust as evidence for depleted mantle supporting the Marion Rise.[J]. Nature, 2013, 494(7436):195-200.

  15. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  16. The basal part of the Oman ophiolitic mantle: a fossil Mantle Wedge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite; Chauvet, Alain; Dubacq, Benoit; Monié, Patrick; Yamato, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Fluids involved in the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere and in the presence of a secondary boninitic and andesitic volcanism may provide a way to discriminate between these two interpretations: are they descending near-axis hydrothermal fluxes (first model) or ascending from a subducting slab (second model)? We herein focus on the base of the ophiolitic mantle in order to characterize the origin of fluids and decipher hydration processes. Samples were taken along hecto- to kilometre-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Our results show that, unlike the generally refractory character of Oman harzburgites, all the basal mantle rocks display secondary crystallization of clinopyroxene and amphibole through metasomatic processes. The microstructures and the chronology of these secondary mineralizations (clinopyroxene, pargasitic amphibole, antigorite and then lizardite/chrysotile) suggest that these basal rocks have been affected by cooling from mantle temperatures (serpentines (B, Sr, Rb, Ba, As), are consistent with amphibolite-derived fluids (Ishikawa et al., 2005) and cannot be easily explained by other sources. Based on these observations, we propose a geodynamic model in which intense and continuous metasomatism of the cooling base of the ophiolitic mantle is due to the release of fluids coming from the progressive dehydration of underlying amphibolitic rocks. This process is compatible with the progressive subduction of the Arabian margin during the Upper

  17. The role of plumes in mantle helium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, L.H.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a simple model of 3 He and 4 He transport in the mantle using the appropriate rates of mass and species transfer and 4 He production. Previous workers have shown the presence of excess 3 He in hotspots such as Hawaii and Iceland and inferred that these hotspots tap a source with a higher 3 He/ 4 He ratio than the source region of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Hotspot ocean islands probably originate over upwelling plumes which carry material from the lower mantle to the upper mantle. Melting at hotspots and at mid-ocean ridges degasses the mantle of volatiles such as helium. The upper mantle is outgassed largely of helium due to melting at mid-ocean ridges and hotspots. We postulate that the excess 3 He seen in MORB originates in material that was carried from the lower mantle in plumes but not completely outgassed at hotspots. This helium is incoporated into the depleted upper mantle. Assuming that the upper mantle is in a quasi-steady-state with respect to helium, a simple model balancing 3 He and 4 He fluxes in the upper mantle indicates that the hotspots significantly outgas the lower mantle of 3 He. The concentration of 4 He in the plume source reservoir is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in carbonaceous chondrites. The residence time of helium in the upper mantle depends on the outgassing efficiency at hotspots, since the hotspots may outgas some upper mantle material which has been entrained in the plumes. The residence time of He in the upper mantle is about 1.4x10 9 yr. We conclude that the efficiency of outgassing of He from plumes is high and that the plumes dominate the present 3 He loss to the atmosphere. The 4 He in the less depleted layer of the mantle is not trapped ''primordial'' but is predominantly from in situ decay of U and Th in the depleted layer over ≅ 1.4x10 9 yr. The 4 He in the lower mantle is dominantly from in situ decay of U and Th over 4.4x10 9 yr. (orig./WL)

  18. Electromagnetic exploration of the oceanic mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic exploration is a geophysical method for examining the Earth's interior through observations of natural or artificial electromagnetic field fluctuations. The method has been in practice for more than 70 years, and 40 years ago it was first applied to ocean areas. During the past few decades, there has been noticeable progress in the methods of instrumentation, data acquisition (observation), data processing and inversion. Due to this progress, applications of this method to oceanic regions have revealed electrical features of the oceanic upper mantle down to depths of several hundred kilometers for different geologic and tectonic environments such as areas around mid-oceanic ridges, areas around hot-spot volcanoes, subduction zones, and normal ocean areas between mid-oceanic ridges and subduction zones. All these results estimate the distribution of the electrical conductivity in the oceanic mantle, which is key for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth together with different physical properties obtained through other geophysical methods such as seismological techniques.

  19. MANTLE-CRUST INTERACTION AT THE LATE STAGE OF EVOLUTION OF HERCYNIAN ALTAI COLLISION SYSTEM, WESTERN PART OF CAOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khromykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Altai collision system of Hercynides was formed in Late Paleozoic as a result of oblique collision of Siberian continent and Kazakhstan composed terrane [Vladimirov et al., 2003; 2008; Xiao et al., 2010]. At the late stages of its evolution (time interval from 310–300 to 280–270 Ma the huge different mafic and felsic magmatism occurred at the territory (Fig. 1 [Vladimirov et al., 2008; Khromykh et al., 2011, 2013, 2014, 2016; Kotler et al., 2015; Sokolova et al., 2016]. It is evident about increased thermal gradient in lithosphere and about significant role of mantle and active manifestation of mantle-crust interactions. Some magmatic complexes may be considered as indicators of mantle-crust interaction processes.

  20. Bridging the mantle: A comparison of geomagnetic polarity reversal rate, global subduction flux, and true polar wander records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggin, A. J.; Hounslow, M.; Domeier, M.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term variability in average geomagnetic reversal frequency over the Phanerozoic, consisting of superchrons interspersed with periods of hyper-reversal activity, remains one of the most prominent and enigmatic features evident within palaeomagnetic records. This variability is widely expected to reflect mantle convection modifying the pattern and/or magnitude of core-mantle boundary heat flow, and thereby affecting the geodynamo's operation, but actual causal links to surface geological processes remain tenuous. Previous studies have argued that mantle plumes, superplume oscillation, true polar wander, and avalanching of cold slabs into the lower mantle could all be at least partly responsible. Here we will present a re-evaluated reversal frequency record for the Phanerozoic and use it, together with published findings from numerical geodynamo simulations, to push further towards an integrated explanation of how the geomagnetic field has responded to mantle processes over the last few hundreds of million years. Recent work on absolute plate motions back through the Phanerozoic have allowed estimations to be made as to both the global subduction flux and rates of true polar wander through time. When considered alongside the outputs of numerical simulations of the geodynamo process, these can potentially explain long-timescale palaeomagnetic variations over the last few hundreds of million years.

  1. Life Cycle of Mantle Plumes: A perspective from the Galapagos Plume (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Hotspots are localized sources of heat and magmatism considered as modern-day evidence of mantle plumes. Some hotspots are related to massive magmatic production that generated Large Igneous Provinces (LIPS), an initial-peak phase of plume activity with a mantle source hotter and more magmatically productive than present-day hotspots. Geological mapping and geochronological studies have shown much lower eruption rates for OIB compared to lavas from Large Igneous Provinces LIPS such as oceanic plateaus and continental flood provinces. Our study is the first quantitative petrological comparison of mantle source temperatures and extent of melting for OIB and LIP sources. The wide range of primary magma compositions and inferred mantle potential temperatures for each LIP and OIB occurrence suggest that this rocks originated form a hotspot, a spatially localized source of heat and magmatism restricted in time. Extensive outcrops of basalt, picrite, and sometimes komatiite with circa 65-95 Ma ages occupy portions of the pacific shore of Central and South America included in the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). There is general consensus of a Pacific-origin of CLIP and most studies suggest that it was produced by melting in the Galapagos mantle plume. The Galapagos connection is consistent with isotopic and geochemical similarities with lavas from the present-day Galapagos hotspot. A Galapagos link for rocks in South American oceanic complexes (eg. the island of Gorgona) is more controversial and requires future work. The MgO and FeO contents of lavas from the Galapagos related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous. From petrological modeling we infer that these changes reflect a cooling of the Galapagos mantle plume from a potential temperature of 1560-1620 C in the Cretaceous to 1500 C at the present time. These temperatures are higher than 1350 C for ambient mantle associated with oceanic ridges, and provide support for the mantle

  2. Plumes do not Exist: Plate Circulation is Confined to Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2002-12-01

    Plumes from deep mantle are widely conjectured to define an absolute reference frame, inaugurate rifting, drive plates, and profoundly modify oceans and continents. Mantle properties and composition are assumed to be whatever enables plumes. Nevertheless, purported critical evidence for plume speculation is false, and all data are better interpreted without plumes. Plume fantasies are made ever more complex and ad hoc to evade contradictory data, and have no predictive value because plumes do not exist. All plume conjecture derives from Hawaii and the guess that the Emperor-Hawaii inflection records a 60-degree change in Pacific plate direction at 45 Ma. Paleomagnetic latitudes and smooth Pacific spreading patterns disprove any such change. Rationales for other fixed plumes collapse when tested, and hypotheses of jumping, splitting, and gyrating plumes are specious. Thermal and physical properties of Hawaiian lithosphere falsify plume predictions. Purported tomographic support elsewhere represents artifacts and misleading presentations. Asthenosphere is everywhere near solidus temperature, so melt needs a tensional setting for egress but not local heat. Gradational and inconsistent contrasts between MORB and OIB are as required by depth-varying melt generation and behavior in contrasted settings and do not indicate systematically unlike sources. MORB melts rise, with minimal reaction, through hot asthenosphere, whereas OIB melts react with cool lithosphere, and lose mass, by crystallizing refractories and retaining and assimilating fusibles. The unfractionated lower mantle of plume conjecture is contrary to cosmologic and thermodynamic data, for mantle below 660 km is more refractory than that above. Subduction, due to density inversion by top-down cooling that forms oceanic lithosphere, drives plate tectonics and upper-mantle circulation. It organizes plate motions and lithosphere stress, which controls plate boundaries and volcanic chains. Hinge rollback is the

  3. A Missing Link in Understanding Mantle Wedge Melting, Higashi-akaishi Peridotite, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Carlson, R. W.; Grove, T. L.; Wallis, S.; Mizukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sanbagawa subduction-type metamorphic belt in SW Japan represents the deepest exposed portion of a Mesozoic accretionary complex along the Japanese island arc. Located on the island of Shikoku, the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body is the largest ultramafic lens within the Sanbagawa belt and is dominantly composed of dunite, lherzolite and garnet clinopyroxenite, interfingered in one locality with quartz-rich eclogite. Previous work indicates the P-T history of the peridotite includes rapid prograde metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-810°C and pressures of 2.9-3.8 GPa at approximately 110-120 Ma. Here we present major and trace element and isotopic data for samples within the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body that suggest it records subduction zone melting processes. Ultramafic samples range from 40-52 wt. % SiO2 and 21-45 wt. % MgO with olivine and clinopyroxene Mg#s as high as 0.93 and have trace element concentrations diagnostic of subduction zone processes. The quartz-rich eclogite contains 62 wt. % SiO2, 6 wt. % MgO and 13 wt. % Al2O3 and has trace element concentrations that are enriched relative to the ultramafic samples. 87Sr/86Sr (.703237-.704288), 143Nd/144Nd (ɛNd=+2-6) and Pb isotopic compositions are within the range of Japanese arc rocks. 187Os/188Os values range from typical mantle values (0.123-0.129), to slightly elevated (0.133) in one peridotite with an unusually low Os content, to a high of 0.145 in the quartz-rich eclogite. The presence of garnet porphyroblasts that enclose primary euhedral chlorite, together with the chemical evidence, suggest these samples are associated with mantle melting in the presence of H2O near their peak P-T conditions and may represent both residues and trapped melts within a paleo-mantle wedge. The peak P-T conditions of these rocks are also similar to the solidus conditions of H2O-saturated fertile mantle based on experimental determinations. Thus the Higashi-akaishi peridotite may be a real world analog

  4. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  5. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  6. An Outrageous Geological Hypothesis for the Early Mars Hydro-climatic Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly a century ago a Science paper by W. M. Davis described the role for an "outrageous geological hypothesis" (OGH) as encouraging, "…a contemplation deliberate enough to seek out what conditions would make the outrage seem permissible and reasonable." Davis even advocated in 1926 that Earth scientists seriously consider "the Wegener outrage of wandering continents"- the OGH that ultimately led to the most important unifying concept for understanding the nature of Earthlike planets. Does this concept of a mobile lithosphere, manifesting itself on Earth as plate tectonics, have relevance for understanding the nature of early Mars? Conceptual arguments have been presented claiming that Mars could never have had an early phase of lithospheric dynamics similar to that associated with Earth's plate tectonics. Nevertheless, a total rejection of this OGH precludes any possibility of considering (1) the conditions that might make such dynamics possible, and (2) connections among the many phenomena that can be collectively accounted for by the OGH. While all scientific arguments are intrinsically fallible, nature presents us with absolute realities. For Mars the latter consist of the numerous anomalies related to planetary evolution that either can be explained piecemeal by ad hoc hypotheses, or, alternatively, might be viewed as part of something to be explained by a unifying, working hypothesis that may seem outrageous in the light of current theory. Briefly stated, the Early Mars OGH envisions a pre-Late Heavy Bombardment (> 4 Ga) phase of lithospheric subduction that helped generate the very powerful core dynamo while also emplacing near the core-mantle boundary a reservoir of volatiles that subsequently influenced the later Mars history of punctuated evolution, involving episodic volcanism and transient states of a denser atmosphere with associated, active hydrological cycling, including the temporary surficial expressions of oceans, lakes, glaciers, and rivers.

  7. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  8. Behaviour of the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systems of the mafic-ultramafic layered sequence from Ribeirao dos Motas (Archaean), meridional craton Sao Francisco: evidences of mantle source enrichment and isotopic fractionation; Comportamento dos sistemas Sm-Nd e Rb-Sr da sequencia acamadada mafico-ultramafico Ribeirao dos Motas (Arqueano), craton Sao Francisco Meridional: evidencias de enriquecimento mantelico e fracionamento isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio; Carvalho Junior, Irneu Mendes de; Oliveira, Arildo Henrique de [Ouro Preto Univ., (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: mauricio@degeo.ufop.br; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Pimentel, Marcio Martins [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia

    2004-10-15

    The Ribeirao dos Motas layered sequence (SARM) crops out in the southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil. This sequence comprises phaneritic meta ultramafic and metamafic rocks, which, although slightly deformed and metamorphosed, retain primary igneous layers. Porphyritic rocks with idiomorphic pyroxene crystals and heteradcumulate and adcumulate textures are also present. Eighteen isotopic analyses were performed in the SARM, comprising rocks with primary (relict) textures, as well as rocks in amphibolite facies and retro-metamorphosed to green-schist facies. Seven samples yield a Sm/Nd isochron age of 2.79 +- 0.30 Ga (MSWD=1.2 e epsilon {sub Ndt}=+0.48), constraining the accretion time of the SARM rocks. The positive epsilon {sub Ndt} value coupled with the Rb/Sr evidence is consistent with mantle source relatively enriched in Nd and Sr isotopes. Nevertheless, some SARM samples display isotopic fractionation and disturbance, which can be ascribed to the following processes or their combinations: a) mobilization of the incompatible elements due to regional high grade metamorphism; b) isotopic changes during upper amphibolite facies overprint; c) isotopic resetting by low-grade fluids associated to the Claudio Shear zone, which is located nearby the SARM. (author)

  9. Mantle geofluid and uranium ore-formation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianhua; Liu Shuai; Yu Dagan; Zhang Bangtong

    2005-01-01

    Results of the recent research show that volcanic-type and granite-type uranium deposits have both early and late phases of uranium mineralization, and the early phase uranium mineralization is characterized by metallogenetic features of mantle fluids. This paper discusses the geofluids and related metallogenesis, as well as characteristics of early phase uranium mineralisation, and emphasizes, that the ΣCO 2 , U and H 2 O, that comprise the bulk of the ore-forming hot fluids, are originated from different sources, namely CO 2 comes from mantle fluids, U comes from country rocks the mantle fluids have passed during their ascending way, and H 2 O comes from mantle fluids and country rocks the mantle fluids have passed during their ascending way. (authors)

  10. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  11. Crust-mantle contribution to Andean magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J; Hildreth, W; Chesley, J

    2001-01-01

    There has long been great interest in quantifying the contributions of the continental crust to continental arc magmas, such as those of the Andes using osmium isotopes (Alves et al., 1999; Borg et al., 2000; Brandon et al., 1996; McInnes et al., 1999). In general, Andean volcanic rocks of all compositions show relatively low Sr-isotope ratios and positive to mildly negative epsilon Nd values. Nonetheless, in the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile, basalt-andesite-dacite volcanoes along the Quaternary volcanic front were shown (by Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) to have latitudinally systematic chemical variations, as well as a monotonic increase in 87Sr/Sr86 from ca. 0.7035 to 0.7055 and a decrease in epsilon Nd values from ca. +3 to -1. The isotopic variations correlate with basement elevation of the volcanic edifices and with Bouguer gravity anomalies, both of which are thought to reflect along-arc variations in thickness and average age of the underlying crust. Volcanoes with the most evolved isotopic signatures were fed through the thickest crust. Correlation of chemical and isotopic variations with crustal thickness was interpreted to be caused by Melting (of deep-crustal host rocks), Assimilation, Storage, and Homogenization (MASH) of mantle-derived magmas in long-lived lower-crustal reservoirs beneath each center prior to eruption. We have now determined Os-isotope ratios for a sample suite from these volcanoes (33-36 S lat.), representing a range of crustal thickness from ca. 60-35 km. The samples range in MgO from ca. 8-4% and in SiO2 from 51-57%. The most evolved eruptive products occur above the thickest crust and have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7054 and epsilon Nd values of -1.5. The 187Os/188Os ratios correlate with the other isotopic systems and with crustal thickness. Volcanoes on the thinnest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios of 0.18-0.21. Those on the thickest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 0.64. All the Os values are much too radiogenic to

  12. Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras

    2014-09-04

    The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface topography has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength topography, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength topography created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced topography is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' topography (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on topography over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the topography exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling dynamic topography, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.

  13. Iron-carbonate interaction at Earth's core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Badro, J.; Nabiei, F.; Prakapenka, V.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage and flux in the deep Earth are moderated by oxygen fugacity and interactions with iron-bearing phases. The amount of carbon stored in Earth's mantle versus the core depends on carbon-iron chemistry at the core-mantle boundary. Oxidized carbonates subducted from Earth's surface to the lowermost mantle may encounter reduced Fe0 metal from disproportionation of Fe2+ in lower mantle silicates or mixing with the core. To understand the fate of carbonates in the lowermost mantle, we have performed experiments on sandwiches of single-crystal (Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3 dolomite and Fe foil in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at lower mantle conditions of 49-110 GPa and 1800-2500 K. Syntheses were conducted with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to identify phase assemblages. After quench to ambient conditions, samples were sectioned with a focused Ga+ ion beam for composition analysis with transmission electron microscopy. At the centers of the heated spots, iron melted and reacted completely with the carbonate to form magnesiowüstite, iron carbide, diamond, magnesium-rich carbonate and calcium carbonate. In samples heated at 49 and 64 GPa, the two carbonates exhibit a eutectoid texture. In the sample heated at 110 GPa, the carbonates form rounded ~150-nm-diameter grains with a higher modal proportion of interspersed diamonds. The presence of reduced iron in the deep lower mantle and core-mantle boundary region will promote the formation of diamonds in carbonate-bearing subducted slabs. The complete reaction of metallic iron to oxides and carbides in the presence of mantle carbonate supports the formation of these phases at the Earth's core-mantle boundary and in ultra-low velocity zones.

  14. Calcium isotopic composition of mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Kang, J.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Ca isotopes are useful to decipher mantle evolution and the genetic relationship between the Earth and chondrites. It has been observed that Ca isotopes can be fractionated at high temperature [1-2]. However, Ca isotopic composition of the mantle peridotites and fractionation mechanism are still poorly constrained. Here, we report Ca isotope composition of 12 co-existing pyroxene pairs in 10 lherzolites, 1 harzburgite, and 1 wehrlite xenoliths collected from Hainan Island (South Eastern China). Ca isotope data were measured on a Triton-TIMS using the double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The long-term external error is 0.12‰ (2SD) based on repeated analyses of NIST SRM 915a and geostandards. δ44Ca of clinopyroxenes except that from the wehrlite ranges from 0.85‰ to 1.14‰, while opx yields a wide range from 0.98‰ up to 2.16‰. Co-existing pyroxene pairs show large Δ44Caopx-cpx (defined as δ44Caopx-δ44Cacpx) ranging from 0 to 1.23‰, reflecting equilibrium fractionation controlled by variable Ca contents in the opx. Notably, clinopyroxene of wehrlite shows extremely high δ44Ca (3.22‰). δ44Ca of the bulk lherzolites and harzburgites range from 0.86‰ to 1.14‰. This can be explained by extracting melts with slightly light Ca isotopic compositions. Finally, the high δ44Ca of the wehrlite (3.22‰) may reflect metasomatism by melt which has preferentially lost light Ca isotopes due to chemical diffusion during upwelling through the melt channel. [1] Amini et al (2009) GGR 33; [2] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292.

  15. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting continents during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable continents and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the continent is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a

  16. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  17. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  18. Water in geodynamical models of mantle convection and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, J.; Van Hunen, J.; Chotalia, K.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.; Nakagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of water in the the mantle has a significant effect in the dynamical and thermal evolution of Earth, which partially explains the differences with other planets and is a key factor for the presence of life on Earth. First, a small amount of water can decrease the mantle viscosity by a several orders of magnitude, thereby changing the convection regime and affecting the thermal evolution. Second, the presence of water significantly changes the solidus curve, with crucial implications for melting. Third, water in the mantle can change the Clapeyron slope of mantle materials, which changes the depth at which phase transitions take place. The thermal and dynamical evolution of Earth under the presence of water in the mantle has been the focus of recent studies, but many questions remain unanswered. In this project we intend to investigate how the maximum water capacity of different mantle regions affects water transport and Earth's convective regime. We will study the effect phase transitions under the presence of water, which can change the buoyancy of slabs in the transition zone. We present preliminary results numerical models of global mantle convection for the whole history of earth using the numerical geodynamics software tool StagYY. We will use a new parametrisation of dehydration processes, obtained from high-resolution numerical simulations, to implement a more accurate description of the water released from the slab as it travels through the mantle. We have integrated recent experimental results of the water capacity of deep mantle minerals to study the water circulation and the total water budget. We use data from the most recent experiments and ab-inito calculations to implement a realistic rheology.

  19. Assessment of local and regional isotopic equilibrium in the mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, A W; Hart, S R [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1978-02-01

    The assumption of local equilibrium during partial melting is fundamental to the interpretation of isotope and trace element data for mantle-derived rocks. If disequilibrium melting is significant, the scale of the chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle indicated by the data could be as small as the grain size of the mantle rock, and the isotope data themselves are then of doubtful value to the understanding of mantle processes. To assess the scale of isotopic heterogeneity in a partially molten asthenosphere the authors review the Sr isotopic data of volcanic rocks from oceanic regions and the available experimental data on diffusion kinetics in minerals and melts similar to those existing in the mantle. Although diffusion data are scarce and afflicted with uncertainties, most of the diffusion coefficients for cations in mantle minerals at temperatures of 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C appear to be greater than 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/. Struntium diffusion in liquid basalt is more rapid, with diffusion coefficients of D = 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ near 1300/sup 0/C. Simple model calculations show that, with these D values, a fluid-free mantle can maintain a state of disequilibrium on a centimeter scale for periods of 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ years. The state of disequilibrium found in many mantle-derived xenoliths is thus easily explained. A partially molten mantle, on the other hand, will tend to equilibrate locally in less than 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years. The analytical data on natural rocks likewise indicate that the inhomogeneities are both old (> 1.5 b.y.) and regional in character and that the consistent isotopic differences between ocean island and ocean floor volcanics cannot be explained by small-scall hetorogeneity of the source rock.

  20. Moho vs crust-mantle boundary: Evolution of an idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The concept that the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho) does not necessarily coincide with the base of the continental crust as defined by rock-type compositions was introduced in the early 1980s. This had an important impact on understanding the nature of the crust-mantle boundary using information from seismology and from deep-seated samples brought to the surface as xenoliths in magmas, or as tectonic terranes. The use of empirically-constrained P-T estimates to plot the locus of temperature vs depth for xenoliths defined a variety of geotherms depending on tectonic environment. The xenolith geotherms provided a framework for constructing lithological sections through the deep lithosphere, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary in off-craton regions commonly is transitional over a depth range of about 5-20 km. Early seismic-reflection data showed common layering near the Moho, correlating with the petrological observation of multiple episodes of basaltic intrusion around the crust-mantle boundary. Developments in seismology, petrophysics and experimental petrology have refined interpretation of lithospheric domains. The expansion of in situ geochronology (especially zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-isotopes; Os isotopes of mantle sulfides) has defined tectonic events that affected whole crust-mantle sections, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary can change in depth through time. However, the nature of the crust-mantle boundary in cratonic regions remains enigmatic, mainly due to lack of key xenoliths or exposed sections. The observation that the Moho may lie significantly deeper than the crust-mantle boundary has important implications for modeling the volume of the crust. Mapping the crust using seismic techniques alone, without consideration of the petrological problems, may lead to an overestimation of crustal thickness by 15-30%. This will propagate to large uncertainties in the calculation of elemental mass balances relevant to crust-formation processes

  1. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems....... The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  2. Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Spakman, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Seismic travel-time tomography of the mantle under SE Asia reveals patterns of subduction-related seismic P-wave velocity anomalies that are of great value in helping to understand the region's tectonic development. We discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of an area centred on Indonesia and including Malaysia, parts of the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. We begin with an explanation of seismic tomography and causes of velocity anomalies in the mantle, and discuss assessment of model quality for tomographic models created from P-wave travel times. We then introduce the global P-wave velocity anomaly model UU-P07 and the tectonic model used in this paper and give an overview of previous interpretations of mantle structure. The slab-related velocity anomalies we identify in the upper and lower mantle based on the UU-P07 model are interpreted in terms of the tectonic model and illustrated with figures and movies. Finally, we discuss where tomographic and tectonic models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important conclusions concerning the history of the region. The tomographic images of the mantle record subduction beneath the SE Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. In the upper mantle anomalies mainly record subduction during the last 10 to 25 Ma, depending on the region considered. We interpret a vertical slab tear crossing the entire upper mantle north of west Sumatra where there is a strong lateral kink in slab morphology, slab holes between c.200-400 km below East Java and Sumbawa, and offer a new three-slab explanation for subduction in the North Sulawesi region. There is a different structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle and the deep structure changes from west to east. What was imaged in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below SE Asia has a clear internal structure and we argue that many features can be identified as older subduction zones. We identify remnants of slabs

  3. Fortnightly Ocean Tides, Earth Rotation, and Mantle Anelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard; Egbert, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The fortnightly Mf ocean tide is the largest of the long-period tides (periods between 1 week and 18.6 years), but Mf is still very small, generally 2 cm or less. All long-period tides are thought to be near equilibrium with the astronomical tidal potential, with an almost pure zonal structure. However, several lines of evidence point to Mf having a significant dynamic response to forcing. We use a combination of numerical modeling, satellite altimetry, and observations of polar motion to determine the Mf ocean tide and to place constraints on certain global properties, such as angular momentum. Polar motion provides the only constraints on Mf tidal currents. With a model of the Mf ocean tide in hand, we use it to remove the effects of the ocean from estimates of fortnightly variations in length-of-day. The latter is dominated by the earth's body tide, but a small residual allows us to place new constraints on the anelasticity of the earth's mantle. The result gives the first experimental confirmation of theoretical predictions made by Wahr and Bergen in 1986.

  4. Fear of a Black femme: The existential conundrum of embodying a Black femme identity while being a professor of Black, queer, and feminist studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Kaila Adia

    2017-10-02

    Although a Black femme identity has been defined and embodied by many as an identity with Black feminist roots and revolutionary potentials, Black femmes are still rendered hypervisible and invisible through racist and heteronormative politics. Similarly, embodying a Black femme identity as a professor in academia often engenders these same pretenses of hypervisibility and invisibility. This essay explores what this existential conundrum has been for me as both a Black femme and professor of Black queer and feminist studies, while illuminating the mix of forces within academia that have attempted to stifle my chosen sexual identity and gendered performance.

  5. Sub-Moho Reflectors, Mantle Faults and Lithospheric Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most unexpected and dramatic observations from the early years of deep reflection profiling of the continents using multichannel CMP techniques was the existing of prominent reflections from the upper mantle. The first of these, the Flannan thrust/fault/feature, was traced by marine profiling of the continental margin offshore Britain by the BIRPS program, which soon found them to be but one of several clear sub-crustal discontinuities in that area. Subsequently, similar mantle reflectors have been observed in many areas around the world, most commonly beneath Precambrian cratonic areas. Many, but not all, of these mantle reflections appear to arise from near the overlying Moho or within the lower crust before dipping well into the mantle. Others occur as subhorizontal events at various depths with the mantle, with one suite seeming to cluster at a depth of about 75 km. The dipping events have been variously interpreted as mantle roots of crustal normal faults or the deep extension of crustal thrust faults. The most common interpretation, however, is that these dipping events are the relicts of ancient subduction zones, the stumps of now detached Benioff zones long since reclaimed by the deeper mantle. In addition to the BIRPS reflectors, the best known examples include those beneath Fennoscandia in northern Europe, the Abitibi-Grenville of eastern Canada, and the Slave Province of northwestern Canada (e.g. on the SNORCLE profile). The most recently reported example is from beneath the Sichuan Basin of central China. The preservation of these coherent, and relatively delicate appearing, features beneath older continental crust and presumably within equally old (of not older) mantle lithosphere, has profound implications for the history and rheology of the lithosphere in these areas. If they represent, as widely believe, some form of faulting with the lithosphere, they provide corollary constraints on the nature of faulting in both the lower crust and

  6. Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

    2011-08-01

    Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (μ-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S═O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite

  7. The structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriampenomanana, Fenitra; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wysession, Michael E.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Julià, Jordi; Pratt, Martin J.; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Shore, Patrick J.; Rakotondraibe, Tsiriandrimanana

    2017-09-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar was initially amalgamated during the Pan-African events in the Neoproterozoic. It has subsequently been reshaped by extensional processes associated with the separation from Africa and India in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, respectively, and been subjected to several magmatic events in the late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. In this study, the crust and uppermost mantle have been investigated to gain insights into the present-day structure and tectonic evolution of Madagascar. We analysed receiver functions, computed from data recorded on 37 broad-band seismic stations, using the H-κ stacking method and a joint inversion with Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity measurements. The thickness of the Malagasy crust ranges between 18 and 46 km. It is generally thick beneath the spine of mountains in the centre part (up to 46 km thick) and decreases in thickness towards the edges of the island. The shallowest Moho is found beneath the western sedimentary basins (18 km thick), which formed during both the Permo-Triassic Karro rifting in Gondwana and the Jurassic rifting of Madagascar from eastern Africa. The crust below the sedimentary basin thickens towards the north and east, reflecting the progressive development of the basins. In contrast, in the east there was no major rifting episode. Instead, the slight thinning of the crust along the east coast (31-36 km thick) may have been caused by crustal uplift and erosion when Madagascar moved over the Marion hotspot and India broke away from it. The parameters describing the crustal structure of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, including average thickness (40 km versus 35 km), Poisson's ratio (0.25 versus 0.26), average shear-wave velocity (both 3.7 km s-1), and thickness of mafic lower crust (7 km versus 4 km), show weak evidence of secular variation. The uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar is generally characterized by shear-wave velocities typical of stable lithosphere (∼4.5 km s-1). However

  8. Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Rowan, Christopher J.; Glišović, Petar; Moucha, Robert; Grand, Stephen P.; Simmons, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth’s tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth’s dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs. We reconstruct the subduction-related buoyancy fluxes of plates on either side of the EPR. The general expectation is that greater slab pull should correlate with faster plate motion and faster spreading at the EPR. Moreover, asymmetry in slab pull on either side of the EPR should correlate with either ridge migration or enhanced plate velocity in the direction of greater slab pull. Based on our analysis, none of the expected correlations are evident. This implies that other forces significantly contribute to EPR behavior. We explain these observations using mantle flow calculations based on globally integrated buoyancy distributions that require core-mantle boundary heat flux of up to 20 TW. The time-dependent mantle flow predictions yield a long-lived deep-seated upwelling that has its highest radial velocity under the EPR and is inferred to control its observed kinematics. The mantle-wide upwelling beneath the EPR drives horizontal components of asthenospheric flows beneath the plates that are similarly asymmetric but faster than the overlying surface plates, thereby contributing to plate motions through viscous tractions in the Pacific region. PMID:28028535

  9. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Parnell; Lennon, Alexander B; Kenny, Patrick J; O'Reilly, Peter; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct. Primary cement mantles were formed by cementing a polished stem into sections of tubular steel. If in the test group, the mantle underwent conditioning in saline to simulate ageing and was subject to a fatigue of 1 million cycles. If in the control group no such conditioning or fatigue was carried out. The cement-in-cement procedure was then undertaken. Both groups underwent a fatigue of 1 million cycles subsequent to the revision procedure. Application of a Mann-Whitney test on the recorded subsidence (means: 0.51, 0.46, n=10+10, P=0.496) and inducible displacement (means: 0.38, 0.36, P=0.96) revealed that there was no statistical difference between the groups. This study represents further biomechanical investigation of the mechanical behaviour of cement-in-cement revision constructs. Results suggest that pre-revision fatigue and ageing of the cement may not be deleterious to the mechanical performance of the revision construct. Thus, this study provides biomechanical evidence to back-up recent successes with this useful revision technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Past plate and mantle motion from new ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John; Steinberger, Bernhard; Regelous, Marcel; Koppers, Anthony; Wijbrans, Jan; Haase, Karsten; Stoffers, Peter; Jokat, Wilfried; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of the relative motion between the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspots have consequences for understanding the role and character of deep Pacific-mantle return flow. The relative motion between these primary hotspots can be inferred by comparing the age records for their seamount trails. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages for 18 lavas from 10 seamounts along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain (HESC) show that volcanism started in the sharp portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB) at ≥47.5 Ma and continued for ≥5 Myr (O'Connor et al., 2013). The slope of the along-track distance from the currently active Hawaiian hotspot plotted versus age is remarkably linear between ~57 and 25 Ma in the central ˜1900 km of the seamount chain, including the HEB. This model predicts an age for the oldest Emperor Seamounts that matches published ages, implying that a linear age-distance relationship might extend back to at least 82 Ma. In contrast, Hawaiian age progression was much faster since at least ~15 Ma and possibly as early as ~27 Ma. Linear age-distance relations for the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville seamount chains predict ~300 km overall hotspot relative motion between 80 and 47.5 Ma, in broad agreement with numerical models of plumes in a convecting mantle, and paleomagnetic data. We show that a change in hotspot relative motion may also have occurred between ~55 Ma and ~50 Ma. We interpret this change in hotspot motion as evidence that the HEB reflects a combination of hotspot and plate motion changes driven by the same plate/mantle reorganization. O'Connor et al. (2013), Constraints on past plate and mantle motion from new ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 14, 4564-4584, doi:10.1002/ggge.20267.

  11. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Spin Transition in the Lower Mantle: Deep Learning and Pattern Recognition of Superplumes from the Mid-mantle and Mid-mantle Slab Stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, D. A.; Shahnas, M. H.; De Hoop, M. V.; Pysklywec, R.

    2016-12-01

    The broad, slow seismic anomalies under Africa and Pacific cannot be explained without ambiguity. There is no well-established theory to explain the fast structures prevalent globally in seismic tomographic images that are commonly accepted to be the remnants of fossil slabs at different depths in the mantle. The spin transition from high spin to low spin in iron in ferropericlase and perovskite, two major constituents of the lower mantle can significantly impact their physical properties. We employ high resolution 2D-axisymmetric and 3D-spherical control volume models to reconcile the influence of the spin transition-induced anomalies in density, thermal expansivity, and bulk modulus in ferropericlase and perovskite on mantle dynamics. The model results reveal that the spin transition effects increase the mixing in the lower regions of mantle. Depending on the changes of bulk modulus associated with the spin transition, these effects may also cause both stagnation of slabs and rising plumes at mid-mantle depths ( 1600 km). The stagnation may be followed by downward or upward penetration of cold or hot mantle material, respectively, through an avalanche process. The size of these mid-mantle plumes reaches 1500 km across with a radial velocity reaching 20 cm/yr near the seismic transition zone and plume heads exceeding 2500 km across. We will employ a deep-learning algorithm to formulate this challenge as a classification problem where modelling/computation aids in the learning stage for detecting the particular patterns.The parameters based on which the convection models are developed are poorly constrained. There are uncertainties in initial conditions, heterogeneities and boundary conditions in the simulations, which are nonlinear. Thus it is difficult to reconstruct the past configuration over long time scales. In order to extract information and better understand the parameters in mantle convection, we employ deep learning algorithm to search for different

  13. Active and fossil mantle flows in the western Alpine region unravelled by seismic anisotropy analysis and high-resolution P wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, Simone; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Pondrelli, Silvia; Margheriti, Lucia; Paul, Anne; Solarino, Stefano; Aubert, Coralie; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Wang, Qingchen; Xu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhu, Rixiang

    2018-04-01

    The anisotropy of seismic velocities in the mantle, when integrated with high-resolution tomographic models and geologic information, can be used to detect active mantle flows in complex plate boundary areas, providing new insights on the impact of mantle processes on the topography of mountain belts. Here we use a densely spaced array of temporary broadband seismic stations to analyze the seismic anisotropy pattern of the western Alpine region, at the boundary between the Alpine and Apenninic slabs. Our results are supportive of a polyphase development of anisotropic mantle fabrics, possibly starting from the Jurassic to present. Geophysical data presented in this work, and geologic evidence taken from the literature, indicate that: (i) fossil fabrics formed during Tethyan rifting may be still preserved within the Alpine and Apenninic slabs; (ii) mantle deformation during Apenninic slab rollback is not compensated by a complete toroidal flow around the northern tip of the retreating slab; (iii) the previously observed continuous trend of anisotropy fast axes near-parallel to the western Alpine arc is confirmed. We observe that this arc-parallel trend of fast axes is located in correspondence to a low velocity anomaly in the European upper mantle, beneath regions of the Western and Ligurian Alps showing the highest uplift rates. We propose that the progressive rollback of the Apenninic slab, in the absence of a counterclockwise toroidal flow at its northern tip, induced a suction effect at the scale of the supraslab mantle. The resulting mantle flow pattern was characterized by an asthenospheric counterflow at the rear of the unbroken Western Alps slab and around its southern tip, and by an asthenospheric upwelling, mirrored by low P wave velocities, that would have favored the topographic uplift of the Alpine belt from the Mont Blanc to the Mediterranean sea.

  14. The viscosity of Earth's lower mantle inferred from sinking speed of subducted lithosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čížková, H.; van den Berg, A.P.; Spakman, W.; Matyska, C.

    2012-01-01

    The viscosity of the mantle is indispensable for predicting Earth's mechanical behavior at scales ranging from deep mantle material flow to local stress accumulation in earthquakes zones. But, mantle viscosity is not well determined. For the lower mantle, particularly, only few constraints result

  15. Upper mantle dynamics of Bangladesh by splitting analysis of core-mantle refracted SKS, PKS, and SKKS phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kant; Bhushan, Kirti; Eken, Tuna; Singh, Arun

    2018-06-01

    New shear wave splitting measurements are obtained from the Bengal Basin using core-mantle refracted SKS, PKS, and SKKS phases. The splitting parameters, namely time delays (δ t) and fast polarization directions (ϕ), were estimated through analysis of 54 high-quality waveforms (⩾ 2.5 signal to noise ratio) from 30 earthquakes with magnitude ⩾ 5.5 recorded at ten seismic stations deployed over Bangladesh. No evidence of splitting was found, which indicates azimuthal isotropy beneath the region. These null measurements can be explained by either vertically dipping anisotropic fast axes or by the presence of multiple horizontal anisotropic layers with different fast polarization directions, where the combined effect results in a null characterization. The anisotropic fabric preserved from rifting episodes of Antarctica and India, subduction-related dynamics of the Indo-Burmese convergence zone, and northward movement of the Indian plate creating shear at the base of the lithosphere can explain the observed null measurements. The combined effect of all these most likely results in a strong vertical anisotropic heterogeneity, creating the observed null results.

  16. Cultural conundrums: the ethics of epidemiology and the problems of population in implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiereck, Kirk

    2015-04-01

    The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of the knowledge production practices of epidemiology. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively cultural assumptions within the science of epidemiology specifically regarding the ability of epidemiologic surveillance to produce accurate maps of HIV throughout national populations. Specifically, ethical questions around PrEP will focus on who should receive ARVs given the fact that global demand will far exceed supply. Given that sexual transmission is one of the main modes of HIV transmission, these questions of 'who' are inextricably linked to knowledge about sexual personhood. As a result, the ethics of epidemiology, and how the epidemiology of HIV in particular conceives, classifies and constructs sexual populations will become a critical point of reflection and contestation for bioethicists, health activists, physicians, nurses, and researchers in the multi-disciplinary field of global health. This paper examines how cultural conundrums within the fields of bioethics and public health ethics are directly implicated within the ethics of PrEP, by analyzing the problems of population inaugurated by the construction of the men who have sex with men (MSM) epidemiologic category in the specific national context of South Africa. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ganiyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to the very top of their career not as a result of lack of requisite qualifications, and experience etc.; but as a result of factors that are rooted in cultural, societal, organizational, individual and psychological factors that inhibit women career advancement.  Against the aforementioned background, the paper concludes that women advance marginally to certain level in corporate executive cadre, before they experience ‘glass ceiling’ that impedes their prospect of attaining senior executive position. Accordingly, women compared to men represent an insignificant fraction of those in managerial positions due to cultural prejudice, religion convictions, family related issues, individual and organizational influences. Similarly, inadequate opportunity to networks and seek sponsorship limits women progression to top managerial hierarchy. The study recommends the need to articulate policy frameworks that promote strong organizational culture and a more helpful and supportive environment to develop women leadership skills.  Similarly, there is need to promote sponsorship for women in a way and manner that safeguard the relationships between sponsors and protégés.

  18. Mantle cell lymphoma of the larynx: Primary case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciri Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary laryngeal lymphomas are exceedingly rare. Only about a hundred cases have been reported. They consist mainly of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. We report the first case of a primary laryngeal mantle cell lymphoma. Case presentation We report a case of a primary mantle cell lymphoma of the larynx in a 70-year-old North African non-smoker male. We present a detailed report of his clinical and paraclinical data as well as treatment options. Conclusions Mantle cell lymphoma is a very aggressive lymphoma subset associated with poor prognosis. Laryngeal mantle cell lymphoma is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to ever be reported.

  19. Magnitude corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1969, a consistent discrepancy in seismic magnitudes of nuclear detonations at NTS compared with magnitudes of detonations elsewhere in the world has been observed. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of a relatively high seismic attenuation for compressional waves in the upper mantle beneath the NTS and in certain other locations. A correction has been developed for this attenuation based on a relationship between the velocity of compressional waves at the top of the earth's mantle (just beneath the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the seismic attenuation further down in the upper mantle. Our new definition of body-wave magnitude includes corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle at both ends of the teleseismic body-wave path. These corrections bring the NTS oservations into line with measurements of foreign events, and enable one to make more reliable estimates of yields of underground nuclear explosions, wherever the explosion occurs

  20. Coupling surface and mantle dynamics: A novel experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Agnes; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca; Sembroni, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Recent modeling shows that surface processes, such as erosion and deposition, may drive the deformation of the Earth's surface, interfering with deeper crustal and mantle signals. To investigate the coupling between the surface and deep process, we designed a three-dimensional laboratory apparatus, to analyze the role of erosion and sedimentation, triggered by deep mantle instability. The setup is constituted and scaled down to natural gravity field using a thin viscous sheet model, with mantle and lithosphere simulated by Newtonian viscous glucose syrup and silicon putty, respectively. The surface process is simulated assuming a simple erosion law producing the downhill flow of a thin viscous material away from high topography. The deep mantle upwelling is triggered by the rise of a buoyant sphere. The results of these models along with the parametric analysis show how surface processes influence uplift velocity and topography signals.

  1. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kronbichler, Martin; Heister, Timo; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth's mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth's core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related

  2. A numerical model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere within three-dimensional spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M.

    2010-12-01

    stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global deformation. From geological evidence that a cratonic root survives at the surface for billions of years, the WCM may have existed in the past supercontinent throughout the Earth's geologic history. The preliminary model presented here should represent an important step toward realizing a more realistic model that could be used to address many outstanding geodynamic problems about the thermal and mechanical feedbacks between the mantle and continents and the temporal evolution of the Earth's mantle structure.

  3. The origin of volatiles in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2017-08-01

    The Earth's deep interior contains significant reservoirs of volatiles such as H, C, and N. Due to the incompatible nature of these volatile species, it has been difficult to reconcile their storage in the residual mantle immediately following crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean (MO). As the magma ocean freezes, it is commonly assumed that very small amounts of melt are retained in the residual mantle, limiting the trapped volatile concentration in the primordial mantle. In this article, we show that inefficient melt drainage out of the freezing front can retain large amounts of volatiles hosted in the trapped melt in the residual mantle while creating a thick early atmosphere. Using a two-phase flow model, we demonstrate that compaction within the moving freezing front is inefficient over time scales characteristic of magma ocean solidification. We employ a scaling relation between the trapped melt fraction, the rate of compaction, and the rate of freezing in our magma ocean evolution model. For cosmochemically plausible fractions of volatiles delivered during the later stages of accretion, our calculations suggest that up to 77% of total H2O and 12% of CO2 could have been trapped in the mantle during magma ocean crystallization. The assumption of a constant trapped melt fraction underestimates the mass of volatiles in the residual mantle by more than an order of magnitude.Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's deep interior contains substantial amounts of volatile elements like C, H, and N. How these elements got sequestered in the Earth's interior has long been a topic of debate. It is generally assumed that most of these elements escaped the interior of the Earth during the first few hundred thousand years to create a primitive atmosphere, leaving the mantle reservoir nearly empty. In this work, we show that the key to this paradox involves the very early stages of crystallization of the mantle from a global magma ocean. Using numerical models, we show

  4. Deep mantle seismic heterogeneities in Western Pacific subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mantle convection and especially mantle mixing. As subduction is the main source of introducing crustal material into the Earth's mantle, it is of particular interest to track the transport of subducted crust through the mantle to resolve details of composition and deformation of the crust during the subduction process. Improved knowledge of subduction can help provide constraints on the mechanical mixing process of crustal material into the ambient mantle, as well as constraining mantle composition and convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with Western Pacific subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. We use seismic energy arriving prior to PP, a P-wave underside reflection off the Earth's surface halfway between source and receiver, to probe the mantle for small-scale heterogeneities. PP precursors were analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska using the recently developed Toolkit for Out-of-Plane Coherent Arrival Tracking (TOPCAT) algorithm. The approach combines the calculated optimal beampower and an independent semblance (coherency) measure, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of coherent arrivals. 94 earthquakes with sufficient coherent precursory energy were selected and directivity information of the arrivals (i.e. slowness and backazimuth) was extracted from the data. The scattering locations for 311 out-of-plane precursors were determined by ray-tracing and minimising the slowness, backazimuth and differential travel time misfit. Initial analyses show that deep scattering (>1000 km) occurs beneath the Izu-Bonin subduction zone, suggesting that subducted crust does continue into the lower mantle in this location. Other

  5. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal

  6. On the Role of Mantle Overturn during Magma Ocean Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaré, C. E.; Parmentier, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solidification of potential global magma ocean(s) (MO) early in the history of terrestrial planets may play a key role in the evolution of planetary interiors by setting initial conditions for their long-term evolution. Constraining this initial structure of solid mantles is thus crucial but remains poorly understood. MO fractional crystallization has been proposed to generate gravitationally unstable Fe-Mg chemical stratification capable of driving solid-state mantle overturn. Fractional solidification and overturn hypothesis, while only an ideal limiting case, can explain important geochemical features of both the Moon and Mars. Current overturn models consider generally post-MO overturn where the cumulate pile remains immobile until the end of MO solidification. However, if the cumulate pile overturns during MO solidification, the general picture of early planet evolution might differ significantly from the static crystallization models. We show that the timing of mantle overturn can be characterized with a dimensionless number measuring the ratio of the MO solidification time and the purely compositional overturn timescale. Syn-solidification overturn occurs if this dimensionless parameter, Rc, exceeds a critical value. Rc is mostly affected by the competition between the MO solidification time and mantle viscosity. Overturn that occurs during solidification can result in smaller scales of mantle chemical heterogeneity that could persist for long times thus influencing the whole evolution of a planetary body. We will discuss the effects of compaction/percolation on mantle viscosity. If partially molten cumulate do not have time to compact during MO solidification, viscosity of cumulates would be significantly lower as the interstitcial melt fraction would be large. Both solid mantle remelting during syn-solidification overturn and porous convection of melt retained with the cumulates are expected to reduce the degree of fractional crystallization. Syn

  7. Early mantle differentiation: constraint from 146Sm-142Nd systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, G.

    2005-07-01

    We present new ultra-high precision 142 Nd/ 144 Nd measurements of early Archaean rocks using the new generation thermal ionization mass spectrometer TRITON. Repeated measurements of the Ames Nd standard demonstrate that the 142 Nd/ 144 Nd ratio can be determined with external precision of 2 ppm (2s), allowing confident resolution of anomalies as small as 5 ppm. A major analytical improvement lies in the elimination of the double normalization procedure required to correct our former measurements from a secondary mass fractionation effect. Our new results indicate that metasediments, meta-basalts and orthogneisses from the 3.6 - 3.8 Ga West Greenland craton display positive 142 Nd anomalies ranging from 8 to 15 ppm. Using a simple two-stage model with initial e 143 Nd value of 1.9 ± 0.6 e-units, coupled 147 Sm- 143 Nd and 146 Sm- 142 Nd chronometry constrains mantle differentiation to 50 to 200 Ma after formation of the solar system. This chronological constraint is consistent with differentiation of the Earth's mantle during the late stage of crystallization of a magma ocean. We have developed a two-box model describing 142 Nd and 143 Nd isotopic evolution of depleted mantle during the subsequent evolution of the crust-mantle system. Our results indicate that early terrestrial proto-crust had a lifetime of ca. 500 Ma in order to produce the observed Nd isotope signature of Archaean rocks. In the context of this two box mantle-crust system, we model the evolution of isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of depleted mantle as a function of the mantle stirring time. Using the dispersion of 142 Nd/ 144 Nd and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios observed in early Archaean rocks, we constrain the stirring time of early Earth's mantle to 100 - 150 Ma, a factor of 5 to 10 shorter than stirring time inferred from modern oceanic basalts. (author)

  8. [Mantle dentin as biomodel of materials for structural teeth restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, A V; Vinnichenko, Yu A; Pourovskaya, I Ya; Rusanov, F S

    The article describes a structural element of natural teeth - mantle dentin. It has been shown that the presence of this element in the structure of a natural tooth largely ensures its strength under the influence of repeated loads in a functional oral environment and arrests crack growth at the enamel/dentine interface. This later effect is explained by the influence of a thin layer of mantle dentine, which has physical and mechanical characteristics different from that of the main dentin.

  9. Execution of mantle field with multileaf collimator: A simple approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ramachandran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until very recently mantle field radiotherapy remained the gold standard for the treatment of favorable early-stage Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The classic mantle includes all the major lymph nodes above the diaphragm and extends from the inferior portion of the mandible to the level of the insertion of the diaphragm. Aims: To describe a simple technique that has been devised to treat the mantle field with the help of multileaf collimator and using computed tomography (CT-based treatment planning. Materials and Methods: CT scan was performed with the patient in the supine position and the datasets were transferred to the Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Elekta Precise™ linear accelerator equipped with 40 pairs of multileaf collimator (MLC was used for the execution of the mantle field. The MLC′s shapes were designed to take the shape of the conventional customized blocks used for treatment of mantle field. The anterior mantle field was divided into three separate MLC segments with the collimator kept at 0°. The first MLC segment was shaped to cover the neck, clavicular regions, and mediastinum. The second and the third MLC segments covered the right and left axilla, respectively. The posterior fields were opposed to the anterior subfields in a similar fashion. The dose was prescribed at the midplane, using reference points. Results and Conclusion: The technique described in this study is very simple, easy to implement, and avoids unnecessary delay in the execution of the mantle field. The mantle field can be easily shaped with the multileaf collimators, without any collimator rotation.

  10. Radiological safety assessment of gas mantle industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, G.; Venkataraman, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thorium, a radioactive element of actinide family was discovered by Berzelius in 1828 and named by him in honor of the Scandinavian God open-quote Thor close-quote. Following its discovery the earliest known use of thorium was in the making of gas mantles. The other use as an X-ray contrast medium open-quote Thorotrast close-quote has since long been discontinued, where as even today its use in gas mantles is continued. Gas lights have been used as a source of light since 1800's. In India, although electric bulbs have replaced most of the gas lights, even today in villages and in urban areas where there is no continuous power supply and in outdoor lightings gas lamps are used. The mantle which is used in these lamps is called the Welsbach mantle and is a netted hose that is impregnated with thorium nitrate and other metals. The function of a gas mantle is to produce a bright light during operation of the lighting device (gas or kerosene lamp) in which the mantle is placed. When placed in a lighting device and heated to 1300-1800 degree Celcius thorium in the mantle incandesces and gives off bright light. In India presently there are about 70 manufacturing units handling 150 metric tons of thorium nitrate annually. There are about four hundred persons involved in manufacturing 200 million mantles per year. Thorium is chosen because of its property of incadescence, however since it is radioactive, radiation safety of the workplace, handling personnel and safe environmental condition for members of public have to be maintained

  11. Mantle cell lymphoma-current literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Ivica; Petkovic, Ivan; Vrbic, Svetislav; Filipovic, Sladjana; Balic, Mirjana; Cvetanovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of lymphoma identified as a particular entity in the early 1990s. The prognosis of MCL is generally poor, and is considered one of the worst among all B-cell lymphomas. In general, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative and the median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. With the exception of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), current treatment approaches are not curative and the corresponding survival curve is characterized by a relatively steep and continuous decline, with a median survival of about 4 years and watch and wait strategy. Optimal first-line therapy in MCL is not established yet. Very intensive regimens, including autologous (auto-SCT) and allo-SCT, seem to be required to improve the outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only therapy that can achieve a plateau in the survival curve, but, however, it is not applicable in most of the cases due to the patients' older age when the disease mostly occurs. Molecular knowledge of MCL has progressed and therefore a large number of molecular targeted therapies have been introduced in relapsed and refractory disease.

  12. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  13. [Cytostructure of the mantle zone in lymphatic tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, B

    1993-04-01

    Four cellular layers of the follicular mantle zone in palatine tonsil lymphatic tissue were studied by electron microscopy after simultaneous immunophenotypical investigation. The first layer of the mantle zone consisting of small blastic cells was analogous to the small (centrocytoid) blastic layer of germinal centres. The second B monocytoid layer was lacking analogy in basic series of lymphocytes and seemed to be an independent morphological and probably functional unit. Plasmacytoid and clarocellular elements in outer layers of follicular mantle zone were in a way similar to T plasmacytoid and clarocellular components of Sézary syndrome infiltrates but considering transitional forms they had a local origin from incompletely transformed elements of B monocytoid layer. Inner follicular mantle zone was discussed as a source of incompletely transformed B lymphocytes for further mantle layers where their immunophenotypical modulation is taking place according to actual need. Outer mantle layers are aggressive against damaged epithelial and litoral structures and may be instrumental in a common reaction of B and T components.

  14. Seismic anisotropy and compositionally induced velocity anomalies in the lithosphere above mantle plumes: a petrological and microstructural study of mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Godard, Marguerite; Coromina, Guilhem; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Barsczus, Hans

    2004-11-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we investigated the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from different hotspots tracks in South Pacific Superswell region: the Austral-Cook, Society, and Marquesas islands in French Polynesia. Olivine forsterite contents in the studied spinel peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83. Dunites and wehrlites display the lowest forsterite contents. Their microstructure and high Ni contents preclude a cumulate origin, suggesting that these rocks result from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution. In addition, lherzolites and wehrlites display evidence of late crystallization of clinopyroxene, which may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. These compositional changes, particularly iron enrichment in olivine, result in lower P- and S-waves velocities. Relative to normal lithospheric mantle, compositionally induced seismic anomalies may attain -2.2% for S-waves and -1% for P-waves. Smaller negative anomalies for P-waves are due to a higher sensitivity to modal composition. Conversely, crystal-preferred orientations (CPO) and seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO. Very weak, almost random olivine CPO is nevertheless rare, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of

  15. A new conceptual model for whole mantle convection and the origin of hotspot plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2014-08-01

    A new conceptual model of mantle convection is constructed for consideration of the origin of hotspot plumes, using recent evidence from seismology, high-pressure experiments, geodynamic modeling, geoid inversion studies, and post-glacial rebound analyses. This conceptual model delivers several key points. Firstly, some of the small-scale mantle upwellings observed as hotspots on the Earth's surface originate at the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), in which the Archean granitic continental material crust (TTG; tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) with abundant radiogenic elements is accumulated. Secondly, the TTG crust and the subducted oceanic crust that have accumulated at the base of MTZ could act as thermal or mechanical insulators, leading to the formation of a hot and less viscous layer just beneath the MTZ; which may enhance the instability of plume generation at the base of the MTZ. Thirdly, the origin of some hotspot plumes is isolated from the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the South Pacific. I consider that the conceptual model explains why almost all the hotspots around Africa are located above the margins of the African LLSVP. Because a planetary-scale trench system surrounding a “Pangean cell” has been spatially stable throughout the Phanerozoic, a large amount of the oceanic crustal layer is likely to be trapped in the MTZ under the Pangean cell. Therefore, under Africa, almost all of the hotspot plumes originate from the base of the MTZ, where a large amount of TTG and/or oceanic crusts has accumulated. This conceptual model may explain the fact that almost all the hotspots around Africa are located on margins above the African LLSVP. It is also considered that some of the hotspot plumes under the South Pacific thread through the TTG/oceanic crusts accumulated around the bottom of the MTZ, and some have their roots in the South Pacific LLSVP while others originate from the MTZ. The numerical simulations

  16. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  17. Mantle Circulation Models with variational data assimilation: Inferring past mantle flow and structure from plate motion histories and seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, H.; Hagelberg, C.; Travis, B.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope will deliver data on structure and dynamics of continental North America and the underlying mantle on an unprecedented scale. Indeed, the scope of EarthScope makes its mission comparable to the large remote sensing efforts that are transforming the oceanographic and atmospheric sciences today. Arguably the main impact of new solid Earth observing systems is to transform our use of geodynamic models increasingly from conditions that are data poor to an environment that is data rich. Oceanographers and meteorologists already have made substantial progress in adapting to this environment, by developing new approaches of interpreting oceanographic and atmospheric data objectively through data assimilation methods in their models. However, a similarly rigorous theoretical framework for merging EarthScope derived solid Earth data with geodynamic models has yet to be devised. Here we explore the feasibility of data assimilation in mantle convection studies in an attempt to fit global geodynamic model calculations explicitly to tomographic and tectonic constraints. This is an inverse problem not quite unlike the inverse problem of finding optimal seismic velocity structures faced by seismologists. We derive the generalized inverse of mantle convection from a variational approach and present the adjoint equations of mantle flow. The substantial computational burden associated with solutions to the generalized inverse problem of mantle convection is made feasible using a highly efficient finite element approach based on the 3-D spherical fully parallelized mantle dynamics code TERRA, implemented on a cost-effective topical PC-cluster (geowulf) dedicated specifically to large-scale geophysical simulations. This dedicated geophysical modeling computer allows us to investigate global inverse convection problems having a spatial discretization of less than 50 km throughout the mantle. We present a synthetic high-resolution modeling experiment to demonstrate that mid

  18. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, N.T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona

  19. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, N. T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.-P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A. W.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona.

  20. Growth of continental crust: Clues from Nd isotopes and Nb-Th relationships in mantle-derived magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, N. T.; Chauvel, C.; Jochum, K.-P.; Gruau, G.; Hofmann, A. W.

    Isotope and trace element geochemistry of Precambrian mantle derived rocks and implications for the formation of the continental crust is discussed. Epsilon Nd values of Archean komatiites are variable, but range up to at least +5, suggesting that the Archean mantle was heterogeneous and, in part, very depleted as far back as 3.4 to 3.5 Ga. This may be taken as evidence for separation of continental crust very early in Earth history. If these komatiite sources were allowed to evolve in a closed system, they would produce modern day reservoirs with much higher epsilon Nd values than is observed. This implies recycling of some sort of enriched material, perhaps subducted sediments, although other possibilities exist. Archean volcanics show lower Nb/Th than modern volcanics, suggesting a more primitive mantle source than that observed nowadays. However, Cretaceous komatiites from Gorgona island have similar Nb/Th to Archean volcanics, indicating either the Archean mantle source was indeed more primitive, or Archean magmas were derived from a deep ocean island source like that proposed for Gorgona.

  1. Universal single grain amphibole thermobarometer for mantle rocks - preliminary calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2017-04-01

    Calibration of S-Al- K-Na-Ca distribution in the structure of the mantle amphiboles (Cr- hornblende, pargasite, kaersutite) using experimental data (Niida, Green, 1999; Wallace Green, 1991, Conceicao, Green, 2004; Medard et al, 2006; Safonov, Butvina, 2013; 2016; Pirard, Hermann, 2015 etc) allows to obtain an equation for pressure estimates in 0.5 - 4.5 GPa interval. Regression calculated pressures with experimental values (R 0.82) and precision 5 kbar allow to use barometer for a wide range of mantle rocks from peridotite to pyroxenites and megacrystals. For the higher pressures (Cr- pargasite richterite) calibration is carried by the cross- correlations with the estimates calculated for the natural associations obtained using clino- and orthopyroxene. IT was used KD =Si/(8-Al-2.2*Ti)*(Na+K))/Ca for the following equation: P(GPa)=0.0035*(4+K/(Na+K))*2*Mg)/Fe+3.75*(K+Na)/Ca))*KD*ToK**0.75/ (1+3.32*Fe)-ln(1273/ToK*5*(8*Mg-Al*2 +3*Ti+8*Cr+3*K)/10 Th advantage of this barometer comparing with the previous (Ridolfi, Renzulli, 2012) is that is working with all mantle amphibole types. For the calculations of the PT parameters of the natural xenocrysts it was used monomineral version of Gar-Amph termometer (Ravna et al., 2000) in combination with the received barometer. Contents of Ca- Mg and Fe in associated garnets were calculated usinf the regressions obtained from natural and experimental associations. Aplication of the mantle amphibole thermobarometry for the reconstruction of sections of the cratonic mantle lithosphere of Yakutia show that amphibloles are distributed in various parts of mantle sections in deifferent mantle terranes of Yakutia. The most abundant amphoboles from Alakite region are distributed within all mantle section. In the SCLM beneat Yubileyaya pipe thehalf of them belong to the spinel garnet facie refering to the upper pyroxenitic suit and Cr- hornblende - mica viens. The second group reffer to the eclogite pyroxenite layer in the middle part of

  2. Origins of cratonic mantle discontinuities: A view from petrology, geochemistry and thermodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Massuyeau, Malcolm; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    magmatic-metasomatic activity, or fabric inherited from cratonisation. They may accumulate as layers at, or as subvertical veins above, the depth at which melt flow transitions from pervasive to focussed flow at the mechanical boundary layer, causing azimuthal and radial anisotropy. Thermodynamic calculations investigating the depth range in which small-volume melts can be produced relative to the field of phlogopite stability and the presence of MLDs show that phlogopite precipitates at various pressures as a function of age-dependent thermal state of the cratonic mantle, thus explaining variable MLD depths. Even if not directly observed, such metasomes have been shown to be important ingredients in small-volume volatile-rich melts typically penetrating cratonic lithospheres. The apparent sparseness of evidence for phlogopite-rich assemblages in the mantle xenolith record at geophysically imaged MLD depths, if not due to preferential disaggregation in the kimberlite or alteration, may relate to vagaries of both kimberlite and human sampling.

  3. Sulfur in Earth's Mantle and Its Behavior During Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Righter,Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The density of Earth's outer core requires that about 5-10% of the outer core be composed of elements lighter than Fe-Ni; proposed choices for the "light element" component of Earth's core include H, C, O, Si, S, and combinations of these elements [e.g. 1]. Though samples of Earth's core are not available, mantle samples contain elemental signatures left behind from the formation of Earth's core. The abundances of siderophile (metal-loving) elements in Earth's mantle have been used to gain insight into the early accretion and differentiation history of Earth, the process by which the core and mantle formed, and the composition of the core [e.g. 2-4]. Similarly, the abundance of potential light elements in Earth's mantle could also provide constraints on Earth's evolution and core composition. The S abundance in Earth's mantle is 250 ( 50) ppm [5]. It has been suggested that 250 ppm S is too high to be due to equilibrium core formation in a high pressure, high temperature magma ocean on early Earth and that the addition of S to the mantle from the subsequent accretion of a late veneer is consequently required [6]. However, this earlier work of Li and Agee [6] did not parameterize the metalsilicate partitioning behavior of S as a function of thermodynamic variables, limiting the different pressure and temperature conditions during core formation that could be explored. Here, the question of explaining the mantle abundance of S is revisited, through parameterizing existing metal-silicate partitioning data for S and applying the parameterization to core formation in Earth.

  4. Slab Penetration vs. Slab Stagnation: Mantle Reflectors as an Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeler, A.; Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.; Contenti, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Subducting oceanic lithosphere along convergent margins may stagnate near the base of the upper mantle or penetrate into the lower mantle. These dynamic processes cause extensive thermal and compositional variations, which can be observed in terms of impedance contrast (reflectivity) and topography of mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities, i.e., 410- and 660-km discontinuities. In this study, we utilize ~ 15000 surface-reflected shear waves (SS) and their precursory arrivals (S410S and S660S) to analyze subduction related deformations on mantle reflectivity structure. We apply pre-stack, time-to-depth migration technique to SS precursors, and move weak underside reflections using PREM-predicted travel-time curves. Common Mid-point gathers are formed to investigate structure under the western Pacific, south America, and Mediterranean convergent boundaries. In general, mantle reflectivity structures are consistent with previous seismic tomography models. In regions of slab penetration (e.g., southern Kurile arc, Aegean Sea), our results show 1) a substantial decrease in S660S amplitude, and 2) strong lower mantle reflector(s) at ~ 900 km depth. These reflective structures are supported by zones of high P and S velocities extending into the lower mantle. Our 1-D synthetic simulations suggest that the decreasing S660S amplitudes are, at least partially, associated with shear wave defocusing due to changes in reflector depth (by ±20 km) within averaging bin. Assuming a ~500 km wide averaging area, a dipping reflector with 6-8 % slope can reduce the amplitude of a SS precursor by ~50%. On the other hand, broad depressions with strong impedance contrast at the base of the MTZ characterize the regions of slab stagnation, such as beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and northeastern China. For the latter region, substantial topography on the 660-km discontinuity west of the Wadati-Benioff zone suggests that the stagnant part of the Pacific plate across Honshu arc is not

  5. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  6. Constraints on The Coupled Thermal Evolution of the Earth's Core and Mantle, The Age of The Inner Core, And The Origin of the 186Os/188Os Core(?) Signal in Plume-Derived Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    -14 TW. In the absence of heat-producing elements in the core, such high heat flow rates require an inner core younger than ~1 Ga and preclude the development of significant 186Os enrichment in the outer core. Experimental studies suggest that potassium may partition into Fe-S-O liquids during core formation. Radioactive decay of potassium in the core could provide an additional heat source and reconcile geophysical evidence for high core/mantle heat flow with apparent geochemical evidence for an ancient inner core. However, high concentrations of chalcophile elements such as Cu in the mantle are inconsistent with significant segregation of a S-rich liquid during core formation, precluding K partitioning into the core by this mechanism. Furthermore, core formation scenarios that would lead to high K content in the core (e.g., core formation prior to terrestrial volatile depletion) also result in high core Pb concentrations. Core/mantle interaction would then produce strong negative correlations between 186Os/188Os and 207Pb/204Pb ratios, but such correlations are not observed. In summary, elevated 186Os/188Os ratios in some plume-derived lavas are unlikely to reflect core/mantle interaction because the inner core is too young for this isotopic signature to have developed in the outer core. Melt generation from pyroxenite or fractionation of PGEs between sulfide melts and monosulfide solid solutions provide alternative mechanisms for generating ancient mantle reservoirs with elevated Pt/Os and 186Os/188Os.

  7. Atlas of the underworld: Slab remnants in the mantle, their sinking history, and a new outlook on lower mantle viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe G.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Across the entire mantle we interpret 94 positive seismic wave-speed anomalies as subducted lithosphere and associate these slabs with their geological record. We document this as the Atlas of the Underworld, also accessible online at www.atlas-of-the-underworld.org, a compilation comprising subduction systems active in the past 300 Myr. Deeper slabs are correlated to older geological records, assuming no relative horizontal motions between adjacent slabs following break-off, using knowledge of global plate circuits, but without assuming a mantle reference frame. The longest actively subducting slabs identified reach the depth of 2500 km and some slabs have impinged on Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces in the deepest mantle. Anomously fast sinking of some slabs occurs in regions affected by long-term plume rising. We conclude that slab remnants eventually sink from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary. The range in subduction-age versus - depth in the lower mantle is largely inherited from the upper mantle history of subduction. We find a significant depth variation in average sinking speed of slabs. At the top of the lower mantle average slab sinking speeds are between 10 and 40 mm/yr, followed by a deceleration to 10-15 mm/yr down to depths around 1600-1700 km. In this interval, in situ time-stationary sinking rates suggest deceleration from 20 to 30 mm/yr to 4-8 mm/yr, increasing to 12-15 mm/yr below 2000 km. This corroborates the existence of a slab deceleration zone but we do not observe long-term (> 60 My) slab stagnation, excluding long-term stagnation due to compositional effects. Conversion of slab sinking profiles to viscosity profiles shows the general trend that mantle viscosity increases in the slab deceleration zone below which viscosity slowly decreases in the deep mantle. This is at variance with most published viscosity profiles that are derived from different observations, but agrees qualitatively with recent viscosity profiles suggested

  8. Analysis of the flow structure and heat transfer in a vertical mantle heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Morrison, GL; Behnia, M

    2005-01-01

    initially mixed and initially stratified inner tank and mantle. The analysis of the heat transfer showed that the flow in the mantle near the inlet is mixed convection flow and that the heat transfer is dependent on the mantle inlet temperature relative to the core tank temperature at the mantle level. (C......The flow structure inside the inner tank and inside the mantle of a vertical mantle heat exchanger was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the inner tank and in the mantle were measured using a Particle Image...... Velocimetry (PIV) system. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the vertical mantle heat exchanger was also developed for a detailed evaluation of the heat flux at the mantle wall and at the tank wall. The flow structure was evaluated for both high and low temperature incoming flows and for both...

  9. Sediment transport by runoff on debris-mantled dryland hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Katerina; Martin, Gareth J.

    2012-09-01

    Hillslopes supply sediment to river channels, and therefore impact drainage basin functioning and evolution. The relationship between hillslope attributes and sediment flux forms the basis of geomorphic transport laws used to model the long-term topographic evolution of drainage basins, but their specific interactions during individual storm events are not well understood. Runoff-driven erosion of coarse particles, prevalent in dryland environments, presents a particular set of conditions for sediment transport that is poorly resolved in current models. In order to address this gap, we developed a particle-based, force-balance model for sheetwash sediment transport on coarse, debris-mantled hillslopes within a rainfall-runoff model. We use the model to examine how the interplay between hillslope attributes (gradient, length and grain size distribution) and runoff characteristics affects sediment transport, grain-size changes on the hillslope, and sediment supply to the slope base. The relationship between sediment flux and hillslope gradient was found to transition from linear above a threshold to sigmoidal depending on hillslope length, initial grain sizes, and runoff characteristics. Grain sizes supplied to the slope base vary in a complex manner with hillslope attributes but an overall coarsening of the hillslopes is found to occur with increasing gradient, corroborating previous findings from field measurements. Intense, short duration storms result in within-hillslope sediment redistribution and equifinality in sediment supply for different hillslope characteristics, which explain the lack of field evidence for any systematic relationships. Our model findings provide insights into hillslope responses to climatic forcing and have theoretical implications for modeling hillslope evolution in dry lands.

  10. The Robustness of Tomographically Imaged Broad Plumes in the Deep Mantle: Constraints on Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Jiménez-Pérez, H.; Adourian, S.; Karaoglu, H.; French, S.

    2016-12-01

    Existing global 3D shear wave velocity models of the earth's mantle generally rely on simple ray theoretical assumptions regarding seismic wave propagation through a heterogeneous medium, and/or consider a limited number of seismic observables, such as surface wave dispersion and/or travel times of body waves (such as P or S) that are well separated on seismograms. While these assumptions are appropriate for resolving long wavelength structure, as evidenced from the good agreement at low degrees between models published in the last 10 years, it is well established that the assumption of ray theory limits the resolution of smaller scale low velocity structures. We recently developed a global radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model (SEMUCB_WM1, French and Romanowicz, 2014, 2015) based on time domain full waveform inversion of 3-component seismograms, including surface waves and overtones down to 60s period, as well as body waveforms down to 30s. At each iteration, the forward wavefield is calculated using the Spectral Element Method (SEM), which ensures the accurate computation of the misfit function. Inversion is performed using a fast converging Gauss-Newton formalism. The use of information from the entire seismogram, weighted according to energy arrivals, provides a unique illumination of the deep mantle, compensating for the uneven distribution of sources and stations. The most striking features of this model are the broad, vertically oriented plume-like conduits that extend from the core-mantle boundary to at least 1000 km depth in the vicinity of some 20 major hotspots located over the large low shear velocity provinces under the Pacific and Africa. We here present the results of various tests aimed at evaluating the robustness of these features. These include starting from a different initial model, to evaluate the effects of non-linearity in the inversion, as well as synthetic tests aimed at evaluating the recovery of plumes located in the middle of

  11. Decreasing µ142Nd Variation in the Archean Convecting Mantle from 4.0 to 2.5 Ga: Heterogeneous Domain Mixing or Crustal Recycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.

    2014-12-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd (t1/2=68 Ma) chronometer can be used to examine silicate differentiation in the first 400 Ma of Earth history. Early fractionation between Sm and Nd is recorded in cratonic Archean rocks in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios that that deviate up to ±20 ppm, or μ142Nd - ppm deviation relative to the present-day convecting mantle at 0. These values likely record early extraction of incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched material with -μ142Nd, either as crust or late stage residual melt from a magma ocean, and resulting in a complimentary ITE depleted residual mantle with +μ142Nd. If this early-formed ITE-enriched material was re-incorporated rapidly back into the convecting mantle, both ITE-enriched and ITE-depleted mantle domains would have been established in the Hadean. Alternatively, if it was early-formed crust that remained stable it could have slowly eroded and progressively remixed into the convecting mantle as subducted sediment during the Archean. Each of these scenarios could potentially explain the decrease in the maximum variation in µ142Nd from ±20 at 4.0 Ga to 0 at 2.5 Ga [1,2,3]. In the scenario where these variations reflect mixing of mantle domains, this implies long mantle mixing times of greater than 1 Ga in the Archean in order to preserve the early-formed heterogeneities. This can be achieved in a stagnant lid tectonic regime in the Archean with sporadic and short subduction cycles [2]. This scenario would also indicate that mixing times in the convecting mantle were much slower than the previously proposed 100 Ma in the Hadean and Archean. In the alternative scenario, sediment with -µ142Nd was progressively mixed into the mantle via subduction in the Archean [3]. This scenario doesn't require slow mantle mixing times or a stagnant-lid regime. It requires crustal resident times of up to 750 Ma to maintain a steady supply of ancient sediment recycling over the Archean. Each of these scenarios evoke very contrasting conditions for

  12. Conundrums in merging public policy into private dentistry: experiences from Australia's recent past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Oral disease continues to be a major problem in Australia impacting quality of life, the economy and broader health system. Although the understanding of caries and periodontal disease has improved along with increased government support, oral diseases continue to be the most prevalent among all health conditions. This is despite unprecedented levels of funding in the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Teen Dental Plan. Access to primary care dentistry in the private sector, where the majority of dental services are provided, remains a critical issue. Under the current system of dentistry, it cannot be assumed that the practice of dentistry represents a prioritised approach to combat disease patterns based on scientific evidence in primary health and prevention. Drawing on data in relation to these two programs, the present study highlights issues impacting dental service provision. This includes issues such as access and affordability to dental care, sustainability of policy and its unintended consequences, private practice pressures and the impact of remuneration on treatment. This paper argues that without structural reform there will continue to be barriers in implementing policies capable of improving oral health.

  13. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in young athletes: controversies and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in young athletes are predicated on the assumption that: (1) these events reflect pre-existing, clinically silent heart disease, and (2) means for detecting these abnormalities on the pre-participation evaluation are both feasible and accurate. Recent controversy has surrounded both of these presumptions. Some evidence suggests that the myocardial hypertrophy accompanying sports training itself might serve as a substrate for fatal arrhythmias. As well, vigorous debate has arisen over the optimal content of the pre-participation evaluation, particularly regarding the inclusion of routine screening electrocardiograms. As the rarity of these fatal events does not lend itself to an experimental approach, such disagreements are not easily resolved. Consequently, it is expected that decisions regarding approaches to prevention of sudden death in athletes will be dictated largely by region-specific financial, political, and cultural factors. This chapter examines the aetiologies of sudden cardiac death in young athletes as well as the controversies surrounding the prevention of these tragedies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Complexity and conundrums. Citizens' evaluations of potentially contentious novel food technologies using a deliberative discourse approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greehy, Gráinne M; McCarthy, Mary B; Henchion, Maeve M; Dillon, Emma J; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2013-11-01

    This research considers the processes involved in the formation of attitudes by citizens on potentially contentious novel food technologies (NFTs). Observations of one-to-one deliberative discourses between food scientists and citizens, during which they discussed these technologies, form the basis of this enquiry. This approach enables an exploration of how individuals construct meaning around as well as interpret information about the technologies. Thematic analysis identifies key features that provide the frameworks for citizens' evaluations. How individuals make sense of these technologies is shaped by their beliefs, values and personal characteristics; their perceptions of power and control over the development and sale of NFT related products; and, the extent to which these products are relevant to their personal lives. Internal negotiations between these influences are evident, and evaluations are based on the relative importance of each influence to the individual. Internal conflicts and tensions are associated with citizens' evolving evaluative processes, which may in turn present as attitude ambivalence and instability. Many challenges are linked with engaging with the general public about these technologies, as levels of knowledge, understanding and interest vary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomography of core-mantle boundary and lowermost mantle coupled by geodynamics: joint models of shear and compressional velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Soldati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We conduct joint tomographic inversions of P and S travel time observations to obtain models of delta v_P  and delta v_S in the entire mantle. We adopt a recently published method which takes into account the geodynamic coupling between mantle heterogeneity and core-mantle boundary (CMB topography by viscous flow, where sensitivity of the seismic travel times to the CMB is accounted for implicitly in the inversion (i.e. the CMB topography is not explicitly inverted for. The seismic maps of the Earth's mantle and CMB topography that we derive can explain the inverted seismic data while being physically consistent with each other. The approach involved scaling P-wave velocity (more sensitive to the CMB to density anomalies, in the assumption that mantle heterogeneity has a purely thermal origin, so that velocity and density heterogeneity are proportional to one another. On the other hand, it has sometimes been suggested that S-wave velocity might be more directly sensitive to temperature, while P heterogeneity is more strongly influenced by chemical composition. In the present study, we use only S-, and not P-velocity, to estimate density heterogeneity through linear scaling, and hence the sensitivity of core-reflected P phases to mantle structure. Regardless of whether density is more closely related to P- or S-velocity, we think it is worthwhile to explore both scaling approaches in our efforts to explain seismic data. The similarity of the results presented in this study to those obtained by scaling P-velocity to density suggests that compositional anomaly has a limited impact on viscous flow in the deep mantle.

  16. Nd-isotopes in selected mantle-derived rocks and minerals and their implications for mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    The Sm-Nd systematics in a variety of mantle-derived samples including kimberlites, alnoite, carbonatite, pyroxene and amphibole inclusions in alkali basalts and xenolithic eclogites, granulites and a pyroxene megacryst in kimberlites are reported. The additional data on kimberlites strengthen our earlier conclusion that kimberlites are derived from a relatively undifferentiated chondritic mantle source. This conclusion is based on the observation that the e{open}Nd values of most of the kimberlites are near zero. In contrast with the kimberlites, their garnet lherzolite inclusions show both time-averaged Nd enrichment and depletion with respect to Sm. Separated clinopyroxenes in eclogite xenoliths from the Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe show both positive and negative e{open}Nd values suggesting different genetic history. A whole rock lower crustal scapolite granulite xenolith from the Matsoku kimberlite pipe shows a negative e{open}Nd value of -4.2, possibly representative of the base of the crust in Lesotho. It appears that all inclusions, mafic and ultramafic, in kimberlites are unrelated to their kimberlite host. The above data and additional Sm-Nd data on xenoliths in alkali basalts, alpine peridotite and alnoite-carbonatites are used to construct a model for the upper 200 km of the earth's mantle - both oceanic and continental. The essential feature of this model is the increasing degree of fertility of the mantle with depth. The kimberlite's source at depths below 200 km in the subcontinental mantle is the most primitive in this model, and this primitive layer is also extended to the suboceanic mantle. However, it is clear from the Nd-isotopic data in the xenoliths of the continental kimberlites that above 200 km the continental mantle is distinctly different from their suboceanic counterpart. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Deep and persistent melt layer in the Archaean mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, Denis; Pesce, Giacomo; Manthilake, Geeth; Monteux, Julien; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Chantel, Julien; Novella, Davide; Guignot, Nicolas; King, Andrew; Itié, Jean-Paul; Hennet, Louis

    2018-02-01

    The transition from the Archaean to the Proterozoic eon ended a period of great instability at the Earth's surface. The origin of this transition could be a change in the dynamic regime of the Earth's interior. Here we use laboratory experiments to investigate the solidus of samples representative of the Archaean upper mantle. Our two complementary in situ measurements of the melting curve reveal a solidus that is 200-250 K lower than previously reported at depths higher than about 100 km. Such a lower solidus temperature makes partial melting today easier than previously thought, particularly in the presence of volatiles (H2O and CO2). A lower solidus could also account for the early high production of melts such as komatiites. For an Archaean mantle that was 200-300 K hotter than today, significant melting is expected at depths from 100-150 km to more than 400 km. Thus, a persistent layer of melt may have existed in the Archaean upper mantle. This shell of molten material may have progressively disappeared because of secular cooling of the mantle. Crystallization would have increased the upper mantle viscosity and could have enhanced mechanical coupling between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Such a change might explain the transition from surface dynamics dominated by a stagnant lid on the early Earth to modern-like plate tectonics with deep slab subduction.

  18. Deep Subducction in a Compressible Mantle: Observations and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of slab dynamics is primarily based on the results of numerical models of subduction. In such models coherent, cold slabs are clearly visible from the surface of the Earth to the core mantle boundary. In contrast, fast seismic anomalies associated with cold subducted slabs are difficult to identify below 1500-2000 km in tomographic models of Earth's mantle. One explanation for this has been the resolution, or lack thereof, of seismic tomography in the mid-mantle region; however in this work I will explore the impact of compressibility on the dynamics of subducting slabs, specifically shear heating of the slab and latent heat of phase transformations. Most geodynamic models of subduction have used an incompressible formulation, thus because subducted slabs are assumed to be cold and stiff, the primary means of thermal equilibration is conduction. With an assumed sinking velocity of approximately 0.1 m/yr, a subducted slab reaches the core-mantle boundary in approximately 30 Myrs—too fast for significant conductive cooling of the downgoing slab. In this work I consider a whole-mantle geometry and include both phase transformations with associated latent heat and density changes from the olivine-wadsleyite-ringwoodite-bridgmanite system and the pyroxene-garnet system. The goal of this work is to understand both the eventual fate and thermal evolution of slabs beneath the transition zone.

  19. [The mantle zone in lymphatic follicles and its stratification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, B

    1993-04-01

    Ten inguinal lymph nodes and spleens from autopsies were chosen according to age decades in order to get an idea about usual appearance of follicular structures. The group was complemented by 4 palatine tonsils from routine biopsies. Phenotype was ascertained by using about 30 standard markers and results were compared with a basic histocytological picture. The appearance of lymphatic tissue was quite different according to location and age categories, nevertheless, there were common immunophenotypic and structural features of follicular mantle in younger persons. It mostly comprised four cellular layers, more conspicuous at the upper pole of the follicle. An innermost layer was small-celled blastic, MB 2 and IgD positive, the next B monocytoid layer had medium sized cells of a similar phenotype but more alc, phosphatase positive. An inconstant plasmacytoid layer and a clarocellular layer used to be incomplete. It was cytostructurally characteristic but immunohistologically non-standard (faint CD 19 et CD 20 positivity). T 4 lymphocytes and perhaps some other elements leaving germinal centres were admixed into the inner mantle layer. Various small lymphoid cells, especially T 8 lymphocytes and sometimes litoral cells, were admixed into mantle periphery. Mutual exchange of lymphatic cells between the germinal and mantle zones was very scant. The mantle zone is presumed therefore to be independent from the structural and functional point of view as well.

  20. Lithologic Control on the Form of Soil Mantled Hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, S. A.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Slopes on steady-state soil-mantled hillslopes tend to increase downslope in a way that balances local transport capacity with the sediment supplied from progressively larger source areas. Most predictions for the transport of soil depend purely on topographic slope and constants. Thus, soil mantled topography should evolve toward smooth forms in which soils act to buffer these forms from the underlying geologic structure. However, in the Gabilan Mesa, CA, oscillations in the slope of soil-mantled hillslopes mirror oscillations in the underlying stratigraphy. Using field measurements of stratigraphy and soil depths, topographic analysis, and numerical modeling, we demonstrate that variations in rock type can impact the form of soil-mantled hillslopes. Specifically, variations in the properties of underlying rocks may yield different soil thicknesses. Balancing transport rates across these variations in thickness requires slopes to change when soil transport depends on both soil thickness and slope. A compilation of published data on the variation in activity with depth of various transport processes provides the basis for a geomorphic transport law (GTL) that generalizes the depth dependence of various transport processes. While this GTL is explicitly depth dependent, it is also capable of describing situations in which hillslope transport is relatively insensitive to variations in thickness and therefore essentially equivalent to existing formulations. We use dimensional analysis and numerical modeling to demonstrate the conditions under which transport on soil mantled slopes, and consequently topographic forms, may be sensitive to variations in soil thickness and therefore lithology.

  1. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  2. A large mantle water source for the northern San Andreas Fault System: A ghost of subduction past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.; Wang, Kelin; Brocher, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the shallow mantle of the Cascadia subduction margin under near-coastal Pacific Northwest U.S. is cold and partially serpentinized, storing large quantities of water in this wedge-shaped region. Such a wedge probably formed to the south in California during an earlier period of subduction. We show by numerical modeling that after subduction ceased with the creation of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), the mantle wedge warmed, slowly releasing its water over a period of more than 25 Ma by serpentine dehydration into the crust above. This deep, long-term water source could facilitate fault slip in San Andreas System at low shear stresses by raising pore pressures in a broad region above the wedge. Moreover, the location and breadth of the water release from this model gives insights into the position and breadth of the SAFS. Such a mantle source of water also likely plays a role in the occurrence of Non-Volcanic Tremor (NVT) that has been reported along the SAFS in central California. This process of water release from mantle depths could also mobilize mantle serpentinite from the wedge above the dehydration front, permitting upward emplacement of serpentinite bodies by faulting or by diapiric ascent. Specimens of serpentinite collected from tectonically emplaced serpentinite blocks along the SAFS show mineralogical and structural evidence of high fluid pressures during ascent from depth. Serpentinite dehydration may also lead to tectonic mobility along other plate boundaries that succeed subduction, such as other continental transforms, collision zones, or along present-day subduction zones where spreading centers are subducting.

  3. 182W and HSE constraints from 2.7 Ga komatiites on the heterogeneous nature of the Archean mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtel, Igor S.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Touboul, Mathieu; Walker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    While the isotopically heterogeneous nature of the terrestrial mantle has long been established, the origin, scale, and longevity of the heterogeneities for different elements and isotopic systems are still debated. Here, we report Nd, Hf, W, and Os isotopic and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance data for the Boston Creek komatiitic basalt lava flow (BCF) in the 2.7 Ga Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada. This lava flow is characterized by strong depletions in Al and heavy rare earth elements (REE), enrichments in light REE, and initial ε143Nd = +2.5 ± 0.2 and intial ε176Hf = +4.2 ± 0.9 indicative of derivation from a deep mantle source with time-integrated suprachondritic Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios. The data plot on the terrestrial Nd-Hf array suggesting minimal involvement of early magma ocean processes in the fractionation of lithophile trace elements in the mantle source. This conclusion is supported by a mean μ142Nd = -3.8 ± 2.8 that is unresolvable from terrestrial standards. By contrast, the BCF exhibits a positive 182W anomaly (μ182W = +11.7 ± 4.5), yet is characterized by chondritic initial γ187Os = +0.1 ± 0.3 and low inferred source HSE abundances (35 ± 5% of those estimated for the present-day Bulk Silicate Earth, BSE). Collectively, these characteristics are unique among Archean komatiite systems studied so far. The deficit in the HSE, coupled with the chondritic Os isotopic composition, but a positive 182W anomaly, are best explained by derivation of the parental BCF magma from a mantle domain characterized by a predominance of HSE-deficient, differentiated late accreted material. According to the model presented here, the mantle domain that gave rise to the BCF received only ∼35% of the present-day HSE complement in the BSE before becoming isolated from the rest of the convecting mantle until the time of komatiite emplacement at 2.72 Ga. These new data provide strong evidence for a highly heterogeneous Archean mantle in terms of absolute

  4. Large-scale retreat and advance of shallow seas in Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian islands and surrounding region represent one of the most submerged, low-lying continental areas on Earth. Almost half of this region, known as Sundaland, is presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has largely been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphic sections, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia presently situated on a "dynamic topography low" resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. However, dynamic topography is typically described as a temporally and spatially transient process, implying that Sundaland may have experienced significant vertical motions in the geological past, and thus must be considered when interpreting relative sea level changes and the paleogeographic indicators of advancing and retreating shallow seas. Although the present-day low regional elevation has been attributed to the massive volume of oceanic slabs sinking in the mantle beneath Southeast Asia, a Late Cretaceous to Eocene regional unconformity indicates that shallow seas retreated following regional flooding during the mid-Cretaceous sea level highstand. During the Eocene, less than one fifth of Sundaland was submerged, despite global sea level being ~200 m higher than at present. The regional nature of the switch from marine to terrestrial environments, that is out-of-sync with eustatic sea levels, suggests that broad mantle-driven dynamic uplift may have led to the emergence of Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. We use numerical forward modelling of plate tectonics and mantle convection, and compare the predicted trends of dynamic topography with evidence from regional paleogeography and eustasy to determine the extent to which mantle-driven vertical motions of the lithosphere have influenced regional basin histories in Southeast Asia. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked

  5. Slab-derived components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Chilean Patagonia: Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of mantle xenoliths and host basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Sumino, Hirochika; Schilling, Manuel E.; Nagao, Keisuke; Morata, Diego; Sylvester, Paul

    2017-11-01

    modified oceanic crust throughout the initial stages of the Farallón-Aluk ridge collision during Paleocene to Eocene time. However, based on the tectonic evolution of southern South America, we cannot exclude the influence of long-lived subduction events beneath south Patagonia. Although we believe that the studied samples were brought to the surface in this geodynamic context, there is no evidence that ocean island basalt (OIB)-like melts related to the Farallón-Aluk asthenospheric slab window affected the peridotite composition. The host alkaline basalt is a single unit with a HIMU-like OIB signature characterized by marked positive Nb-Ta anomalies coupled with negative anomalies in highly incompatible and fluid-mobile elements (Rb, K, Pb, and Sr). The compositional similarity between the HIMU-like OIB mantle source and the host basalt is also evident from trace element ratios [(Ba-Th-K-La-Zr)/Nb] as well as by the low 87Sr/86Sri (0.703039-0.703058) and relatively high 143Nd/144Ndi (0.512880-0.512874) and 206Pb/204Pb (19.333-19.389) isotopic ratios. The low 206Pb/204Pb ratios compared to end-member HIMU lavas (e.g., Sta. Helena and the Cook-Austral Islands) suggest that this region was modified by processes associated with a prolonged period of subduction related to the Andean orogenesis and the recycling of several oceanic plates beneath the continent, following the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana or an even older subduction-related event with young recycling ages (< 2 Ga).

  6. Challenges and Conundrums in Modeling Global Methane Emissions from Wetlands: An Empiricist's Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands emit a third to half of the global CH4 flux and have the largest uncertainty of any emission source. Moreover, wetlands have provided an important radiative feedback to climate in the geologic and recent past. A number of largescale wetland CH4 models have been developed recently, but intermodel comparisons show wide discrepancies in their predictions. I present an empiricist's overview of the current limitations and challenges of more accurately modeling wetland CH4 emissions. One of the largest limitations is simply the poor knowledge of wetland area, with estimated global values varying by a more than a factor of three. The areas of seasonal and tropical wetlands are particularly poorly constrained. There are also few wetlands with complete, multi-year datasets for all of the input variables for many models, and this lack of data is particularly alarming in tropical wetlands given that they are arguably the single largest natural or anthropogenic global CH4 source. Almost all largescale CH4 models have little biogeochemical mechanistic detail and treat anaerobic carbon cycling in a highly simplified manner. The CH4:CO2 ratio in anaerobic carbon mineralization is a central parameter in many models, but is at most set at a few values with no mechanistic underpinning. However, empirical data show that this ratio varies by five orders of magnitude in different wetlands, and tropical wetlands appear to be particularly methanogenic, all for reasons that are very poorly understood. The predominance of the acetoclastic pathway of methanogenesis appears to be related to total CH4 production, but different methanogenesis pathways are generally not incorporated into models. Other important anaerobic processes such as humic substances acting as terminal electron acceptors, fermentation, homoacetogenesis, and anaerobic CH4 oxidation are also not included in most models despite evidence of their importance in empirical studies. Moreover, there has been an explosion

  7. Mantle Flow Across the Baikal Rift Constrained With Integrated Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Baikal Rift is located at the boundary of the stable Siberian Craton and deforming central Mongolia. The origin of the late Cenozoic rifting and volcanism are debated, as is the mantle flow beneath the rift zone. Here we combine new evidence from azimuthally-anisotropic upper-mantle tomography and from a radially-anisotropic inversion of interstation surface-wave dispersion curves with previously published shear-wave-splitting measurements of azimuthal anisotropy across the rift (Gao et al. 1994). While our tomographic model maps isotropic and anisotropic shear-velocity heterogeneity globally, the inversion of interstation phase-velocity measurements produces a single, radially-anisotropic, shear-velocity profile that averages from the rift to 500 km SE of it. The precision and the broad band (8-340 s) of the Rayleigh and Love wave curves ensures high accuracy of the profile. Tomography and shear-wave splitting both give a NW-SE fast direction (perpendicular to the rift) in the vicinity of the rift, changing towards W-E a few hundred kilometers from it. Previously, this has been interpreted as evidence for mantle flow similar to that beneath mid-ocean ridges, with deeper vertical flow directly beneath the rift also proposed. Our radially anisotropic profile, however, shows that while strong anisotropy with SH waves faster than SV waves is present in the thin lithosphere and upper asthenosphere beneath and SE of the rift, no anisotropy is required below 110 km. The tomographic model shows thick cratonic lithosphere north of the rift. These observations suggest that instead of a flow diverging from the rift axis in NW and SE directions, the most likely pattern is the asthenospheric flow in SE direction from beneath the Siberian lithosphere and across the rift. Possible driving forces of the flow are large-scale lithospheric deformation in East Asia and the draining of asthenosphere at W-Pacific subduction zones; a plume beneath the Siberian craton also cannot be

  8. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev P.

    2016-01-01

    contributions of the both factors to surface topography in the cratons of southern Africa. Our analysis takes advantage of the SASE seismic experiment which provided high resolution regional models of the crustal thickness.We calculate the model of density structure of the lithospheric mantle in southern Africa...... that mantle residual (dynamic) topography may be associated with the low-density region below the depth of isostatic compensation. A possible candidate is the low velocity layer between the lithospheric base and the mantle transition zone, where a temperature anomaly of 100-200. °C in a ca. 100-150. km thick...... layer may explain the observed reduction in Vs velocity and may produce ca. 0.5-1.0. km to the regional topographic uplift....

  9. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...

  10. Gastric and colonic mantle cell lymphoma - incidental discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Dan; Stoica, Victor; Stoia, Razvan; Dobrea, Camelia; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea

    2009-03-01

    A 65-year old patient, with no medical history, was admitted for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. On clinical examination the patient seemed to be in good health. However the examination was completed with a rectosigmoidoscopy revealing the presence of mucosal erosions, ulcerations, multiple papulae. The histopathological examination raised the suspicion of a colonic lymphoma. Gastric biopsies suggested a gastric MALT type lymphoma associated to the colonic lymphoma, but the immunohistochemical profile corresponded to a mantle cell lymphoma. In spite of the general poor prognosis of mantle cell lymphoma, our patient had a good clinical and endoscopic response to the standard cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (CVP) therapy. The cases of gastric and colonic mantle lymphoma are rare, the response to therapy is poor; fortunately, our patient had a complete resolution after completion of the six cycles of chemotherapy.

  11. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  12. Effects of iron on the lattice thermal conductivity of Earth's deep mantle and implications for mantle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Deschamps, Frédéric; Okuchi, Takuo; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2018-04-17

    Iron may critically influence the physical properties and thermochemical structures of Earth's lower mantle. Its effects on thermal conductivity, with possible consequences on heat transfer and mantle dynamics, however, remain largely unknown. We measured the lattice thermal conductivity of lower-mantle ferropericlase to 120 GPa using the ultrafast optical pump-probe technique in a diamond anvil cell. The thermal conductivity of ferropericlase with 56% iron significantly drops by a factor of 1.8 across the spin transition around 53 GPa, while that with 8-10% iron increases monotonically with pressure, causing an enhanced iron substitution effect in the low-spin state. Combined with bridgmanite data, modeling of our results provides a self-consistent radial profile of lower-mantle thermal conductivity, which is dominated by pressure, temperature, and iron effects, and shows a twofold increase from top to bottom of the lower mantle. Such increase in thermal conductivity may delay the cooling of the core, while its decrease with iron content may enhance the dynamics of large low shear-wave velocity provinces. Our findings further show that, if hot and strongly enriched in iron, the seismic ultralow velocity zones have exceptionally low conductivity, thus delaying their cooling.

  13. High Resolution Global Electrical Conductivity Variations in the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, A.; Sun, J.; Egbert, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle is a valuable constraint on the water content and melting processes. In Kelbert et al. (2009), we obtained the first global inverse model of electrical conductivity in the mantle capable of providing constraints on the lateral variations in mantle water content. However, in doing so we had to compromise on the problem complexity by using the historically very primitive ionospheric and magnetospheric source assumptions. In particular, possible model contamination by the auroral current systems had greatly restricted our use of available data. We have now addressed this problem by inverting for the external sources along with the electrical conductivity variations. In this study, we still focus primarily on long period data that are dominated by quasi-zonal source fields. The improved understanding of the ionospheric sources allows us to invert the magnetic fields directly, without a correction for the source and/or the use of transfer functions. It allows us to extend the period range of available data to 1.2 days - 102 days, achieving better sensitivity to the upper mantle and transition zone structures. Finally, once the source effects in the data are accounted for, a much larger subset of observatories may be used in the electrical conductivity inversion. Here, we use full magnetic fields at 207 geomagnetic observatories, which include mid-latitude, equatorial and high latitude data. Observatory hourly means from the years 1958-2010 are employed. The improved quality and spatial distribution of the data set, as well as the high resolution modeling and inversion using degree and order 40 spherical harmonics mapped to a 2x2 degree lateral grid, all contribute to the much improved resolution of our models, representing a conceptual step forward in global electromagnetic sounding. We present a fully three-dimensional, global electrical conductivity model of the Earth's mantle as inferred from ground geomagnetic

  14. Dehydration of δ-AlOOH in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, H.; Shim, S. H.; Tappan, J.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrous phase δ-AlOOH is an important candidate for water transport and storage in the Earth's deep mantle [1]. Knowing the conditions, under which it is stable and dehydrated, is therefore important for understanding the water transportation to the deep mantle or even to the core. A few experimental studies [1, 2] have shown that δ-AlOOH may be stable in cold descending slabs while it is dehydrated into a mixture of corundum and water under normal mantle conditions, up to 25 GPa. A subsequent study [3] reported the stability of δ-AlOOH in cold descending slabs to the core-mantle boundary conditions (2300 K at 135 GPa). However, the dehydration of δ-AlOOH has not bee directly observed in the experiments conducted at pressures above 25 GPa. We have synthesized δ-AlOOH from diaspore and Al(OH)3 in multi-anvil press at ASU. The sample was mixed with Au for coupling with near IR laser beams and loaded in diamond-anvil cells. We performed the laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at the 13IDD beamline of the Advanced Photon Source and ASU. At APS, we measured X-ray diffraction patterns at in situ high pressure and temperature. We observed the appearance of the corundum diffraction lines at 1700-2000 K and 55-90 GPa, indicating the dehydration of δ-AlOOH to Al2O3+ H2O. We found that the transition occurs over a broad range of temperature (500 K). We also observed that the dehydration of δ-AlOOH was accompanied by sudden change in laser coupling, most likely due to the release of fluids. The property change also helps us to determine the dehydration at ASU without in situ XRD. Our new experimental results indicate that δ-AlOOH would be stable in most subducting slabs in the deep mantle. However, because the dehydration occurs very close to the temperatures expected for the lower mantle, its stability is uncertain in the normal mantle. [1] Ohtani et al. 2001, Stability field of new hydrous phase, delta-AlOOH, Geophysical Research Letters 28, 3991-3993. [2

  15. Cutaneous lesions as presentation form of mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Merino de Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma is a type of no-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects extranodal areas, especially, bone narrow, digestive tract and Waldeyer ring. Here we report a case of mantle cell lymphoma IV Ann Arbor stage with cutaneous lesions on nasal dorsum and gland as the first manifestations. Skin involvement is a very rare manifestation and less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. The importance of stablishing multidisciplinary relationships for a global approach has been shown by this clinical case.

  16. Composition of uppermost mantle beneath the Northern Fennoscandia - numerical modeling and petrological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virshylo, Ivan; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Prodaivoda, George; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    restricted volume in the multi-dimensional parameter space. In order to constrain concentration of minerals we used equilibrium of mineral associations for selected P-T condition obtained by free Gibbs energy minimization (c.f. Stixrude & Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2005). We also considered the mineralogical composition of upper mantle xenoliths, although the representativeness of xenoliths in Precambrian rocks could be treated with care, if one tries to describe the modern mantle. As a first step, we estimated 1D model of mineralogical composition in the depth range of 35-350 km using the IASP91 reference model (Kennett & Engdahl, 1991). Both the P- and S- wave velocities were used for inversion, in order to improve the reliability of the model. More comprehensive result could be obtained if density distribution is involved. In our study we used the 1D PEMC density model (Dziewonski, Hales & Lapwood, 1975) as it is the most adequate for the continental lithosphere. The 1D modeling showed that the garnet lherzolite model (forsterite, fayalite, enstatite, ferrosilite, diopside, jadeite, pyrope) can be considered as a basic one. The end-members of olivine and orthopyroxene solutions were included with the aim of Fe/Mg ratio estimation. Testing with modified models including hedenbergite, harzburgite spinel, etc. showed that these minerals have no significant influence on bulk elastic properties. Selected set of minerals allows modelling the most species of peridote-pyroxenite associations known from xenoliths investigations (Kukkonen, Kuusisto, Lehtonen, & Peltonen, 2008; Lehtonen, O'Brien, Peltonen, Johanson, & Pakkanen, 2004). However, there exist also a number of evidences for mantle eclogite xenoliths from the region under study and its surrounding (Lehtonen et al., 2004; Peltonen, Kinnunen, & Huhma, 2002). That is why we also made modelling for garnet-clinopyroxene model of eclogite. The volumetric mineral compositions obtained were transformed into weight concentration of rock

  17. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickael, B.; Nolet, G.; Villasenor, A.; Josep, G.; Thomas, C.

    2013-12-01

    During Cenozoic, geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks now available in Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will bring new constraints on the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath Alborán Sea, a strong (~ 4%) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly and its extent at depth are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favoring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper-mantle, several high intensity slow anomalies are widely observed in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at surface with the position of the orogens (Rif and Atlas) and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot) upper mantle, with piece of evidence for a lateral connection with the Canary volcanic islands, likely indicating a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  18. Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.

    2009-12-01

    Partial melting of the Earth's deep mantle probably occurred at different stages of its formation as a consequence of meteoritic impacts and seismology suggests that it even continues today at the core-mantle boundary. Melts are important because they dominate the chemical evolution of the different Earth's reservoirs and more generally the dynamics of the whole planet. Unfortunately, the most critical parameter, that is the temperature profile inside the deep Earth, remains poorly constrained accross the planet history. Experimental investigations of the melting properties of materials representative of the deep Earth at relevant P-T conditions can provide anchor points to refine past and present temperature profiles and consequently determine the degree of melting at the different geological periods. Previous works report melting relations in the uppermost lower mantle region, using the multi-anvil press [1,2]. On the other hand, the pyrolite solidus was determined up to 65 GPa using optical observations in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) [3]. Finally, the melting temperature of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine is documented at core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions by shock wave experiments [4]. Solely based on these reports, experimental data remain too sparse to draw a definite melting curve for the lower mantle in the relevant 25-135 GPa pressure range. We reinvestigated melting properties of lower mantle materials by means of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements in the LH-DAC at the ESRF [5]. Experiments were performed in an extended P-T range for two starting materials: forsterite and a glass with chondrite composition. In both cases, the aim was to determine the onset of melting, and thus the eutectic melting temperatures as a function of pressure. Melting was evidenced from drastic changes of diffraction peak shape on the image plate, major changes in diffraction intensities in the integrated pattern, disappearance of diffraction rings

  19. Traveltime Dispersion in an Isotropic Elastic Mantle: Dominance of the Lower Mantle Signal in Differential-frequency Time Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, B. S. A.; Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    We study wavefield effects in elastic isotropic 3-D seismic structures derived from the temperature field of a high resolution mantle circulation model. More specifically, we quantify the structural dispersion of traveltime residuals of direct P- and S-waves in a model with realistic length-scales and magnitudes of the variations in seismic velocities and density. 3-D global wave propagation is simulated using a spectral element method, and traveltime residuals are measured in four different frequency bands by cross-correlation of 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Intrinsic (dissipative) attenuation is deliberately neglected, so that any variation of traveltimes with frequency can be attributed to structural effects. Additional simulations are performed for a model in which 3-D structure is removed in the upper 800 km to isolate the dispersion signal of the lower mantle. One question that we address is whether the structural length-scales inherent to a vigorously convecting mantle give rise to significant body-wave dispersion. In our synthetic dataset, the difference between long-period and short-period traveltime residuals generally increases with increasing short-period residual. However, we do not find an exact linear dependence, and in case of P-waves even non-monotonic behaviour. At largest short-period residuals, average dispersion is on the order of 2 s for both P- and S-waves and even larger when structure is confined to the lower mantle. Dispersion also appears to be asymmetric; that is, larger for negative than for positive residuals. The standard deviations of both P- and S-wave residuals also increase with increasing period and we discuss possible explanations for this behaviour. Overall, wavefield effects in both models are generally stronger for P-waves than for S-waves at the same frequencies. We also find that for certain combinations of periods, the difference between the respective residuals is very similar between the "whole mantle" and the "lower

  20. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation of ...

  1. "The Boy in the Dress": Queering Mantle of the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Liselle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I offer a queer analysis of several key moments during a Mantle of the Expert (MoE) project that resulted in Year 5 children creating performances and engaging with heightened versions of gendered femininity in their primary school. I will refer to theoretical notions of transvestism as a means of challenging the notions of binarism,…

  2. Continuous reorientation of synchronous terrestrial planets due to mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy

    2018-02-01

    Many known rocky exoplanets are thought to have been spun down by tidal interactions to a state of synchronous rotation, in which a planet's period of rotation is equal to that of its orbit around its host star. Investigations into atmospheric and surface processes occurring on such exoplanets thus commonly assume that day and night sides are fixed with respect to the surface over geological timescales. Here we use an analytical model to show that true polar wander—where a planetary body's spin axis shifts relative to its surface because of changes in mass distribution—can continuously reorient a synchronous rocky exoplanet. As occurs on Earth, we find that even weak mantle convection in a rocky exoplanet can produce density heterogeneities within the mantle sufficient to reorient the planet. Moreover, we show that this reorientation is made very efficient by the slower rotation rate of a synchronous planet when compared with Earth, which limits the stabilizing effect of rotational and tidal deformations. Furthermore, a relatively weak lithosphere limits its ability to support remnant loads and stabilize against reorientation. Although uncertainties exist regarding the mantle and lithospheric evolution of these worlds, we suggest that the axes of smallest and largest moment of inertia of synchronous exoplanets with active mantle convection change continuously over time, but remain closely aligned with the star-planet and orbital axes, respectively.

  3. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V; Besse, J

    1987-09-04

    True polar wander, the shifting of the entire mantle relative to the earth's spin axis, has been reanalyzed. Over the last 200 million years, true polar wander has been fast (approximately 5 centimeters per year) most of the time, except for a remarkable standstill from 170 to 110 million years ago. This standstill correlates with a decrease in the reversal frequency of the geomagnetic field and episodes of continental breakup. Conversely, true polar wander is high when reversal frequency increases. It is proposed that intermittent convection modulates the thickness of a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and consequently the core-to-mantle heat flux. Emission of hot thermals from the boundary layer leads to increases in mantle convection and true polar wander. In conjunction, cold thermals released from a boundary layer at the top of the liquid core eventually lead to reversals. Changes in the locations of subduction zones may also affect true polar wander. Exceptional volcanism and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Permo-Triassic boundaries may be related to thermals released after two unusually long periods with no magnetic reversals. These environmental catastrophes may therefore be a consequence of thermal and chemical couplings in the earth's multilayer heat engine rather than have an extraterrestrial cause.

  4. Treatment of older patients with mantle-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Hoster, E; Hermine, O

    2012-01-01

    The long-term prognosis for older patients with mantle-cell lymphoma is poor. Chemoimmunotherapy results in low rates of complete remission, and most patients have a relapse. We investigated whether a fludarabine-containing induction regimen improved the complete-remission rate and whether...

  5. Rb-Sr mantle isochrons from oceanic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, C; Hart, S R; Hofmann, A; James, D E [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1976-09-01

    Existing data for /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and Rb/Sr ratios of basalts from oceanic islands and mid-ocean spreading ridges show significant positive correlations on a Rb-Sr isochron diagram (when data are averaged by island group). Furthermore, tholeiites and alkali basalts occupy distinct non-overlapping fields on this plot. The tholeiite correlation is interpreted as a mantle isochron, and the agreement of this age (1.6+-0.2 b.y.) with that reported for Pb-Pb isochrons from oceanic basalts lends strong support to the use of such isochrons for tracing mantle evolution. Oceanic basalts are apparently sampling a mantle in which chemical heterogeneities have persisted for at least 1.5-2.0 b.y. The data support a kinematic model for the mantle in which a relatively uniform and non-radiogenic asthenosphere is penetrated by, and mixed with, blobs or plumes derived from an isolated (1.5-2 b.y.) and chemically heterogeneous mesosphere.

  6. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  7. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  8. Seismic travel-time tomography for detailed global mantle structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to use travel-time tomography to focus and enhance the existing global image of the Earth's mantle and crust. This image is still rather blurred with respect to the considerably sharper pictures commonly obtained in regional studies. The improvement is basically

  9. Seismic travel-time tomography for detailed global mantle structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to use travel-time tomography to focus and enhance the existing global image of the Earth's mantle and crust. This image is still rather blurred with respect to the considerably sharper pictures commonly obtained in regional studies. The improvement is basically obtained

  10. Evolution of the Oxidation State of the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Keller, L.; Christoffersen, E.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation state of the Earth's mantle during formation remains an unresolved question, whether it was constant throughout planetary accretion, transitioned from reduced to oxidized, or from oxidized to reduced. We investigate the stability of Fe3(+) at depth, in order to constrain processes (water, late accretion, dissociation of FeO) which may reduce or oxidize the Earth's mantle. In our previous experiments on shergottite compositions, variable fO2, T, and P less than 4 GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased slightly with increasing P, similar to terrestrial basalt. For oxidizing experiments less than 7GPa, Fe3(+)/sigma Fe decreased as well, but it's unclear from previous modelling whether the deeper mantle could retain significant Fe3(+). Our current experiments expand our pressure range deeper into the Earth's mantle and focus on compositions and conditions relevant to the early Earth. Preliminary multi-anvil experiments with Knippa basalt as the starting composition were conducted at 5-7 GPa and 1800 C, using a molybdenum capsule to set the fO2 near IW, by buffering with Mo-MoO3. TEM and EELS analyses revealed the run products quenched to polycrystalline phases, with the major phase pyroxene containing approximately equal to Fe3(+)/2(+). Experiments are underway to produce glassy samples that can be measured by EELS and XANES, and are conducted at higher pressures.

  11. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  12. Effects of mantle rheologies on viscous heating induced by glacial isostatic adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ping Ping; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, W.

    2018-01-01

    It has been argued that viscous dissipation from mantle flow in response to surface loading during glacial cycles can result in short-term heating and thus trigger transient volcanism or changes in mantle properties, which may in turn affect mantle dynamics. Furthermore, heating near the Earth's

  13. Clustering of arc volcanoes caused by temperature perturbations in the back-arc mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeol; Wada, Ikuko

    2017-06-29

    Clustering of arc volcanoes in subduction zones indicates along-arc variation in the physical condition of the underlying mantle where majority of arc magmas are generated. The sub-arc mantle is brought in from the back-arc largely by slab-driven mantle wedge flow. Dynamic processes in the back-arc, such as small-scale mantle convection, are likely to cause lateral variations in the back-arc mantle temperature. Here we use a simple three-dimensional numerical model to quantify the effects of back-arc temperature perturbations on the mantle wedge flow pattern and sub-arc mantle temperature. Our model calculations show that relatively small temperature perturbations in the back-arc result in vigorous inflow of hotter mantle and subdued inflow of colder mantle beneath the arc due to the temperature dependence of the mantle viscosity. This causes a three-dimensional mantle flow pattern that amplifies the along-arc variations in the sub-arc mantle temperature, providing a simple mechanism for volcano clustering.

  14. Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic systematics in a three-component mantle: a new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zindler, A.; Goldstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    Average Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions for oceanic basalts indicate that the present day mantle consists of three chemically independent components. The recognition of a third mantle component obviates geochemical arguments which have been used to support chemical stratification and convective decoupling within the mantle, and the transport of lead to the core throughout geological time. (author)

  15. Digging Deep: Is Lunar Mantle Excavated Around the Imbrium Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Bretzfelder, J.; Buczkowski, D.; Ernst, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Petro, N. E.; Shusterman, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Moon has experienced over a dozen impacts resulting in basins large enough to have excavated mantle material. With many of those basins concentrated on the lunar near side, and extensive regolith mixing since the lunar magma ocean crystallized, one might expect that some mantle material would have been found among the lunar samples on Earth. However, so far, no mantle clasts have been definitively identified in lunar samples [1]. From orbit, a number of olivine-bearing localities, potentially sourced from the mantle, have been identified around impact basins [2]. Based on analysis of near-infrared (NIR) and imaging data, [3] suggest that roughly 60% of these sites represent olivine from the mantle. If this is the case and the blocks are coherent and not extensively mixed into the regolith, these deposits should be ultramafic, containing olivine and/or pyroxenes and little to no plagioclase. In the mid-infrared, they would thus exhibit Christiansen features at wavelengths in excess of 8.5 μm, which has not been observed in global studies using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [4]. We present an integrated study of the massifs surrounding the Imbrium basin, which, at over 1000 km wide, is large enough to have penetrated through the lunar crust and into the mantle. These massifs are clearly associated with the Imbrium basin-forming impact, but existing geological maps do not distinguish between whether they are likely ejecta or rather uplifted from beneath the surface during crustal rebound [5]. We examine these massifs using vis, NIR and Mid IR data to determine the relationships between and the bulk mineralogy of local lithologies. NIR data suggest that the massifs contain exposures of four dominant minerals: olivine, Mg-rich orthopyroxene, a second low-Ca pyroxene, and anorthite. Mid IR results suggest that though many of these massifs are plagioclase-rich, portions of some may be significantly more mafic. We will present our growing mineralogical map of the

  16. Plate tectonics, mantle convection and D'' seismic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lianxing

    This thesis adopts multidisciplinary (geodynamical and seismological) approaches toward understanding dynamics of the Earth's mantle. My geodynamical approach is directed at understanding the relationship between large-scale surface observables (geoid, topography, plate motions) and mantle rheology and convection of the present-day Earth. In chapter 2, I remove shallow mantle structure of various tectonic features to generate "residual tomography." In chapter 3, I show that the pattern, spectrum and amplitude of the "residual topography" are consistent with shallow origin of the "Earth surface dynamic topography;" the long wavelength geoid and topography (l = 2-3) are successfully explained by density models inferred from the "residual tomography," assuming layered mantle convection stratified at the "920 km seismic discontinuity." In chapter 4, I develop a new method to calculate mantle flow with lateral variation of viscosity. The viscosity contrast between continental and oceanic regions is identified to have dominating effects on both the observed poloidal/toroidal ratio and pattern of toroidal motions at long wavelengths. My seismological approach is focused on exploring fine structures near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and developing new seismic techniques. I discuss the method development and strategies to explore fine structures in the following chapters. In chapter 5, I develop a hybrid method, a combination of analytical and numerical methods, with numerical methods applied in heterogeneous regions only. In chapter 6, I constrain the general structures of the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZ) near the CMB under the south-east Pacific and Iceland. The SKS-SPdKS data are explained by ULVZ with P-velocity reduction of 10%, horizontal length-scales of about 250 km and height of about 40 km. S-velocity reduction of 30% is consistent with the data. In chapter 7, I constrain the detailed structures of the ULVZ near the CMB from observed broadband PKP precursors

  17. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  18. Memories of Earth Formation in the Modern Mantle: W Isotopic Composition of Flood Basalt Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Horan, M. F.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Francis, D.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Four and a half billion years of geologic activity has overprinted much of the direct evidence for processes involved in Earth's formation and its initial chemical differentiation. Xenon isotopic ratios [1] and 3He/22Ne ratios [2] suggest that heterogeneities formed during Earth's accretion have been preserved to the present time. New opportunities to learn about early Earth history have opened up with the development of analytical techniques that allow high precision analysis of short-lived isotopic systems. The Hf-W system (t½ = 8.9 Ma) is particularly valuable for studying events that occurred during the first ~50 Ma of Solar System history. Here we report new data for ~ 60 Ma Baffin Bay and ~ 120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau lava samples. Both are large igneous provinces that may have sampled a primitive, less degassed deep mantle reservoir that has remained isolated since shortly after Earth formation [3,4]. Three samples analyzed have 182W/184W ratios that are 10 to 48 ppm higher than our terrestrial standard. These excesses in 182W are the highest ever measured in terrestrial rocks, and may reflect 182W ingrowth in an early-formed high Hf/W mantle domain that was produced by magma ocean differentiation [5]. Long and short-lived Sm-Nd systematics in these samples, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. The 182W excessses could rather reflect the derivation of these lavas from a mantle reservoir that was isolated from late accretionary additions [6]. The chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions and highly siderophile element abundances of these samples, however, are inconsistent with this interpretation. Tungsten concentrations for the Baffin Bay and Ontong Java Plateau samples range from 23 ppb to 62 ppb, and are negatively correlated with their 182W/184W ratios. We propose that the source reservoirs for these flood basalts likely formed through Hf/W fractionation caused by core-forming events occuring over a protacted time interval during Earth

  19. The peculiar geochemical signatures of São Miguel (Azores) lavas: Metasomatised or recycled mantle sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Haase, Karsten M.

    2007-07-01

    Nordeste may be taken as circumstantial evidence that stirring processes in the Earth's mantle are not able to homogenise material within the size of seamounts over timescales of mantle recycling.

  20. Full seismic waveform inversion of the African crust and Mantle - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Ermert, Laura; Staring, Myrna; Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    anomalies. [1] Rickers, F., Fichtner, A., and Trampert, J., 2013. The Iceland-Jan Mayen plume system and its impact on mantle dynamics in the North Atlantic region: Evidence from full-waveform inversion, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 367, 39-51.

  1. Anisotropy of the upper mantle beneath the equatorial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Tharimena, S.; Agius, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    It has been long-known that the mantle beneath ocean spreading centres is anisotropic, holding the signature of the formation of new oceanic lithosphere and its coupling with the underlying convecting asthenosphere. Numerical studies have suggested that there should be significant differences between the anisotropy at slow versus fast spreading centres, but there is little observational evidence to calibrate these simulations, especially at slow spreading centres. Near the ridge axis, the anisotropic effects of melt versus the lattice preferred orientation of minerals is not well understood. Finally, the mantle flow near ridge-transform interactions is also poorly understood. Here we present observations of SKS splitting in a region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the equator and offset by the Romanche and Chain Fracture Zones. An array of 37 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed for a year in depths of up to nearly 6000m, with the aim of studying the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as it forms (the PiLAB - Passive Imaging of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary - experiment). Stations were deployed on crust that varies from newly formed to 80 My old. We analyse 40 teleseismic events of magnitude greater than 5.8 and with epicentral distances between 88 and 130 degrees. The ocean-bottom is a noisy environment and a range of filters are used to isolate the SKS, SKKS, and related signals. Furthermore, stacking splitting error envelopes is used to improve confidence in the splitting parameters. Many of the splitting measurements show an orientation parallel to the direction of plate spreading, as expected, but variability in the orientation of the anisotropy increases towards the ridge axis. The magnitude of the anisotropy is also quite variable and suggests larger delay times near the ridge axis. Off-axis anisotropy is interpreted in terms of deformation of peridotite due to mantle flow. Near the ridge axis, the effect of ridge-parallel melt

  2. THE L1157-B1 ASTROCHEMICAL LABORATORY: MEASURING THE TRUE FORMALDEHYDE DEUTERATION ON GRAIN MANTLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Viti, S.; Benedettini, M.

    2014-01-01

    L1157 is a prototypical chemically active outflow driven by a low-mass class-0 protostar, and B1 is its brightest bow shock. Toward L1157-B1, several emission lines of deuterated molecules have been detected for the first time by Codella et al. The authors suggested that these were formed on grain mantles, and then released into the gas phase by the passage of the shock. In this Letter we report observations obtained at high angular resolution with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of HDCO and CH 2 DOH. The emission of HDCO perfectly delineates the region of the interface between the fast jet and the slower ambient material, confirming the predictions of the previous work that deuterated species were formed on grain mantles and then released into the gas phase by the passage of the shock. CH 2 DOH emission is fainter and thus its emitting region is not well determined. The deuterated fraction HDCO/H 2 CO is ∼0.1 in the HDCO emitting region, an order of magnitude larger than the upper limit found in the surrounding material, probably dominated by warm-gas chemistry and less affected by grain evaporation. Our study represents the first clear evidence ever found of a deuterated molecule as shock tracer, and yields an indirect but ''clean'' measurement of the deuteration of the ices covering the dust grains during the cold pre-protostellar phase

  3. Deformation, Fluid Flow and Mantle Serpentinization at Oceanic Transform Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupke, L.; Hasenclever, J.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic transform faults (OTF) and fracture zones have long been hypothesized to be sites of enhanced fluid flow and biogeochemical exchange. In this context, the serpentine forming interaction between seawater and cold lithospheric mantle rocks is particularly interesting. The transformation of peridotite to serpentinite not only leads to hydration of oceanic plates and is thereby an important agent of the geological water cycle, it is also a mechanism of abiotic hydrogen and methane formation, which can support archeal and bacterial communities at the seafloor. Inferring the likely amount of mantle undergoing serpentinization reactions therefore allows estimating the amount of biomass that may be autotrophically produced at and around oceanic transform faults and mid-ocean ridges Here we present results of 3-D geodynamic model simulations that explore the interrelations between deformation, fluid flow, and mantle serpentinization at oceanic transform faults. We investigate how slip rate and fault offset affect the predicted patterns of mantle serpentinization around oceanic transform faults. Global rates of mantle serpentinization and associated H2 production are calculated by integrating the modeling results with plate boundary data. The global additional OTF-related production of H2 is found to be between 6.1 and 10.7 x 1011 mol per year, which is comparable to the predicted background mid-ocean ridge rate of 4.1 - 15.0 x 1011 mol H2/yr. This points to oceanic transform faults as potential sites of intense fluid-rock interaction, where chemosynthetic life could be sustained by serpentinization reactions.

  4. Numerical modelling of volatiles in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichheimer, Philipp; Thielmann, Marcel; Golabek, Gregor J.

    2017-04-01

    The transport and storage of water in the mantle significantly affects several material properties of mantle rocks and thus water plays a key role in a variety of geodynamical processes (tectonics, magmatism etc.). The processes driving transport and circulation of H2O in subduction zones remain a debated topic. Geological and seismological observations suggest different inflow mechanisms of water e.g. slab bending, thermal cracking and serpentinization (Faccenda et al., 2009; Korenaga, 2017), followed by dehydration of the slab. On Earth both shallow and steep subduction can be observed (Li et al., 2011). However most previous models (van Keken et al., 2008; Wilson et al., 2014) did not take different dip angles and subduction velocities of slabs into account. To which extent these parameters and processes influence the inflow of water still remains unclear. We present 2D numerical models simulating the influence of the various water inflow mechanisms on the mantle with changing dip angle and subduction velocity of the slab over time. The results are used to make predictions regarding the rheological behavior of the mantle wedge, dehydration regimes and volcanism at the surface. References: van Keken, P. E., et al. A community benchmark for subduction zone modeling. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 187-197 (2008). Faccenda, M., T.V. Gerya, and L. Burlini. Deep slab hydration induced by bending-related variations in tectonic pressure. Nat. Geosci. 2, 790-793 (2009). Korenaga, J. On the extent of mantle hydration caused by plate bending. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 457, 1-9 (2017). Wilson, C. R., et al. Fluid flow in subduction zones: The role of solid rheology and compaction pressure. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 261-274 (2014). Li, Z. H., Z. Q. Xu, and T. V. Gerya. Flat versus steep subduction: Contrasting modes for the formation and exhumation of high- to ultrahigh-pressure rocks in continental collision zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 301, 65-77 (2011).

  5. BurnMan: A lower mantle mineral physics toolkit

    KAUST Repository

    Cottaar, Sanne; Heister, Timo; Rose, Ian; Unterborn, Cayman

    2014-01-01

    We present BurnMan, an open-source mineral physics toolbox to determine elastic properties for specified compositions in the lower mantle by solving an Equation of State (EoS). The toolbox, written in Python, can be used to evaluate seismic velocities of new mineral physics data or geodynamic models, and as the forward model in inversions for mantle composition. The user can define the composition from a list of minerals provided for the lower mantle or easily include their own. BurnMan provides choices in methodology, both for the EoS and for the multiphase averaging scheme. The results can be visually or quantitatively compared to observed seismic models. Example user scripts show how to go through these steps. This paper includes several examples realized with BurnMan: First, we benchmark the computations to check for correctness. Second, we exemplify two pitfalls in EoS modeling: using a different EoS than the one used to derive the mineral physical parameters or using an incorrect averaging scheme. Both pitfalls have led to incorrect conclusions on lower mantle composition and temperature in the literature. We further illustrate that fitting elastic velocities separately or jointly leads to different Mg/Si ratios for the lower mantle. However, we find that, within mineral physical uncertainties, a pyrolitic composition can match PREM very well. Finally, we find that uncertainties on specific input parameters result in a considerable amount of variation in both magnitude and gradient of the seismic velocities. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Passive margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. In the same time, the many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event seem readily witness this increase. However, how that compression increase affects passive margins remains unclear. In order to address this issue, we design a 2D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision or slab anchoring, respectively. This distinction changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and, as a consequence, the stress field. Our results show that between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode towards a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins provided that upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like 3D spherical models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. These results support the idea that compression at passive margins, is the response to the underlying mantle flow, that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  7. Water-induced convection in the Earth's mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guillaume C.; Bercovici, David

    2009-01-01

    Water enters the Earth's mantle by subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Most of this water immediately returns to the atmosphere through arc volcanism, but a part of it is expected as deep as the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth). There, slabs can be deflected and linger before sinking into the lower mantle. Because it lowers the density and viscosity of the transition zone minerals (i.e., wadsleyite and ringwoodite), water is likely to affect the dynamics of the transition zone mantle overlying stagnant slabs. The consequences of water exchange between a floating slab and the transition zone are investigated. In particular, we focus on the possible onset of small-scale convection despite the adverse thermal gradient (i.e., mantle is cooled from below by the slab). The competition between thermal and hydrous effects on the density and thus on the convective stability of the top layer of the slab is examined numerically, including water-dependent density and viscosity and temperature-dependent water solubility. For plausible initial water content in a slab (≥0.5 wt %), an episode of convection is likely to occur after a relatively short time delay (5-20 Ma) after the slab enters the transition zone. However, water induced rheological weakening is seen to be a controlling parameter for the onset time of convection. Moreover, small-scale convection above a stagnant slab greatly enhances the rate of slab dehydration. Small-scale convection also facilitates heating of the slab, which in itself may prolong the residence time of the slab in the transition zone.

  8. BurnMan: A lower mantle mineral physics toolkit

    KAUST Repository

    Cottaar, Sanne

    2014-04-01

    We present BurnMan, an open-source mineral physics toolbox to determine elastic properties for specified compositions in the lower mantle by solving an Equation of State (EoS). The toolbox, written in Python, can be used to evaluate seismic velocities of new mineral physics data or geodynamic models, and as the forward model in inversions for mantle composition. The user can define the composition from a list of minerals provided for the lower mantle or easily include their own. BurnMan provides choices in methodology, both for the EoS and for the multiphase averaging scheme. The results can be visually or quantitatively compared to observed seismic models. Example user scripts show how to go through these steps. This paper includes several examples realized with BurnMan: First, we benchmark the computations to check for correctness. Second, we exemplify two pitfalls in EoS modeling: using a different EoS than the one used to derive the mineral physical parameters or using an incorrect averaging scheme. Both pitfalls have led to incorrect conclusions on lower mantle composition and temperature in the literature. We further illustrate that fitting elastic velocities separately or jointly leads to different Mg/Si ratios for the lower mantle. However, we find that, within mineral physical uncertainties, a pyrolitic composition can match PREM very well. Finally, we find that uncertainties on specific input parameters result in a considerable amount of variation in both magnitude and gradient of the seismic velocities. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Xiphodynia: A diagnostic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawken Erin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents 3 case reports of xiphodynia that presented to a chiropractic clinic. The paper examines aspects of xiphodynia including relevant anatomy of the xiphoid, as well as the incidence, aetiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. A brief overview of the mechanism of referred pain is presented.

  10. Cracking a chemical conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, James M.; Ivanov, Alexandre S.; Johnson, Mark R.; Stride, John A

    2004-07-15

    An everyday laboratory chemical, hexamethylbenzene (HMB) has assumed an important role in the history of molecular structure and crystallography. It was one of the first organic crystal structures to be solved and provided direct experimental proof for the hypothesis of planarity in aromatic systems. Very soon after this, HMB was found to undergo a phase transition at 117 K, resulting in crystal shattering. Since then, many attempts have been made to obtain the low-temperature structure, but none have succeeded until now. Making use of the unique properties of the neutron, we have performed powder diffraction measurements to obtain the low-temperature crystal structure and inelastic measurements to determine the dynamics of the system. These experiments have been augmented by the use of ab initio calculations and molecular modelling to obtain a complete picture of HMB in the solid state.

  11. Cracking a chemical conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, James M.; Ivanov, Alexandre S.; Johnson, Mark R.; Stride, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An everyday laboratory chemical, hexamethylbenzene (HMB) has assumed an important role in the history of molecular structure and crystallography. It was one of the first organic crystal structures to be solved and provided direct experimental proof for the hypothesis of planarity in aromatic systems. Very soon after this, HMB was found to undergo a phase transition at 117 K, resulting in crystal shattering. Since then, many attempts have been made to obtain the low-temperature structure, but none have succeeded until now. Making use of the unique properties of the neutron, we have performed powder diffraction measurements to obtain the low-temperature crystal structure and inelastic measurements to determine the dynamics of the system. These experiments have been augmented by the use of ab initio calculations and molecular modelling to obtain a complete picture of HMB in the solid state

  12. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  13. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  14. The Transgender Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Tornøe, Marie Schou; Lund, Simone Harlev; Ivanescu, Zlate; Gabriela, Roxana; Edske, Amalie Frejvald; Vigholt Olsen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the way gender affects identity, with an emphasis on transgender individuals. It explores concepts of identity development and gender identity, uncovering the historical and transformative character of gender by looking into personal stories, statistics and laws in the transgender community. As transgender individuals do not adhere to the normative markers of intelligible reality, by not acting in accordance to the gender roles they were assigned, their very e...

  15. Titanates of the lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) group reveal isotope disequilibrium associated with metasomatism in the mantle beneath Kimberley (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Andrea; Woodhead, Jon D.; Phillips, David; Maas, Roland; Davies, Gareth R.; Griffin, William L.

    2018-01-01

    Radiogenic isotope variations unrelated to radiogenic ingrowth are common between minerals found in metasomatised mantle xenoliths entrained in kimberlite, basalts and related magmas. As the metasomatic minerals are assumed to have been in isotopic equilibrium originally, such variations are typically attributed to contamination by the magma host and/or interaction with mantle fluids during or before xenolith transport to surface. However, the increasing evidence of metasomatism by multiple, compositionally distinct fluids permeating the lithospheric mantle, coeval with specific magmatic events, suggests that isotopic disequilibrium might be a consequence of discrete, though complex, metasomatic events. Here we provide clear evidence of elemental and Sr isotope heterogeneity between coeval Ti-rich LIMA (lindsleyite-mathiasite) minerals at the time of their formation in the mantle. LIMA minerals occur in close textural association with clinopyroxene and phlogopite in low-temperature (∼800-900 °C), strongly metasomatised mantle xenoliths from the ∼84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa). Previous U/Pb dating of the LIMA phases was used to argue that each xenolith recorded a single event of LIMA crystallisation at ∼180-190 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of Karoo magmas. SEM imaging reveals that up to four types of LIMA phases coexist in each xenolith, and occasionally in a single LIMA grain. Major element and in situ Sr isotope analyses of the different LIMA types show that each phase has a distinct elemental composition and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (e.g., 0.7068-0.7086 and 0.7115-0.7129 for two LIMA types in a single xenolith; 0.7053-0.7131 across the entire sample suite). These combined age and isotopic constraints require that multiple fluids metasomatised these rocks at broadly the same time (i.e. within a few thousands to millions of years), and produced similar mineralogical features. Elemental and isotopic variations between different LIMA types

  16. Synchrotron in-situ deformation experiments of perovskite + (Mg,Fe)O aggregates under shallow lower mantle conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J.; Amulele, G.; Farla, R. J.; Liu, Z.; Mohiuddin, A.; Karato, S.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental studies on rheological properties of mantle's minerals are crucial to understand the dynamics of Earth's interior, but direct experimental studies under the relevant lower mantle conditions are challenging. Most of the earlier studies were performed at lower mantle pressures but low temperatures using DAC (diamond anvil cell) (e.g., Merkel et al., 2003)), and in DAC experiments strain-rate and stress are unknown. Some previous studies were carried out under high pressures and high temperatures (e.g, Cordier et al., 2004) , but quantitative results on rheological behaviour of said minerals were not obtained. Here we present the results of the first in-situ deformation experiments of perovskite + (Mg,Fe)O (Pv + fp) aggregates using RDA (rotational Drickamer apparatus). The RDA has a better support for the anvils at high pressure than the more commonly used D-DIA apparatus and hence we can reach higher pressures and temperatures than the D-DIA. We have recently made new modifications to the cell assembly to reach the lower mantle conditions with less interference in X-ray diffraction patterns by the surrounding materials. The starting material was ringwoodite synthesized using a multi-anvil. In-situ deformation experiments were then carried at pressure up to 28 GPa (calculated from thermal EOS of Pt) and estimated temperatures up to 2200 K using RDA. Under these conditions, ringwoodite transformed to Pv + fp. We subsequently deformed the sample between strain rates of 10-4 to 10-5 s-1. Stress and strain were measured in-situ using X-ray synchrotron beam. The recovered sample analyses show evidence of perovskite+(Mg,Fe)O microstructure (Fig. 1). The radial X-ray diffraction data are being analysed to determine the stress levels of two minerals. Also microstructures of deformed specimens are studied to understand the deformation mechanisms and strain partitioning. The results will contribute towards our understanding of the rheological properties of the

  17. Traveltime dispersion in an isotropic elastic mantle: strong lower-mantle signal in differential-frequency residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Bernhard S. A.; Zaroli, Christophe; Nolet, Guust

    2015-12-01

    We study wavefield effects of direct P- and S-waves in elastic and isotropic 3-D seismic structures derived from the temperature field of a high-resolution mantle circulation model. More specifically, we quantify the dispersion of traveltime residuals caused by diffraction in structures with dynamically constrained length scales and magnitudes of the lateral variations in seismic velocities and density. 3-D global wave propagation is simulated using a spectral element method. Intrinsic attenuation (i.e. dissipation of seismic energy) is deliberately neglected, so that any variation of traveltimes with frequency can be attributed to structural effects. Traveltime residuals are measured at 15, 22.5, 34 and 51 s dominant periods by cross-correlation of 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Additional simulations are performed for a model in which 3-D structure is removed in the upper 800 km to isolate the dispersion signal of the lower mantle. We find that the structural length scales inherent to a vigorously convecting mantle give rise to significant diffraction-induced body-wave traveltime dispersion. For both P- and S-waves, the difference between long-period and short-period residuals for a given source-receiver pair can reach up to several seconds for the period bands considered here. In general, these `differential-frequency' residuals tend to increase in magnitude with increasing short-period delay. Furthermore, the long-period signal typically is smaller in magnitude than the short-period one; that is, wave-front healing is efficient independent of the sign of the residuals. Unlike the single-frequency residuals, the differential-frequency residuals are surprisingly similar between the `lower-mantle' and the `whole-mantle' model for corresponding source-receiver pairs. The similarity is more pronounced in case of S-waves and varies between different combinations of period bands. The traveltime delay acquired in the upper mantle seems to cancel in these differential

  18. Mantle roots of the Emeishan plume: an evaluation based on teleseismic P-wave tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The voluminous magmatism associated with large igneous provinces (LIPs is commonly correlated to upwelling plumes from the core–mantle boundary (CMB. Here we analyse seismic tomographic data from the Emeishan LIP in southwestern China. Our results reveal vestiges of delaminated crustal and/or lithospheric mantle, with an upwelling in the upper mantle beneath the Emeishan LIP rather than a plume rooted in the CMB. We suggest that the magmatism and the Emeishan LIP formation might be connected with the melting of delaminated lower crustal and/or lithospheric components which resulted in plume-like upwelling from the upper mantle or from the mantle transition zone.

  19. The role of upper mantle mineral phase transitions on the current structure of large-scale Earth's mantle convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoraval, C.

    2017-12-01

    Describing the large-scale structures of mantle convection and quantifying the mass transfer between upper and lower mantle request to account for the role played by mineral phase transitions in the transition zone. We build a density distribution within the Earth mantle from velocity anomalies described by global seismic tomographic models. The density distribution includes thermal anomalies and topographies of the phase transitions at depths of 410 and 660 km. We compute the flow driven by this density distribution using a 3D spherical circulation model, which account for depth-dependent viscosity. The dynamic topographies at the surface and at the CMB and the geoid are calculated as well. Within the range of viscosity profiles allowing for a satisfying restitution of the long wavelength geoid, we perform a parametric study to decipher the role of the characteristics of phase diagrams - mainly the Clapeyron's slopes - and of the kinetics of phase transitions, which may modify phase transition topographies. Indeed, when a phase transition is delayed, the boundary between two mineral phases is both dragged by the flow and interfere with it. The results are compared to recent estimations of surface dynamic topography and to the phase transition topographies as revealed by seismic studies. The consequences are then discussed in terms of structure of mantle flow. Comparisons between various tomographic models allow us to enlighten the most robust features. At last, the role played by the phase transitions on the lateral variations of mass transfer between upper and lower mantle are quantified by comparison to cases with no phase transitions and confronted to regional tomographic models, which reflect the variability of the behaviors of the descending slabs in the transition zone.

  20. Short wavelength lateral variability of lithospheric mantle beneath the Middle Atlas (Morocco) as recorded by mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messbahi, Hicham; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Vauchez, Alain; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Ouali, Houssa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2015-05-01

    The Middle Atlas is a region where xenolith-bearing volcanism roughly coincides with the maximum of lithospheric thinning beneath continental Morocco. It is therefore a key area to study the mechanisms of lithospheric thinning and constrain the component of mantle buoyancy that is required to explain the Moroccan topography. Samples from the two main xenolith localities, the Bou Ibalghatene and Tafraoute maars, have been investigated for their mineralogy, microstructures, crystallographic preferred orientation, and whole-rock and mineral compositions. While Bou Ibalghatene belongs to the main Middle Atlas volcanic field, in the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, Tafraoute is situated about 45 km away, on the North Middle Atlas Fault that separates the 'folded' Middle Atlas, to the South-East, from the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, to the North-West. Both xenolith suites record infiltration of sub-lithospheric melts that are akin to the Middle Atlas volcanism but were differentiated to variable degrees as a result of interactions with lithospheric mantle. However, while the Bou Ibalghatene mantle was densely traversed by high melt fractions, mostly focused in melt conduits, the Tafraoute suite records heterogeneous infiltration of smaller melt fractions that migrated diffusively, by intergranular porous flow. As a consequence the lithospheric mantle beneath Bou Ibalghaten was strongly modified by melt-rock interactions in the Cenozoic whereas the Tafraoute mantle preserves the record of extensional lithospheric thinning, most likely related to Mesozoic rifting. The two xenolith suites illustrate distinct mechanisms of lithospheric thinning: extensional thinning in Tafraoute, where hydrous incongruent melting triggered by decompression probably played a key role in favouring strain localisation, vs. thermal erosion in Bou Ibalghatene, favoured and guided by a dense network of melt conduits. Our results lend support to the suggestion that lithospheric thinning beneath the Atlas

  1. Seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath the MAGIC array, mid-Atlantic Appalachians: Constraints from SKS splitting and quasi-Love wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, J. C.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M. H.; Servali, A.

    2016-12-01

    North America's eastern passive continental margin has been modified by several cycles of supercontinent assembly. Its complex surface geology and distinct topography provide evidence of these events, while also raising questions about the extent of deformation in the continental crust, lithosphere, and mantle during past episodes of rifting and mountain building. The Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration (MAGIC) is an EarthScope and GeoPRISMS-funded project that involves a collaborative effort among seismologists, geodynamicists, and geomorphologists. One component of the project is a broadband seismic array consisting of 28 instruments in a linear path from coastal Virginia to western Ohio, which operated between October 2013 and October 2016. A key science question addressed by the MAGIC project is the geometry of past lithospheric deformation and present-day mantle flow beneath the Appalachians, which can be probed using observations of seismic anisotropy Here we present observations of SKS splitting and quasi-Love wave arrivals from stations of the MAGIC array, which together constrain seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. SKS splitting along the array reveals distinct regions of upper mantle anisotropy, with stations in and to the west of the range exhibiting fast directions parallel to the strike of the mountains. In contrast, weak splitting and null SKS arrivals dominate eastern stations in the coastal plain. Documented Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering for surface waves originating the magnitude 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquakes in September 2015 provides complementary constraints on anisotropy. These quasi-Love wave arrivals suggest a pronounced change in upper mantle anisotropy at the eastern edge of present-day Appalachian topography. Together, these observations increase our understanding of the extent of lithospheric deformation beneath North America associated with Appalachian orogenesis, as well as the pattern of present-day mantle flow

  2. Oceanization of the lithospheric mantle: the study case of the spinel peridotites from Monte Maggiore (Corsica, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    (Rampone, 2004; Rampone et al., 2008; 2009) provide reliable geochronological informations (i.e. Sm-Nd cpx-plg-wr isochron ages and Sm-Nd model ages) and evidence that the whole mafic and ultramafic rocks show an overall Sm/Nd isotopic homogeneity. Cpx-plg-wr data from gabbroic dykes define internal isochrones yielding Jurassic ages (162+/-10 Ma and 159+/-15 Ma, respectively). The plg-cpx(-wr) isochrons for impregnated plagioclase peridotites yields age of 155+/-6 Ma. The initial ɛNd values (8.9-9.7) are indicative of a MORB affinity. Calculated DM model ages for both spinel and plagioclase peridotites point to a Late Jurassic age (150 Ma). Isotope ratios of cpx from spinel and plagioclase peridotites conform to the linear array defined by overall gabbroic rocks. The isotopic evidence from the melt-percolated, reactive and impregnated peridotites indicates that the pristine lithospheric mantle protoliths were isotopically homogenized by the melt-rock interaction during percolation/impregnation processes which erased any pre-existing isotopic signature. Moreover, the overall Sm/Nd isotopic homogeneity indicates that the asthenospheric mantle sources of the infiltrating melts were isotopically homogeneous. Accordingly, it is plausible that percolation and intrusion were operated by similar and coeval Late Jurassic MORB-type melts. In conclusion, petrologic and isotopic data allow to recognize that the extending sub-continental lithospheric mantle was infiltrated by Late Jurassic MORB melts, formed by asthenospheric decompression-induced partial melting during continental extension and rifting. Melt-peridotite interaction modified the compositional features of the lithospheric mantle and caused its isotopic resetting. Accordingly, the sub-continental lithospheric mantle underwent an "oceanization" process (i.e. isotope resetting to "oceanic" MORB signatures) during Late Jurassic times operated by asthenospheric MORB melts. Depending on the melt composition, the lithospheric

  3. Fertile lithospheric mantle beneath the northwestern North China and its implication for the subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H. K.; Zheng, J.; Su, Y. P.; Xiong, Q.; Pan, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The nature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) is poorly known, which hinders understanding the cratonic response to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Mineral chemical data of spinel lherzolite xenoliths from newly discovered Cenozoic Langshan basalts in the northwestern part of the craton have been integrated with data from other localities across the western NCC, to put constrains on the SCLM nature and to explore the reworking processes involved. Compositions of mineral cores (i.e., Mg# in olivine = 88 91) and P-T estimates ( 1.2 GPa, 950 oC) suggest the Langshan xenoliths/xenocrysts represent fragments of the uppermost SCLM and experienced ancient continental crust, and 2) the sharp decrease in lithospheric thickness from the inner part to the northern margin of the western NCC, the SCLM beneath the northwestern part should have been strongly rejuvenated or replaced by fertile and non-cratonic mantle. Combined with other geological evidence on the northwestern margin, the mantle replacement and metasomatism were likely triggered by southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  4. Garnet Signatures in Geophysical and Geochemical Observations: Insights into the Thermo-Petrological Structure of Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed new physically comprehensive thermal plate models of the oceanic lithosphere which incorporate temperature- and pressure-dependent heat transport properties and thermal expansivity, melting beneath ridges, hydrothermal circulation near ridge axes, and insulating oceanic crust. These models provide good fits to global databases of seafloor topography and heat flow, and seismic evidence of thermal structure near ridge axes. We couple these thermal plate models with thermodynamic models to predict the petrology of oceanic lithosphere. Geoid height predictions from our models suggest that there is a strong anomaly in geoid slope (over age) above ~25 Ma lithosphere due to the topography of garnet-field mantle. A similar anomaly is also present in geoid data over fracture zones. In addition, we show that a new assessment of a large database of ocean island basalt Sm/Yb systematics indicates that there is an unmistakable step-like increase in Sm/Yb values around 15-20 Ma, indicating the presence of garnet. To explain this feature, we have attempted to couple our thermo-petrological models of oceanic upper mantle with an open system, non-modal, dynamic melting model with diffusion kinetics to investigate trace element partitioning in an ascending mantle column.

  5. Textures in spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths using micro-CT scanning: Examples from Canary Islands and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, K. K.; Downes, H.; Petrone, C. M.; Humphreys-Williams, E.

    2017-04-01

    Spinel pyroxene-clusters, which are intergrowths of spinel, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in mantle xenoliths, have been investigated through the use of micro-CT (μ-CT) in this study. Samples have been studied from two different tectonic settings: (1) the northern Massif Central, France, an uplifted and rifted plateau on continental lithosphere and (2) Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, an intraplate volcanic island on old oceanic lithosphere. μ-CT analysis of samples from both locations has revealed a range of spinel textures from small Lanzarote are regions that have experienced significant lithospheric thinning. This process provides a mechanism where the sub-solidus reaction of olivine + garnet = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel is satisfied by providing a pathway from garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite. We predict that such textures would only occur in the mantle beneath regions that show evidence of thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Metasomatic reactions are seen around spinel-pyroxene clusters in some Lanzarote xenoliths, so metasomatism post-dated cluster formation.

  6. Dosimetric considerations in treating mediastinal disease with mantle fields: Characterization of the dose under mantle blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Geijn, J. van de; Okunieff, P.

    1995-01-01

    While the rationale for using mantle fields is well understood and the prescription of these fields is straightforward, the underlying complexity of the dose distributions that result is not generally appreciated. This is especially true in the choice of lung block design, which affects the dose to both the target volume as well as to the normal lung tissue. The key to the design of optimal lung blocks is the physician's perception of the complex relationship between the geometric and dosimetric aspects of heavily modified fields, as well as how the physical and anatomical properties of the target volume and the shape of the patient's lungs relate to the images visualized on simulator films. Depth doses and cross-beam profiles of blocks ranging in width from 1 cm to 10 cm were taken using an automated beam scanning system. These data were then converted to open-quotes shadow fields.close quotes Shadow fields behave quite similarly to small, open fields in terms of x-ray-light field congruence, flatness, symmetry, and penumbra. There is a 2-3 mm rim between the edge of the block and the point at which it becomes nominally effective. The dose at the center of a block, which gives the normalization of the shadow fields, is given by a block transmission factor (BTF), which produces results in excellent agreement with measurements over a wide variety of block sizes and tissue depths. The radiation dose under shielding blocks can be considerably higher than expected, and care must be exercised when drawing blocks close to critical structures. The effects of blocks can be described in terms of normalized shadow fields, which behave similar to narrow, open fields, but with a divergence characteristic of their position relative to the radiation source. The normalization value for these fields, which gives the relative dose under the block, can be obtained from a straightforward analytical expression, the BTF. 33 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Effects of grain size evolution on mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Falko; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of planetary mantle materials is strongly dependent on temperature, pressure, strain-rate, and grain size. In particular, the rheology of olivine, the most abundant mineral of the Earth's upper mantle, has been extensively studied in the laboratory (e.g., Karato and Wu, 1993; Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003). Two main mechanisms control olivine's deformation: dislocation and diffusion creep. While the former implies a power-law dependence of the viscosity on the strain-rate that leads to a non-Newtonian behaviour, the latter is sensitively dependent on the grain size. The dynamics of planetary interiors is locally controlled by the deformation mechanism that delivers the lowest viscosity. Models of the dynamics and evolution of planetary mantles should thus be capable to self-consistently distinguish which of the two mechanisms dominates at given conditions of temperature, pressure, strain-rate and grain size. As the grain size can affect the viscosity associated with diffusion creep by several orders of magnitude, it can strongly influence the dominant deformation mechanism. The vast majority of numerical, global-scale models of mantle convection, however, are based on the use of a linear diffusion-creep rheology with constant grain-size. Nevertheless, in recent studies, a new equation has been proposed to properly model the time-dependent evolution of the grain size (Austin and Evens, 2007; Rozel et al., 2010). We implemented this equation in our mantle convection code Gaia (Hüttig et al., 2013). In the framework of simple models of stagnant lid convection, we compared simulations based on the fully time-dependent equation of grain-size evolution with simulations based on its steady-state version. In addition, we tested a number of different parameters in order to identify those that affects the grain size to the first order and, in turn, control the conditions at which mantle deformation is dominated by diffusion or dislocation creep. References Austin

  8. Thermal Structure and Mantle Dynamics of Rocky Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. W.; Tosi, N.; Hussmann, H.; Sohl, F.

    2011-12-01

    The confirmed detections of CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b reveal that rocky exoplanets exist. Moreover, recent theoretical studies suggest that small planets beyond the Solar System are indeed common and many of them will be discovered by increasingly precise observational surveys in the years ahead. The knowledge about the interior structure and thermal state of exoplanet interiors provides crucial theoretical input not only for classification and characterization of individual planetary bodies, but also to better understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System and the Earth in general. These developments and considerations have motivated us to address several questions concerning thermal structure and interior dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets. In the present study, depth-dependent structural models of solid exoplanet interiors have been constructed in conjunction with a mixing length approach to calculate self-consistently the radial distribution of temperature and heat flux. Furthermore, 2-D convection simulations using the compressible anelastic approximation have been carried through to examine the effect of thermodynamic quantities (e.g., thermal expansivity) on mantle convection pattern within rocky planets more massive than the Earth. In comparison to parameterized convection models, our calculated results predict generally hotter planetary interiors, which are mainly attributed to a viscosity-regulating feedback mechanism involving temperature and pressure. We find that density and thermal conductivity increase with depth by a factor of two to three, however, thermal expansivity decreases by more than an order of magnitude across the mantle for planets as massive as CoRoT-7b or Kepler-10b. The specific heat capacity is observed to stay almost constant over an extended region of the lower mantle. The planform of mantle convection is strongly modified in the presence of depth-dependent thermodynamic quantities with hot upwellings (plumes) rising across

  9. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  10. Fluid circulations in response to mantle exhumation at the passive margin setting in the north Pyrenean zone, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, B.; Boulvais, P.; Boiron, M. C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Marasi, L.; Clerc, C.

    2018-02-01

    Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed in the distal part of magma-poor passive margins. Remnants of the North Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the North-Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and offers a field analogue to study the processes of continental crust thinning, subcontinental mantle exhumation and associated fluid circulations. The Saraillé Massif which belongs to the `Chaînons Béarnais' range (Western Pyrenees), displays field, petrographic and stable isotopic evidence of syn-kinematic fluid circulations. Using electron probe micro-analyses on minerals, O, C, Sr isotopes compositions and micro thermometry/Raman spectrometry of fluid inclusions, we investigate the history of fluid circulations along and in the surroundings of the Saraillé detachment fault. The tectonic interface between the pre-rift Mesozoic sedimentary cover and the mantle rocks is marked by a metasomatic talc-chlorite layer. This layer formed through the infiltration of a fluid enriched in chemical elements like Cr leached from the exhuming serpentinized mantle rocks. In the overlying sediments (dolomitic and calcitic marbles of Jurassic to Aptian age), a network of calcitic veins, locally with quartz, formed as a consequence of the infiltration of aqueous saline fluids (salinities up to 34 wt% NaCl are recorded in quartz-hosted fluid inclusions) at moderate temperatures ( 220 °C). These brines likely derived from the dissolution of the local Triassic evaporites. In the upper part of the metasomatic system, upward movement of fluids is limited by the Albian metasediments, which likely acted as an impermeable layer. The model of fluid circulation in the Saraillé Massif sheds light onto other synchronous metasomatic systems in the Pyrenean realm.

  11. Constraints on Past Plate and Mantle Motion from New Ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Steinberger, B. M.; Regelous, M.; Koppers, A. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Haase, K. M.; Stoffers, P.; Jokat, W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2013-12-01

    Estimates of the relative motion between the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspots have consequences for understanding the role and character of deep Pacific-mantle return flow. The relative motion between these primary hotspots can be inferred by comparing the age records for their seamount trails. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages for 18 lavas from 10 seamounts along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain (HESC) show that volcanism started in the sharp portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB) at ≥47.5 Ma and continued for ≥5 Myr (O'Connor et al., 2013). The slope of the along-track distance from the currently active Hawaiian hotspot plotted versus age is remarkably linear between ~57 and 25 Ma in the central ˜1900 km of the seamount chain, including the HEB. This model predicts an age for the oldest Emperor Seamounts that matches published ages, implying that a linear age-distance relationship might extend back to at least 82 Ma. In contrast, Hawaiian age progression was much faster since at least ~15 Ma and possibly as early as ~27 Ma. Linear age-distance relations for the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville seamount chains predict ~300 km overall hotspot relative motion between 80 and 47.5 Ma, in broad agreement with numerical models of plumes in a convecting mantle, and paleomagnetic data. We show that a change in hotspot relative motion may also have occurred between ~55 Ma and ~50 Ma. We interpret this change in hotspot motion as evidence that the HEB reflects a combination of hotspot and plate motion changes driven by the same plate/mantle reorganization. O'Connor et al. (2013), Constraints on past plate and mantle motion from new ages for the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., in press.

  12. Deformation, static recrystallization, and reactive melt transport in shallow subcontinental mantle xenoliths (Tok Cenozoic volcanic field, SE Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Ionov, Dmitri A.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting and reactive melt transport may change the composition, microstructures, and physical properties of mantle rocks. Here we explore the relations between deformation and reactive melt transport through detailed microstructural analysis and crystallographic orientation measurements in spinel peridotite xenoliths that sample the shallow lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern rim of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths have coarse-grained, annealed microstructures and show petrographic and chemical evidence for variable degrees of reaction with silicate melts and fluids, notably Fe-enrichment and crystallization of metasomatic clinopyroxene (cpx). Olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPO) range from strong to weak. [010]-fiber patterns, characterized by a point concentration of [010] normal to the foliation and by dispersion of [100] in the foliation plane with a weak maximum parallel to the lineation, predominate relative to the [100]-fiber patterns usually observed in lithospheric mantle xenoliths and peridotite massifs. Variations in olivine CPO patterns or intensity are not correlated with modal and chemical compositions. This, together with the analysis of microstructures, suggests that reactive melt percolation postdated both deformation and static recrystallization. Preferential crystallization of metasomatic cpx along (010) olivine grain boundaries points to an influence of the preexisting deformation fabrics on melt transport, with higher permeability along the foliation. Similarity between orthopyroxene (opx) and cpx CPO suggests that cpx orientations may be inherited from those of opx during melt-rock reaction. As observed in previous studies, reactive melt transport does not weaken olivine CPO and seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, except in melt accumulation domains. In contrast, recovery and selective grain growth during static recrystallization may lead to development of [010]-fiber olivine CPO and, if foliations are

  13. Flow in the western Mediterranean shallow mantle: Insights from xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts from SE Iberia (eastern Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Konc, Zoltán.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa.; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, María. Isabel; Gervilla, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betics (SE Iberia, Spain) are spinel ± plagioclase lherzolite, with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic or equigranular textures. Equigranular peridotites have olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns similar to those of porphyroclastic xenoliths but slightly more dispersed. Olivine CPO shows [100]-fiber patterns characterized by strong alignment of [100]-axes subparallel to the stretching lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes normal to it. This pattern is consistent with simple shear or transtensional deformation accommodated by dislocation creep. One xenolith provides evidence for synkinematic reactive percolation of subduction-related Si-rich melts/fluids that resulted in oriented crystallization of orthopyroxene. Despite a seemingly undeformed microstructure, the CPO in orthopyroxenite veins in composite xenoliths is identical to those of pyroxenes in the host peridotite, suggesting late-kinematic crystallization. Based on these observations, we propose that the annealing producing the equigranular microstructures was triggered by melt percolation in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle coeval to the late Neogene formation of veins in composite xenoliths. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P waves and polarization of fast S waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis (stretching lineation). These data are compatible with present-day seismic anisotropy observations in SE Iberia if the foliations in the lithospheric mantle are steeply dipping and lineations are subhorizontal with ENE strike, implying dominantly horizontal mantle flow in the ENE-WSW direction within vertical planes, that is, subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. The measured anisotropy could thus reflect a lithospheric fabric due to strike-slip deformation in the late Miocene in the context of WSW tearing of the subducted south Iberian margin

  14. Plate Tectonic Cycling and Whole Mantle Convection Modulate Earth's 3He/22Ne Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, N. J.; Jackson, C.; Hesse, M. A.; Tremblay, M. M.; Shuster, D. L.; Gu, J.

    2016-12-01

    3He and 22Ne are not produced in the mantle or fractionated by partial melting, and neither isotope is recycled back into the mantle by subduction of oceanic basalt or sediment. Thus, it is a surprise that large 3He/22Ne variations exist within the mantle and that the mantle has a net elevated 3He/22Ne ratio compared to volatile-rich planetary precursor materials. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle have distinctly higher 3He/22Ne compared to ocean island basalt (OIB) sources ( 4-12.5 vs. 2.5-4.5, respectively) [1,2]. The low 3He/22Ne of OIBs approaches chondritic ( 1) and solar nebula values ( 1.5). The high 3He/22Ne of the MORB mantle is not similar to solar sources or any known family of meteorites, requiring a mechanism for fractionating He from Ne in the mantle and suggesting isolation of distinct mantle reservoirs throughout geologic time. We model the formation of a MORB source with elevated and variable 3He/22Ne though diffusive exchange between dunite channel-hosted basaltic liquids and harzburgite wallrock beneath mid-ocean ridges. Over timescales relevant to mantle upwelling beneath spreading centers, He may diffuse tens to hundreds of meters into wallrock while Ne is relatively immobile, producing a regassed, depleted mantle lithosphere with elevated 3He/22Ne. Subduction of high 3He/22Ne mantle would generate a MORB source with high 3He/22Ne. Regassed, high 3He/22Ne mantle lithosphere has He concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than undegassed mantle. To preserve the large volumes of high 3He/22Ne mantle required by the MORB source, mixing between subducted and undegassed mantle reservoirs must have been limited throughout geologic time. Using the new 3He/22Ne constraints, we ran a model similar to [3] to quantify mantle mixing timescales, finding they are on the order of Gyr assuming physically reasonable seafloor spreading rates, and that Earth's convecting mantle has lost >99% of its primordial

  15. THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE OF THE SIBERAIN CRATON AND SEISMODYNAMICS OF DEFORMATION WAVES IN THE BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko

    2013-01-01

    mantle lense (Fig 6, A; it is one of four main tectonical units that compose the basement of the Siberian craton [Mironyuk, Zagruzina, 1983]. As evidenced by the zonal composition of the mantle lense, the centre of the lense is highly dense, and this explains the location of a seismic anomaly there (Fig. 6, B which is determined to a depth of about 50–60 km [Pavlenkova G.A., Pavlenkova N.I., 2006]. The high-velocity root located in this segment of the craton is traced by seismic tomography [Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010] to a depth of about 600 km (Fig. 7. The southward-stretching edge of the sub-cratonic mantle has played a major role in the evolution of the Central Asian orogenic belt. In the Paleozoic, the position and the configuration of the accretional margin of the Siberian paleocontinent were determined by the hidden boundary of the craton (Fig. 8, A. Along the craton’s boundary, rifting zones of various ages are located, and intrusions are concentrated, which genesis was related to extension settings (Fig. 8, B. The Cenozoic sedimentary basins are located above the hidden edge of the Siberian craton, which gives evidence of involvement of the deep lithospheric structure in the formation of the recent destruction zone. The basin of Lake Baikal is located along the mantle edge of the Siberian craton, and the basin’s crescent shape accentuates the strike of the mantle edge.In the region under study, the wave nature of seismicity is most evidently manifested by the cyclicity of the strongest earthquakes in the Baikal zone (Table 2. Three seismic cycles are distinguished as follows: (1 at the turn of the 20th century (earthquakes in the period from 1885 to 1931, M=6.6–8.2, (2 the middle of the 20th century (earthquakes from 1950 to 1967, M=6.8–8.1, and (3 at the turn of the 21st century (earthquakes from 1991 to 2012, M=6.3–7.3. While moving in the mantle, the deformation front collapses with the craton’s basement, partially releases its energy to the

  16. Gas lantern mantle: a low activity alpha particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Manzoor, S.

    1991-01-01

    Commercially available gas lantern mantles contain a substantial amount of radioactive ThO 2 . Gas lantern mantles purchased from a Sydney camping shop were incinerated, deposited as a thin layer on a aluminium planchette, and the emitted alpha spectrum was measured with a silicon surfacer barrier detector. The specific activity of the samples was estimated by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector as well as CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The micro-morphology of the incinerated powder was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The depth dose and LET distribution of alpha particles in soft tissue were calculated from the energy spectrum. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Geoelectromagnetic investigation of the earth’s crust and mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Rokityansky, Igor I

    1982-01-01

    Electrical conductivity is a parameter which characterizes composition and physical state of the Earth's interior. Studies of the state equations of solids at high temperature and pressure indicate that there is a close relation be­ tween the electrical conductivity of rocks and temperature. Therefore, measurements of deep conductivity can provide knowledge of the present state and temperature of the Earth's crust and upper mantle matter. Infor­ mation about the temperature of the Earth's interior in the remote past is derived from heat flow data. Experimental investigation of water-containing rocks has revealed a pronounced increase of electrical conductivity in the temperature range D from 500 to 700 DC which may be attributed to the beginning of fractional melting. Hence, anomalies of electrical conductivity may be helpful in identitying zones of melting and dehydration. The studies of these zones are perspective in the scientific research of the mobile areas of the Earth's crust and upper mantle where t...

  18. Mantle ingredients for making the fingerprint of Etna alkaline magmas: implications for shallow partial melting within the complex geodynamic framework of Eastern Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Mantle ingredients responsible for the signature of Etnean Na- and K-alkaline magmas and their relationships with short-term geochemical changes of the erupted volcanic rocks have been constrained through a partial melting model that considers major, trace elements and water contents in the produced liquids. Characteristics of the Etnean source for alkaline magmas have been supposed similar to those of the mantle accessible at a regional scale, namely below the Hyblean Plateau. The assumption that the Etnean mantle resembles the one beneath the Hyblean Plateau is justified by the large geochemical affinities of the Etnean hawaiites/K-trachybasalts and the Hyblean hawaiites/alkali basalts for what concerns both trace elements and isotope systematics. We have modeled partial melting of a composite source constituted by two rock types, inferred by lithological and geochemical features of the Hyblean xenoliths: 1) a spinel lherzolite bearing metasomatic, hydrous phases and 2) a garnet pyroxenite in form of veins intruded into the spinel lherzolite. The partial melting modeling has been applied to each rock type and the resulting primary liquids have been then mixed in various proportions. These compositions have been compared with some Etnean alkaline magmas of the post ∼60 ka activity, which were firstly re-equilibrated to mantle conditions through mass balance calculations. Our results put into evidence that concentrations of major and trace elements along with the water obtained from the modeling are remarkably comparable with those of Etnean melts re-equilibrated at primary conditions. Different proportions of the spinel lherzolite with variable modal contents of metasomatic phases and of the garnet pyroxenite can therefore account for the signature of a large spectrum of Etnean alkaline magmas and for their geochemical variability through time, emphasizing the crucial role played by compositional small-scale heterogeneity of the source. These heterogeneities are

  19. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with mantle cell lymphoma on ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Kasparian, Saro; Iyer, Swaminathan; Pingali, Sai Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been increasingly widely used in relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [1, 2]. With its use becoming more common, there have been emerging case reports of opportunistic infections like cryptococcal infections [3-8]. These infections in patients receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here, we report two cases of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patients with MCL on ibrutinib.

  20. Measurement of thorium content in gas mantles produced in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, P K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiological Physics Div.; Chury, A J; Venkataraman, G [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Protection Services Div.

    1994-04-01

    Incandescent gas mantles, processed with thorium nitrate, were monitored for thorium content, using a 2 inch thick Nal(Tl) detector and detecting medium energy gamma radiations emitted by thorium daughters. Thirty different brands, manufactured in the country have been counted and most of them were found to contain thorium within the permissible limit specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Robustness of radiative mantle plasma power exhaust solutions for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrekas, J.; Stacey, W.M.; Kelly, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The robustness of impurity-seeded radiative mantle solutions for ITER to uncertainties in several physics and operating parameters is examined. The results indicate that ∼ 50--90% of the input power can be radiated from inside the separatrix with Ne, Ar and Kr injection, without significant detriment to the core power balance or collapse of the edge temperature profile, for a wide range of conditions on the impurity pinch velocity, edge temperature pedestal, and plasma density

  2. Magnification of mantle resonance as a cause of tectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Omerbashich, M.

    2006-01-01

    Variance spectral analysis of superconducting gravimeter (SG) decadal data (noise inclusive) is presented suggesting that the Earth tectonogenesis is based on magnification of the mass (mainly the mantle) mechanical resonance, in addition to or instead of previously hypothesized causes. Here the use of raw (gapped and unaltered) data is regarded as the criterion for a physical result validity, so data were not altered in any way. Then analogously to the atmospheric tidal forcing of global hig...

  3. Experimental constraints on metasomatism of mantle wedge peridotites by hybridized adakitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgne, Alexandre; Schilling, Manuel E.; Grégoire, Michel; Langlade, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a series of high-pressure (1.5 GPa) and high-temperature (1000-1300 °C) experiments were performed to investigate the petrological imprints of adakitic metasomatism on mantle wedge peridotites. Reaction couples were prepared using a powdered adakite from Cerro Pampa, Argentina (Mg# 0.7) placed in contact with a cored sample of medium-grained protogranular depleted spinel lherzolite from Pali Aike (Chile). Textural and chemical analyses of the run products allow us to identify key features of modal metasomatism by hybridized adakitic melts. The main changes in phase relations are associated with the following metasomatic reactions: incongruent dissolution of olivine and associated precipitation of secondary orthopyroxene, dissolution of primary spinel and subsequent replacement by secondary high-Cr spinel. In experiments with high water contents (9-12 wt%), precipitation of pargasitic amphibole also occurred, possibly at the expense of primary clinopyroxene. Neither phlogopite nor Ti-oxides were precipitated in any of these experiments. As expected, primary pyroxenes do not show evidence of being significantly altered following the interaction with the produced siliceous melts. Within the adakitic portion of the experimental charge, it was also observed the crystallization of secondary Ti-rich, Cr- and Na-poor diopsidic clinopyroxene, andesine plagioclase and, at low temperature, Fe-enriched secondary orthopyroxene. Considering textural criteria, we interpreted the formation of these minerals as crystallization products of the adakite component and not as true products of metasomatic reactions. The experimental results are used to discuss some of the petrological evidences presented to support modal metasomatism by slab-derived melts of mantle xenoliths extracted from several suprasubduction settings located around the Pacific Ring of Fire.

  4. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  5. Fortnightly Earth Rotation, Ocean Tides, and Mantle Anelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained accurate measurements of earth rotation are one of the prime goals of Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). We here concentrate on the fortnightly (Mf) tidal component of earth-rotation data to obtain new results concerning anelasticity of the mantle at this period. The study comprises three parts: (1) a new determination of the Mf component of polar motion and length-of-day from a multi-decade time series of space-geodetic data; (2) the use of the polar-motion determination as one constraint in the development of a hydrodynamic ocean model of the Mf tide; and (3) the use of these results to place new constraints on mantle anelasticity. Our model of the Mf ocean tide assimilates more than fourteen years of altimeter data from the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellites. The polar motion data, plus tide-gauge data and independent altimeter data, give useful additional information, with only the polar motion putting constraints on tidal current velocities. The resulting ocean-tide model, plus the dominant elastic body tide, leaves a small residual in observed length-of-day caused by mantle anelasticity. The inferred effective tidal 0 of the anelastic body tide is 90 and is in line with a omega-alpha frequency dependence with alpha in the range 0.2--0.3.

  6. Diffusion and infrared properties of molecules in ice mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.; Grim, R.; Greenberg, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Within dense molecular clouds the formation of frozen icy mantles on interstellar dust grains is thought to be the result of various growth conditions. The molecules, which make up the ice mantles are probably completely mixed. To study the physical properties of such ice mixtures the experiments were performed on the evaporation processes and on the spectroscopic properties of CO, CO2, and CH4 in water rich ices. The decrease in concentration of volatile molecules in ice samples deposited at 10 K and subsequently heated is found to occur essentially in two steps. The first one, corresponding to an evaporation of part of the volatile molecules, starts at about 25 K for CO, 32 K for CH4, and 70 K for CO2. During the crystallization of H2O ice at temperatures greater than 120 K a second evaporation occurs leading to the complete disappearance of the volatile molecules in the solid phase. The main astrophysical implications of the diffusion and spectroscopic behaviors are presented. The possible effects of a heating source on the fraction of volatile molecules, such as CO trapped in grain mantles, are discussed

  7. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  8. Application of supercomputers to 3-D mantle convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgardner, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Current generation vector machines are providing for the first time the computing power needed to treat planetary mantle convection in a fully three-dimensional fashion. A numerical technique known as multigrid has been implemented in spherical geometry using a hierarchy of meshes constructed from the regular icosahedron to yield a highly efficient three-dimensional compressible Eulerian finite element hydrodynamics formulation. The paper describes the numerical method and presents convection solutions for the mantles of both the earth and the Moon. In the case of the Earth, the convection pattern is characterized by upwelling in narrow circular plumes originating at the core-mantle boundary and by downwelling in sheets or slabs derived from the cold upper boundary layer. The preferred number of plumes appears to be on the order of six or seven. For the Moon, the numerical results indicate that development of a predominately L = 2 pattern in later lunar history is a plausible explanation for the present large second-degree non-hydrostatic component in the lunar figure

  9. The geobiological nitrogen cycle: From microbes to the mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A L; Mikhail, S

    2017-05-01

    Nitrogen forms an integral part of the main building blocks of life, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. N 2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen is stored in all of Earth's geological reservoirs, including the crust, the mantle, and the core. As such, nitrogen geochemistry is fundamental to the evolution of planet Earth and the life it supports. Despite the importance of nitrogen in the Earth system, large gaps remain in our knowledge of how the surface and deep nitrogen cycles have evolved over geologic time. Here, we discuss the current understanding (or lack thereof) for how the unique interaction of biological innovation, geodynamics, and mantle petrology has acted to regulate Earth's nitrogen cycle over geologic timescales. In particular, we explore how temporal variations in the external (biosphere and atmosphere) and internal (crust and mantle) nitrogen cycles could have regulated atmospheric pN 2 . We consider three potential scenarios for the evolution of the geobiological nitrogen cycle over Earth's history: two in which atmospheric pN 2 has changed unidirectionally (increased or decreased) over geologic time and one in which pN 2 could have taken a dramatic deflection following the Great Oxidation Event. It is impossible to discriminate between these scenarios with the currently available models and datasets. However, we are optimistic that this problem can be solved, following a sustained, open-minded, and multidisciplinary effort between surface and deep Earth communities. © 2017 The Authors Geobiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Thyroid dysfunction after mantle irradiation of Hodgkin's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Liew, K.H.; Crennan, E.C.; D'Costa, I.M.; Quong, G.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction can develop in patients with Hodgkin's disease who are treated with mantle irradiation. During the period 1970-89, the records of 320 patients who received mantle irradiation and who had thyroid function tests (TFT) were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 30 years (range, 7-69 years). The median mantle and thyroid dose was 36 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy) and 39.8 Gy (range, 32-65 Gy), respectively. Overall thyroid dysfunction was present in 39% of the patients. Clinical hypothyroidism was seen in 10% and biochemical hypothyroidism was noted in 25%. Hyperthyroidism was found in 4% of patients. Thyroid nodules had developed in six patients (2%), of which those in four patients were malignant. Age, sex, histological subtype, stage of disease, dose, Iymphangiogram and treatment with chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. The narrow dose range prevented adequate analysis of dose effect. The results indicate that the incidence of thyroid abnormalities is high enough to warrant regular TFT assessment with pre-irradiation levels and follow-up testing for life because the development of abnormalities can occur many years later. Thyroid examination should form part of the routine follow-up examination and any abnormality should be promptly investigated. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Hydrometer in the mantle: dln(Vs)/dln(Vp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Weidner, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The absorption of water into nominally non-hydrous phases is the probable storage mechanism of hydrogen throughout most of the mantle. Thus the water capacity in the mantle is greatest in the transition zone owing to the large water-solubility of ringwoodite and wadsleyite. However, the actual amount of water that is stored there is highly uncertain. Since water is probably brought down by subduction activity, it’s abundance is probably laterally variable. Thus, a metric that is sensitive to variations of water content are good candidates for hydrometers. Here we evaluate the parameter, dln(Vs)/dln(Vp), as such a parameter. It is useful to detect lateral variations of water if the effects of hydration on the parameter are different than those of temperature or composition. We compare the value of dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to the temperature with that due to the water content as a function of depth for the upper mantle. We have calculated dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to both water and temperature using a density functional theory approach, and available experimental data. Our results indicate that dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to water is distinguishable from dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to temperature or variations in iron content, particularly in ringwoodite. The difference increases with depth and making the lower part of the transition zone most identifiable as a water reservoir.

  12. Upper Mantle Discontinuities Underneath Central and Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Central and southern Mexico are affected by the subduction of Cocos plate beneath North American plate. The MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE) and the Veracruz-Oaxaca (VEOX) project have mapped the geometry of the Cocos slab. It is characterized in central Mexico by a shallow horizontal geometry up to ~300 km from the trench, then it dives steeply (70°) into the mantle, to its apparent end at 500 km depth. In contrast, some 400 km to the south, the slab subducts smoothly, with a dip angle of ~26° to a depth of 150 km. We use receiver functions from teleseismic events, recorded at stations from MASE, VEOX, and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) to map the upper mantle discontinuities and properties of the transition zone in central and southern Mexico. We also use data from the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) Experiment to get a complete picture of the subduction regime in central Mexico and compare the mantle transition zone in a slab tear regime. The 410 discontinuity shows significant variation in topography in central Mexico, particularly where the slab is expected to reach such depth. The 660 discontinuity shows a smoother topography, indicating that the slab does not penetrate this far down. The results will be compared with a ridge regime in the Gulf of California.

  13. Reconstructing mantle heterogeneity with data assimilation based on the back-and-forth nudging method: Implications for mantle-dynamic fitting of past plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The paleo-distribution of density variations throughout the mantle is unknown. To address this question, we reconstruct 3-D mantle structure over the Cenozoic era using a data assimilation method that implements a new back-and-forth nudging algorithm. For this purpose, we employ convection models for a compressible and self-gravitating mantle that employ 3-D mantle structure derived from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography as a starting condition. These convection models are then integrated backwards in time and are required to match geologic estimates of past plate motions derived from marine magnetic data. Our implementation of the nudging algorithm limits the difference between a reconstruction (backward-in-time solution) and a prediction (forward-in-time solution) on over a sequence of 5-million-year time windows that span the Cenozoic. We find that forward integration of reconstructed mantle heterogeneity that is constrained to match past plate motions delivers relatively poor fits to the seismic-tomographic inference of present-day mantle heterogeneity in the upper mantle. We suggest that uncertainties in the past plate motions, related for example to plate reorganization episodes, could partly contribute to the poor match between predicted and observed present-day heterogeneity. We propose that convection models that allow tectonic plates to evolve freely in accord with the buoyancy forces and rheological structure in the mantle could provide additional constraints on geologic estimates of paleo-configurations of the major tectonic plates.

  14. Petrography and mineral chemistry of wehrlites in contact zone of gabbro intrusions and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghaseminejad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Geological background Ophiolites have played a major role in our understanding of Earth’s processes ranging from seafloor spreading, melt evolution and magma transport in oceanic spreading centers, and hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of oceanic crust to collision tectonics, mountain building processes, and orogeny. They provide the essential structural, petrological, geochemical, and geochronological evidence to document the evolutionary history of ancient continental margins and ocean basin. Ophiolites include a peridotitic mantle sequence, generally characterized by high-temperature plastic deformation and residual chemistry, and a comagmatic crustal sequence (gabbros, diabase dikes, and submarine basalts, weakly or not deformed. According to this interpretation, ophiolites were allochthonous with respect to their country rocks. They were assembled during a primary accretion stage at an oceanic spreading center, and later tectonically emplaced on a continental margin or island arc (Dilek, 2003. The indigenous dikes of pyroxenites and gabbros that were injected into a melting peridotite, or intrusive dikes of pyroxenite and gabbro that injected when the peridotite was fresh and well below its solidus, are discussed in different ophiolite papers. Pyroxenite formation and contact of gabbro and mantle peridotite are discussed in different articles (Dilek, 2003. When a gabbro intrude a fresh mantle peridotite could not significantly react with it, but if intrusion occurs during the serpentinization, the gabbro will change to rodingite. Geological setting The Naein ophiolitic melanges comprise the following rock units: mantle peridotites (harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite, with associated chromitite, gabbro, pyroxenite, sheeted and swarm dikes, massive basalts, pillow lava, plagiogranite, radiolarian chert, glaubotruncana limestone, rodingite, listvenite, and metamorphic rocks (foliated amphibolitic dike, amphibolite, skarn

  15. Tracing Mantle Plumes: Quantifying their Morphology and Behavior from Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, K. A.; Eakin, C. M.; Jones, T. D.; Garcia, E.; Robson, A.; Mittal, T.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Hotspot volcanism provides a direct link between the deep mantle and the surface, but the location, depth and source of the mantle plumes that feed hotspots are highly controversial. In order to address this issue it is important to understand the journey along which plumes have travelled through the mantle. The general behavior of plumes in the mantle also has the potential to tell us about the vigor of mantle convection, net rotation of the mantle, the role of thermal versus chemical anomalies, and important bulk physical properties of the mantle such as the viscosity profile. To address these questions we developed an algorithm to trace plume-like features in shear-wave (Vs) seismic tomographic models based on picking local minima in velocity and searching for continuous features with depth. We apply this method to several of the latest tomographic models and can recover 30 or more continuous plume conduits that are >750 km long. Around half of these can be associated with a known hotspot at the surface. We study the morphology of these plume chains and find that the largest lateral deflections occur near the base of the lower mantle and in the upper mantle. We analyze the preferred orientation of the plume deflections and their gradient to infer large scale mantle flow patterns and the depth of viscosity contrasts in the mantle respectively. We also retrieve Vs profiles for our traced plumes and compare with velocity profiles predicted for different mantle adiabat temperatures. We use this to constrain the thermal anomaly associated with these plumes. This thermal anomaly is then converted to a density anomaly and an upwelling velocity is derived. We compare this to buoyancy fluxes calculated at the surface and use this in conjunction with our measured plume tilts/deflections to estimate the strength of the "mantle wind".

  16. Mantle Noble Gas Contents Controlled by Subduction of Serpentinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material1, well gases2, MORB, and OIBs3 indicate that noble gases are being recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. However, the path taken by these noble gases is unclear. To estimate the distribution and quantity of Ar, Kr, and Xe in subducting slabs, a model consisting of layers of sediments, altered oceanic crust (AOC), and serpentinite (hydrously altered mantle) has been developed. The noble gas contents of sediments and AOC were calculated using the least air-like and most gas-rich analyses from natural systems4,5, while serpentinite was modelled using both data from natural systems1 and experimentally determined solubilities. Layer thicknesses were assessed over a range of values: 1 to 12 km of sediments, 5 to 9 km of AOC, and 1 to 30 km of serpentinite. In all cases, the serpentinite layer contains at least an order of magnitude more Ar and Kr than the other layers. For realistic layer thicknesses (1 km of sediments, 6 km of AOC, and 3 km of serpentinite), Xe is distributed roughly equally between the three layers. By incorporating global subduction rates6, fluxes of the heavy noble gases into the mantle have been calculated as 4 · 1012 mol/Ma for 36Ar, 6 · 1011 mol/Ma for 84Kr, and 8 · 109 mol/Ma for 130Xe. These fluxes are equivalent to the total 84Kr and 130Xe contents of the depleted and bulk mantle over 1 and 10 Ma7. Similarly, the flux of 36Ar is equivalent over 1 and 100 Ma. Since the Kr and Xe have not been completely overprinted by recycling, the large majority of subducted noble gases must escape in the subduction zone. However, even the small amounts that are subducted deeper have affected the mantle as measured in both MORB and OIBs. 1. Kendrick, M.A. et al., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G. and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Parai, R. and Mukhopadhyay, S., G3, 16, 719-735, 2015 4. Matsuda, J. and Nagao, K., Geochemical Journal, 20, 71-80, 1986

  17. Mantle dynamics in Mars and Venus: Influence of an immobile lithosphere on three-dimensional mantle convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Bercovici; Glatzmaier, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical calculations of fully three-dimensional convection in constant viscosity, compressible spherical shells are interpreted in terms of possible convective motions in the mantles of Venus and Mars. The shells are heated both internally and from below to account for radiogenic heating, secular cooling, and heat flow from the core. The lower boundary of each of the shells is isothermal and shear stress free, as appropriate to the interface between a mantle and a liquid outer core. The upper boundary of each of the shells is rigid and isothermal, as appropriate to the base of a thick immobile lithosphere. Calculations with shear stress-free upper boundaries are also carried out to assess the role of the rigid surface condition. The ratio of the inner radius of each shell to its outer radius is in accordance with possible core sizes in both Venus and Mars. A calculation is also carried out for a Mars model with a small core to simulate mantle convection during early core formation. Different relative proportions of internal and bottom heating are investigated, ranging from nearly complete heating from within to almost all heating from below. The Rayleigh numbers of all the cases are approximately 100 times the critical Rayleigh numbers for the onset of convection. Cylindrical plumes are the prominent form of upwelling in the models independent of the surface boundary condition so long as sufficient heat derives from the core. Thus major volcanic centers on Mars, such as Tharsis and Elysium, and the coronae and some equatorial highlands on Venus may be the surface expressions of cylindrical mantle plumes

  18. Towards modelling of water inflow into the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, M.; Eichheimer, P.; Golabek, G.

    2017-12-01

    The transport and storage of water in the mantle significantly affects various material properties of mantle rocks and thus water plays a key role in a variety of geodynamical processes (tectonics, magmatism etc.) Geological and seismological observations suggest different inflow mechanisms of water via the subducting slab like slab bending, thermal cracking and serpentinization (Faccenda et al., 2009; Korenaga, 2017). Most of the previous numerical models do not take different dip angles of the subduction slab and subduction velocities into account, while nature provides two different types of subduction regimes i.e. shallow and deep subduction (Li et al., 2011). To which extent both parameters influence the inflow and outflow of water in the mantle still remains unclear. For the investigation of the inflow and outflow of fluids e.g. water in the mantle, we use high resolution 2D finite element simulations, which allow us to resolve subducted sediments and crustal layers. For this purpose the finite element code MVEP2 (Kaus, 2010), is tested against benchmark results (van Keken et al., 2008). In a first step we reproduced the analytical cornerflow model (Batchelor, 1967) used in the benchmark of van Keken et al.(2008) as well as the steady state temperature field. Further steps consist of successively increasing model complexity, such as the incorporation of hydrogen diffusion, water transport and dehydration reactions. ReferencesBatchelor, G. K. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1967) van Keken, P. E., et al. A community benchmark for subduction zone modeling. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 187-197 (2008). Faccenda, M., T.V. Gerya, and L. Burlini. Deep slab hydration induced by bending-related variations in tectonic pressure. Nat. Geosci. 2, 790-793 (2009). Korenaga, J. On the extent of mantle hydration caused by plate bending. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 457, 1-9 (2017). Li, Z. H., Xu, Z. Q., and T.V. Gerya. Flat versus

  19. Crustal evolution at mantle depths constrained from Pamir xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, E.; Hacker, B. R.; Smit, M. A.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths erupted in the Pamir at ~11 Ma provide an exclusive opportunity to study the evolution of crust at mantle depths during a continent-continent collision. To investigate, and constrain the timing of, the petrologic processes that occurred during burial to the peak conditions (2.5-2.8 GPa, 1000-1100 °C; [1]), we performed chemical- and isotope analyses of accessory minerals in 10 xenoliths, ranging from eclogites to grt-ky-qtz granulites. In situ laser ablation split-stream ICPMS yielded 1) U-Pb ages, Ti concentrations and REE in zircon, 2) U/Th-Pb ages and REE in monazite, and 3) U-Pb ages and trace elements in rutile. In addition, garnet, and biotite and K-feldspar were dated using Lu-Hf and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, respectively. Zircon and monazite U-(Th-)Pb ages are 101.9±1.8, 53.7±1.0, 39.1±0.8, 21.7±0.4, 18.2±0.5, 16.9±0.8, 15.1±0.3 (2σ) and 12.5-11.1 Ma; most samples showed several or all of these populations. The 53.7 Ma and older ages are xenocrystic or detrital. For younger ages, zircon and monazite in individual samples recorded different ages-although zircon in one rock and monazite in another can be the same age. The 39.1 Ma zircon and monazite mostly occur as inclusions in minerals of the garnet-bearing assemblage that represents the early, low-P stages of burial. Garnet Lu-Hf ages of 37.8±0.3 Ma support garnet growth at this time. Spinifex-like textures containing 21.7-11.1 Ma zircon and monazite record short-lived partial melting events during burial. Aligned kyanite near these patches indicates associated deformation. Zircons yielding ≤12.5 Ma exhibit increased Eu/Eu* and markedly decreased HREE concentrations, interpreted to record feldspar breakdown and omphacite growth during increasing pressure. Rutile U-Pb cooling ages are 10.8±0.3 Ma in all samples. This agrees with the weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of eight biotite, K-feldspar and whole rock separates of 11.00+0.16/-0.09 Ma. Rutile in eclogites provides Zr

  20. Influence of mantle viscosity structure and mineral grain size on fluid migration pathways in the mantle wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerpa, N. G.; Wada, I.; Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a 2D numerical porous flow model that incorporates both grain size distribution and matrix compaction to explore the fluid migration (FM) pathways in the mantle wedge. Melt generation for arc volcanism is thought to be triggered by slab-derived fluids that migrate into the hot overlying mantle and reduce its melting temperature. While the narrow location of the arcs relative to the top of the slab ( 100±30 km) is a robust observation, the release of fluids is predicted to occur over a wide range of depth. Reconciling such observations and predictions remains a challenge for the geodynamic community. Fluid transport by porous flow depends on the permeability of the medium which in turn depends on fluid fraction and mineral grain size. The grain size distribution in the mantle wedge predicted by laboratory derived laws was found to be a possible mechanism to focusing of fluids beneath the arcs [Wada and Behn, 2015]. The viscous resistance of the matrix to the volumetric strain generates compaction pressure that affects fluid flow and can also focus fluids towards the arc [Wilson et al, 2014]. We thus have developed a 2D one-way coupled Darcy's-Stokes flow model (solid flow independent of fluid flow) for the mantle wedge that combines both effects. For the solid flow calculation, we use a kinematic-dynamic approach where the system is driven by the prescribed slab velocity. The solid rheology accounts for both dislocation and diffusion creep and we calculate the grain size distribution following Wada and Behn [2015]. In our fluid flow model, the permeability of the medium is grain size dependent and the matrix bulk viscosity depends on solid shear viscosity and fluid fraction. The fluid influx from the slab is imposed as a boundary condition at the base of the mantle wedge. We solve the discretized governing equations using the software package TerraFERMA. Applying a range of model parameter values, including slab age, slab dip, subduction rate, and fluid

  1. Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the occurrence and thickness of the plasma mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Rosenbauer, H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The response of the plasma mantle to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been studied by correlating Heos 2 plasma and Imp 6 magnetic field data. The mantle is nearly always present when the IMF has a southward component and often also when the field has a weak northward component. In addition, the mantle appears increasingly thicker with greater southward components. On the other hand, the mantle is thin or missing (from the region where it is normally found) when the average IMF has a strong northward component. This result supports the idea that polar cap convection plays a dominant role in the formation of the plasma mantle: mantle plasma originates in the magnetosheath, enters the magnetosphere through the day side polar cusps, and is transported across the cusp to the night side by means of a convection electric field whose magnitude is controlled by the orientation of the IMF.

  2. Beyond low-level activity: On a 'non-radioactive' gas mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poljanc, Karin [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.at; Sterba, Johannes H. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Buchtela, Karl [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Bichler, Max [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-01

    Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be 'non-radioactive' and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), {gamma}-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of {sup 232}Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud.

  3. Beyond low-level activity: On a 'non-radioactive' gas mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljanc, Karin; Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Buchtela, Karl; Bichler, Max

    2007-01-01

    Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be 'non-radioactive' and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), γ-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of 232 Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud

  4. The Universal Cpx Jd-Di barometer for mantle peridotite eclogite and pyroxenites and it using for the mantle petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The Jd-Di exchange in clinopyroxenes used for the calibration of pyroxene barometer (Ashchepkov, 2000;2002; Ashchepkov et al 2010;2011;2012) was transformed to make one universal equation for mantle peridotite eclogites and pyroxenites. The original barometer (Ashchepkov, 2002) calibrated on pressures produced by Opx barometry (McGregor , 1974) was transformed (Ashchepkov et al ., 2004; 2010; 2011) to satisfy the increasing data bases for the mantle xenoliths and experimental values 530 in peridotitic and 650 in elcogitic systems . The obtained difference Pd =Pcpx- Pexp were studied for the dependence on each component and their combination . Instead of the common activities we used the temperature-dependent empirical equations. The three separate equations for the common peridotites, pyroxenites and eclogites (Ashchepkov et al., 2010) were checked and complex To and Al-Na-Fe dependent universal coefficients were received. The KD is determined as follows: KD=Na/AlCr*Mg/Ca The logarithmic dependence between P and KD was transformed to a linear one. Final pressure equations are: AlCr=(Al-0.01) *((T-600)/700)**0.75+Cr*(ToK-100)/1000+(4*Ti-0.0125)/ (T0-801)*650 +0.55*((Fe-0.23) *(T0-900)/10000-K) P=0.26*(5+12*(Al+0.30*Na)KD* ToK**0.75 /(1+Fe+ Fe*(ToK-600)/1000)-ln(1273/ ToK))*40*(7*Na-Al-15*Ti+10*Cr+Mg/4)+7.5*Si-20*( Al*Na*Mg/Ca/(Al-2*Ti+Na-2*Fe/(Fe+Mg))+50*(Na+0.1*Al-2*Ti+0.05*Mg-0.22*Ca-0.7*Na)/Ca). Obtained equation in combination with the (Nimis,Taylor, 2000) thermometer allow to reconstruct position of the magma feeder systems of the alkali basaltic magma withing the mantle diapirs in modern platforms like in Vitim plateau (Ashchepkov et al., 2011) and now was applicated to reconstruct the deep seated magma conduits beneath the mountain collision systems, island arcs ocean plateaus etc. This equation allows to receive the positions of the major groups of eclogites mantle sections and to find out the regularities of their behavior. The Fe rich eclogites commonly

  5. Mantle Convection beneath the Aegir Ridge, a Shadow in the Iceland Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Breivik, A. J.; Hanan, B. B.; Mjelde, R.; Sayit, K.; Vogt, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Hotspot has produced extensive volcanism spanning much of the ocean basin between Greenland and Norway, forming one of the world's largest igneous provinces. However, an apparent igneous "shadow" in hotspot activity is located at the fossil Aegir Ridge, which formed anomalously thin crust, despite this ridge being near the Iceland hotspot when it was active. The Aegir Ridge accommodated seafloor spreading northeast of present-day Iceland from the time of continental breakup at ~55 Ma until ~25 Ma, at which point spreading shifted west to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. To address the cause of the anomalously thin crust produced by the Aegir Ridge, we use three-dimensional numerical models to simulate the interaction between a mantle plume beneath the Iceland hotspot, rifting continental lithosphere, and the time-evolving North Atlantic ridge system. Two end-member hypotheses were investigated: (1) Material emanating from the Iceland mantle plume was blocked from reaching the Aegir Ridge by the thick lithosphere of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent as the Kolbeinsey Ridge began rifting it from Greenland at ~30 Ma, just east of the plume center; (2) Plume material was not blocked and did reach the Aegir Ridge, but had already experienced partial melting closer to the hotspot. This material was then unable to produce melt volumes at the Aegir Ridge comparable to those of pristine mantle. To test these hypotheses, we vary the volume flux and viscosity of the plume, and identify which conditions do and do not lead to the Aegir Ridge forming anomalously thin crust. Results show that the combination of plume material being drawn into the lithospheric channels beneath the Reykjanes Ridge and Kolbeinsey Ridge after their respective openings, and the impedance of plume flow by the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (hypothesis 1), can deprive the Aegir Ridge of plume influence. This leads to low crustal thicknesses that are comparable to those observed. We have yet to produce a model

  6. Stability of iron-rich magnesiowüstite in Earth's lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K.; Fujino, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Shimizu, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    At ambient conditions, MgO periclase and FeO wüstite form a solid solution (Mg1-xFex)O, named ferropericlase (x ≤ 0.5) and magnesiowüstite (x > 0.5). (Mg1-xFex)O ferropericlase is considered to be a major component of Earth's lower mantle, and may play an important role for its structure and dynamics. Iron-rich magnesiowüstite also needs to be considered because of possible iron enrichment at the core-mantle boundary region [e.g., Nomura et al., 2011]. Recent laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments on FeO revealed that NaCl-type (B1) structured FeO underwent an insulator-metal transition at about 70 GPa and 1800 K without any structural transformation [Fischer et al., 2011; Ohta et al., 2012]. These results imply that the metallic B1 FeO would require a two-phase field for the MgO-FeO binary system due to different chemical bonding between insulating MgO and metallic FeO. We performed simultaneous electrical conductivity and x-ray diffraction measurements on (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O and (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O magnesiowüstite up to 140 GPa and 2100 K, and then examined recovered samples by using analytical transmission electron microprobe. We obtained some evidences for the dissociation of (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O into lighter and heavier phases than starting material occurring above 70 GPa and 1900 K, which is most likely due to the metallization of FeO component. On the other hand, we did not observe such dissociation and metallization in (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O. Observed dissociation in (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O might contribute to the heterogeneity in seismic wave and electrical conductivity at the Earth's core-mantle boundary region.

  7. Lithospheric structure of northwest Africa: Insights into the tectonic history and influence of mantle flow on large-scale deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Becker, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    Northwest Africa is affected by late stage convergence of Africa with Eurasia, the Canary Island hotspot, and bounded by the Proterozoic-age West African craton. We present seismological evidence from receiver functions and shear-wave splitting along with geodynamic modeling to show how the interactions of these tectonic features resulted in dramatic deformation of the lithosphere. We interpret seismic discontinuities from the receiver functions and find evidence for localized, near vertical-offset deformation of both crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere interfaces at the flanks of the High Atlas. These offsets coincide with the locations of Jurassic-aged normal faults that have been reactivated during the Cenozoic, further suggesting that inherited, lithospheric-scale zones of weakness were involved in the formation of the Atlas. Another significant step in lithospheric thickness is inferred within the Middle Atlas. Its location corresponds to the source of regional Quaternary alkali volcanism, where the influx of melt induced by the shallow asthenosphere appears restricted to a lithospheric-scale fault on the northern side of the mountain belt. Inferred stretching axes from shear-wave splitting are aligned with the topographic grain in the High Atlas, suggesting along-strike asthenospheric shearing in a mantle channel guided by the lithospheric topography. Isostatic modeling based on our improved lithospheric constraints indicates that lithospheric thinning alone does not explain the anomalous Atlas topography. Instead, an mantle upwelling induced by a hot asthenospheric anomaly appears required, likely guided by the West African craton and perhaps sucked northward by subducted lithosphere beneath the Alboran. This dynamic support scenario for the Atlas also suggests that the timing of uplift is contemporaneous with the recent volcanismin the Middle Atlas.

  8. Petrography and mineral chemistry of metamorphosed mantle peridotites of Nain Ophiolite (Central Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh; Ghodrat Torabi; Ramin Samadi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Study of the petrology of the ophiolites as the relics of ancient oceanic lithosphere, is a powerful tool to reconstruct Earth’s history. Mantle peridotites have mostly undergone alteration and serpentinization to some extent. Thus, the relics of metamorphic signatures from the upper mantle and crustal processes from most of the peridotites have been ruined. Several recent papers deal with the mantle peridotites of Nain Ophiolite (e.g. Ghazi et al., 2010). However, no scientif...

  9. Extreme Hf and light Fe isotopes in Archean komatiites - a remnant of very early mantle depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P.; Campbell, I. H.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hafnium isotope signatures in some Archean komatiites (ca. 3.5-3.0 billion years old) require a mantle source with a time-integrated Lu/Hf that exceeds average modern depleted mantle. Investigation of the timing and locus of parent-daughter fractionation in their mantle sources potentially constrains differentiation processes in the early Earth and their subsequent distribution and storage. In addition, they may help to constrain the Hf isotope evolution of the greater depleted mantle. In order to shed light on these processes, we discuss radiogenic Hf isotopes in conjunction with stable Fe isotope systematics in Archean komatiites from the Pilbara craton in Western Australia. Our findings indicate that, after careful evaluation of the effects of alteration, pristine samples are characterised by initial 176Hf/177Hf, which lie above the age-corrected depleted mantle, as a consequence of ancient melt extraction. Iron isotope systematics for these samples further point to a mantle source that is isotopically lighter than average modern depleted mantle, which is also consistent with melt-depletion. Taken together, these observations require a component of an old, super-depleted reservoir in the komatiite mantle source(s) that survived in the mantle for possibly hundreds of millions of years. The Lu/Hf of this refractory mantle appears to be complementary to, and therefore contemporaneous with, the first terrestrial crust, as preserved in Hadean (i.e., > 4 Ga) detrital zircon cores, which may indicate a causal relationship between them. We will discuss implications for very early mantle dynamics and the formation of very early mantle reservoirs.

  10. The peculiar case of Marosticano xenoliths: a cratonic mantle fragment affected by carbonatite metasomatism in the Veneto Volcanic Province (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Florencia Fahnestock, M.; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Province, Southern Alps. Geological Society of America, 131-152. Beccaluva L., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Salvini L., Siena F. (2001). Depletion events, nature of metasomatizing agent and timing of enrichment processes in lithospheric mantle xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province. Journal of Petrology, 42, 173-187. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R.W., Siena, F., Upton, B.G.J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in ultramafic xenoliths of Grande Comore, Indian Ocean. Journal of Petrology, 40, 133-165. Downes, H., MacDonald, R., Upton, B.G.J., Cox, K.G, Bodinier, J-L, Mason, P.R.D, James, D., Hill, P.G., Hearn, C. Jr (2004). Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming Carton. Journal of Petrology, 45, 1631-1662. Foley, S.F. (2011). A reappraisal of redox melting in the Earth's mantle as a function of tectonic setting and time. Journal of Petrology, 52, 1363-1391. Gasperini D., Bosch D., Braga R., Bondi M., Macera P., Morten L. (2006). Ultramafic xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province (Italy): Petrological and geochemical evidence for multiple metasomatism of the SE Alps mantle lithospere. Geochemical Journal, 40, 377-404. Kelemen, P.B., Hart, S.R., Bernstein, S. (1998). Silica enrichment in the continental upper mantle via melt/rock reaction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 164, 387-406. Ramsey, R.R, Tompkins, L.A. (1994). The geology, heavy mineral concentrate mineralogy, and diamond prospectivity of the Boa Esperança and Cana Verde pipes, Corrego D'anta, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in: Meyer, H.O.A and Leonardos, O.H. (Eds.), Proceeding of the Fifth International Kimberlite Conference 2. Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursors Minerais, Special Publications, 329-345. Siena F., Coltorti M. (1989). Lithospheric mantle evolution: evidences from ultramafic xenoliths in the Lessinean volcanics

  11. The upper-mantle transition zone beneath the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdo, Paula; Bonatto, Luciana; Badi, Gabriela; Piromallo, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the present work is the study of the upper mantle structure of the western margin of South America (between 26°S and 36°S) within an area known as the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone. For this purpose, we use teleseismic records from temporary broad band seismic stations that resulted from different seismic experiments carried out in South America. This area is characterized by on-going orogenic processes and complex subduction history that have profoundly affected the underlying mantle structure. The detection and characterization of the upper mantle seismic discontinuities are useful to understand subduction processes and the dynamics of mantle convection; this is due to the fact that they mark changes in mantle composition or phase changes in mantle minerals that respond differently to the disturbances caused by mantle convection. The discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km, generally associated to phase changes in olivine, vary in width and depth as a result of compositional and temperature anomalies. As a consequence, these discontinuities are an essential tool to study the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle. Here, we analyze the upper-mantle transition zone discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km as seen from Pds seismic phases beneath the Argentina-Chile flat subduction.

  12. The evolution of grain mantles and silicate dust growth at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Viti, Serena; Balucani, Nadia; Taquet, Vianney

    2018-05-01

    In dense molecular clouds, interstellar grains are covered by mantles of iced molecules. The formation of the grain mantles has two important consequences: it removes species from the gas phase and promotes the synthesis of new molecules on the grain surfaces. The composition of the mantle is a strong function of the environment that the cloud belongs to. Therefore, clouds in high-zeta galaxies, where conditions - like temperature, metallicity, and cosmic ray flux - are different from those in the Milky Way, will have different grain mantles. In the last years, several authors have suggested that silicate grains might grow by accretion of silicon-bearing species on smaller seeds. This would occur simultaneously with the formation of the iced mantles and be greatly affected by its composition as a function of time. In this work, we present a numerical study of the grain mantle formation in high-zeta galaxies, and we quantitatively address the possibility of silicate growth. We find that the mantle thickness decreases with increasing redshift, from about 120 to 20 layers for z varying from 0 to 8. Furthermore, the mantle composition is also a strong function of the cloud redshift, with the relative importance of CO, CO2, ammonia, methane, and methanol highly varying with z. Finally, being Si-bearing species always a very minor component of the mantle, the formation of silicates in molecular clouds is practically impossible.

  13. Chemical provinces and dynamic melting of the NE Atlantic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Low-degree melting of fertile parts of the NE Atlantic mantle yields primitive alkaline basalts in the Icelandic off-rift zones and at Jan Mayen. Olivine tholeiites in the Icelandic rift zones and oceanic spreading ridges are formed by protracted decompressional melting. The V-shaped ridges SW and NE of Iceland indicate that rising, hot material is supplied by a pulsating plume and deflected laterally for distances of about 1000 km from Iceland (Jones et al. GGG 2002; Breivik et al. JGR 2006). Plume material deflected along the rift zones and spreading ridges undergoes mixing with the ambient asthenosphere and extensive melting at shallow level, whereas material deflected in other directions may flow laterally at deeper levels and remain largely unmelted and fertile. A recent investigation of a suite of primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen (Debaille et al., 2009, GCA) demonstrated an important source contribution from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Available data on the primitive off-rift basalts and tholeiitic basalts from Iceland and the NE Atlantic ridges indicates the existence of three main composite mantle components, characterized by the following relative isotope ratios (H: high, I: intermediate and L: low ratio) for 87/86Sr, 143/144Nd, 206/204Pb, 187/188Os and 3/4He, respectively: 1. Iceland plume with depleted lower mantle mixed with recycled oceanic crust: I, I, H, H, H 2. Strongly depleted and later re-enriched SCLM: H, L, I, L, L 3. Depleted asthenosphere: L, H, L, I, L The two first composite components contain enriched and depleted subcomponents with distinct isotope signatures. The isotope ratio variations between the fertile components are larger than between the refractory components. The 3/4He ratio, however, is much higher in the depleted plume component than in the depleted SCLM and asthenospheric components. The old SCLM material could in principle be recycled and embedded in the lower mantle and supplied to the

  14. Influence of rheology on realignment of mantle convective structure with plate motion after a plate reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunen, J.; Zhong, S.

    2006-08-01

    Small-scale convection (SSC) rolls below the oceanic lithosphere have the tendency to align with the large-scale shearing direction and thus with the plate motion direction relative to the deep mantle. Understanding the timescales of and processes responsible for realignment would contribute significantly to our understanding of the unresolved phenomena in the Pacific such as gravity lineations, small-scale seismic velocity variations, and intraplate volcanism that cannot be explained by hot spots. In this study we examine the evolution of those convection rolls when this relative plate motion direction is suddenly changed, as suggested by the kink in the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. Using three-dimensional numerical flow models, we investigate the realignment of SSC rolls after a change in plate motion direction. From the nature of the SSC, it is expected that rheological parameters dominate the characteristics of this realignment. Our results show that this is indeed the case. We find that (1) using constraints from onset timing of SSC, realignment of rolls can occur as fast as within 20 Ma, but might also take much longer, dependent on the rheology; (2) the realignment period is strongly correlated to the sum of large-scale shear stress induced by plate motion and small-scale shear stress from the SSC itself; (3) in a mantle deforming by dislocation creep, realignment occurs faster than by diffusion creep, because dislocation creep SSC is more vigorous; and (4) activation energy has little influence on the realignment time. Possible evidence for the realignment period might come from precise age determination of intraplate volcanism or azimuthal seismic anisotropy.

  15. Constraints on the coupled thermal evolution of the Earth's core and mantle, the age of the inner core, and the origin of the 186Os/188Os “core signal” in plume-derived lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2006-10-01

    The possibility that some mantle plumes may carry a geochemical signature of core/mantle interaction has rightly generated considerable interest and attention in recent years. Correlated 186Os- 187Os enrichments in some plume-derived lavas (Hawaii, Gorgona, Kostomuksha) have been interpreted as deriving from an outer core with elevated Pt/Os and Re/Os ratios due to the solidification of the Earth's inner core (c.f., [A.D. Brandon, R.J. Walker, The debate over core-mantle interaction, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 232 (2005) 211-225.] and references therein). Conclusive identification of a "core signal" in plume-derived lavas would profoundly influence our understanding of mantle convection and evolution. This paper reevaluates the Os-isotope evidence for core/mantle interaction by examining other geochemical constraints on core/mantle interaction, geophysical constraints on the thermal evolution of the outer core, and geochemical and cosmochemical constraints on the abundance of heat-producing elements in the core. Additional study of metal/silicate and sulfide/silicate partitioning of K, Pb, and other trace elements is needed to more tightly constrain the likely starting composition of the Earth's core. However, available data suggest that the observed 186Os enrichments in Hawaiian and other plume-derived lavas are unlikely to derive from core/mantle interaction. 1) Core/mantle interaction sufficient to produce the observed 186Os enrichments would likely have significant effects on other tracers such as Pb- and W-isotopes that are not observed. 2) Significant partitioning of K or other heat-producing elements into the core would produce a "core depletion" pattern in the Silicate Earth very different from that observed. 3) In the absence of heat-producing elements in the core, core/mantle heat flow of ˜ 6-15 TW estimated from several independent geophysical constraints suggests an inner core age (< ˜ 2.5 Ga) too young for the outer core to have developed a significant

  16. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  17. Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2002-12-01

    Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.

  18. Shear-wave splitting observations of mantle anisotropy beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Entwistle, E.; Litherland, M.; Abers, G. A.; Song, X.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy were obtained from three different PASSCAL broadband experiments throughout Alaska, using shear-wave splitting from teleseismic SKS phases. The MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction), BEAAR (Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range), and ARCTIC (Alaska Receiving Cross-Transects for the Inner Core) networks were used along with selected permanent broadband stations operated by AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) to produce seismic anisotropy results for the state of Alaska along a north south transect from the active subduction zone in the south, through continental Alaska, to the passive margin in the north. The BEAAR network is in-between the ARCTIC and MOOS networks above the subducting Pacific Plate and mantle wedge and shows a tight ~90 degree rotation of anisotropy above the 70km contour of the subducting plate. The southern stations in BEAAR yield anisotropy results that are subparallel to the Pacific Plate motion as it subducts under North America. These stations have an average fast direction of -45 degrees and 1.03 seconds of delay on average. The MOOS network in south central Alaska yielded similar results with an average fast direction of -30 degrees and delay times of .9 seconds. In the north portion of the BEAAR network the anisotropy is along strike of the subduction zone and has an average fast direction of 27 degrees with an average delay time of 1.4 seconds, although the delay times above the mantle wedge range from 1 to 2.5 seconds and are directly correlated to the length of ray path in the mantle wedge. This general trend NE/SW is seen in the ARCTIC stations to the north although the furthest north stations are oriented more NNE compared to those in BEAAR. The average fast direction for the ARCTIC network is 40 degrees with an average delay time of 1.05 seconds. These results show two distinct orientations of anisotropy in Alaska separated by the subducting Pacific Plate.

  19. Thermal-chemical Mantle Convection Models With Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2008-12-01

    In numerical modeling of mantle convection, resolution is often crucial for resolving small-scale features. New techniques, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allow local mesh refinement wherever high resolution is needed, while leaving other regions with relatively low resolution. Both computational efficiency for large- scale simulation and accuracy for small-scale features can thus be achieved with AMR. Based on the octree data structure [Tu et al. 2005], we implement the AMR techniques into the 2-D mantle convection models. For pure thermal convection models, benchmark tests show that our code can achieve high accuracy with relatively small number of elements both for isoviscous cases (i.e. 7492 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements) and for temperature-dependent viscosity cases (i.e. 14620 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements). We further implement tracer-method into the models for simulating thermal-chemical convection. By appropriately adding and removing tracers according to the refinement of the meshes, our code successfully reproduces the benchmark results in van Keken et al. [1997] with much fewer elements and tracers compared with uniform-mesh models (i.e. 7552 AMR elements v.s. 16384 uniform elements, and ~83000 tracers v.s. ~410000 tracers). The boundaries of the chemical piles in our AMR code can be easily refined to the scales of a few kilometers for the Earth's mantle and the tracers are concentrated near the chemical boundaries to precisely trace the evolvement of the boundaries. It is thus very suitable for our AMR code to study the thermal-chemical convection problems which need high resolution to resolve the evolvement of chemical boundaries, such as the entrainment problems [Sleep, 1988].

  20. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  1. Hot mantles, moderate photospheres for Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The amount of continuous energy from Wolf-Rayet stars and the shape of the continuous spectrum from the ultraviolet to the near infrared correspond to effective temperatures in the range 25000 to 30000 K. The value of log g is of the order of 4.0 +- 0.5. Thus the photospheres of Wolf-Rayet stars correspond to those of moderately hot stars. The line spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars, however, indicate that electron temperatures greater than 30000 K occur in the outer atmospheres or mantles of these stars. Here outflow is important. (Auth.)

  2. Mantle treatment of Hodkin's disease with 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svahn-Tapper, G.

    1979-01-01

    60 Co mantle beams were used in the radiation treatment of patients| with Hodgkin's disease. A technique using beam-flattening filters is described. The dosimetry was based on dose plans drawn up manually for each patient. The good dosimetric accuracy of the method was verified by in vivo measurements of absorbed dose at the oesophagi of 60 patients. Split-course treatment with 40 Gy was given in 27 fractions over 71 days. Results and side-effects in 90 patients are analyzed. The local recurrence rate was 3 %. (author)

  3. The Mantle Isotopic Array: A Tale of Two FOZOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apen, F. E.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Williams, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic basalts display isotopic arrays that suggest mixing between a depleted component, several enriched components, and a primitive component. The topology of the arrays provides information on mantle mixing, the distribution of heterogeneities, and information on mantle structure. Here we use a global compilation of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) He-Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data to further analyze the topology of these arrays. Previous work indicated that OIB isotopic arrays converge to a common component [1-3] referred to as the focus zone, or FOZO. Our analyses suggest that while all OIBs do point to a common component with unradiogenic 4He/3He ratios relative to MORBs, this component has to be quite variable in its He, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions. FOZO cannot be a pure component but must represent a heterogeneous mixture of primitive and recycled material. Our analyses of the MORB and OIB isotopic compositions also indicate that while MORBs and OIBs sample the same components, the topology of their mixing arrays are quite distinct. Different MOR segments show quasi-linear isotopic arrays that all converge to a common component. This component is distinctive from the OIB FOZO being more depleted and more restrictive in its He, Sr, Nd and Pb composition. We suggest two common but distinguishable components are present in the mantle arrays: one common to MORBs and the other to OIBs, and we refer to them as MORB-FOZO and OIB-FOZO, respectively. We interpret the two FOZOs to represent the average composition of small-scale heterogeneities that make up the background matrix in the sources of MORBs and OIBs. The depleted and enriched components that are sampled in MORBs and OIBs reflect relatively large-scale heterogeneities distributed within the matrix, material that have yet to be deformed into the smaller length scales of the matrix material. Differences between the two FOZO compositions reflects the inclusion of a component with

  4. The birth, growth and ageing of the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Gerhard P.; Shu, Qiao

    2018-06-01

    The Kaapvaal craton and its underlying mantle is probably one of the best studied Archean entity in the world. Despite that, discussion is still vivid on important aspects. A major debate over the last few decades is the depth of melting that generated the mantle nuclei of cratons. Our new evaluation of melting parameters in peridotite residues shows that the Cr2O3/Al2O3 ratio is the most useful pressure sensitive melting barometer. It irrevocably constrains the pressure of melting (melt separation) to less than 2 GPa with olivine (ol), orthopyroxene (opx) and spinel (sp) as residual phases. Garnet (grt) grows at increasing pressure during lithosphere thickening and subduction via the reaction opx + sp → grt + ol. The time of partial melting is constrained by Re-depletion model ages (TRD) mainly to the Archean (Pearson and Wittig 2008). However, only 3% of the ages are older than 3.1 Ga while crustal ages lie mainly between 3.1 to 2.8 Ga for the W- and 3.7 to 2.8 Ga for the E-block. Many TRD-ages are probably falsified by metasomatism and the main partial melting period was older than 3.1 Ga. Also, Nd- and Hf- model ages of peridotitic lithologies from the W-block are 3.2 to 3.6 Ga old. The corresponding very negative ɛNd (-40) and ɛHf values (-65) signal the presence of subducted crustal components in these old mantle portions. Subducted components diversify the mantle in its chemistry and thermal structure. Adjustment towards a stable configuration occurs by fluid transfer, metasomatism, partial melting and heat transfer. Ages of metasomatism from the Lu-Hf isotope system are 3.2 Ga (Lace), 2.9 Ga (Roberts Victor) and 2.62 Ga (Finsch) coinciding with the collision of cratonic blocks, the growth of diamonds, metamorphism of eclogites and of Ventersdoorp magmatism. The cratonic lithosphere was stabilized thermally by the end of the Archean and cooled since then with a rate of 0.07 °C/Ma.

  5. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Amra, C.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  6. Crust and mantle of the gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.W.

    1972-01-01

    A SEEMING paradox has puzzled investigators of the crustal structure of the Gulf of Mexico since Ewing et al.1 calculated that a unit area of the rather thick crust in the gulf contains less mass than does a combination of the crust and enough of the upper mantle to make a comparable thickness in the Atlantic Ocean. They also noted that the free-air gravity of the gulf is essentially normal and fails by a large factor to be low enough to reflect the mass difference that they calculated. We propose a solution to this problem. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-04-30

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  8. Petrogenesis of 3.15 Ga old Banasandra komatiites from the Dharwar craton, India: Implications for early mantle heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Maya

    2017-05-01

    after the extinction of the 146Sm, i.e. at 4.3 Ga and prior to 3.14 Ga. Banasandra komatiites therefore provide evidence for preservation of heterogeneities generated during mantle differentiation at 4.3 Ga.

  9. Combined iron and magnesium isotope geochemistry of pyroxenite xenoliths from Hannuoba, North China Craton: implications for mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin Miao; Cao, Hui Hui; Mi, Xue; Evans, Noreen J.; Qi, Yu Han; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Hong Fu

    2017-06-01

    We present high-precision iron and magnesium isotopic data for diverse mantle pyroxenite xenoliths collected from Hannuoba, North China Craton and provide the first combined iron and magnesium isotopic study of such rocks. Compositionally, these xenoliths range from Cr-diopside pyroxenites and Al-augite pyroxenites to garnet-bearing pyroxenites and are taken as physical evidence for different episodes of melt injection. Our results show that both Cr-diopside pyroxenites and Al-augite pyroxenites of cumulate origin display narrow ranges in iron and magnesium isotopic compositions (δ57Fe = -0.01 to 0.09 with an average of 0.03 ± 0.08 (2SD, n = 6); δ26Mg = - 0.28 to -0.25 with an average of -0.26 ± 0.03 (2SD, n = 3), respectively). These values are identical to those in the normal upper mantle and show equilibrium inter-mineral iron and magnesium isotope fractionation between coexisting mantle minerals. In contrast, the garnet-bearing pyroxenites, which are products of reactions between peridotites and silicate melts from an ancient subducted oceanic slab, exhibit larger iron isotopic variations, with δ57Fe ranging from 0.12 to 0.30. The δ57Fe values of minerals in these garnet-bearing pyroxenites also vary widely (-0.25 to 0.08 in olivines, -0.04 to 0.25 in orthopyroxenes, -0.07 to 0.31 in clinopyroxenes, 0.07 to 0.48 in spinels and 0.31-0.42 in garnets). In addition, the garnet-bearing pyroxenite shows light δ26Mg (-0.43) relative to the mantle. The δ26Mg of minerals in the garnet-bearing pyroxenite range from -0.35 for olivine and orthopyroxene, to -0.34 for clinopyroxene, 0.04 for spinel and -0.68 for garnet. These measured values stand in marked contrast to calculated equilibrium iron and magnesium isotope fractionation between coexisting mantle minerals at mantle temperatures derived from theory, indicating disequilibrium isotope fractionation. Notably, one phlogopite clinopyroxenite with an apparent later metasomatic overprint has the heaviest δ57Fe

  10. The effect of ilmenite viscosity on the dynamics and evolution of an overturned lunar cumulate mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Dygert, Nick; Liang, Yan; Parmentier, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    Lunar cumulate mantle overturn and the subsequent upwelling of overturned mantle cumulates provide