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Sample records for mandel charbel farhat

  1. Multiphysics Modelling of the Mandel- Cryer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Holzbecher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In porous medium studies the Mandel-Cryer effect is known, describing non-monotonic pore-water pressure evolution in response to loading or to changed stress conditions. In a 2D poro-elastic model we couple the pore water hydraulics with mechanics (HM. The Mandel-Cryer effect is identified in parts of the model region that are far from the drainage boundary. At parts of the loaded boundary an even more complex pressure evolution is revealed. Variations of the Biot-parameter as the coupling parameter clearly indicate the relevance of the two-way coupling between the involved physical regimes. Hence the Mandel-Cryer effect is a typical result of multi-physical coupling.

  2. Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, bioenergy leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mary E H Mandels, who spearheaded the US Army's national bioconversion studies for four decades and was an early proponent of conversion of waste biomass to readily bioconvertible sugars for the production of chemicals and transportation fuels such as ethanol, died 17 February 2008 at Natick, MA, USA. She was 90.

  3. Characterization of Photon Statistical Properties with Normalized Mandel Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-Zheng; WANG Zhen-Hua; LI Hui; WU Qiang; TANG Bai-Quan; GAO Feng; XU Jing-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Normalized Mandel Parameter is introduced as a new measurement of photon statistics. Dependences of Mandel parameter Q and corresponding normalized Mandel parameter on photon-counting time interval are experimentally investigated for pseudo-thermal light. We demonstrate that is more appropriate than Q to measure the statistical deviation from Poisson distribution, because presents dearly both the intrinsic statistical properties and measuring effects. The advantages of in charactering nonclassical emissions are also discussed.

  4. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  5. International Literacy Crusader: An Interview with Susan Mandel Glazer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Valerie K.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Susan Mandel Glazer, past president of both the International Reading Association and the College Reading Association. Dr. Glazer received her doctorate in education from the University of Pennsylvania and her master of arts from New York University. Her most recent books are "Beyond the Looking Glass:…

  6. Separation of mandelic acid and its derivatives with new immobilized cellulose chiral stationary phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Qian LIU; Guang-jun FU; Zhen-zhong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the chiral separation of the enantiomers of mandelic acid and their derivatives 2-chloromandelic acid,4-hydroxymandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid.The enantiomers were separated by a CHIRALPAK(R) IC (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm).Mandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid were baseline resolved (resolution factor (Rs)=2.21,Rs=2.14,and Rs=3.70,respectively).In contrast,the enantioselectivities between CHIRALPAK(R) IC and 2-chloromandelic acid and 4-hydroxymandelic acid investigated were low.By comparing the chromatographs of mandelic acid enantiomers and mandelic acid spiked with (R)-mandelic acid,it was determined that the first effluent was (R)-mandelic acid.

  7. Raise Test Scores without Selling Your Soul: An Interview with Scott Mandel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    With his 10th book, Improving Test Scores: A Practical Approach for Teachers and Administrators, Scott Mandel outlines steps educators can take to boost achievement on standardized exams while maintaining the integrity of their day-to-day teaching. Mandel, who holds a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from USC, teaches history and English at…

  8. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of (±-Mandelic Acid-d5, Optical Resolution, and Absolute Configuration Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of (±-mandelic acid-d5 was developed. The racemic mixture was resolved by diastereomeric salt formation using 1-phenylethylamine enantiomers as resolving agents. At each step, the resolution process was checked by determining mandelic acid-d5 enantiomer ee values directly on fractional crystallized diastereomeric salts by chiral capillary electrophoresis analysis. Highly enriched (−- and (+-mandelic acid-d5 (95% and 90% ee, resp. were obtained and their absolute configurations—R and S, respectively—were determined by correlation of the (−-mandelic acid-d5 circular dichroism spectrum to the (R-mandelic acid one.

  9. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic studies of europium complex with S(+)-mandelic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Babij; A. Mondry

    2011-01-01

    The Eu3+ complexes with S(+)-mandelic acid were synthesized in the form of powders by mixing aqueous solutions of EuCl3,S(+)-mandelic acid and NaOH in different molar ratios.The powders were characterized by elemental analysis,X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) method,Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy,UV-vis reflectance and luminescence spectra as well as luminescence lifetime measurements.It was found that all studied powders of Eu3+ complexes with S(+)-mandelic acid were isostructural and crystalline and formed compounds with the formula Eu(Man)3(H2O)2.

  10. A pair of chiral fluorescent sensors for enantioselective recognition of mandelate in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuo-xi; Kong, Hua-jie; Zu, Fu-li; Yang, Li; Wang, Chen-juan

    2014-01-01

    A pair of chiral compounds S-1 and R-1 derived from (1S, 2S) or (1R, 2R)-1, 2-diphenylethane-1, 2-diamine were designed and synthesized, the interactions of S-1 and R-1 with mandelate were studied in H2O (0.01 M HEPES buffer, pH = 7.4) by fluorescence titration experiments. The sensors S-1 and R-1 were found to present enantioselective fluorescent sensing ability to mandelate. The results indicated that the sensors S-1 and R-1 were very promising to be used as fluorescent sensors in determining the enantiomeric composition of mandelate in H2O.

  11. Kuu plaat : Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea", Goldfrapp "Supernature", Ultima Thule "Ingel ja suli", Sigur Ros "Takk...", Franz Ferdinand "You Could Have It So Much Better", Ans.Andur "Tuled peale"

  12. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freulon, V; Marguerite, A; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Fève, G

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted...

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  14. Robert Lévy-Mandel (1923-2010)

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Former CERN Director Robert Lévy-Mandel passed away on 3 July at the age of 87.   After obtaining a diploma from the Institut polytechnique in Grenoble, in 1948 he started work at the CEA, and was involved in the development and construction of the Saclay institute's first particle accelerator, a Van de Graaff machine. From 1954 to 1957 he was responsible for the coordination, development and construction of the CEA’s Saturne synchrotron, which entered service in 1958. In 1963 he was appointed head of the Saturne Synchrotron Department. The team led the construction of the Gargamelle bubble chamber, which was installed at CERN, and made contributions to other major facilities, including the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). In 1971 he was invited to come to Geneva by John Adams, who was in charge of the SPS accelerator project. With the start of the SPS project, CERN had two laboratories, one at Meyrin and one at Prévessin, each with its own Director General: ...

  15. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference in Circuit QED Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Matthew; Lang, Christian; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas; Blais, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is a quantum interference effect whereby two indistinguishable photons incident at either side of a balanced beam splitter will be detected together at one output port or the other, but never with one photon at each output port. Such experiments have long been performed in the optical domain, but recent developments have raised the possibility of performing such experiments in the microwave domain, using linear amplifiers and quadrature amplitude detectors instead of photon counting [Bozyigit et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 154-158 (2010)]. Here we determine the signature of HOM interference in a system consisting of two independent circuit QED systems out-coupled into an on-chip microwave beam splitter. We have calculated the beam splitter output intensity auto- and cross-correlations for both trains of pulsed Lorentzian photons, and continuously-driven sources based on photon blockade. The HOM interference is manifest as antibunching in the output intensity cross-correlation. Controllable distinguishability may be introduced via a time delay in the pulsed case, or via a frequency offset in the continuously-driven case. The frequency offset leads to a quantum beat effect. Preliminary experimental results will be discussed.

  16. Are the Crystal Structures of Enantiopure and Racemic Mandelic Acids Determined by Kinetics or Thermodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Rebecca K; Tizzard, Graham J; Threlfall, Terence L; Ellis, Amy L; Coles, Simon J; Seaton, Colin C; Schulze, Eric; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Stein, Matthias; Price, Sarah L

    2015-09-02

    Mandelic acids are prototypic chiral molecules where the sensitivity of crystallized forms (enantiopure/racemic compound/polymorphs) to both conditions and substituents provides a new insight into the factors that may allow chiral separation by crystallization. The determination of a significant number of single crystal structures allows the analysis of 13 enantiopure and 30 racemic crystal structures of 21 (F/Cl/Br/CH3/CH3O) substituted mandelic acid derivatives. There are some common phenyl packing motifs between some groups of racemic and enantiopure structures, although they show very different hydrogen-bonding motifs. The computed crystal energy landscape of 3-chloromandelic acid, which has at least two enantiopure and three racemic crystal polymorphs, reveals that there are many more possible structures, some of which are predicted to be thermodynamically more favorable as well as slightly denser than the known forms. Simulations of mandelic acid dimers in isolation, water, and toluene do not differentiate between racemic and enantiopure dimers and also suggest that the phenyl ring interactions play a major role in the crystallization mechanism. The observed crystallization behavior of mandelic acids does not correspond to any simple "crystal engineering rules" as there is a range of thermodynamically feasible structures with no distinction between the enantiopure and racemic forms. Nucleation and crystallization appear to be determined by the kinetics of crystal growth with a statistical bias, but the diversity of the mandelic acid crystallization behavior demonstrates that the factors that influence the kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth are not yet adequately understood.

  17. Partition of Chiral pharmaceutical intermediate R(-)-Mandelic Acid in Aqueous Two-Phase System of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo; Huang Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    An aqueous two-phase system of poly (ethylene glycol)-ammonium sulfate was employed to separate R (-)-mandelic acid.The result showed that R (-)-mandelic acid has priority to partition in PEG-rich top phase. This indicated that aqueous two-phase is a very suitable system for separation of R(-)-mandelic acid.

  18. Robert Mandell: a pioneer and giant in the art and science of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2008-10-01

    Robert B. Mandell is the quintessential modern clinical scientist. Over his long academic career, he has pioneered many advances in contact lens practice, ranging from a more complete understanding of corneal shape to the effects of contact lenses on corneal health. His classic text, Contact Lens Practice, first published in 1965, was reprinted 14 times in four editions up to 1988. Mandell's contributions to the advancement of the profession of optometry have always been characterized by a genuine concern for the patient and a steadfast belief that his research must have relevance to the practice of optometry.

  19. Molecular Basis for Stereospecific Hydrolysis of Ethyl Mandelate by Thermophilic Esterase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-yan; TAO Jin; ZHENG Liang-yu; CAO Shu-gui

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific hydrolysis of mandelate can be effectively catalyzed by hyperthermophilic acylpeptide esterase APE 1547(Aeropyrum pernix esterase 1547).APE 1547 used in this reaction showed a remarkable stereodiscrimination in favour of R-mandelic acid(99% e.e.) with an enantiomeric ratio E>200.The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental results.It can be inferred that the R-substrate adopted a binding mode productive of the reaction due to the formation of the hydrogen bond at the active site of APE 1547.

  20. 饱和软土固结的Mandel-Cryer效应及影响因素研究%Mandel-Cryer Effects and Influence Factors of Saturated Clay Consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪江

    2013-01-01

    采用Biot固结理论分析饱和软土的渗流固结问题时,在固结“初期”,会出现隙水压力升高,且大于初始孔压的现象,即Mandel-Cryer效应。基于Biot固结理论,采用有限元计算方法,分析了深度、模量、泊松比和渗透系数对Mandel-Cryer的影响。研究结果显示:随着深度的增加,归一化孔压值增大3~17 m,归一化值为1.01~1.07,曼德尔效应开始时间与深度呈指数关系;模量越大,曼德尔效应的时间越提前,模量对归一化孔压值影响较小,最大归一化孔压值为1.06~1.07;泊松比对曼德尔效应的影响最大,泊松比越小,曼德尔效应越明显,孔压归一化值越大,时间越推迟;渗透系数对Mandel-Cryer效应的影响主要体现在对发生的时间方面,渗透系数越小,Mandel-Cryer越推迟。%Mandel-Cryer effects may appear in the early stage of saturated clay consolidation when the pore pressure exceeds the initial pore pressure. Based on the Biot theory and the finite element method,this paper an-alyzes how the parameters of the depth,modulus,Poisson ratio and permeability coefficient affect the Mandel-Cryer effects. The results showed that the deeper the distance the clearer the Mandel-Cryer effect,and the lon-ger its time duration was. When the depth was 3~17m,the normalized value of pore pressure was 1.01~1.07 with the exponential relation between the initial time and depth;while the modulus increased,the time of Man-del-Cryer effect delayed,and the maximum normalized value was 1.06~1.07;the Poisson ratio affected the val-ue of normalized pore pressure in that the maximum value of normalized pore pressure increased as the Poisson ratio decreased;the permeability coefficient mainly influenced occurrence time. When the permeability coeffi-cient decreased,the Mandel-Cryer effect occurrence would be delayed.

  1. Spherical symmetrical consolidation of saturated Soil and Mandel-Cryer effect%饱和土的球对称固结与Mandel-Cryer效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引科; 昝会萍

    2007-01-01

    饱和土的固结问题是土力学的一个基本问题,在饱和土固结过程中往往伴有Mandel-Cryer效应,对Mandel-Cryer效应的理论研究尚不完善.以Biot饱和土理论为基础,通过直接求解饱和土球对称Biot固结方程,得到了球对称固结方程在真实空间的解析解.数值计算结果充分表现了饱和土三维固结过程中孔隙水压力在空间的分布和随时间的变化,直观反映了Mandel-Cryer效应的发展过程,同时给出了土体泊松比对Mandel-Cryer效应的影响规律.

  2. 圆球土样Biot固结的级数解与Mandel-Cryer效应%THE SERIES SOLUTION OF BIOT CONSOLIDATION OF SPHERICAL SOIL-SAMPLE AND MANDEL-CRYER EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪多辙

    2002-01-01

    圆球土样固结是发现Mandel-Cryer效应的一个著名例子.本文采用将圆球土样的Biot固结解分解为弹性静力学解和渗流拟动态解叠加的方法,利用球Bessel函数的正交性质,给出了定量分析这一著名例子的封闭级数解,并具体分析了Mandel-Cryer效应产生的原因和影响Mandel-Cryer效应的因素.

  3. IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces Cerevisiae USING POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) GEL FOR ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF R(-)-MANDELIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqin; GUO Daiping; HUANG Xinghua; YANG Kai; XU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the poly(acrylamide) hydrogel used to immobilize saccharomyces cerevisiae for asymmetric synthesis of R(-)-mandelic acid was prepared with free radical ploymerization in deionized water at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the composition of hydrogel, loading amount of cells and culture conditions on the asymmetric synthesis was investigated. Results show that PAAm hydrogel is a feasible carrier for immobilization of cells which is a potential alternative method to prepare enantiomerically pure R(-)-mandelic acid.

  4. Complete three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference at a three port device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mährlein, Simon; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S

    2015-06-15

    We report the possibility of completely destructive interference of three indistinguishable photons on a three port device providing a generalisation of the well known Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two indistinguishable photons on a two port device. Our analysis is based on the underlying mathematical framework of SU(3) transformations rather than SU(2) transformations. We show the completely destructive three photon interference for a large range of parameters of the three port device and point out the physical origin of such interference in terms of the contributions from different quantum paths. As each output port can deliver zero to three photons the device generates higher dimensional entanglement. In particular, different forms of entangled states of qudits can be generated depending on the device parameters. Our system is different from a symmetric three port beam splitter which does not exhibit a three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

  5. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  6. High visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel interference via a time-resolved coincidence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Motoki; Ikuta, Rikizo; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Sasaki, Masahide; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-05-01

    We report on the observation of a high visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two heralded photons emitted from a spontaneous parametric down conversion~(SPDC) pumped by continuous-wave~(cw) light. A non-degenerate photon pair at 1541~nm and 1580~nm is generated by cw-pumped SPDC through a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The heralded single photon at 1541~nm is prepared by the detection of the photon at 1580~nm. We performed the experiment of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between heralded single photons in separated time bins and observed a high visibility interference. All detectors we used are superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and an overall temporal resolution of the photon detection is estimated as 85 ps, which is sufficiently shorter than the coherence time of the heralded photons.

  7. Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering of laser light as a remote sensing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.

    1972-01-01

    The mathematical relations regarding the intensity of scattered light are derived. The nature of density inhomogeneities in air is discussed together with scattering due to moving isothermal pressure fluctuations, the spectral distribution of scattering from static isobaric density fluctuations, and applications of Mandel'shtam-Brillouin (M-B) scattering to atmospheric sensing. It is concluded that M-B scattering of laser light from the atmosphere has an outstanding potential for remote atmospheric sensing.

  8. Paule-Mandel estimators for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Law, Martin; Tricco, Andrea C; Baker, Rose

    2017-06-05

    Network meta-analysis is used to simultaneously compare multiple treatments in a single analysis. However, network meta-analyses may exhibit inconsistency, where direct and different forms of indirect evidence are not in agreement with each other, even after allowing for between-study heterogeneity. Models for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects have the dual aim of allowing for inconsistencies and estimating average treatment effects across the whole network. To date, two classical estimation methods for fitting this type of model have been developed: a method of moments that extends DerSimonian and Laird's univariate method and maximum likelihood estimation. However, the Paule and Mandel estimator is another recommended classical estimation method for univariate meta-analysis. In this paper, we extend the Paule and Mandel method so that it can be used to fit models for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects. We apply all three estimation methods to a variety of examples that have been used previously and we also examine a challenging new dataset that is highly heterogenous. We perform a simulation study based on this new example. We find that the proposed Paule and Mandel method performs satisfactorily and generally better than the previously proposed method of moments because it provides more accurate inferences. Furthermore, the Paule and Mandel method possesses some advantages over likelihood-based methods because it is both semiparametric and requires no convergence diagnostics. Although restricted maximum likelihood estimation remains the gold standard, the proposed methodology is a fully viable alternative to this and other estimation methods. © 2017 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Racemization of undesired enantiomers: Immobilization of mandelate racemase and application in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Katarzyna; Rivera, Mariel A García; Bettenbrock, Katja; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Production of optically pure products can be based on simple unselective synthesis of racemic mixtures combined with a subsequent separation of the enantiomers; however, this approach suffers from a 50% yield limitation which can be overcome by racemization of the undesired enantiomer and recycling. Application of biocatalyst for the racemization steps offers an attractive option for high-yield manufacturing of commercially valuable compounds. Our work focuses on exploiting the potential of racemization with immobilized mandelate racemase. Immobilization of crude mandelate racemase via covalent attachment was optimized for two supports: Eupergit(®) CM and CNBr-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow. To allow coupling of enzymatic reaction with enantioselective chromatography, a mobile phase composition compatible with both processes was used in enzymatic reactor. Kinetic parameters obtained analyzing experiments carried out in a batch reactor could be successfully used to predict fixed-bed reactor performance. The applicability of the immobilized enzyme and the determined kinetic parameters were validated in transient experiments recording responses to pulse injections of R-mandelic acid. The approach investigated can be used for futher design and optimization of high yield combined resolution processes. The characterized fixed-bed enzymatic reactor can be integrated e.g. with chromatographic single- or multicolumn steps in various configurations.

  10. Enantioselective extraction of mandelic acid enantiomers based on chiral ligand exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ke-wen; HUANG Ke-long

    2005-01-01

    Based on the chiral ligand exchange, the distribution behavior of mandelic acid enantiomers, and the partition of Cu2+ at different pH values were studied in a water/alcohol two-phase system containing Cu2+ and N-n-dodecyl-L-proline(A). The influences of the solvent sort, the pH value, the concentrations of Cu2+ and chiral ligand on the partition coefficient(K) and separation factor(α) were discussed. The experimental results show that the A formed has more stable ternary complex with D-mandelic acid enantiomer than with L-mandelic acid enantiomer. There is an important influence of the pH value on K and α. When the pH values are less than 3.5, the formation of binary complexes is thermodynamically unfavourable. K and α become maximum when pH values are above 3.5 and the molar ratio of the chiral ligand to Cu2+ is 2:1.

  11. Ivabradine Hydrochloride (S-Mandelic Acid Co-Crystal: In Situ Preparation during Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sládková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical salt ivabradine hydrochloride is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. It exhibits extensive polymorphism and co-crystallization, which could be a way to provide an alternative solid form. We conducted a co-crystal screen, from which two hits were identified: with (S-mandelic and (R-mandelic acid. Both structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as co-crystals. The co-crystals were further characterized by common solid-state techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, solid-state NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopy, and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. The co-crystal with (S-mandelic acid was selected for further development; its physical and chemical stability was compared with two different polymorphs of the hydrochloride salt. The co-crystal exhibited a similar stability with the polymorph used in the original drug product and was, therefore, selected for formulation into the drug product. During the pre-formulation experiments, the in situ formation of the co-crystal was achieved during the wet granulation process. The following formulation experiments showed no influence of in situ prepared co-crystal on the overall stability of the bulk, when compared with pre-prepared co-crystal formulation.

  12. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  13. Merging the Power of the Computer and VCR: Interactive Videotape with the Mandell Instant-Active Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Mandell Instant-Active Device, a microcomputer-based system that enables teachers to add questions and/or statement prompts to an existing videotape without affecting the videotape itself. Applications, procedures, student feedback, and hardware requirements are discussed. Ordering information is included. (MES)

  14. Merging the Power of the Computer and VCR: Interactive Videotape with the Mandell Instant-Active Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Mandell Instant-Active Device, a microcomputer-based system that enables teachers to add questions and/or statement prompts to an existing videotape without affecting the videotape itself. Applications, procedures, student feedback, and hardware requirements are discussed. Ordering information is included. (MES)

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of mandelic acid-containing cosmetic formulations for acne skin care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata M. Dębowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acne vulgaris is a common, chronic skin disease that shows a characteristic clinical picture. Skin lesions occur primarily in the seborrheic areas of the body, i.e., the face, back, and chest. Mandelic acid yields very good results when used to treat excessive actinic keratosis (keratosis actinica, hyperpigmentation (lentigo solaris and melasma, and meshlike wrinkles, which are primarily caused by sun-induced aging of the skin. This therapy is well suited for the care of skin with acne vulgaris. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of dermo-cosmetics containing 5% or 10% mandelic acid for the skin care of patients with acne vulgaris. Material and methods. An open study was carried out on 60 patients with papulo-pustular acne, who applied dermocosmetics to their skin for 2 months. Patients were divided into two subgroups of 30 patients each. One group was tested with a 5% mandelic acid containing cosmetic while the other group was tested with a 10% mandelic acid containing cosmetic. After the treatment was completed, acne severity was evaluated according to the Hellgren-Vincent scale. Results. Physical examinations performed during the study revealed a gradual improvement in the condition of the skin in both groups, with a reduction in the number of pustules, inflammatory nodules, and comedones. The proportion of patients in each group showing a reduction in disease severity according to the Hellgren-Vincent scale was similar. Conclusions. The results of the present study show that products containing 5% or 10% mandelic acid are both safe and effective for the treatment of acne.

  16. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two independent all fiber photon sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Huai; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    Guided-wave platforms such as fiber and silicon-on-insulator waveguide show great advances over traditional free space implementations in quantum information technology for significant advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, integrability and compatible with mature fiber communication systems. Interference between independent photon sources is the key to realize complex quantum systems for more sophisticated applications such as multi-photon entanglement generation and quantum teleportation. In this work, we report Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two independent all fiber photon pair sources over two 100GHz dense wave division multiplexing channels, the visibility reaches 53.2(8.4)% (82.9(5.3)%) without (with) back ground counts subtracted. In addition, we give a general theoretical description of the purity of the photon pair generation in dispersion shifted fiber and obtain the optimized condition for high purity photon pair generation. We also obtain a maximum coincidence to back ground ratio of...

  17. Hong-Ou-Mandel atom interferometry in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Brian; Kaufman, Adam; Reynolds, Collin; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    We present recent work in which we demonstrate near-complete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms trapped in sub-micron optical tweezers. Utilizing this control for two atoms in two optical tweezers, we implement a massive-particle analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer where atom tunneling plays the role of the photon beamsplitter. The interferometer is used to probe the effect of atomic indistinguishability on the two-atom dynamics for a variety of initial conditions. These experiments demonstrate the viability of the optical tweezer platform for bottom-up generation of low-entropy quantum systems and pave the way toward the direct observation of quantum dynamics in more complex finite-sized systems.

  18. An integrated quantum photonic sensor based on Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    CERN Document Server

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Armin, Ardalan; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, Gerard J

    2015-01-01

    Photonic-crystal-based integrated optical systems have been used for a broad range of sensing applications with great success. This has been motivated by several advantages such as high sensitivity, miniaturization, remote sensing, selectivity and stability. Many photonic crystal sensors have been proposed with various fabrication designs that result in improved optical properties. Here we propose a novel multi-purpose sensor architecture that can be used for force, refractive index and possibly local temperature detection. In this scheme, two coupled cavities behave as an "effective beam splitter". The sensor works based on fourth order interference (the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect) and requires a sequence of single photon pulses and consequently has low pulse power. Changes in the parameter to be measured induce variations in the effective beam splitter reflectivity and result in changes to the visibility of interference. We demonstrate this generic scheme in coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities as an example and...

  19. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  20. Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits via Hong-Ou-Mandel coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Piccirillo, Bruno; Karimi, Ebrahim; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1038/nphoton.2009.214

    2010-01-01

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, associated with a helical structure of the wavefunction, has a great potential for quantum photonics, as it allows attaching a higher dimensional quantum space to each photon. Hitherto, however, the use of OAM has been hindered by its difficult manipulation. Here, exploiting the recently demonstrated spin-OAM information transfer tools, we report the first observation of the Hong-Ou-Mandel coalescence of two incoming photons having nonzero OAM into the same outgoing mode of a beam-splitter. The coalescence can be switched on and off by varying the input OAM state of the photons. Such effect has been then exploited to carry out the 1 \\rightarrow 2 universal optimal quantum cloning of OAM-encoded qubits, using the symmetrization technique already developed for polarization. These results are finally shown to be scalable to quantum spaces of arbitrary dimension, even combining different degrees of freedom of the photons.

  1. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yingwen; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, then they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.

  2. Polarographic study of complexing in the molybdenum (6) - mandelic acid - sulphuric acid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, P.M.; Zaitseva, Z.V.; Zhdanov, S.I.; Nikolaeva, T.D. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Okhrany Truda, Moscow (USSR); Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Khimicheskikh Reaktivov i Osobo Chistykh Veshchestv, Moscow (USSR))

    1980-09-01

    The studies of polarographic behaviour of molybdenum (6) in 0.05-2.5 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions, containing mandelic acid (HL), has shown that molybdenum (6) is reduced via two steps in the presence of HL. One electron is transferred in 0.05 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ during the first step and two during the second one; one electron during each step is transferred if Csub(Hsub(2)SOsub(4))>=0.5 M. Such a difference is suggested to be due to the formation of a mixed-ligand complex MoO/sub 2/xHLx(H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/)/sup +/ which is reduced stepwise, one electron participating at each step. The complex formation is slow. The complex formation constant has been calculated to be 30+-2.7.

  3. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  4. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Prabhakar, Shashi; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.

  5. Direct observation of phase-sensitive Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Petr; Zapletal, Petr; Filip, Radim; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Toyama, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Makino, Kenzo; Furusawa, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The quality of individual photons and their ability to interfere are traditionally tested by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel photon bunching effect. However, this phase-insensitive measurement only tests the particle aspect of the quantum interference, leaving out the phase-sensitive aspects relevant for continuous-variable processing. To overcome these limitations we formulate a witness capable of recognizing both the indistinguishability of the single photons and their quality with regard to their continuous-variable utilization. We exploit the conditional nonclassical squeezing and show that it can reveal both the particle and the wave aspects of the quantum interference in a single set of direct measurements. We experimentally test the witness by applying it to a pair of independent single photons retrieved on demand.

  6. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-05

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  8. Nucleophilic Benzoylation Using a Mandelic Acid Dioxolanone as a Synthetic Equivalent of the Benzoyl Carbanion. Oxidative Decarboxylation of α-Hydroxyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Pedro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of alkyl aryl ketones using a mandelic acid dioxolanone as a synthetic equivalent (Umpolung of the benzoyl carbanion is reported. The methodology involves alkylation of the mandelic acid dioxolanone, hydrolysis of the dioxolanone moiety in the alkylated products and oxidative decarboxylation of the resulting α-hydroxyacids. The last step is carried out in a catalytic aerobic way using a Co (III complex in the presence of pivalaldehyde under very mild conditions.

  9. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography using mandelic acid as an eluent for the determination of uranium in presence of large amounts of thorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaison, P G; Telmore, Vijay M; Kumar, Pranaw; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2009-02-27

    Studies were carried out for the separation of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) on reversed-phase (RP) C18 columns using mandelic acid as an eluent. Retention of thorium-mandelate on the unmodified stationary phase was found to be greater than that of uranyl-mandelate under the pH conditions employed. Th retention capacity of the stationary phase was determined as a function of pH and MeOH content of the mobile phase. The optimised parameters allowing U elution prior to Th were utilized for the determination of small amounts of U in the presence of large amounts of Th. The method has been used for the determination of U in synthetic samples with Th/U amount ratios up to 100,000 (10 microg/g of U) without any pre-separation, employing a particulate C18 column. Effect of concentration of ion interaction reagents (IIRs) on the retention was studied to understand the mechanism of adsorption of their mandelate complexes onto the stationary phase. The experiments conducted unequivocally prove that thorium-mandelate complex is neutral whereas uranyl-mandelate complex is anionic in nature.

  10. Mandelic acid chiral separation utilizing a two-phase partitioning bioreactor built by polysulfone microspheres and immobilized enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Cui, Yanjun; Chen, Xia; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-03-01

    A novel two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) modified by polysulfone (PSF) microspheres and immobilized enzyme (novozym-435) was formed, and the resulting TPPB was applied into mandelic acid chiral separation. The PSF microspheres containing n-hexanol (named PSF/hexanol microspheres) was prepared by using the phase inversion method, which was used as the organic phase. Meanwhile, the immobilized enzyme novozym-435 was used as a biocatalyst. The water phase was composed of the phosphate buffer solution (PBS). (R, S)-Methyl mandelate was selected as the substrate to study enzymatic properties. Different reaction factors have been researched, such as pH, reaction time, temperature and the quantity of biocatalyst and PSF/hexanol microspheres added in. Finally, (S)-mandelic acid was obtained with an 80 % optical purity after 24 h in the two-phase partitioning bioreactor. The enantiomeric excess (eep) values were very low in the water phase, in which the highest eep value was only 46 %. The eep of the two-phase partitioning bioreactor had been enhanced more obviously than that catalyzed in the water phase.

  11. Preparation of surface imprinted material of single enantiomer of mandelic acid with a new surface imprinting technique and study on its chiral recognition and resolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Chen, Lulu; Li, Yanbin

    2016-04-22

    A surface imprinted material of the single enantiomer of mandelic acid with high performance was successfully prepared with a new surface imprinting technique of synchronously graft-polymerizing and molecule imprinting, and its enantiomeric recognition and resolution properties were investigated. Micro-sized silica gel particles were first modified with coupling agent γ-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPMS), obtaining the modified particles MPMS-SiO2 on which mercapto groups were introduced. A surface initiating system of -SH/BPO was constituted with the mercapto group (-SH) on MPMS-SiO2 particles and dibenzoyl peroxide (BPO) in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. In DMF solution, (R)-mandelic acid molecule was used as the template and the functional monomer hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA) were combined together by right of multi-site hydrogen bonds. The free radicals produced on MPMS-SiO2 particles initiate HEMA molecules around (R)-mandelic acid molecules and the crosslinking agent N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) to produce graft/crosslinking-polymerization. At the same time, the template (R)-mandelic acid molecules were enveloped within the thin grafted polymer layer on the surfaces of SiO2 particles, obtaining (R)-mandelic acid surface imprinted material MIP-PHEMA/SiO2. The experimental results show that MIP-PHEMA/SiO2 particles have excellent enantiomeric recognition and resolution ability. The binding capacity of MIP-PHEMA/SiO2 particles for (R)-mandelic acid reaches up to 278 mg/g. As the resolution experiment of a racemic mixture was carried out with MIP-PHEMA/SiO2 particles as solid adsorbent, relative another enantiomer, (S)-mandelic acid, the selectivity coefficient of the imprinted particles for (R)-mandelic acid is 5.02. As a consequence, the two enantiomers were well separated, and the optical purities (ee values) of the supernatant and eluant get up to 44% (corresponding to (S)-mandelic acid excess) and 85% (corresponding to (R)-mandelic

  12. Preparation of molecularly imprinted resin based on chitosan for chiral recognition of S-mandelic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; El-Mekabaty, A

    2013-04-01

    An enantioselective S-mandelic acid (S-MA) imprinted chitosan (SMIC) was prepared by cross-linking of chitosan using formaldehyde cross-linker, in the presence of S-MA as an imprint template molecule and 0.5% acetic acid solution as a solvent. Non-imprinted cross-linked chitosan (NIC) as control was also prepared by the same procedure in absence of template molecules. The surface morphology of both SMIC and NIC were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SMIC particles were applied to determine the optimum operational condition for S-MA separation from dilute aqueous solution. In adsorption step, optimum pH and retention time were 3.5 and 60 min, while corresponding values in extraction step were 1 and 40 min, respectively. Also, the adsorption isotherms indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities of S- and R-MA on SMIC were 100 ± 0.5 and 64 ± 0.8 mg/g, respectively, while in the case of NIC, both R- and S-MA present the same maximum adsorption.

  13. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  14. 手性药物扁桃酸的双水相分离%Study on partition of D(-)-mandelic acid in aqueous two-phase systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小平; 李忠琴; 陈杰波

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the partition of D (-)-mandelic acid were performed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular masses of 2000, 4000, 6000, 10000, 20000- ammonium sulfate systems. The effect of various parameters such as molecular mass of PEG, phase composition, pH of the system and temperature were investigated in this work. The results indicate that the molecular mass of PEG is a key factor affecting the partitioning behaviors of D(-)-mandelic acid in the PEG -(NH4)2SO4 systems. The influence of pH on the partition shows that the partition coefficient of D(-)-mandelic acid decreases with the increase of pH value. D(-)-mandelic acid partition is only slightly influenced by the temperature. All these indicate that the aqueous two-phase is a very suitable alternative system for the separation of D(-)-mandelic acid.%采用聚乙二醇-硫酸铵双水相系统分离手性药物扁桃酸.研究了聚乙二醇分子量、相组成、pH值和温度对扁桃酸分离的影响.结果表明,聚乙二醇分子量对双水相分离扁桃酸的影响最大;温度对扁桃酸的分离几乎没有影响;随pH增大,扁桃酸分配系数减少.

  15. Optimization of SPE for Analysis of Mandelic Acid as a Biomarker of Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Shahtaheri, M Abdollahi, F Golbabaei, A Rahimi-Froushani, F Ghamari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl benzene is an important constituent of widely used solvents in industries and laboratories, causing widespread environmental and industrial pollutions. For evaluation of occupational exposure to such pollutants, biological monitoring is an essential process, in which, preparation of environmental and biological samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to chromatographic techniques. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has been grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. In this study, SPE using bonded silica has been optimized with regard to sample pH, sample concentration, elution solvent, elution volume, sorbent type, and sorbent mass. Through experimental evaluation, a strong anion exchange silica cartridge (SAX has been found successful in simplifying sample preparation. The present approach proved that, mandelic acid could be retained on SAX sorbent based on specific interaction. Further study was employed using 10% acetic acid to extract the analyte from spiked urine and gave a clean sample for HPLC-UV system. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography, using reverse-phase column was used. The isocratic run was done at a constant flow rate of 0.85 ml/min, the mobile phase was water/methanol/acetic acid and a UV detector was used, setting at 225 nm. At the developed conditions the extraction recovery was exceeded 98%. The factors were evaluated statically and also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay; Bansal, Shivani; Sethi, Sumit; Gupta, Chitra

    2016-03-01

    Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma. Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every 14 days in all groups until 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation using melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and photography was recorded at every visit and follow-up was done until 20 weeks. There was a decrease in MASI score in all 3 groups but it was statistically significantly lower in Group A than Group C (p = .00), and it was also statistically significantly lower in Group B than Group C (p = .00) but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p = .876). Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was 62.36% reduction in GA group, 60.98% reduction in SM group, and 44.71% in phytic acid group. It is concluded that GA (35%) and SM acid peels are both equally efficacious and a safe treatment modality for melasma in Indian skin, and are more effective than phytic acid peels. Salicylic-mandelic peels are better tolerated and more suitable for Indian skin.

  17. Stereo-selective conversion of mandelonitrile to (R)-(−)-mandelic acid using immobilized cells of recombinant Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sandip V.; Meena, Vachan Singh; Kaushik, Shubhangi; Kamble, Ashwini; Kumar, Sandeep; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, U. C.

    2012-01-01

    Immobilized cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing nitrilase from Pseudomonas putida were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of mandelonitrile (2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetonitrile) to (R)-(−)-mandelic acid. The cells had been immobilized by entrapment in an alginate matrix. Conditions for the hydrolysis reaction were optimized in shake flasks and in a packed bed reactor. In shake flasks the best conditions for the reaction were a temperature of 40 °C, pH 8, biocatalyst bead diameter of 4....

  18. Immobilization of membrane-bounded (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase in sol-gel matrix for electroenzymatic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Ievgen; Ghach, Wissam; Kohring, Gert-Wieland; Despas, Christelle; Walcarius, Alain; Etienne, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Membrane-bounded (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase has been immobilized on the surface of glassy carbon and carbon felt electrodes by encapsulation in a silica film obtained by sol-gel chemistry. Such bioelectrochemical system has been used for the first time for electroenzymatic conversion of (S)-mandelic acid to phenylglyoxylic acid. Apparent Km in this sol-gel matrix was 0.7 mM in the presence of ferrocenedimethanol, a value in the same order of magnitude as reported previously for vesicles in solution with other electron acceptors, i.e., Fe(CN)6(3-) or 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The bioelectrode shows very good operational stability for more than 6 days. This stability was definitively improved by comparison to a bioelectrode prepared by simple adsorption of the proteins on the electrode surface (fast activity decrease during the first 15 h of experiment). Optimal electroenzymatic reaction was achieved at pH9 and 40 °C. Apparent Km of the protein activity was 3 times higher in carbon felt electrode than on glassy carbon surface, possibly because of transport limitations in the porous architecture of the carbon felt. A good correlation was found between electrochemical data and chromatographic characterization of the reaction products in the bioelectrochemical reactor.

  19. Rationally re-designed mutation of NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase: high optical resolution of racemic mandelic acid by the engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tianyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NAD-independent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-iLDH from Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM can potentially be used for the kinetic resolution of small aliphatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, this enzyme showed rather low activity towards aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Results Val-108 of l-iLDH was changed to Ala by rationally site-directed mutagenesis. The l-iLDH mutant exhibited much higher activity than wide-type l-iLDH towards l-mandelate, an aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Using the engineered Escherichia coli expressing the mutant l-iLDH as a biocatalyst, 40 g·L-1 of dl-mandelic acid was converted to 20.1 g·L-1 of d-mandelic acid (enantiomeric purity higher than 99.5% and 19.3 g·L-1 of benzoylformic acid. Conclusions A new biocatalyst with high catalytic efficiency toward an unnatural substrate was constructed by rationally re-design mutagenesis. Two building block intermediates (optically pure d-mandelic acid and benzoylformic acid were efficiently produced by the one-pot biotransformation system.

  20. Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna: "When the Danube Ran Red"; Mandel, Eva Marika: "Le Livre de Mana"; Roth, Marika: "All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine Spirit".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Blaikie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna. When the Danube Ran Red. Syracuse University Press, 2010,171 pp., Illus.Mandel, Eva Marika. Le Livre de Mana. Paris, Glyphe 2009, 231 pp., Illus.Roth, Marika. All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine SpiritWyatt McKenzy 2010, 254 pp., Illus.Reviewed by Evi Blaikie, Freelance Writer.

  1. Significant enhancement of (R)-mandelic acid production by relieving substrate inhibition of recombinant nitrilase in toluene-water biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Liu, Jun-Feng; Xu, Jian-He; He, Yu-Cai; Liu, You-Yan

    2011-03-10

    The enantioselective hydrolysis of mandelonitrile with whole cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing nitrilase activity was severely inhibited by the substrate at high concentrations (>300mM), which resulted in a low yield of the target product (R)-(-)-mandelic acid. To relieve the substrate inhibition and to enhance the (R)-(-)-mandelic acid productivity, eight water-organic solvent biphasic systems were attempted in this work. Toluene was found to be the most suitable solvent as the organic phase among the solvents tested. Various parameters were systematically examined and optimized in shake flasks. The phase volume ratio, buffer pH and reaction temperature were shown to be sensitive parameters affecting both the yield and the enantiopurity of product in the biphasic system. Under the optimized conditions, significant enhancement of substrate tolerance from 200mM to 500mM and average productivity from 179.6gl(-1)d(-1) to 352.6gl(-1)d(-1) were achieved. Subsequently, the biocatalytic hydrolysis of mandelonitrile was successfully carried out in a stirred reactor (2-l scale) by repeated use of the calcium alginate entrapped cells for 5 batches, affording 110.7g (R)-(-)-mandelic acid in 98.0% ee (enantiomeric excess) and a specific production of 13.8g (mandelic acid) g(-1) (cell), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocatalytic synthesis of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid from racemic mandelonitrile by a newly isolated nitrilase-producer Alcaligenes sp. ECU0401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Cai He; Jian He Xu; Yi Xu; Li Ming Ouyang; Jiang Pan

    2007-01-01

    By using acetonitrile as the sole nitrogen source, a microbial strain with high nitrilase activity, named as Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401, was newly isolated from soil, which could enantioselectively transform racemic mandelonitrile into (R)-(-)-mandelic acid, with an enantiomeric excess of>99.9%.

  3. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanov, Alexander E; Fedorov, Ilya A; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-06-21

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  4. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong–Ou–Mandel effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states—entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations—which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong–Ou–Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states. PMID:27324115

  5. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states--entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations--which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  6. Performing Hong-Ou-Mandel-type numerical experiments with repulsive condensates: The case of dark and dark-bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Krüger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment leads indistinguishable photons simultaneously reaching a 50:50 beam splitter to emerge on the same port through a two-photon interference. Motivated by this phenomenon, we consider numerical experiments of the same flavor for classical wave objects in the setting of repulsive condensates. We examine dark solitons interacting with a repulsive barrier, a case in which we find no significant asymmetries in the emerging waves after the collision, presumably due to their topological nature. We also consider case examples of two-component systems, where the dark solitons trap a bright structure in the second component (dark-bright solitary waves). For these, pronounced asymmetries upon collision are possible for the nontopological bright component. We also show an example of a similar phenomenology for ring dark-bright structures in two dimensions.

  7. Optical Separation of Racemic Phenyl-alanine,and Structure of Complex Consisting of R-Phenylalanine and R-Mandelic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡自强; 徐端钧; 徐元植; 吴景云; 蒋燕南

    2004-01-01

    The racemic phenylalanine has been separated by (R)-mandelic acid through the formation of diastereomeric molecular complex. The crystal of the title chiral complex (C8H8O3·C9H11NO2, Mr = 317.33) belongs to monoclinic, space group C2 with a = 19.391(3), b = 5.715(4), c = 15.755(3)A,β= 115.23(1)°, V = 1579(1) A3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.335 g/cm3, F(000) = 672, μ= 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.033 and Wr = 0.060 for 1278 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The complex consists of (R)-mandelic acid and (R)-phenylalanine in 1:1 molar ratio, and the complex molecules form layered crystal structure by self-assembly through intermolecular H-bonding between carboxyl and carboxylate of the neighboring molecules.

  8. Cloning and Expression of S-mandelate Dehydrogenase Gene%S-扁桃酸脱氢酶基因的克隆及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾贞; 杨军方; 杨成丽; 王鹏; 李大力

    2012-01-01

    S-mandelate dehydrogenase ( SMDH) can catalyze S-mandelic acid to benzoylformic acid. The SMDH nucleotide gene (mdlA) was cloned from DNA of Pseudomonas putida NUST by PCR, and the amplicon was inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a ( + ). This recombinant was transformed into E. Coli BL21 (DE3) and then highly expressed by induction of IPTG. The result of SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular weight of cloned SMDH was about 43kDa. The recombinant strain could catalyze S-mandelate to benzoylformic acid.%S-扁桃酸脱氢酶能够选择性催化S-扁桃酸生成苯甲酰甲酸.通过PCR扩增获得Pseudomonas putida NUST的S-扁桃酸脱氢酶全长基因(mdlA),并构建了表达载体pET30a(+)-mdlA,转化大肠杆菌E coli BL21 (DE3)后,经异丙基-β-D-硫代吡喃半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导获得表达,SDS-PAGE结果显示表达蛋白为43kDa.所以工程菌细胞具有转化S-扁桃酸生成苯甲酰甲酸能力.

  9. Resolution of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers by two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; KeWen; ZHANG; GuoLi; HUANG; KeLong; LI; Yuanjian; YI; JianMin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new chiral separation technology: two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction. Distribution behavior of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers was studied in the extraction system with D(L)-isobutyl tartrate in 1,2-dichloroethane organic phase and β-CD derivatives in aqueous phase, and the influence of the kind and concentration of extractant and pH on extraction performance was investigated. The experimental results indicate that two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction is of strong chiral separation ability. HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and Me-β-CD have higher recognition ability for S-CHMA than that for R-CHMA, among which HP-β-CD has the strongest ability; whereas, D-isobutyl tartrate has reversed recognition ability for them. In the extraction system containing HP-β-CD and D-isobutyl tartrate, e.e.% of S-CHMA in aqueous phase reached 27.6% by one stage extraction, and the distribution ratio for R-CHMA(kR) and for S-CHMA(kS) and separation factor (α) are 2.44, 0.89 and 2.49, respectively. Meanwhile, pH and concentration of extractant have great effects on chiral separation ability. Two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction has great significance for preparative separation of racemic compounds.

  10. Clearer visibility of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with a correlation function based on rates rather than intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosołek, Krzysztof; Kostrzewa, Kamil; Dutta, Arijit; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek

    2017-04-01

    We test ideas put forward, e.g., by Żukowski et al. [M. Żukowski et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 042113 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042113], which suggest that using rates in quantum optics can lead to better indicators of nonclassicality for states of quantum optical fields with undefined photon numbers. By rate we mean the ratio of registered photons in a given detector to the total number of detected photons in all detectors in a run of the experiment. For the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect for parametric down-conversion fields, we show that by using two detector correlation functions, which are defined in terms of averages of products of measured rates, rather than usual intensities, one can observe nonclassical visibilities beyond 1 /2 for significantly higher pump rates. At such rates we already have the partially stimulated emission, which leads to significant amplitudes for multiple pairs production, still the approach allows us to clearly see the nonclassical dip. We consider both the perfect and imperfect detection efficiency.

  11. Numerical determination of competitive adsorption isotherm of mandelic acid enantiomers on cellulose-based chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K

    2008-08-15

    The use of inverse method for the determination of competitive adsorption isotherm of mandelic acid enantiomers on cellulose tris(3,5-diethylphenyl carbamate) stationary phase is proposed in this work. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with jumping genes (NSGA-II-JG) was applied to acquire the isotherm parameters by minimizing the sum of square deviations of the model predictions from the measured elution profiles. Three different competitive isotherm models, i.e., Langmuir, biLangmuir and Tóth, combined with transport-dispersive chromatographic model were used in predicting the elution profiles. Orthogonal collocation on finite element (OCFE) method was applied to obtain the calculated elution profiles. Results indicate that biLangmuir isotherm and Tóth isotherm give remarkably similar equilibrium isotherms within the investigated liquid concentration range. Band profiles calculated from both isotherm models are in good agreement with the experimental data. The validity of the determined parameters was verified by comparing the model predictions with experimental elution profiles at various experimental conditions.

  12. Virtual screening of mandelate racemase mutants with enhanced activity based on binding energy in the transition state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiali; Liu, Min; Guo, Fei; Xie, Wenping; Lu, Wenqiang; Ye, Lidan; Chen, Zhirong; Yuan, Shenfeng; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-02-05

    Mandelate racemase (MR) is a promising candidate for the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemates. However, the poor activity of MR towards most of its non-natural substrates limits its widespread application. In this work, a virtual screening method based on the binding energy in the transition state was established to assist in the screening of MR mutants with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Using R-3-chloromandelic acid as a model substrate, a total of 53 mutants were constructed based on rational design in the two rounds of screening. The number of mutants for experimental validation was brought down to 17 by the virtual screening method, among which 14 variants turned out to possess improved catalytic efficiency. The variant V26I/Y54V showed 5.2-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) towards R-3-chloromandelic acid than that observed for the wild-type enzyme. Using this strategy, mutants were successfully obtained for two other substrates, R-mandelamide and R-2-naphthylglycolate (V26I and V29L, respectively), both with a 2-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. These results demonstrated that this method could effectively predict the trend of mutational effects on catalysis. Analysis from the energetic and structural assays indicated that the enhanced interactions between the active sites and the substrate in the transition state led to improved catalytic efficiency. It was concluded that this virtual screening method based on the binding energy in the transition state was beneficial in enzyme rational redesign and helped to better understand the catalytic properties of the enzyme.

  13. 相转移催化剂催化合成DL-扁桃酸%Study on the Preparaion of the Mandelic Acid by Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仑; 唐栋; 吴志正

    2014-01-01

    分子结构为C8 H20 BrN的季铵盐四乙基溴化铵经实验证明是合成DL-扁桃酸的一种优良的相转移催化剂。研究以苯甲醛和三氯甲烷为原料,在氢氧化钠存在下,应用相转移催化法合成扁桃酸,并探讨反应条件如反应摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量对产率的影响。结果表明合成DL-扁桃酸的最佳反应条件为:反应温度65益,反应时间60min,n(苯甲醛)颐 n(三氯甲烷)颐 n(四乙基溴化铵)=1颐2颐0.002,产品收率可达到72.41%。%The quaternary ammonium salt Tetraethylammonium bromide with the molecular structure of C8 H20 BrN is proved by experi-ments that it is a good phase transfer catalyst of DL-mandelic acid synthesis. Taking benzaldehyde and chloroform as raw material, this study synthesized mandelic acid using phase transfer catalytic method in the presence of sodium hydroxide, and discussed the effects of reaction conditions such as reaction mol ratio, reaction time, catalyst dosage on the yield. The results showed that the best reaction con-ditions of the synthesis of DL- mandelic acid were: reaction temperature 65℃, reaction time 60min, n ( benzaldehyde):n ( chloro-form):n Tetraethylammonium bromide) =1:2:0. 002, and the yield of the product can reach 72. 41%.

  14. 扁桃酸α-羟基酯化反应中杂质的研究%Research for impurities in α-hydroxyesterification of mandelic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建全; 陈卓; 亢孝弟; 冯锁民; 文恩辉

    2013-01-01

    对扁桃酸α-羟基酯化反应中共同产生的一种杂质进行了分离,并通过1H NMR谱进行了结构确证;并就如何避免该类杂质产生的方法进行了探讨.%An important impurity in a-hydroxyesterification of mandelic acid was separated and identificat-ed by H NMR; and the formation mechanism and methods to avoid of this impurity was discussed.

  15. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  16. Structures of the G81A mutant form of the active chimera of (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase and its complex with two of its substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Narayanasami [NE-CAT and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Building 436E, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dewanti, Asteriani [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723 (United States); Merli, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Mitra, Bharati [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Mathews, F. Scott, E-mail: mathews@biochem.wustl.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 (United States); NE-CAT and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Building 436E, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The crystal structure of the G81A mutant form of the chimera of (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase and of its complexes with two of its substrates reveal productive and non-productive modes of binding for the catalytic reaction. The structure also indicates the role of G81A in lowering the redox potential of the flavin co-factor leading to an ∼200-fold slower catalytic rate of substrate oxidation. (S)-Mandelate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Pseudomonas putida, a membrane-associated flavoenzyme, catalyzes the oxidation of (S)-mandelate to benzoylformate. Previously, the structure of a catalytically similar chimera, MDH-GOX2, rendered soluble by the replacement of its membrane-binding segment with the corresponding segment of glycolate oxidase (GOX), was determined and found to be highly similar to that of GOX except within the substituted segments. Subsequent attempts to cocrystallize MDH-GOX2 with substrate proved unsuccessful. However, the G81A mutants of MDH and of MDH-GOX2 displayed ∼100-fold lower reactivity with substrate and a modestly higher reactivity towards molecular oxygen. In order to understand the effect of the mutation and to identify the mode of substrate binding in MDH-GOX2, a crystallographic investigation of the G81A mutant of the MDH-GOX2 enzyme was initiated. The structures of ligand-free G81A mutant MDH-GOX2 and of its complexes with the substrates 2-hydroxyoctanoate and 2-hydroxy-3-indolelactate were determined at 1.6, 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. In the ligand-free G81A mutant protein, a sulfate anion previously found at the active site is displaced by the alanine side chain introduced by the mutation. 2-Hydroxyoctanoate binds in an apparently productive mode for subsequent reaction, while 2-hydroxy-3-indolelactate is bound to the enzyme in an apparently unproductive mode. The results of this investigation suggest that a lowering of the polarity of the flavin environment resulting from the displacement of nearby water molecules caused by

  17. Modeling the retention mechanism for high-performance liquid chromatography with a chiral ligand mobile phase and enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zhang, Hu; Cheng, Dongping; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-06-01

    The chromatographic retention mechanism describing relationship between retention factor and concentration of Cu(2+) (l-phenylalanine)2 using chiral ligand mobile phase was investigated and eight mandelic acid derivatives were enantioseparated by chiral ligand exchange chromatography. The relationship between retention factor and concentration of the Cu(2+) (l-phenylalanine)2 complex was proven to be in conformity with chromatographic retention mechanism in which chiral discrimination occurred both in mobile and stationary phase. Different copper(II) salts, chiral ligands, organic modifier, pH of aqueous phase, and conventional temperature on retention behavior were optimized. Eight racemates were successfully enantioseparated on a common reversed-phase column with an optimized mobile phase composed of 6 mmol/L of l-phenylalanine or N,N-dimethyl-l-phenylalanine and 3 mmol/Lof copper(II) acetate or copper(II) sulfate aqueous solution and methanol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. What Feynman could not yet use: the generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to improve the QED explanation of the Pauli exclusion principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in ‘QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter’ and improve it by discussing with students modern experimental evidence from the famous Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with indistinguishable photons and its generalised version using electrons. The experiments can be analysed in a rather simple way using Feynman’s method of ‘arrow multiplication’ for treating processes involving more than one quantum object. The approach described is especially relevant in the formation of high school physics teachers to the basics of modern physics.

  19. Structures of the G81A mutant form of the active chimera of (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase and its complex with two of its substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Narayanasami; Dewanti, Asteriani; Merli, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Mitra, Bharati; Mathews, F. Scott; (Cornell); (Parma); (WCU); (WSU); (WU-MED)

    2009-06-12

    (S)-Mandelate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Pseudomonas putida, a membrane-associated flavoenzyme, catalyzes the oxidation of (S)-mandelate to benzoylformate. Previously, the structure of a catalytically similar chimera, MDH-GOX2, rendered soluble by the replacement of its membrane-binding segment with the corresponding segment of glycolate oxidase (GOX), was determined and found to be highly similar to that of GOX except within the substituted segments. Subsequent attempts to cocrystallize MDH-GOX2 with substrate proved unsuccessful. However, the G81A mutants of MDH and of MDH-GOX2 displayed {approx}100-fold lower reactivity with substrate and a modestly higher reactivity towards molecular oxygen. In order to understand the effect of the mutation and to identify the mode of substrate binding in MDH-GOX2, a crystallographic investigation of the G81A mutant of the MDH-GOX2 enzyme was initiated. The structures of ligand-free G81A mutant MDH-GOX2 and of its complexes with the substrates 2-hydroxyoctanoate and 2-hydroxy-3-indolelactate were determined at 1.6, 2.5 and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In the ligand-free G81A mutant protein, a sulfate anion previously found at the active site is displaced by the alanine side chain introduced by the mutation. 2-Hydroxyoctanoate binds in an apparently productive mode for subsequent reaction, while 2-hydroxy-3-indolelactate is bound to the enzyme in an apparently unproductive mode. The results of this investigation suggest that a lowering of the polarity of the flavin environment resulting from the displacement of nearby water molecules caused by the glycine-to-alanine mutation may account for the lowered catalytic activity of the mutant enzyme, which is consistent with the 30 mV lower flavin redox potential. Furthermore, the altered binding mode of the indolelactate substrate may account for its reduced activity compared with octanoate, as observed in the crystalline state.

  20. Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction Combined with HPLC-UV for Simultaneous Preconcentration and Determination of Urinary Hippuric Acid and Mandelic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Bahrami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new extraction method with hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on facilitated pH gradient transport for analyzing hippuric acid and mandelic acid in aqueous samples. The factors affecting the metabolites extraction were optimized as follows: the volume of sample solution was 10 mL with pH 2 containing 0.5 mol·L−1 sodium chloride, liquid membrane containing 1-octanol with 20% (w/v tributyl phosphate as the carrier, the time of extraction was 150 min, and stirring rate was 500 rpm. The organic phase immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber was back-extracted into 24 µL of a solution containing sodium carbonate with pH 11, which was placed inside the lumen of the fiber. Under optimized conditions, the high enrichment factors of 172 and 195 folds, detection limit of 0.007 and 0.009 µg·mL−1 were obtained. The relative standard deviation (RSD (% values for intra- and inter-day precisions were calculated at 2.5%–8.2% and 4.1%–10.7%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of these metabolites in real urine samples. The results indicated that hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME based on facilitated pH gradient transport can be used as a sensitive and effective method for the determination of mandelic acid and hippuric acid in urine specimens.

  1. Formylation of Mandelic Acid Chloride to Cefamandole Nafate on the Influence of the Material%甲酰化扁桃酰氯对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王金星; 侯善波; 张继文

    2013-01-01

    Objectiveensure the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride to cefamandole nafate on the influence of the material.Method:Choose diferent quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride,with same synthetic process to get cefamandole nafate and HPLC related substance inspection.Result:the quality of formylation of mandelic acid chloride have a strong impact on cefamandole nafate single impurity content in related substance.%目的:确定甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量对头孢孟多酯钠有关物质的影响。方法选择不同质量的甲酰化扁桃酰氯,用相同的合成工艺制的头孢孟多酯钠,对制的的头孢孟多酯钠进行HPLC的有关物质检查。结果甲酰化扁桃酰氯的质量严重影响头孢孟多酯钠的有关物质中的单杂含量。

  2. Study on Inclusion of γ-Cyclodextrin to Sophretin and Mandelic Acid%γ-环糊精对槲皮素和扁桃酸的包结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨李霞; 魏静; 张晓梅

    2016-01-01

    The paper reported the inclusion of γ-cyclodextrin(γ-CD)to sophretin and DL -man-delic acid using γ-CD as a host molecule.Two complexes of γ-CD -sophretin and γ-CD -mandelic acid were successfully synthesized via liquid -liquid inclusion reaction,and their structures were character-ized by IR and 1H NMR.Results from 1H NMR showed that molar ratios on γ-CD -sophretin and γ-CD -mandelic acid (CD∶host)were 1∶1 and 2∶3,respectively.At 25 ℃,results from the study on phase solubility of sophretin in γ-CD confirmed the molar ratio of γ-CD to sophretin to be 1∶1,and the inclusion equilibrium constant of γ-CD to sophretin 574 L·moL -1 ;then,the solubility of sophretin in γ-CD reached 1.33mg·mL -1 .Study on specific rotation of γ-CD -mandelic acid exhibited that there was no enantioselective when γ-CD formed complex with D or L -mandelic acid.%以γ-环糊精(γ-CD)为主体分子,研究γ-CD 对槲皮素和 DL -扁桃酸的包结。采用液-液法获得了γ-CD -槲皮素、γ-CD -扁桃酸两个包结物,由 FT -IR、1H NMR 表征。结果表明,γ-CD 与槲皮素、扁桃酸包结比分别为1:1和2:3。25℃下,γ-CD 对槲皮素的相溶解度研究证实γ-CD 对槲皮素包结比为1:1,γ-CD 对槲皮素的包结常数为574 L/mol;槲皮素在γ-CD 中的溶解度提高到1.33 mg/mL。γ-CD -扁桃酸包结物的比旋光度研究表明γ-CD 对左、右旋体扁桃酸的包结没有选择性。

  3. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, P. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Peer Mohamed, M. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, P. [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600 119, Tamil Nadu (India); Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Lydia Caroline, M., E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C{sub 9}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}. C{sub 8}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy E{sub g} is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm{sup 2}. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (H{sub v}), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σ{sub y}), stiffness constant C{sub 11} were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz at various temperatures.

  4. "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity": Correction to Mandel et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity" by Tobey Mandel, David M. Dunkley and Molly Moroz (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 703-717). In the article, there were errors in Table 1. The corrected version of Table 1 appears in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-32534-001.) This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists

  5. Growth, spectral and optical characterization of a novel nonlinear optical organic material: D-Alanine DL-Mandelic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.

  6. 扁桃酸及其衍生物对映体的手性识别研究%Studies on Chiral Recognition of Mandelic Acid and Its Derivatives Enantiomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周发; 刘佳佳; 肖清波; 刘言萍; 尹军; 刘丰良

    2012-01-01

    The chiral recognition ability of these two chiral amino alcohols were evaluated as chiral solvating agent (host) for 7 mandelic acid derivatives enantiomers (guest) in the presence of an equimolar amount, respectively. As a result, the biggest chemical shift non-equivalences (△△δ) of 4-tert-butyl mandelic acid enantiomers induced by the two polydentate ligands was 37.6 Hz.%以两种手性氨基醇作为主体,运用1H NMR分别考察其对客体7个扁桃酸衍生物对映异构体的手性识别能力。结果表明,主客体物质的量之比为1:1时,主体诱导客体对叔丁基扁桃酸消旋体最高产生37.6Hz的化学位移差值。

  7. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2012.Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL. Odds ratios (ORs of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio.Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044, 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018 for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone.The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men.

  8. Conventional and microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations, in vitro DNA binding and cleavage studies of potential chemotherapeutic diorganotin(IV) mandelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula; Nath, Mala

    2016-09-01

    Diorganotin(IV) complexes of the general formulae {[R2Sn(L)]2O}(R=Me (1), n-Bu (2), and n-Oct (3); L=anion of mandelic acid) and {[R2Sn(L)]2Cl2}(R=Ph (4)) have been synthesized by conventional thermal method (1a-3a), except 4a and by microwave-assisted reactions (1b-4b). The elemental analysis, IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn) and ESI-MS/DART-mass spectral studies revealed that dimeric 1:1 complexes with SnOSn bridges (1-3) are formed possessing distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the Sn atoms, except 4b which exhibits octahedral geometry with SnClSn bridges. The proposed geometries have been validated by density functional theory calculations. Thermal behavior of 1b-4b, studied by using thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) techniques, indicated that all except 4b are stable up to 200°C. In vitro interaction studies of 1b-4b with CT-DNA were performed by UV-Vis, fluorescence titrations and results suggest that the complexes are binding to DNA via an intercalative mode. The binding affinity and quenching ability were quantified in terms of intrinsic binding constant (Kb) (3.74×10(4)M(-1), 2b; >3.67×10(4)M(-1), 4b; >3.03×10(4)M(-1), 3b; >0.72×10(4)M(-1), 1b) and Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) (2.16×10(5), 2b; >1.73×10(5), 4b; >1.66×10(5)3b; >1.51×10(5), 1b) which showed high binding affinity of 2b with CT-DNA. The cleavage studies of 1b-4b with pBR322 plasmid DNA was ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis. They exhibited effective cleavage of supercoiled plasmid DNA into its nicked form (1b, 3b, 4b) and even into its linear form in presence of 2b.

  9. Phenotypic characterization and adhesive properties of vaginal Candida spp. strains provided by the CHU Farhat Hached (Sousse, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Emira; Snoussi, Mejdi; Noumi, Inès; Saghrouni, Fatma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Valentin, Eulogio

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide, being Candida albicans the most commonly isolated species. Therefore, controlling this opportunistic yeast is one of the key factors for reducing nosocomial infection. We investigated several virulence properties of 28 vaginal strains of Candida isolated from Tunisian women suffering from vulvovaginitis. We also analyzed the virulence properties of a clinical Candida krusei strain and five Candida reference strains. Candida strains were subjected to microscopic analysis and culture in Candida ID2 chromogenic medium. The adhesive properties of these strains were estimated by the microtiter plate - the safranin-staining - and the Congo red agar (CRA) methods, for determining yeast ability to form biofilms on biomaterials used in urinary catheter manufacturing. Their potency to produce hydrolytic enzymes was also studied. Our results showed that nine out of the total studied strains produced phospholipase. In addition, very high protease activity was detected in 23 Candida strains. All Candida strains were beta-hemolytic and adhered to polystyrene microtiter plates in varying degrees. Two vaginal C. albicans strains were strongly adhesive to polystyrene and glass slides. Also, our results showed that vaginal Candida strains were more adhesive to the three tested materials than the reference strains. This study shows the presence of a range of virulence and adhesion factors in clinical isolates of vaginal Candida. Consequently, control and treatment of vaginal candidiasis as a means to prevent biofilm formation on urinary catheters is of crucial importance. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid single crystal: A promising material for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.

  11. Jaak Pihlau in memoriam / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2015-01-01

    1990-ndatel aastatel avanes võimalus hakata tutvuma julgeolekuorganite arhiivi Eestisse jäänud vanema osaga. Jaak Pihlaust sai võimaluse innukas kasutaja. Jaak PIhlau jõudis arhiivis väga palju lugeda, piisavalt palju avaldada, andes kätte mitmeid niidiotsi tulevastele uurijatele

  12. Eesti poiste Kolgata tee / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Korpusepoisid : Eesti sõjamehed 22. eesti territoriaalkorpuses ja 8. eesti laskurkorpuses Teises maailmasõjas aastatel 1940-45. Tallinn : Eesti Akadeemiline Sõjaajaloo Selts : Sentinel, 2007

  13. Eesti poiste Kolgata tee / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Korpusepoisid : Eesti sõjamehed 22. eesti territoriaalkorpuses ja 8. eesti laskurkorpuses Teises maailmasõjas aastatel 1940-45. Tallinn : Eesti Akadeemiline Sõjaajaloo Selts : Sentinel, 2007

  14. Meenutati 1944. aasta Keila lahingut / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    27. septembril tulid Keilasse kokku eakad mehed, kes pidasid 1944. aasta 23. sept. Kumna teeristil, Keilas, aga ka Pärnu maanteel Pääskülas, Kanamaal ja Haruteel lahinguid pealetungiva Punaarmeega

  15. Eestis saaks toota hallitusjuustu / Arne Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Arne, 1933-2007

    2003-01-01

    Vaatamata sellele, et EPMÜ teadlased on kodumaised hallitusjuustu sordid ning nende tootmise tehnoloogia juba välja töötanud, puudub seni Eestis piimatööstus, kes neid valmistama hakkaks. Skeemid: valgehallitusjuustu ja sinihallitusjuustu valmistamise tehnoloogilised skeemid.

  16. Multimode Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, S P; Pádua, S; Monken, C H

    2003-01-01

    We consider multimode two-photon interference at a beam splitter by photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The resulting interference pattern is shown to depend upon the transverse spatial symmetry of the pump beam. In an experiment, we employ the first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes in order to show that, by manipulating the pump beam, one can control the resulting two-photon interference behavior. We expect these results to play an important role in the engineering of quantum states of light for use in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  17. Jaak Pihlau in memoriam / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2015-01-01

    1990-ndatel aastatel avanes võimalus hakata tutvuma julgeolekuorganite arhiivi Eestisse jäänud vanema osaga. Jaak Pihlaust sai võimaluse innukas kasutaja. Jaak PIhlau jõudis arhiivis väga palju lugeda, piisavalt palju avaldada, andes kätte mitmeid niidiotsi tulevastele uurijatele

  18. (1R,2S)-2-(3,4-二氟苯基)环丙胺扁桃酸盐的合成%Synthesis of (1R,2S)-2-(3,4-Difluorophenyl)cyclopropylamine D-Mandelate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 沈建伟

    2015-01-01

    以邻二氟苯为原料,经傅克酰化、缩合、还原、环合,最后与D-扁桃酸成盐制得替卡格雷关键中间体(1R,2S)-2-(3,4-二氟苯基)环丙胺扁桃酸盐,总收率32.6%,ee值99.8%。%(1R,2S)-2-(3,4-Difluorophenyl)cyclopropylamine mandelate,the key intermediate of ticagrelor, was synthesized form 1,2-difluorobenzene via Friedel-Crafts acylation,condensation, recovery, cyclization with a yield of 32.6%. The ee value of the target compound was 99.8%.

  19. Kinetics of Asymmetric Reduction of Phenylglyoxylic Acid to R-(-)-Mandelic Acid by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae FD11b%酵母细胞FD11b生物不对称公式(R)-(-)-扁桃酸的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖美添; 黄雅燕; 孟春; 郭养浩

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of asymmetric production of R-(-)-mandelic acid (R-MA) from phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA)catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae sp. strain FD11b was studied by fed-batch cultures. The concentrations of glucose and PGA were controlled respectively with a dual feeding system. When the electron donor glucose was supplied at the rate of 0.0833mmol·gdw-1·h-1, the specific production rate (qp) and the enantiomeric excess of R-MAreached the maximum 0.353mmol·gdw-1·h-1 and 97.1%, respectively. The apparent reduction activity of yeast FD11b was obviously affected by both substrate PGA and product MA. The qp value reached the maximum 0.36-0.38mmol·gdw-1·h-1 when the PGA concentration was controlled between 25 and 35mmol·L-1. The obvious substrate inhibition of bioconversion was observed at the PGA concentrations higher than 40mmol· L-1. The accumulation of product MA also caused a severe feed-back inhibition for its production when the product concentration was above 60mmol· L-1. The kinetic model with the inhibition effect of both substrate and product was simulated by a computer-based least-square arithmatic. The established kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. β-环糊精对α-环己基扁桃酸异构体手性识别作用的计算机模拟研究%The study of chiral recognition between β-cyclodextrin and α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid stereisomers by computer simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮洪; 李芬芳

    2012-01-01

    Host-guest complexation of p-cyclodextrin (P-CD) with a-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers was simulated by quantum mechanics PM3 method for understanding the chiral recognition mechanism. The modeling results can correctly predict the retention order and provide an atomistic account of how chiral discrimination takes place. Modeling results showed that the stabilization of complexes formed by (R/S)-CHMA enantiomers and P-CD were different. The hydrophobic block of benzene moiet of (R)-CHMA was located in the cavity of P-CD to form an inclusion molecule, while it is the cyclohexyl that be inserted in the cavity in the case of (S)-CHMA to form an inclusion molecule. What is more, as for (S)-CHMA/ P-CD complex, there is an intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The stabilization energy of the (S)-CHMA/ P-CD complex was lower than that of the (R)-CHMA/ P-CD complex. The main driving forces responsible for chiral recognition are hydrophobic forces and weak hydrogen bondings.%运用量子力学PM3方法模拟α-环己基扁桃酸((R/S)-CHMA)与β-环糊精(β-CD)的主客体相互作用,探讨(R/S)-CHMA在β-CD上的手性识别机理.模拟结果能够准确预测色谱出峰顺序从而能从原子层次上对手性识别机制给予理论解释.PM3方法的计算结果表明:(S)-CHMA与β-CD形成的结合物比(R)-CHMA与β-CD形成的结合物稳定.从模拟包结物的构型可以看出(R/S)-CHMA与β-CD结合方式完全不同:(R)-CHMA是将苯环插入β-CD空腔形成包结物,而(S)-CHMA是将环己基插入β-CD空腔形成包结物.此外,(S)-CHMA除了自身的分子内氢键外,与β-CD分子之间还存在分子间氢键作用;而(R)-CHMA与β-CD之间没有分子间氢键作用.从而说明疏水作用以及弱的分子间氢键作用是造成手性识别的主要驱动力.

  1. Tragöödia Haruteel / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2014-01-01

    Erich Välgu mälestuste ainetel kirja pandud 1941. aastal toimunud sündmustest. Harutee lahingust. 23. augustil 1941. Lahingust Haruteest Jõgisoo poole Pärtli talu maadel. Harutee lahingust arhiividokumentide valgusel.

  2. Von den Forschungen am Bodendenkmal zu Uugla / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2007-01-01

    Ala on olnud asustatud juba kiviajal. Leiumaterjali enamik kuulub 11.-14. sajandisse. Kui varasemal ajajärgul paiknesid uurimispiirkonnas eluhooned, siis 12.-14. saj. on seal nähtavasti tegeldud peamiselt raua sulatimise ja sepatööga. Leiumaterjali järgi otsustades on elu ja sepatööga tegelemine Uugla Veskimäe asulas lõppenud 14. sajandil

  3. Ülemaailmse vastasseisu piirkondlikud aspektid / Aive Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Aive

    2011-01-01

    Tartu Ülikoolis 27.-28. detsembril 2010. aastal toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil "Läänemere piirkond ja külm sõda" võeti külm sõda vaatluse alla regionaalsest tasandist lähtudes. Ettekannetest

  4. Tragöödia Haruteel / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2014-01-01

    Erich Välgu mälestuste ainetel kirja pandud 1941. aastal toimunud sündmustest. Harutee lahingust. 23. augustil 1941. Lahingust Haruteest Jõgisoo poole Pärtli talu maadel. Harutee lahingust arhiividokumentide valgusel.

  5. Keilas olid koos Eesti vabaduse eest võidelnud / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Septembri lõpus tulid Keilasse kokku sõjaveteranid, kes pidasid 1944. aasta 23. sept. Kumna teeristil, Keilas, aga ka Pärnu maanteel Pääskülas, Kanamaal ja Haruteel lahinguid pealetungiva Punaarmeega.

  6. Metsavendade traagilisest punkrilahingust möödus 60 aastat / Mati Mandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2009-01-01

    Relvastatud Võitluse Liidu punkri asukohale püstitatud mälestuskivi juures Pärnumaal toimus 28. veebruaril 2009 mälestusteenistus. 1946. aastal loodud liidu tegevusest ja juhtidest ning punkri ümberpiiramisest 1949. aasta 27. veebruaril

  7. Rohkem kui 300 aastat tagasi surnud pere õnnestus tuvastada / Mati Mandel ; Kalev Jaago

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2016-01-01

    Peanse külas Lihula vallas toimunud kaevamistest. Leiti nelja inimese luustikud. Leiumaterjal võimaldas võrrelda ja kokku viia arheoloogi, numismaatiku, atropoloogi ja arhivaari uurimistulemusi. Suure tõenäosusega võisid leitud maetud olla Leti Andrese Mihkel, tema abikaasa ning lapsed Heinrich ja Ann. Tegu võib olla 1710.- 1711. aasta katku ohvritega. Haruldase juhtumina saab luid seostada konkreetsete ajalooliste isikutega

  8. Rohkem kui 300 aastat tagasi surnud pere õnnestus tuvastada / Mati Mandel ; Kalev Jaago

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mandel, Mati, 1945-

    2016-01-01

    Peanse külas Lihula vallas toimunud kaevamistest. Leiti nelja inimese luustikud. Leiumaterjal võimaldas võrrelda ja kokku viia arheoloogi, numismaatiku, atropoloogi ja arhivaari uurimistulemusi. Suure tõenäosusega võisid leitud maetud olla Leti Andrese Mihkel, tema abikaasa ning lapsed Heinrich ja Ann. Tegu võib olla 1710.- 1711. aasta katku ohvritega. Haruldase juhtumina saab luid seostada konkreetsete ajalooliste isikutega

  9. [Use of column and thin layer chromatography for detection of vanillyl mandelic acid in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabichenko, V V; Barchukov, V G; Chernyĭ, A V; Salenko, Iu A

    2002-03-01

    The excretion of vanillylmandelic acid was measured by column chromatography of urinary samples on aluminum oxide with subsequent thin-layer chromatography on silica gel. Use of aluminum oxide allowed application of greater urine samples (up to 0.1% of 24-h diuresis) onto chromatographic plates and essentially improved the quality of separation of vanillylmandelic acid from other phenylcarbonic acids by thin-layer chromatography, as well as the specificity and reproducibility of measurements.

  10. Terascale Optimal PDE Simulations (TOPS) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Olof B. Widlund

    2007-07-09

    Our work has focused on the development and analysis of domain decomposition algorithms for a variety of problems arising in continuum mechanics modeling. In particular, we have extended and analyzed FETI-DP and BDDC algorithms; these iterative solvers were first introduced and studied by Charbel Farhat and his collaborators, see [11, 45, 12], and by Clark Dohrmann of SANDIA, Albuquerque, see [43, 2, 1], respectively. These two closely related families of methods are of particular interest since they are used more extensively than other iterative substructuring methods to solve very large and difficult problems. Thus, the FETI algorithms are part of the SALINAS system developed by the SANDIA National Laboratories for very large scale computations, and as already noted, BDDC was first developed by a SANDIA scientist, Dr. Clark Dohrmann. The FETI algorithms are also making inroads in commercial engineering software systems. We also note that the analysis of these algorithms poses very real mathematical challenges. The success in developing this theory has, in several instances, led to significant improvements in the performance of these algorithms. A very desirable feature of these iterative substructuring and other domain decomposition algorithms is that they respect the memory hierarchy of modern parallel and distributed computing systems, which is essential for approaching peak floating point performance. The development of improved methods, together with more powerful computer systems, is making it possible to carry out simulations in three dimensions, with quite high resolution, relatively easily. This work is supported by high quality software systems, such as Argonne's PETSc library, which facilitates code development as well as the access to a variety of parallel and distributed computer systems. The success in finding scalable and robust domain decomposition algorithms for very large number of processors and very large finite element problems is, e

  11. Synthesis of 1-/sup 14/C-(1S,4S)-N-methyl-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenamine L-mandelate (1-/sup 14/C-sertraline mandelate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, W.M.; Viveiros, D.M.

    1987-08-01

    The preparation of the title compound, a selective 5-HT uptake blocker with potential antidepressant properties in man, is described. The labelled material with a specific activity of 0.7 mCi/mmol, was synthesized in 7 steps from K/sup 14/CN in 6.5% radiochemical yield.

  12. Oxidative decarboxylation of mandelic acid derivative by recombinant Escherichia coli: a novel method of ethyl vanillin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Xia; Li, Jing-Jing; Wang, Mei-Gui; He, Wen-Sen; Jia, Cheng-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Biao; Li, Da-Li; Zeng, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    The benzoylformate decarboxylase gene (mdlC) from Pseudomonas putida was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant strain together with E. coli/pET30a-mdlB converted (S)-3-ethoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (S-EMA) into ethyl vanillin without ethyl vanillin degradation. 4 g ethyl vanillin/l was obtained from 10 g EMA/l within 12 h at 30 °C. This is the first report on the biotransformation of (S)-EMA to ethyl vanillin.

  13. A New Type of NADH Model Compound: Synthesis and Enantioselective Reduction of Benzoylformates to the Corresponding Mandelates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Liang Tang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of NADH model compound with good reactivity and enantioselectivity has been synthesized in good yields by an efficient and convenient synthetic method. The structures of these model compounds were confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR and MS.

  14. Exploring Dephasing of a Solid-State Quantum Emitter via Time- and Temperature-Dependent Hong-Ou-Mandel Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, A.; Schnauber, P.; Gschrey, M.; Seifried, M.; Wolters, J.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Rodt, S.; Carmele, A.; Knorr, A.; Heindel, T.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2016-01-01

    We probe the indistinguishability of photons emitted by a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) via time- and temperature-dependent two-photon interference (TPI) experiments. An increase in temporal separation between consecutive photon emission events reveals a decrease in TPI visibility on a nanosecond time scale, theoretically described by a non-Markovian noise process in agreement with fluctuating charge traps in the QD's vicinity. Phonon-induced pure dephasing results in a decrease in TPI visibility from (96 ±4 )% at 10 K to a vanishing visibility at 40 K. In contrast to Michelson-type measurements, our experiments provide direct access to the time-dependent coherence of a quantum emitter on a nanosecond time scale.

  15. Direct method for measuring and witnessing quantum entanglement of arbitrary two-qubit states through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel

    2017-02-01

    We describe a direct method for experimental determination of the negativity of an arbitrary two-qubit state with 11 measurements performed on multiple copies of the two-qubit system. Our method is based on the experimentally accessible sequences of singlet projections performed on up to four qubit pairs. In particular, our method permits the application of the Peres-Horodecki separability criterion to an arbitrary two-qubit state. We explicitly demonstrate that measuring entanglement in terms of negativity requires three measurements more than detecting two-qubit entanglement. The reported minimal set of interferometric measurements provides a complete description of bipartite quantum entanglement in terms of two-photon interference. This set is smaller than the set of 15 measurements needed to perform a complete quantum state tomography of an arbitrary two-qubit system. Finally, we demonstrate that the set of nine Makhlin's invariants needed to express the negativity can be measured by performing 13 multicopy projections. We demonstrate both that these invariants are a useful theoretical concept for designing specialized quantum interferometers and that their direct measurement within the framework of linear optics does not require performing complete quantum state tomography.

  16. Genital herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... JT and Corey L. Herpes simplex virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ...

  17. What Feynman Could Not yet Use: The Generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel Experiment to Improve the QED Explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in "QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter" and improve it by discussing with students…

  18. 微型相转移超声催化合成扁桃酸%Microscale Synthesis of Mandelic Acid by PhaseTransfer Catalysis and Ultasonic Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷立国; 何锐刚; 李增春

    2008-01-01

    回流合成苄基三乙基氯化胺(TEBA),并以之为相转移催化剂,采用超声波技术在微型仪器中合成了扁桃酸.与常量合成方法进行比较,微型的药品用量是常量的22%,反应时间比常量少0.5 h,微型收率(43.2%)比常量收率(58.3%)有所减少.

  19. Synthesis of p-tert-butyl Mandelic Acid by Phase Transfer Catalysis%相转移催化法合成对叔丁基扁桃酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佺; 彭阳峰

    2003-01-01

    以对叔丁基苯甲醛为原料,TEBA(苄基氯三乙胺)为催化剂相转移催化法合成对叔丁基扁桃酸.其合成工艺参数:温度60±2℃,反应时间12h,n(对叔丁基扁桃酸):n(三氯甲烷)=1:2~3,相转移催化剂TEBA的用量5~10g/mol对叔丁基苯甲醛.经过核磁共振、红外和元素分析对其结构进行了分析和确认.产品质量分数99.1%,收率51.7%.

  20. What Feynman Could Not yet Use: The Generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel Experiment to Improve the QED Explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in "QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter" and improve it by discussing with students…

  1. Promoting Inclusive Education, Civic Scientific Literacy, and Global Citizenship with Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Hayes, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to Yupanqui Munoz and Charbel El-Hani's paper, "The student with a thousand faces: From the ethics in videogames to becoming a citizen", we examine their critique of videogames in science education. Munoz and El-Hani present a critical analysis of videogames such as "Grand Theft Auto", "Street Fight", "Command and Conquer:…

  2. Promoting Inclusive Education, Civic Scientific Literacy, and Global Citizenship with Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Hayes, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to Yupanqui Munoz and Charbel El-Hani's paper, "The student with a thousand faces: From the ethics in videogames to becoming a citizen", we examine their critique of videogames in science education. Munoz and El-Hani present a critical analysis of videogames such as "Grand Theft Auto", "Street Fight", "Command and Conquer:…

  3. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 309. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious ...

  4. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 391–401. [PubMed Abstract] Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements and colorectal adenomas. ... 138–145. [PubMed Abstract] Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked myotubular myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lagier-Tourenne C, Buj-Bello A, Romero NB, Mandel JL. Characterisation of mutations in 77 patients with ... Laguna A, Biancalana V, Böhm J, Tranchant C, Mandel JL, Laporte J. Adult centronuclear myopathies: A hospital- ...

  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 129764 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00516285.1 1117:2536 1118:6681 263510:1318 263511:1318 165597:1866 Mandelate rac...emase/muconate lactonizing enzyme:Mandelate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme Crocosphaera watsonii WH 85

  7. Gingivostomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  8. Pregnancy and travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  9. Typhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  10. Acid-fast stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  11. Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  12. Endocervical gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  13. Sequence Classification: 120324 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|52082358|ref|YP_081149.1| Mandel...ate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme,Mandelate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/52082358 ...

  14. Sequence Classification: 499082 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|66045952|ref|YP_235793.1| Mandel...ate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme:Mandelate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/66045952 ...

  15. Sequence Classification: 498359 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|66045229|ref|YP_235070.1| Mandel...ate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme:Mandelate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/66045229 ...

  16. 78 FR 9415 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... the Endangered Species Act, as amended (Act). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lisa Mandell, U.S..., Bloomington, MN 55437-1458; (612) 713- 5343 (phone) or lisa_mandell@fws.gov (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... a copy of such documents to Lisa Mandell (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Authority: The...

  17. 76 FR 74070 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... the Endangered Species Act, as amended (Act). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lisa Mandell, at (612) 713-5343 (phone) or lisa_mandell@fws.gov (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We have issued the... Information Act, by any party who submits a written request for a copy of such documents to Lisa Mandell (see...

  18. EST Table: CK503389 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK503389 rswcc0_003345.y1 10/09/29 66 %/142 aa ref|XP_002423503.1| mandelate racema...se, putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB10765.1| mandelate racemase, putative [Pediculus humanus cor...ref|XP_972041.1| PREDICTED: similar to mandelate racemase [Tribolium castaneum] FS795479 swc ...

  19. EST Table: CK508137 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK508137 rswdd0_001936.y1 10/09/29 64 %/162 aa ref|XP_002423503.1| mandelate racema...se, putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB10765.1| mandelate racemase, putative [Pediculus humanus cor...ref|XP_972041.1| PREDICTED: similar to mandelate racemase [Tribolium castaneum] FS795479 swd ...

  20. 抽动-秽语综合征患儿尿香草扁桃酸的变化及意义%Changes and significances of monoamine neurotransmitter vanillyl mandelic acids in urine of Tourette's syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常会波; 王珺; 李尔珍; 王立文; 吴建新

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解抽动-秽语综合征(tourette's syndrome,TS)患儿尿单氨类神经递质代谢产物香草扁桃酸(vanillylmandelic acid,VMA)水平,探讨其与疾病发生的意义.方法 以40例TS患儿为病例组,33例健康儿童作为正常对照组.采集研究对象的尿液,经高效液相色谱法分离后利用库仑阵列电化学检测香草扁桃酸(VMA)水平,紫外检测器检测作为校正因素的肌酐含量.利用VMA/Cr代表尿样中VMA的水平.结果 病例组尿液VMA/Cr值为:(1.597±0.095)μg/mg,对照组VMA/Cr值为(2.198±0.112)μg/mg,病例组尿液VMA/Cr均值显著低于对照组(P<0.001),病例组和对照组VMA/Cr均值男女之间差异均无统计学意义.结论 TS患儿中存在VMA水平异常.

  1. L'ESTHESIONEUROBLASTOME OLFACTIF : A PROPOS DE 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Introduction: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor, which develops from ... ryngology-Head and Neck surgery at Farhat Hached Hospital Sousse over a period of 26 years. ... In spite of the surgery and the radiotherapy, the forecast remains reserved in the long term. ... et un trismus dans un autre cas.

  2. Piezoelectric Response of Ferroelectric Ceramics Under Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    and piezoelectric [eg] moduli that are provided by the user for the particular material are transformed into Voight- Mandel representations [C̃g] and...problem coordinates elastic [C̃G], piezoelectric [ẽG], and permittivity [K G] moduli, using the Voight- Mandel orthogonal rotation matrices [51]. The...final step of the setup phase is transforming the global Voight- Mandel representations of the elastic [C̃G], and piezoelectric [ẽG] moduli into the

  3. Quantum Plasmonics: Quantum Information at the Nanoscale 122054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-06

    of our research programme include the demonstration of Hong-Ou- Mandel interference of surface plasmon polaritons, proving directly the bosonic nature...Hong-Ou- Mandel interference of surface plasmon polaritons [1], proving directly the bosonic nature of surface plasmons. This constitutes a first step...of the well-known Hong-Ou- Mandel interference experiment (Figure 1). This experiment forms the basis of our understanding of single SPPs, and further

  4. COVERING THE SEAMS IN U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY BY APPLYING NETWORK AND TEAM ATTRIBUTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    pandemics and natural disasters can affect people just as drastically, if not more so. Robert Mandel describes these “threats without threateners” as...those “lacking intentional initiation by hostile parties.”41 Mandel goes further, specifically writing that “much of this emerging threat...After all, Mandel writes, “natural disasters and infectious diseases have recently killed far more people than civil strife, as evidenced by

  5. H1N1 (swine) influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ... ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also ...

  6. Staph infections -- self-care at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, ... ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: MEGDEL syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OMIM (1 link) 3-METHYLGLUTACONIC ACIDURIA WITH DEAFNESS, ENCEPHALOPATHY, AND ... Manov I, Saada A, Sprecher E, Mandel H. Infantile mitochondrial hepatopathy is a cardinal feature of MEGDEL syndrome ( ...

  8. Drug: D00856 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C8H8O3. C6H12N4 292.1535 292.3336 D00856.gif Antibacterial [urinary] ATC code: J01XX05 Anatomical Therapeut...D00856 Hexamine mandelate (JAN); Methenamine mandelate (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antibacterials Antibacterial

  9. A Biophysical-Computational Perspective of Breast Cancer Pathogenesis and Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    anchorage-independent survival of mammary tumors. J Cell Biol 163:1397-1407. 127. Zufferey, R., Dull, T., Mandel, R.J., Bukovsky, A., Quiroz , D., Naldini...Mandel, R.J., Bukovsky, A., Quiroz , D., Naldini, L., and Trono, D. 1998. Self-inactivating lentivirus vector for safe and efficient in vivo gene

  10. PLE CATALYZED HYDROLYZES OF ALPHA-SUBSTITUTED ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBSTITUENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORLAG, H; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for

  11. The Psychology of Bayesian Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-21

    the frequency tree in Figure 1 correspond to cells a-d, which have received much attention in the causal induction literature (Mandel and Lehman ...J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 11, 277-288. Mandel, D. R., and Lehman , D. R. (1998). Integration of contingency information in judgments of cause

  12. Quantum Entanglement of Quantum Dot Spin Using Flying Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    SPDC photon is teleported to a single quantum dot spin by a projective measurement using a Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) interferometer. The SPDC source...photo diode B: Blue CW: Continuous wave DBR: Distributed Bragg reflector EOM: Electro-optics modulator H: Horizontal HOM: Hong-Ou- Mandel InAs

  13. Understanding Optimal Decision-Making in Wargaming III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    laboratory environments (Vartanian & Mandel , 2011). Although there are laboratory-based tests that measure cognitive flexibility, they are not directly...Army Operating Concept: Win in a Complex World. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. Vartanian, O., & Mandel , D. R. (2011). Neuroscience of

  14. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: Send written comments via U.S. mail to the Regional Director, Attn: Lisa Mandell, U.S... electronic mail to permitsR3ES@fws.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Mandell, (612) 713-5164...

  15. PLE CATALYZED HYDROLYZES OF ALPHA-SUBSTITUTED ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBSTITUENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORLAG, H; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for alpha-substitu

  16. Multi-Scale Modeling and Large-Scale Transient Simulation of Ballistic Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA, 94720 C. Farhat Stanford University Palo Alto, CA, 94305 ABSTRACT Ballistic fabrics such as Kevlar and Zylon ...the range of 2 %-10% prior to rupturing. For example, a Zylon fibril ruptures at approximately a 3 % strain (Toyobo, 2001). Due to the same small...micro- scale fibrils. For Zylon , a single yarn is made up of 350 individual fibrils. At the micro-scale, unavoid- able fibril misalignment occurs due

  17. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wassim Farhat; Rechdi Ahdab; Hassan Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Wassim Farhat, Rechdi Ahdab, Hassan HosseiniService de Neurologie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, APHP, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris XII, Créteil, FranceAbstract: Internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also present as cerebrovascular accidents. The association with Horner’s syndrome is exceptional. We present three cases of agenesis of ICA associated ...

  18. Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Use, Gender, and Learning Achievement: a Correlation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive language learning strategies (MLLS) and gender and achievement of EFL students. Metacognitive language learning strategies are crucial for students of English as a foreign language to learn effectively. The theoretical issues discuss metacognitive language learning strategies in particular, and language learning strategies (LLS) in general. The practical research took place at the English language department at Farhat Abbes Univer...

  19. Salt or cocrystal of salt? Probing the nature of multicomponent crystal forms with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Guimarães, Freddy Fernandes; Ribeiro, Leandro; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of the nature of a multicomponent crystal form (solvate, salt, cocrystal or cocrystal of salt) is of great importance for pharmaceutical industry because it is directly related to the performance of a pharmaceutical ingredient, since there is interdependence between the structure, its energy and its physical properties. In this context, here we have identified the nature of multicomponent crystal forms of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine with mandelic acid through infrared spectroscopy. These investigated crystal forms were the known S-mandelic acid cocrystal of lamivudine R-mandelate trihydrate (1), a cocrystal of salt, and lamivudine R-mandelate (2), a salt. This approach also supports the identification and distinction of both ionized and unionized forms of mandelic acid in the infrared spectrum of 1. In this way, infrared spectroscopy can be useful to distinguish a cocrystal of salt from either salt or cocrystal forms. In the course of this study, for the first time we have also characterized and determined the crystal structure of R-mandelic acid cocrystal of sodium R-mandelate (3).

  20. 苯羟乙酸分光光度法测定工作场所空气中三氟化硼方法验证实验研究%Verification experiment study on the method of mandelic acid spectrophotometry for the determination of boron trifluoride in workplace air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新建; 陈爽; 秦娜娜

    2015-01-01

    目的 验证工作场所空气中三氟化硼的标准检验方法在笔者所在实验室测定的适应性,确保该方法的检测准确性.方法 依据国家职业卫生标准《工作场所空气有毒物质硼及其化合物》(GBZ/T 160.27-2004)规定,绘制硼标准曲线、对模拟吸收液做加标回收实验、精密度实验、检出限、最低检测浓度、定量限、最低定量浓度.结果 硼回归方程为:Y=0.3 195X-0.0 117,相关系数r=0.9 996,回收率为96.6%~100%,精密度RSD范围为0.73% ~4.4%,检出限为:0.340 ug/ml,最低检测浓度为0.23 mg/m3,定量限为1.100 ug/ml,最低定量浓度为0.73 mg/m3.结论 该实验室可以使用《工作场所空气有毒物质硼及其化合物》标准方法开展三氟化硼的检测工作.

  1. Identifying the Most Popular Entry Routes into a Public Library Using GIS Can Be a Tool to Increase Ease of Navigation and Identify Placement of Marketing Materials. A Review of: Mandel, L. H. (2010. Toward an understanding of library patron wayfinding: Observing patrons’ entry routes in a public library. Library & Information Science Research, 32, 116-130.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve C. Gore

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate and measure how patrons physically navigate entry routes within a public library and determine whether GIS is a useful instrument for this purpose.Design – Unobtrusive, covert observational study.Setting – Medium-sized public library in the United States.Subjects – 1,415 patrons were observed as they entered the library.Methods – Routes used by patron cases were selected as the unit of analysis. Patron cases were either individuals entering the building alone or groups entering the building together. Patrons were observed from a stationary and unobtrusive location. ArcMap (GIS software was used to develop the floor plan instrument on which entry routes were recorded and then later analyzed. The paths analyzed were limited to what was considered the “entry area.” Data were collected during three separate one-hour periods for six consecutive days in the fall of 2008. The researcher chose three purposive one-hour time samples with the intention of distributing them across the library’s opening hours.Main results – The 1,415 patron cases used 195 unique routes that were recorded from the two entrances of the facility, with the east (right entrance accounting for 83.3% of the cases (n=1178. Two entry routes were consistently the most popular overall and across each of the sample days. The next-most- popular entry routes did not remain constant across the total observed cases and each day’s observed cases or across the sample days. Over 75% of all observed patrons used 22 of the 195 entry routes: 7 routes were used by 30 or more cases each (n=836, 59.1% of all cases, 4 by 20 to 29 cases each (n=95, 6.7% of all cases, and 11 by 10 to 19 cases each (n=159, 11.2% of all cases. The route to the circulation desk was the most popular entry route for patrons. The other most popular route passed toward the rear of the library, but the observer could not record the final destination(s of that route due to the restricted viewable area.Conclusion – The study helped the researcher to establish what areas would be ideal locations for the placement of marketing materials and a book display. Knowledge of popular entry routes can also be useful in identifying routes that could be enlarged to ease patron navigation. GIS was shown to be a useful mapping instrument for recording and analyzing routes taken.

  2. Evolution properties of Mandel factor in the system of the V-type three-level atom interacting with a squeezed coherent light field in a Kerr medium%Kerr介质中V型三能级原子与压缩相干态光场相互作用系统Mandel因子的演化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素梅

    2004-01-01

    研究了在充满Kerr介质的高Q腔中V型三能级原子与压缩相干态光场相互作用系统Mandel因子Q(t)的时间演化规律;讨论了Kerr介质强度系数μ、光场压缩因子γ、光场相干振幅分量模平方|α|2和原子-场的耦合系数λ对光子统计分布特性的影响.结果发现:μ、γ、|α|2和λ都影响了Mandel因子Q(t)演化曲线量子崩塌-复苏效应的周期性,同时,也影响了受激辐射场的光子统计分布的状态和特性.

  3. 产碱杆菌ECU0401催化拆分扁桃酸及其衍生物%Preparation of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid and its derivatives from racemates by enantioselective degradation with strain Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉财; 许建和

    2009-01-01

    从土壤中分离的1株产碱杆菌Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401具有扁桃酸脱氢酶活性,可以以扁桃酸、苯甲酰甲酸或苯甲酸为唯一C源生长,并且具有较高的脱氢酶活力.以外消旋扁桃酸为C源,采用分批补料策略培养(或反应)99 h,扁桃酸累计投入量为30.4 g/L,(S)-(+)-扁桃酸被完全降解,(R)-(-)-扁桃酸回收产率为32.8%,对映体过量值(e.e.)>99.9%.利用静息细胞作为催化剂不对称降解外消旋扁桃酸的氯代衍生物,制备获得光学活性的(R)(-)邻氯扁桃酸、(S)-(+)-间氯扁桃酸和(S)-(+)-对氯扁桃酸,光学纯度均超过99.9%e.e..

  4. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Young "Prairie Wind", Sigur Ros "Takk...", Paul McCartney "Chaos and Creation in the Backyard", Lauri Saatpalu, Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea", "Rock2005", The Corrs "Home", Dandy Warhols "Odditorium or Warlords of Mars"

  5. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Charlatans "Forever", Young Jeezy "The Inspiration", Girls Aloud "The Sound Of Girls Aloud", Six Organs Of Admittance "The Sun Awakens", Take That "Beautiful World", Lauri Saatpalu & Katrin Mandel "Ei kunagi", "Republicafrobeat"

  6. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Charlatans "Forever", Young Jeezy "The Inspiration", Girls Aloud "The Sound Of Girls Aloud", Six Organs Of Admittance "The Sun Awakens", Take That "Beautiful World", Lauri Saatpalu & Katrin Mandel "Ei kunagi", "Republicafrobeat"

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Que YA, Moreillon P. Staphylococcus aureus (including ... MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice ...

  8. Baltic notes : the best in music

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "World Lullabies", Mielavs un Parcelaji "Paruna ar sevi", InCulto "Post Sov Pop", Lauri Saatpalu & Katrin Mandel "Sa Oled Hea", D.J.Critikal "Chapter One Ehk Teine Maitse", Jurga "Aukso Pieva", Terminaator "Go Live"

  9. Fatigue life prediction in composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huston, RJ

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available as the modulus is measured accurately. Its main disadvantage is that it can be applied only to constant amplitude fatigue loadings. REFERENCES 1. Mandell, J. F., Huang, D. D. & McGarry, F. J., Tensile fatigue performance...

  10. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid...

  11. Plaadid / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Kasabian "Empire", Katrin Mandel ja Lauri Saatpalu "Ei kunagi", The Hold Steady "Boys & Girls in America", "Corinne Bailey Rae", FAll Out Boy "Infinity On High", Laleh "Prinsessor", Melody Club "Scream"

  12. Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an acute infection caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae . ... MacGregor RR. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . ...

  13. Design Review Improvement Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Worcester, Boeing Anne Ramsey, Harris Corporation Ronald H. Mandel, Lockheed Martin Mark King, Micropac Industries Melanie Berg, NASA Cindy...Peters, Raytheon Donna Potter , SSL ii Executive Summary The aerospace industry continues to experience design escapes that significantly impact

  14. Baltic notes : the best in music

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "World Lullabies", Mielavs un Parcelaji "Paruna ar sevi", InCulto "Post Sov Pop", Lauri Saatpalu & Katrin Mandel "Sa Oled Hea", D.J.Critikal "Chapter One Ehk Teine Maitse", Jurga "Aukso Pieva", Terminaator "Go Live"

  15. Plaadid / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Kasabian "Empire", Katrin Mandel ja Lauri Saatpalu "Ei kunagi", The Hold Steady "Boys & Girls in America", "Corinne Bailey Rae", FAll Out Boy "Infinity On High", Laleh "Prinsessor", Melody Club "Scream"

  16. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Otitis externa, otitis media, and mastoiditis. In: Klein JO, ed. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Observation of Anticorrelation with Classical Light in a Linear Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianbin; Li, Fu-Li; Xu, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Two-photon anticorrelation is observed when laser and pseudothermal light beams are incident to the two input ports of a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, respectively. The spatial second-order interference pattern of laser and pseudothermal light beams is reported. Temporal Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is also observed when these two detectors are at the symmetrical positions. These results are helpful to understand the physics behind the second-order interference of light.

  18. Belle Physics at Wayne State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinabro, David [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64 channel PIN diode based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.

  19. High Resolution 3-D Wavelength Diversity Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    SECURITY CLASS. (of tile report) S.. DECL ASSI FI C ATI ON, DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thie Report) Approved for public...Wavelength Diversity and Inverse Scattering", in Opti.e6 in FOWL Vimeioz - 1980, M.A. Machado and L.M. Narducci (Eds.), Am. Inst. of Phys., New York...Dimenzionz - 1980, M.A. Machado and L.M. Narducci (Eds.), Am. Inst. of Phys., New York, 1981, pp. 341-354. Invited Talks 1. N.H. Farhat, "Microwave

  20. Knowledge, Belief, and Science Education - A Contribution from the Epistemology of Testimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago Alfredo S.; El-Hani, Charbel N.; da Silva-Filho, Waldomiro José

    2016-07-01

    This article intends to show that the defense of "understanding" as one of the major goals of science education can be grounded on an anti-reductionist perspective on testimony as a source of knowledge. To do so, we critically revisit the discussion between Harvey Siegel and Alvin Goldman about the goals of science education, especially where it involves arguments based on the epistemology of testimony. Subsequently, we come back to a discussion between Charbel N. El-Hani and Eduardo Mortimer, on the one hand, and Michael Hoffmann, on the other, striving to strengthen the claim that rather than students' belief change, understanding should have epistemic priority as a goal of science education. Based on these two lines of discussion, we conclude that the reliance on testimony as a source of knowledge is necessary to the development of a more large and comprehensive scientific understanding by science students.

  1. Knowledge, Belief, and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago Alfredo S.; El-Hani, Charbel N.; da Silva-Filho, Waldomiro José

    2016-10-01

    This article intends to show that the defense of "understanding" as one of the major goals of science education can be grounded on an anti-reductionist perspective on testimony as a source of knowledge. To do so, we critically revisit the discussion between Harvey Siegel and Alvin Goldman about the goals of science education, especially where it involves arguments based on the epistemology of testimony. Subsequently, we come back to a discussion between Charbel N. El-Hani and Eduardo Mortimer, on the one hand, and Michael Hoffmann, on the other, striving to strengthen the claim that rather than students' belief change, understanding should have epistemic priority as a goal of science education. Based on these two lines of discussion, we conclude that the reliance on testimony as a source of knowledge is necessary to the development of a more large and comprehensive scientific understanding by science students.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per Alström; Tianlong Cai1; Paul I Holt; Hung Le Manh; Gang Song; Yang Liu; Yanyun Zhang; Fumin Lei; Canwei Xia; Pamela C Rasmussen; Urban Olsson; Bo Dai; Jian Zhao; Paul J Leader; Geoff J Carey; Lu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background:The Russet Bush Warbler Locustel a (previously Bradypterus) mandel i complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated, with one (L. seebohmi) to four (L. seebohmi, L. mandel i, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised. Methods:We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandel i complex. Results:We found that central Chinese L. mandel i differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and (wing+culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria (western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandel i, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandel i complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandel i idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L. montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically. Conclusions:We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species, which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces. The taxonomic status of the other

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some -hydroxy acids by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimple Garg; Seema Kothari

    2004-11-01

    The oxidation of lactic acid, mandelic acid and ten monosubstituted mandelic acids by hexamethylenetetramine-bromine (HABR) in glacial acetic acid, leads to the formation of the corresponding oxoacid. The reaction is first order with respect to each of the hydroxy acids and HABR. It is proposed that HABR itself is the reactive oxidizing species. The oxidation of -deuteriomandelic acid exhibits the presence of a substantial kinetic isotope effect (/ = 5.91 at 298 K). The rates of oxidation of the substituted mandelic acids show excellent correlation with Brown’s + values. The reaction constants are negative. The oxidation exhibits an extensive cross conjugation between the electron-donating substituent and the reaction centre in the transition state. A mechanism involving transfer of a hydride ion from the acid to the oxidant is postulated.

  4. Photon statistics of driven single molecule: The effects of intersystem crossing process%单分子发射光子的统计性质:考虑系间穿越影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽姗; 宋艺华; 彭勇刚; 郑雨军

    2011-01-01

    用产生函数(generating function)方法研究了单分子存在系间穿越过程的发射光子的统计性质,并给出了长时间极限下的发射光子的平均值以及对应的Mandel Q参数的表达式.研究结果表明,在系间穿越过程存在的情况下,单分子发射光子的平均发射光子数 and the Mandel's Q parameter in long time limit. The results demonstrate that the Mandel's Q parameter has the same behavior as the average emission photons with respect to the evolution time, both of them linearly increasing with the evolution time increase, when the intersystem crossing process occurred in the single molecule.

  5. Coherent destruction of tunneling in two-level system driven across avoided crossing via photon statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel's Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel's Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively.

  6. Chiral Fluorescent Receptors Based on (R)-1,1'-Binaphthylene-2,2'-bisthiourea: Synthesis and Chiral Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗兰华; 何永炳; 徐括喜; 刘顺英; 孟令芝

    2005-01-01

    Two chiral fluorescent receptors 1 and 2 based on (R)-1,1'-binaphthylene-2,2'-bisthiourea were synthesized, and their chiral recognition properties for enantiomeric mandelate anions were studied by fluorescence spectra and molecular modeling. Addition of the L- and D-mandelate anions caused considerable fluorescent increases in the fluorescent intensity of the host solution. The L-enantiomer can enhance the fluorescence intensity of 1 much more than the D-enantiomer can do, and 1 shows a better enantioselective recognition ability than 2.

  7. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  8. Sub-Poissonian Character and Antibunching Effect of q-deformed Coherent State%q变形相干态的亚泊松特性与反聚束效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江俊勤

    2008-01-01

    定义q变形相干态的Mandel Q参数,导出q变形Mandel Q参数和q变形二阶相关函数的关系,证明在q变形的情况下,单模光场的亚泊松特性与反聚束效应不是等价的,并对增光子k玻色子q相干态的亚泊松特性进行数值研究,结果表明亚泊松特性明显依赖于光子增加数目m.

  9. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PTT%PTT的非等温结晶动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志忠; 蒋雪璋; 秦传香

    2005-01-01

    采用DSC方法对PTT在不同冷却速率下的结晶过程进行了研究,并与PET进行了对比,其结晶动力学用Mandel Kern方法来处理.结果表明,PTT相对于PET更易成核结晶,PTT半结晶时间比PET长,冷却速率对PTT的半结晶时间影响大,并且PTT的非等温结晶动力学曲线的线性较PET好,能够更好的遵循Mandel Kem方法.

  10. Characterisation of nitrilase and nitrile hydratase biocatalytic systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available and Nagasawa 2000). Other compounds commercially produced using nitrilase bioca- talysts are (R)-mandelic acid and (R)-3-chloromandelic acid (Mitsubishi Rayon Co). Although few commercial processes that utilise nitrilase and nitrile hydratase exist... acid (HClO4) eluent at pH 2, 0.6 ml/min flow rate, Waters 625 LC pump, and a Waters 486 UV detector. The Chiracel OD column (Daicel, Japan) was used for determination of methyl ester derivatives of mandelic acid, and Chiracel OB-H was used...

  11. The Effect of the Immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel on Israel’s Economy and Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Oil’, The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 1991. 39.Poster, Mark Foucault , Marxism and History, Oxford: Polity Press, 1984. 40.Rylaarsdam J.C., ’Hebrew...York Times, S December 28, 1992. Loewenberg Robert J., ’Vhy Prop Up Israeli Socialism’, The New York Times, June 24, 1991. Mandel Michael J. and Farrell

  12. Functional Characterization of a Novel Pro-Apoptotic Transcription Regulatory Protein in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    stage primary ovarian tumors by suppression subtraction hybridization. Cancer Res 62, 262-270. Tajiri, T., Liu, X., Thompson , P. M., Tanaka, S...Mandel, G., Hannon , G. J., et al. (2005). A genetic screen for candidate tumor suppressors identifies REST. Cell 121, 837-848. Wilson, B. E., Mochon

  13. Fourth-Order Interference in Femtosecond Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yun-Kun; SHI Bao-Sen; LI Jian; FAN Xiao-Feng; GUO Guang-Can

    2000-01-01

    We report a fourth-order interference experiment in which pairs of photons are produced in spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by femtosecond pulses interfere in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The visibilityof the interference is (64±4)%, exceeding the bound of 50% predicted by classical interference theory.

  14. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal. Volume 12, Issue 2, Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    an unnamed field-grade officer serving in Iraq: "The most high-tech weapons in the US mili- tary reside in the ’ brain housing group’ of soldiers...D. Mandeles and Maj Vin- cent Richard, USAF, Suffolk. Virginia, 2 December 2009 ,: JCOA interview, MAJ Michael Beane. Michael Cushing . and CW3

  15. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Pastacas "Snatsit Some Si-Si", Metro Luminal "Sassis", Nitrous "Outlaw Racer", The Sun "Unisex", Laur ja Sadam "Kirjad maale", Pilvikud "Päikesepatarei", Katrin Mandel "Peegeldus", Kukerpillid & Metsatöll "Suured koerad, väiksed koerad", Ultramelanhool "Materjal"

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference "Quantum Optics IV" Jaszowiec, Poland, June 17-24, 1997. Volume 93, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    quantum mechanical effect predicted by Felix Bloch decades ago. The prediction was that an electron experiencing a constant force, and hence constant...Kohler, L. Mandel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 126 (1972). [30] P. DeSantis, F. Gori, G. Guattari , C. Palma, J.M. Webster, J. Photo. Sc. 33, 197 (1985). 178

  17. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    , we observea threefold improvement in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility, reaching values in excess of 80%. Ourmeasurements off-resonance allow us to investigate varying Purcell enhancements, and to probe the dephasingenvironment at different temperatures and energy scales. By comparison...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test ... method, which could be used for qualitative identification of residues in ... particular commonly utilised in lactating animals (Mandell ... boiled in a waterbath for 10 min before being used in Nutrient agar ... Adulterated samples as well as normal control samples were.

  19. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Pastacas "Snatsit Some Si-Si", Metro Luminal "Sassis", Nitrous "Outlaw Racer", The Sun "Unisex", Laur ja Sadam "Kirjad maale", Pilvikud "Päikesepatarei", Katrin Mandel "Peegeldus", Kukerpillid & Metsatöll "Suured koerad, väiksed koerad", Ultramelanhool "Materjal"

  20. Molecular Genetic and Gene Therapy Studies of the Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Therapy 9:991-999. 2. Tischer E, Mitchell R, Hartman T, Silva M, Gospodarowicz D, Fiddes JC, Abraham JA (1991) The human gene for vascular endothelial...8463-71. fibers. J Virol 1998;72(5):4212-23. 178. Zufferey R, Dull T, Mandel RJ, Bukovsky A, Quiroz 192. Clark KR. Recent advances in recombinant

  1. Splinter hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 442. Wright WF, Mackowiak PA. Fever of unknown origin. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 56. Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Linda J. ...

  2. Understanding Emergent Readers and Writers. Custom Edition for the Ohio Summer Institute for Reading Intervention, Summer 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; McGee, Lea M.; Richgels, Donald J.

    This book, a custom edition for the Ohio Summer Institute for Reading Intervention (Summer 2001), reprints selected chapters from two books, "Literacy Development in the Early Years: Helping Children Read and Write," Fourth Edition (Lesley Mandel Morrow) and "Literacy's Beginnings: Supporting Young Readers and Writers," Third Edition (Lea M. McGee…

  3. Disgust and spider phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulkens, SAN; de Jong, Peter; Merckelbach, H

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four women with spider phobia and 45 nonphobic women completed the Disgust Questionnaire(DQ; P. Rozin, A. E. Fallen, & R. Mandell, 1984) and the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ; R. Klorman, T. C. Weerts, J. E. Hastings, B. G. Melamed, gr P. J. Lang, 1974). Participants also underwent behavio

  4. CALCULATION OF HAMILTONIAN CONSTRAINT AND MANDELSTAM IDENTITIES OVER EXTENDED KNOT FAMILIES {ψi}22, {ψi}43 and {ψi}64

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Dan; Shao Liang; Shao Changgui

    2008-01-01

    The actions of the Hamiltonian constraint onto the members of the extended knot families {ψi}22, {ψi}43 and {ψi}64, and the check of their invariance under the Mandel-stare identities are given in the extended loop representation of loop quantum gravity.

  5. Fiktiivne auhinnagala Lõuna-Prantsusmaal / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    6.-27. juuli - 61. Avignoni festival. Valitud etendusi Avignonist : Ariane Mnouchkine'i "Les Ephemeres", Faustin Linyekula "Dinosaurus", Fernardo Anuanga "Reis tulevikku", Sasha Waltz "insideout", Galin Stojevi "Genees nr 2", multimeediaalase kunsti- ja teatrigrupi Superamasi "Big 3rd episode. Happy/end", Guy Cassiersi "Mefisto for Ever", Krzysztof Warlikowski "Inglid Ameerikas", Raimund Hoghe tantsuetendus "36, Avenue Georges Mandel"

  6. EST Table: CA946121 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA946121 KI000181 10/09/28 67 %/199 aa ref|XP_001607023.1| PREDICTED: similar to ma...0308|ref|XP_972041.1| PREDICTED: similar to mandelate racemase [Tribolium castaneum] CK507909 L9 ...

  7. Quantum Information Technology: Entanglement, Teleportation, and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-31

    International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR�), Puebla , Mexico, June 9-13, 2003. X. Li, P. Voss, J E. Sharping...the original vision of a dual-OPA entanglement source [2]. The source output thus ob- tained exhibited collapses and revivals of the Hong-Ou-Mandel

  8. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-05

    3. (1983) 3. Periodontol. Set.:557. 58. Nisengard, R. 3., Myers, D., Fischman , S. and Socransky, S. (1976) J. Dent. Res. Spec. Issue B:pB206 #576...by this Contract Rose Lai received M. S. degree 12/20/82 David Shaefer Ph.D. candidate Susan Mandel M. S. candidate John Czeculin M. S. candidate

  9. Õitsemise tšempionid püsilillepeenral / Kaja Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Kaja, 1959-

    2014-01-01

    Helga Taimeaia perenaine Ülli-Riina Sildnik soovitab pikalt õitsvaid püsililli: mandel-piimalill Purpurea, harilik ussitatar, suureõieline iminõges, harilik tõrvalill, Borisi mõõl, kurerehad, siberi iiris, vene ussilakk jt

  10. Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, YI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range...

  11. Effect of montmorillonite clay on flax fabric reinforced poly lactic acid composites with amphiphilic additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-composites (PF) were successfully prepared by reinforcing poly lactic acid (PLA) with woven flax fibers (F) in the presence of mandelic acid, benzilic acid, dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and zein as dditives. To improve the mechanical properties...

  12. The Ohio Supported Employment Coordinating Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegel, David E.; Swanson, Sarah; Kola, Lenore A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio Supported Employment Coordinating Center of Excellence is a joint project of the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences and the Department of Psychiatry at Case Western Reserve University. The center is focused on helping to implement and evaluate evidence-based employment services provided to individuals with a severe mental illness.…

  13. On the excess photon noise in single-beam measurements with photo-emissive and photo-conductive cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this paper the so-called excess photon noise is theoretically considered with regard to noise power measurements with a single, illumined photo-emissive or photo-conductive cell. Starting from a modification of Mandel's stochastic association of the emission of photo-electrons with wave intensity

  14. Focused Feasibility Study Final Field Sampling Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Military Police (410) 671-2222/2628 Commissioned Officer Operations Francine Gordon JEG Project Manager (202) 789-7290 Wayne Mandell JEG Task Manager...1986 - March 1988. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 89-387, Towson , MD Oliveros, James P. and Don A, Vroblesky, 1989, Hydrology of the Canal

  15. Fiktiivne auhinnagala Lõuna-Prantsusmaal / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    6.-27. juuli - 61. Avignoni festival. Valitud etendusi Avignonist : Ariane Mnouchkine'i "Les Ephemeres", Faustin Linyekula "Dinosaurus", Fernardo Anuanga "Reis tulevikku", Sasha Waltz "insideout", Galin Stojevi "Genees nr 2", multimeediaalase kunsti- ja teatrigrupi Superamasi "Big 3rd episode. Happy/end", Guy Cassiersi "Mefisto for Ever", Krzysztof Warlikowski "Inglid Ameerikas", Raimund Hoghe tantsuetendus "36, Avenue Georges Mandel"

  16. A proposal for a feasible quantum-optical scheme to test for the existence of superluminal signals via quantum mechanical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamidas, Demetrios A

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a proposal from Greenberger [Physica Scripta T76, p.57 (1998) ] for superluminal signaling, and inspired by an experiment from Mandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, p.318 (1991) ] showing interference effects within multi-particle entanglement without coincidence detection, we propose a feasible quantum-optical scheme that purports to manifest the capacity for superluminal transfer of information between distant parties.

  17. Council Session

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    From face, 1st raw: Erich Lohrmann, Sergio Fubini, Léon Van Hove, John Adams (Directors-General), Paul Levaux (President of the Council) Hans-Otto Wüster, Franco Bonaudi, Robert Lévy-Mandel and 2nd raw, centre: Patrick Mollet, Eliane de Modzelewska, Jean-Marie Dufour

  18. Disgust and spider phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulkens, SAN; de Jong, Peter; Merckelbach, H

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four women with spider phobia and 45 nonphobic women completed the Disgust Questionnaire(DQ; P. Rozin, A. E. Fallen, & R. Mandell, 1984) and the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ; R. Klorman, T. C. Weerts, J. E. Hastings, B. G. Melamed, gr P. J. Lang, 1974). Participants also underwent behavio

  19. Prediction of Thermal Stress Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    high- performance liquid chromatographic method for the concurrent determination of the amine metabolites vanillylmandelic acid , 3-methoxy-4...rates of high and low groups under the seven experimental conditions ....... .................. ... 14 6 3-Methoxy, 4-Hydroxy mandelic acid excretion...17 9 11cxrovanrllic acid excretion rates of hiah and low groups under the seven e~xperrimnttil conditions

  20. Two-Photon Interference with the Type Ⅱ Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江云坤; 史保森; 李剑; 段开敏; 范晓锋; 郭光灿

    2001-01-01

    The two-photon polarized entangled state is generated from the type Ⅱ spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a femtosecond pulse. The two-photon interference is observed in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The high visibility of the interference is restored with narrow band interference filters placed in front of the detectors.

  1. 75 FR 12790 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County Gill, Merwyn C., House, 1385 El Mirador Dr., Pasadena, 09000176, Listed, 12/23... Ave. 64 on the E., La Loma Rd. on the N. including Poppy Peak Dr., Kaweah Dr., Cresthaven Dr... County Mandel, Mr. Fred L., Jr., House, 2479 Woodbridge La., Highland Park, 09001122, Listed, 12/22/09...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK060824 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060824 001-034-B04 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK104746 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104746 001-038-E07 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK103933 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103933 001-013-E11 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK062189 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062189 001-046-E08 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK060221 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060221 001-002-F07 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK061719 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061719 001-037-H12 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK241698 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241698 J065196B09 AY143338.1 AY143338 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK288014 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288014 J075120L13 AY143338.1 AY143338 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK059236 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059236 001-024-F01 AY143338.1 Pseudomonas putida mandelate racemase (mdlA), S-mandela...te dehydrogenase (mdlB), benzoylformate decarboxylase (mdlC), putative regulatory protein MdlX (mdlX), mandela

  11. 76 FR 63950 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Regional Offices: Midwest Region Office: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services, 10th Floor... the Regional Director, Midwest Region, Attn: Lisa Mandell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services, 5600 American Blvd. W., Suite 990,...

  12. 76 FR 63944 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... by U.S. Mail to the Regional Director, Attn: Lisa Mandell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological..., 10th Floor, Bloomington, MN 55437- 1458, (612/713-5350) and at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Field Office, 620 South Walker Street, Bloomington, IN 47403 (812/334-4261). Comments...

  13. A Controversial Role Model for Pakistani Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Mushtaq

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huda is a movement of Islamic education and reform with a dedicated female following in Pakistani cities. Its founder and leader is a woman, Dr. Farhat Hashmi, who has become a well-known public figure in Pakistan. This paper explores how Hashmi derives her authority, displays it, and defends it against challenges. Women who become active participants in her classes claim she transforms their understanding of Islam and inspires them to change their lives. However she is criticized by the secular-liberal elites of the country and by the traditional male leadership of Islamic institutions, who question her religious expertise and are uncomfortable with the role of both gender and class in this movement. This analysis highlights the collective interactions and organizational innovations through which Hashmi’s teachings acquire an authoritative status for selected women.

  14. Duality-based domain decomposition with natural coarse-space for variational inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Zdenek; Neto, Francisco A. M. Gomes; Santos, Sandra A.

    2000-12-01

    An efficient non-overlapping domain decomposition algorithm of Neumann-Neumann type for solving variational inequalities arising from the elliptic boundary value problems with inequality boundary conditions has been presented. The discretized problem is first turned by the duality theory of convex programming into a quadratic programming problem with bound and equality constraints and the latter is further modified by means of orthogonal projectors to the natural coarse space introduced recently by Farhat and Roux. The resulting problem is then solved by an augmented Lagrangian type algorithm with an outer loop for the Lagrange multipliers for the equality constraints and an inner loop for the solution of the bound constrained quadratic programming problems. The projectors are shown to guarantee an optimal rate of convergence of iterative solution of auxiliary linear problems. Reported theoretical results and numerical experiments indicate high numerical and parallel scalability of the algorithm.

  15. Experiments on elastic cloaking in thin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Manfred; Wegener, Martin

    2012-01-06

    Following a theoretical proposal [M. Farhat et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009)], we design, fabricate, and characterize a cloaking structure for elastic waves in 1 mm thin structured polymer plates. The cloak consists of 20 concentric rings of 16 different metamaterials, each being a tailored composite of polyvinyl chloride and polydimethylsiloxane. By using stroboscopic imaging with a camera from the direction normal to the plate, we record movies of the elastic waves for monochromatic plane-wave excitation. We observe good cloaking behavior for carrier frequencies in the range from 200 to 400 Hz (one octave), in good agreement with a complete continuum-mechanics numerical treatment. This system is thus ideally suited for demonstration experiments conveying the ideas of transformation optics.

  16. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseignement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  17. Enseignement technique : Séminaire de l'enseigement technique

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Mardi 4 mai 2004 SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE de 14:00 à 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium - bât. 593 Le SPC - Statistical Process Control - dans une démarche de qualité totale Hakim Bourahla, Maurice Arrius, Charbel Tannous - ABW Concept - F-74950 SCIONZIER, France Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique sera consacré à la présentation du SPC, le Statistical Process Control. Le SPC apporte une grande efficacité dans l'amélioration de la qualité des produits. Cette méthode, permettant d'assurer une qualité optimum à l'aide d'un outil statistique, est fondée sur deux concepts de base : le suivi et le pilotage des procédés industriels par cartes de contrôle, et l'étude des capabilités des systèmes de production. - Origine et objectifs du SPC - Concepts du ...

  18. Promoting inclusive education, civic scientific literacy, and global citizenship with videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Hayes, Michael T.

    2012-12-01

    In this response to Yupanqui Munoz and Charbel El-Hani's paper, "The student with a thousand faces: From the ethics in videogames to becoming a citizen", we examine their critique of videogames in science education. Munoz and El-Hani present a critical analysis of videogames such as Grand Theft Auto, Street Fight, Command and Conquer: Generals, Halo, and Fallout 3 using Neil Postman's (1993) conceptualization of technopoly along with Bill Green and Chris Bigum's (1993) notion of the cyborg curriculum. Our contention is that these games are not representative of current educational videogames about science, which hold the potential to enhance civic scientific literacy across a diverse range of students while promoting cross-cultural understandings of complex scientific concepts and phenomenon. We examine games that have undergone empirical investigation in general education science classrooms, such as River City, Quest Atlantis, Whyville, Resilient Planet, and You Make Me Sick!, and discuss the ways these videogames can engage students and teachers in a constructivist dialogue that enhances science education. Our critique extends Munoz and El-Hani's discussion through an examination of the ways videogames can enhance science education by promoting inclusive education, civic scientific literacy, and global citizenship.

  19. Universal Bound on Sampling Bosons in Linear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yung, Man-Hong; Huh, Joonsuk

    2016-01-01

    In linear optics, photons are scattered in a network through passive optical elements including beamsplitters and phase shifters, leading to many intriguing applications in physics, such as Mach-Zehnder interferometry, Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, and tests of fundamental quantum mechanics. Here we present a general analytic expression governing the upper limit of the transition amplitudes in sampling bosons, through all realizable linear optics. Apart from boson sampling, this transition bound results in many other interesting applications, including behaviors of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) in optical networks, counterparts of Hong-Ou-Mandel effects for multiple photons, and approximating permanents of matrices. Also, this general bound implies the existence of a polynomial-time randomized algorithm for estimating transition amplitudes of bosons, which represents a solution to an open problem raised by Aaronson and Hance in 2012.

  20. PYTRANSIT: fast and easy exoplanet transit modelling in PYTHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-07-01

    We present a fast and user friendly exoplanet transit light-curve modelling package PYTRANSIT, implementing optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models. The package offers an object-oriented PYTHON interface to access the two models implemented natively in FORTRAN with OpenMP parallelization. A partial OpenCL version of the quadratic Mandel-Agol model is also included for GPU-accelerated computations. The aim of PYTRANSIT is to facilitate the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations, as a part of a researcher's programming toolkit for building complex, problem-specific analyses.

  1. [The participation of pharmacists in the activities of the Society of Health of the town of Nancy (1796-1806)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    Revolution having suppressed the universities and constitution of year III having authorized citizens to form free societies, a "Society of health of the town of Nancy" was formed in 1795-1796. Its aims were the teaching of medicine and pharmacy students, the diffusion of knowledges, the help to poors and the protection of health. Two pharmacists, Willemet and Mandel, were among the founders; they were joined by Nicolas, formerly professor at the faculty of médicine. All three became professors at the society. Mandel was the author of numerous studies and Willemet remained some years as a member of the board of the society which disappeared in 1806-1807. The Society was a hyphen between old and new structures, and the presence and activity of our fellows were significative.

  2. Noncommutative $q$-photon added coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    We construct the photon added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a $q$-deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher order quadrature squeezing, namely the Hillery-type and the Hong--Mandel-type and, second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. By comparing our results with those of the usual harmonic oscillator, we notice that the quadratures and photon number distributions in noncommutative case are more squeezed for the same values of the parameters and, thus, the photon added coherent states of noncommutative harmonic oscillator may be more nonclassical in comparison to the ordinary harmonic oscillator.

  3. Generation and characterization of high-purity, pulsed squeezed light at telecom wavelengths from pp-KTP

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrits, Thomas; Baek, Burm; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Hadfield, Robert H; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P; Dorenbos, Sander; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Zwiller, Val

    2011-01-01

    We characterize a periodically poled KTP crystal designed to produce pure single-mode squeezed vacuum at 1570 nm. The type II downconversion is designed to produce two entangled squeezed modes with orthogonal polarizations but nearly identical factorizable spatio-temporal modes. Measurements show a raw (corrected) Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with 86 % (95 %) visibility and a nearly circular joint spectral probability distribution when spectral filtering with 8.6 nm bandwidth is applied. We use superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors to measure the joint spectral probability distribution, and use photon-number-resolving transition-edge sensors to perform Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiments. Both types of detectors are used to measure second-order correlations: the nanowire detectors with time-domain histogramming, and the transition-edge sensors by directly measuring the photon-number probability distribution. Results from these two very different techniques are in good agreement.

  4. 单量子点在连续外场激发下发射光子性质的理论研究%Photon emission of single quantum dot driven by continuous external field studied by using the generating function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇刚; 张西忠; 张兆玉; 郑雨军

    2010-01-01

    用最近所发展的产生函数(generating function)理论方法研究了单量子点在连续外场作用下光子发射的性质:光子发射强度,Mandel Q参数以及X与Y偏振光子之间的关联在不同激发场强下随激发光场偏振方向的变化性质:在弱场激发下,激发场的强度决定了发射光子的特性;在强光场激发下,发射光子,Mandel Q参数和X偏振以及Y偏振光子的关联都表现出比较复杂的非线性现象.

  5. Superposition of excited coherent states and their non-classical properties%叠加激发相干态及其非经典特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝海江

    2010-01-01

    构造由两个强度相同、相位互为共轭的激发相干态叠加而成的叠加激发相干态,计算该叠加态的Wigner函数、二阶相干度及Mandel Q因子,并据此分析其非经典特性.结果表明,叠加激发相干态的Wigner函数出现负值,其二阶相干度及Mandel Q因子均小于1,说明叠加激发相干态的准概率分布出现负值,其光场具有反聚束效应,光场的光子数分布呈亚泊松分布.该叠加态是具有非经典特性的量子态.

  6. Photon statistics measurement by use of single photon detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Liantuan; JIANG Yuqiang; ZHAO Yanting; YIN Wangbao; ZHAO Jianming; JIA Suotang

    2004-01-01

    The direct measurement of the Mandel para- meter of weak laser pulses, with 10 ns pulse duration time and the mean number of photon per pulsebeing approximately 0.1, is investigated by recording every photocount event. With the Hanbury Brown and Twiss detection scheme, and not more than one photon per pulse being detected during the sample time by single-photon counters, we have found that the single mode diode laser with driving current lower than the threshold yields a sub-Poissonian statistics. In addition, when the diode laser driving current is much higher than the threshold, it is validated that the Mandel parameter QC of the Poissonian coherent state is nearly The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical prediction considering the measurement error.

  7. 光抽运多光子激光的腔内和输出光子噪声压缩%Intracavity and Output Squeezing of Photon Noise in Driven Multi photon Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡响明; 熊春; 孙国勇

    2000-01-01

    采用Scully- Lamb量子理论,计算了受驱动多光子激光的Mandel Q因子和输出噪声谱.对于腔内噪声,多光子激光与单光子一样,Mandel Q因子均可达到-1/2,对应50 %的压缩. 但是对于腔外噪声,k光子激光的输出噪声谱只能达到k/(k+1),随k 的增加而增加.这标志着单光子、双光子、三光子和四光子激光的输出压缩程度依次为50 %、33 %、25 %和20 %.

  8. 8th Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the period June 13-16,2001. This volume contains the proceedings of the meeting. The meeting was preceded by an affiliated conference, the International Conference on Quantum Information, with some overlapping sessions on June 13. The proceedings of the affiliated conference will be published separately by the Optical Society of America. A few papers that were presented in common plenary sessions of the two conferences will be published in both proceedings volumes. More than 268 scientists from 28 countries participated in the week long discussions and presentations. This Conference differed from the previous seven in the CQO series in several ways, the most important of which was the absence of Leonard Mandel. Professor Mandel died a few months before the conference. A special memorial symposium in his honor was held at the end of the conference. The presentations from that sym...

  9. PyTransit: Fast and Easy Exoplanet Transit Modelling in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast and user friendly exoplanet transit light curve modelling package PyTransit, implementing optimised versions of the Gimen\\'ez and the Mandel & Agol transit models. The package offers an object-oriented Python interface to access the two models implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelisation. A partial OpenCL version of the quadratic Mandel-Agol model is also included for GPU-accelerated computations. The aim of PyTransit is to facilitate the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of datapoints, and of multi-passband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations, as a part of a researcher's programming toolkit for building complex, problem-specific, analyses.

  10. CAUSAL SELECTION AND COUNTERFACTUAL REASONING/ SELECCIÓN CAUSAL Y RAZONAMIENTO CONTRAFACTUAL/ SELEÇÃO CAUSAL E RACIOCÍNIO CONTRAFACTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jiménez-Leal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the view that counterfactual thinking depends on our causal representation of the world, and in this sense, I argue that causal and counterfactual reasoning are tightly linked. I offer some criticisms and experimental evidence against Mandel's judgement dissociation theory (Mandel, 2003b, which claims functional independence between the process of causal selection and counterfactual reasoning in the context of causal selection. In the experiments described, I manipulated some elements of the semantics of the task to show the cases in which dissociation between causal and counterfactual reasoning does not occur. In Experiment 1, the level of description of the target event is manipulated in a list generation and rating task. Experiment 2 replicates Experiment 1 findings using an alternative coding system, whereas Experiment 3 does the same using an alternative answer format. The results of the experiments support the picture of causal understanding proposed by the causal mental models.

  11. Measurement of Ultra-Short Single-Photon Pulse Duration with Two-Photon Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Fan; SUN Fang-Wen; ZOU Chang-Ling; HAN Zheng-Fu; GUO Guang-Can

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a protocol of measuring the duration of ultra-short single-photon pulse with two-photon interference.The pulse duration can be obtained from the width of the visibility of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference or the indistinguishability of the two photons. Moreover, the shape of a single-photon pulse can be measured with ultra-short single-photon pulses through the two-photon interference.%@@ We proposed a protocol of measuring the duration of ultra-short single-photon pulse with two-photon interference.The pulse duration can be obtained from the width of the visibility of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference or the indistinguishability of the two photons.Moreover, the shape of a single-photon pulse can be measured with ultra-short single-photon pulses through the two-photon interference.

  12. Tartu dioodiküpsetajad said rahasüsti / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. märts lk. 8. Netisuhtlusfirma Skype eestlastest loojad investeerivad 25 miljonit krooni Tartu kõrgtehnoloogiafirmasse Clifton, et alustada kõrgsageduslike pooljuhtlülitite masstootmist elektroonikatööstuse tarbeks. Diagramm: Cliftoni omanikud. Vt. samas: Väinu Rozental, Meelis Mandel. Suletud Clifton avas ukse; Aktiivseim rahapaigutaja Skype'i-poistest Toivo Annus

  13. A version of Hill's lemma for Cosserat continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xikui Li; Qipeng Liu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hill's lemma for classical Cauchy continuum, a version of Hill's lemma for micro-macro homogenization modeling of heterogeneous Cosserat continuum is presented in the frame of average-field theory. The admissible boundary conditions required to prescribe on the representative volume element for the modeling are extracted and discussed to ensure the satisfaction of HillMandel energy condition and the first-order average field theory.

  14. Automated Dental Epidemiology System. I. Preliminary Investigation and Literature Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    personnel contacted concerning the inadequacy of DIRS for regional and clinical management. There also was skepticism regarding the prognosis of any...for Prevalence and Incidence of Periodontal Disease. T. Periodontol. 30:51, 1959. 24. WHO. Standardization of Reporting of Dental Diseases and...264, 1982. 58. wirthlin, M. R., Hancock, E. B., Cecil, J. C. and Mandel, E. J. Periodontal Disease Among Naval Recruits. Naval Dental Research Institute

  15. The Role of Polymerase Gamma Mutations in Breast Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Saada A, Shaag A, Mandel A, Nevo Y, Eriksson S, Elpeleg O. Mutant mitochondrial thymidine kinase in mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy . Nat. Genet...Functional defects due to spacer-region mutations of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase in a family with an ataxia- myopathy syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet...polymerase gamma (POLG) have led to depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mutations in mtDNA. This proposal seeks to determine the effect of POLG

  16. Recognition Interactions of Metal-complexing Imprinted Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LIU; Guo Sheng DING; Jun De WANG

    2005-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer, exhibiting considerable enantioselectivity for L-mandelic acid, was prepared using metal coordination-chelation interaction. By evaluating the recognition characteristics in the chromatographic mode, the recognition interactions were proposed: specific and nonspecific metal coordination-chelation interaction and hydrophobic interaction were responsible for substrate binding on metal-complexing imprinted polymer; while the selective recognition only came from specific metal coordination-chelation interaction and specific hydrophobic interaction.

  17. Along the Pawnee Trail: Cultural Resource Survey and Testing at Wilson Lake, Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    less than for precipitation. The mean annual temperature is 13 degrees Centigrade or 55 degrees Farenheit . The average daily temperature in January is -2...degrees Centigrade or 29 degrees Farenheit , and in July it is 27 degrees Centigrade or 81 degrees Farenheit (Mandel 1985: figure 3-6). The growing...eastward over former mixed grass prairie range (Albertson and Weaver 1945: 451 ). In a later report (1957: 27) they reported that the drought also caused a

  18. A new 4-oxazolidinone from Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. is known as invasive weed in the world . In this paper we report three rare natural products from this weed. The compounds include a new rare natural product 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-4-oxazolidinone (1, and two other known mandelic acid derivatives, ethyl 4-hydroxymandelate (2 and 4-hydroxymandelamide (3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis (MS, IR, 1H, 13C NMR and 2D NMR.

  19. Rozanov and the Word

    OpenAIRE

    Dimbleby, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    The thesis is an attempt to relate aspects of Rozanov's writing to the Russian tradition of the word, as exemplified in the work of writers and thinkers, contemporary and near-contemporary to Rozanov. The first part establishes key features of this tradition through the work of writers such as Ern, Losev, Mandel'shtam and Averintsev. The relevance of Bakhtin for a reading of Rozanov, and of Rozanov for reading Bakhtin, is argued through an extended comparison of the tw...

  20. On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II) bisphosphinite complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2006-11-01

    Palladium and platinum complexes of bisphosphinites and bisphosphines derived from mandelic acid have been prepared and characterized. Their ability to catalyze allylation of imines with allyltributylstannane has been studied. Bisphophinite complexes of Pd (II) are shown to be ideal and they work best in the presence of one equivalent of water. The near neutral conditions employed make the catalysts suitable for a wide variety of substrates.

  1. Teleportation Physics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    1983; Aspect and Grangier , 1985; Hong and Mandel, 1985; Bennett and Wiesner, 1992; Tittel et al., 1998a, b; Tittel and Weihs, 2001) demonstrated...1804-1807 16. Aspect, A., Grangier , P. and Roger, G. (1982b), “Experimental Realization of Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment: A New...Violation of Bell’s Inequalities,” Phys. Rev. Letters, 49, 91 17. Aspect, A. and Grangier , P. (1985), Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 43, 345 18

  2. A Caltech MURI Center for Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    1470 (1997). 6. Grangier , P., Walls, D. F. & Gheri, K. M. Comment on “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833...Kimble, M. Dagenais, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691 (1977). 9. P. Grangier , G. Roger, A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986). 10. F. Diedrich, H...Lett. 86, 1502 (2001). 15. R. Brouri, A. Beveratos, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grangier , Opt. Lett. 25, 1294 (2000). 16. C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, H

  3. A New Type Guide Device of Pipe Mill Inlet%一种新型的轧管机入口台导向装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduce the structure and designing characteristics of a advanced pipe mill inlet were introduced. The advanced pipe mill inlet can be effectively checked mandel shake.%介绍了一种新型的斜轧轧管机入口台及其导向装置的结构和设计特点,该新型的轧管机入口台结构能够有效遏制芯棒的甩动。

  4. Detecting drift of quantum sources: not the de Finetti theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    We propose and analyze a method to detect and characterize the drift of a nonstationary quantum source. It generalizes a standard measurement for detecting phase diffusion of laser fields to quantum systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimension, qubits in particular. We distinguish diffusive and systematic drifts, and examine how quickly one can determine that a source is drifting. We show that for single-photon wavepackets our measurement is implemented by the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  5. Detecting the Drift of Quantum Sources: Not the de Finetti Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lucia; van Enk, S. J.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and analyze a method to detect and characterize the drift of a nonstationary quantum source. It generalizes a standard measurement for detecting phase diffusion of laser fields to quantum systems of arbitrary Hilbert space dimension, qubits in particular. We distinguish diffusive and systematic drifts, and examine how quickly one can determine that a source is drifting. We show that for single-photon wave packets our measurement is implemented by the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  6. The Electrophysiologic Mechanisms of Halogenated Alkane Arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    inward sodium current which is large enough to cause further depolarization and the rapid phase 0 upstroke (Mandel, 1960). Since none of the treatments...background inward sodium current . Purkinje fiber dV/dt is determined by the intensity of the sodium j inward current which is dependent upon the size of...1211 may have been caused by a partial inhibition of the rapid opening of fast sodium channels. The rapid sodium current that is responsible for the

  7. Electrochemical Reduction of Benzoylformic Acid in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆嘉星; 孙茜; 何鸣元

    2003-01-01

    Ionic Hquids possess a number of unique properties that makethem ideal electrolytes. Electrochical reduction of benzoyl-formic acid in room temperature ionic liquids as reaction media could be conducted with excellent performances without any ad-ditional supporting electrolyte. Electrolysis at glassy carbon electrode results in the formation of mandelic acid in 91% yield. And the electrochemical behavior of benzoylformic acid was investigated with the technique of cyclic voltammetry.

  8. Design Review Improvements Product Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Boeing Anne Ramsey, Harris Corporation Ronald H. Mandel, Lockheed Martin Mark King, Micropac Industries Melanie Berg , NASA Cindy Kohlmiller...Improvements Topic • Design escapes continue to impact program cost, schedule and mission performance • Our design review and development test programs...for and conduct design reviews – Surveyed team member companies – 49 test cases – Reviewed Aerospace on-orbit anomaly data (Classified) – 121 test cases

  9. 非简谐振子广义Klauder-Perelomov相干态及其性质%Generalized Klauder-Perelomov coherent state of the anharmonic oscillator and their properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程衍富; 姚文俊

    2004-01-01

    利用Kinani-Daoud方法构造了非简谐振子势的广义Klauder-Perelomov相干态.讨论了该相干态的完备性和Hilbert空间的性质.对KP相干态的Mandel Q参数的研究表明,其服从超泊松分布.在某种条件下量子态呈现反聚束和正交压缩效应.

  10. THE SERIES SOLUTION FOR BIOT CONSOLIDATION OF SPHERICAL SOIL SAMPLES%圆球土样Biot固结的级数解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪多辙

    2003-01-01

    给出了圆球土样Biot固结的封闭级数解,该解由满足非齐次边界条件的弹性力学解与满足齐次边界条件的渗流拟动态解的叠加构成.通过算例,探讨了圆球土样的Biot固结规律和影响Mandel-Cryer效应的因素.

  11. Reach of Environmental Influences on the Indistinguishability of Single Photons from Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Tobias; Föger, Daniel; Solomon, Glenn; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we present a detailed, all optical study of the influence of different excitation schemes on the indistinguishability of single photons from a single InAs quantum dot. For this study, we measure the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of consecutive photons from the spontaneous emission of an InAs quantum dot state under various excitation schemes and different excitation conditions and give a comparison.

  12. Non-classical interference in integrated 3D multiports

    CERN Document Server

    Meany, Thomas; Gross, Simon; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Withford, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate three and four input multiports in a three dimensional glass platform, fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is observed and a full quantum characterisation is performed, obtaining two photon correlation matrices for all combinations of input and output ports. For the three-port case, the quantum visibilities are accurately predicted solely from measurement of the classical coupling ratios.

  13. Multiphoton Interference in Quantum Fourier Transform Circuits and Applications to Quantum Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Li, Yuan; Rohde, Peter P.; Huang, He-Liang; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Quantum Fourier transforms (QFTs) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here, we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observe the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploit number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrate optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.

  14. Minimum Uncertainty States for Number-Difference-Phase Uncertainty Relationin NFM Operational Phase Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; SUN Zhi-Hu

    2000-01-01

    For the Noh, Fougères and Mandel (NFM) operational quantum phase description, which is based on an eightport homodyne-detection, we derive the minimum uncertainty states for the number-difference-phase uncertainty relation. The derivation makes full use of the newly constructed |q, τ) representation which is the common eigenvector of the two-mode photon number-difference a+a -b+b and (a + b+)(a+ + b)

  15. Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2010-08-01

    We report an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state. The photon-number-path entangled state is prepared by means of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is of truly quantum mechanical origin as it comes from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test.

  16. Lightning Injury: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike have been reported [65,68]. Other neuro-otologic findings have included transient vertigo...Keraunopathology. An analysis of 45 fatalities. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1996;17(2):89–98. [7] Blumenthal R. Lightning fatalities on the South African...Trauma 1989;29(5):665–71. [65] Sun GH, Simons JP, Mandell DL. Bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike: a case report. Laryngoscope

  17. Assessment of diagnostic methods in adrenal gland hemorrhage in neonates on the basis of own material from the years 2007–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Postek, Grzegorz; Streich, Hanna; Narębski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Summary We analyzed a group of nine neonates diagnosed with adrenal gland hemorrhage in the years 2007–2011, to evaluate diagnostic methods. We assessed risk factors and factors predisposing to hemorrhage. Severe and moderate perinatal hypoxia was found in 5 cases, while sepsis in 4 cases. Three patients had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. All patients underwent ultrasound examination and color Doppler US. Their levels of vanillyl-mandelic acid in 24-h urine collection were normal. A complete r...

  18. CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Sometimes in English sometimes in French. Synthesis film of series of films about SPS produced by CERN. De Raad, beam transfer. Surveying for placement of SPS. Gervaise. La Robbins. Levy Mandel, construction of tunnel. Surveying for installation of elements of the accelerator. Billings, magnet system, classes of errors, properties of the steel used in magnets, bending strength. Precision measurements. Magnet assembly. Discussion kicker magnets. Beam extraction system. Beam transfer and splitting system. Beam dump.

  19. Correction to the detector-dead-time effect on the second-order correlation of stationary sub-Poissonian light in a two-detector configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, Byoung-moo; Kim, Junki; Yang, Daeho; An, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    Exact measurement of the second-order correlation function g^(2)(t) of a light source is essential when investigating the photon statistics and the light generation process of the source. For a stationary single-mode light source, Mandel Q factor is directly related to g^(2)(0). For a large mean photon number in the mode, the deviation of g^(2)(0) from unity is so small that even a tiny error in measuring g^(2)(0) would result in an inaccurate Mandel Q. In this work, we have found that detector dead time can induce a serious error in g^(2)(0) and thus in Mandel Q in those cases even in a two-detector configuration. Our finding contradicts the conventional understanding that detector dead time would not affect g^(2)(t) in two-detector configurations. Utilizing the cavity-QED microlaser, a well-established sub-Poissonian light source, we measured g^(2)(0) with two different types of photodetectors with different dead time. We also introduced prolonged dead time by intentionally deleting the photodetection event...

  20. Driven Correlated-Emission Laser: Two-Mode Sub-Poissonian Light%受驱动的关联发射激光:双模亚泊松光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡响明; 彭金生

    1999-01-01

    如果在关联发射的基础之上再引入原子相干, 这样的系统可产生明亮的双模亚泊松光. 运用Scully-Lamb理论计算Mandel Q因子, 一方面, 当相对相位和相对振幅的量子噪声被抑制到真空噪声水平时, 平均模呈现亚泊松光子分布; 或者当平均相位和平均振幅的量子噪声被抑制到真空噪声水平时, 相对模呈现亚泊松光子分布, Mandel Q因子的最佳值均可达到-0.5. 在上述两种情况下, 每个关联发射激光(CEL)模呈现亚泊松光子分布, Mandel Q因子的最佳值均可达到-0.25.

  1. Investigação de disfunção miccional em uma amostra populacional de crianças de 3 a 9 anos Investigation of voiding dysfunction in a population-based sample of children aged 3 to 9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M. Mota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os hábitos miccionais e suas disfunções em uma amostra populacional de crianças de 3 a 9 anos. MÉTODOS: Delineamento transversal, incluindo 580 crianças. Uma amostra probabilística de domicílios da zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas (RS foi selecionada em múltiplos estágios. Os hábitos miccionais e fecais foram avaliados com o escore de disfunção miccional proposto por Farhat et al. e modificado pela equipe de pesquisa com acréscimo do sintoma freqüência urinária superior a oito vezes ao dia. Os meninos com pontuação maior que oito e as meninas com pontuação maior que cinco foram reavaliados clinicamente, assim como uma subamostra dos demais. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas miccionais mais freqüentes foram noctúria (60,4%, urgência miccional (49,7% e manobras de contenção (42,1%. A prevalência de enurese foi de 20,1% em meninos e 15,1% em meninas. A prevalência de disfunção miccional pelo escore Farhat et al. foi de 24,2%. A maioria dos sintomas foi mais freqüente entre as meninas e entre crianças mais jovens. As meninas de nível econômico baixo apresentaram maior freqüência de enurese e força para urinar, enquanto que, entre os meninos, a urgência miccional foi mais comum entre os mais pobres. Apenas 10,5% dos pais de crianças com disfunção haviam levado seu filho ao médico por causa dos sintomas. CONCLUSÕES: Os sintomas miccionais apresentam prevalências altas e devem ser investigados ativamente nas consultas de rotina, com perguntas diretas sobre cada sintoma isoladamente, objetivando o diagnóstico de disfunção miccional.OBJECTIVE: To describe voiding patterns and related dysfunctions in a population-based sample of children aged 3 to 9 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey including 580 children. A probabilistic sample of households in the urban area of Pelotas in southern Brazil was selected following a multiple-stage protocol. Voiding and fecal patterns were

  2. Quantum dynamics of a BEC interacting with a single-mode quantized field in the presence of interatom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemian, E. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavassoly, M.K., E-mail: mktavassoly@yazd.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, we consider a model in which N two-level atoms in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) interact with a single-mode quantized laser field. Our goal is to investigate the quantum dynamics of atoms in the BEC in the presence of interatom interactions. To achieve the purpose, at first, using the collective angular momentum operators, we try to reduce the dynamical Hamiltonian of the system to a well-known Jaynes–Cummings like model (JCM). We also use the Dicke model to construct the state of atomic subsystem, by which the analytical solution of the system may be obtained. Then, we analyze the atomic population inversion, the degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” as well as the Mandel parameter. Numerical results show that, the atomic population inversion, atom-field entanglement and quantum statistics of photons are very sensitive to the evolved parameters in the model (and so can be well-adjusted), such as the number of atoms in BEC, the intensity of initial field, the interatom coupling constant and detuning. To investigate the entanglement properties, we pay attention to the entropy and linear entropy. It is shown that, oscillations in the two entropy criteria may be seen, with some maxima of entanglement at some moments of time. Finally, looking for the quantum statistics, we evaluate the Mandel parameter, by which we demonstrate the sub-Poissonian statistics and so the nonclassical characteristics of the field state of system. Collapse-revival phenomenon, which is a distinguishable nonclassical characteristic of the system, can be apparently observed in the atomic population inversion and the Mandel parameter. - Highlights: • N two-level atoms in a BEC interacting with a laser field in the presence of interatom interactions is considered. • The atomic population inversion, degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” and the Mandel parameter are investigated. • Collapse

  3. Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Use, Gender, and Learning Achievement: a Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive language learning strategies (MLLS and gender and achievement of EFL students. Metacognitive language learning strategies are crucial for students of English as a foreign language to learn effectively. The theoretical issues discuss metacognitive language learning strategies in particular, and language learning strategies (LLS in general. The practical research took place at the English language department at Farhat Abbes University, Sétif, Algeria, with third year students learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between metacognitive language learning strategies use and achievement. Two main parts following a qualitative design constitute the body of the present research. The first part uses the Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MLLSQ to account for differences in the reported frequency of metacognitive strategies use across all the students, and across gender differences. The second part uses interviews to account for the use of these strategies at the individual level, in their relation to the students’ gender and achievement in language learning. The results of the first part revealed a significant use of metacognitive strategies among all the students and significant differences between male students and female students in the frequency of use of these strategies. Moreover, the results of the second part reflected more significant differences in the use of Metacognitive strategies at the level of gender and learning achievement. The study concludes by bringing together key findings and some suggestions for further research.

  4. [Epidemiological and bacteriological characteristics of uropathogen bacteria isolated in a pediatric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, A; Mkaddemi, H; Tilouche, S; Marzouk, M; Hannechi, N; Boughammoura, L; Boukadida, J

    2011-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is a grave pathology, which requires a fast and effective care. Bacteriological and epidemiological data play a determining role in patient's care. We report a retrospective study, which spreads out from January 1st till August 31st, 2009, having concerned hospitalized children for urinary infection in pediatrics service of Farhat Hached teaching hospital in Sousse. Our series contained 51 children with a sex ratio of 0.76, an average age of 32 months. The majority of cases was pyelonephritis (94.1%). A pathology is associated with the urinary infection in 41.2%. Three cases of vesico-ureteral reflux were noted. The diagnosis of urinary infection was confirmed by cytobacteriological exam of urine (CBEU). Enterobacteriacea were isolated in 96.1%. Escherichia coli remains the most often isolated (80.4%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.8%) then by Proteus mirabilis (5.9%). E. coli was resistant to amoxicillin in 78% of cases, to the association amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in 64,8%, to cephalosporins of 3(rd) generation (C3G) in 5% and to cotrimoxazole in 51%. No K. pneumoniae or P. mirabilis strain was resistant to C3G. UTI in children is always an indication for CBEU realization at first intention. The results of this exam are very important considering the diversity of the responsible bacteria and the growing frequency of acquired antibiotic resistance.

  5. Systemic neonatal candidosis: the karyotyping of Candida albicans strains isolated from neonates and health-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdeljelil, J; Ben Saida, N; Saghrouni, F; Fathallah, A; Boukadida, J; Sboui, H; Ben Said, M

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of the present study was to compare C. albicans strains isolated from neonates (NN) suffering from systemic candidosis and from nurses in order to determine the relatedness between NN and health workers' strains. Thirty-one C. albicans strains were isolated from 18 NN admitted to the NICU of the neonatology service of Farhat Hached Hospital of Sousse, Tunisia and suffering from systemic candidosis, together with five strains recovered from nurses suffering from C. albicans onychomycosis. Two additional strains were tested, one from an adult patient who developed a systemic candidosis and the second from an adult with inguinal intertrigo. All strains were karyotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with a CHEF-DR II system. Analysis of PFGE patterns yielded by the 38 strains tested led to the identification of three pulsotypes that were designated I, II and III, and consisted of six chromosomal bands with a size ranging from 700 to >2500 kbp. The most widespread was the pulsotype I, which was shared by 17 NN and the five nurses' strains. The identity between NN and nurses' strains is very suggestive of a nosocomial acquisition from health-workers.

  6. Temporal similarity between Candida albicans genotypes in a Tunisian neonatal intensive care unit suggests several nosocomial cross-contamination episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdeljelil, Jihene; Saghrouni, Fatma; Cabaret, Odile; Boukadida, Jalel; Bretagne, Stéphane; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2012-07-01

    The nosocomial transmission of Candida albicans in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is an increasing concern and understanding the route of this transmission is critical for adequate infection control measures. The aim of our study was to assess the likeliness of nosocomial acquisition of C. albicans in the NICU of Farhat Hached hospital in Sousse (Tunisia). We genotyped 82 isolates from 40 neonates and 7 isolates from 5 health care workers (HCWs) with onychomycosis, by using CDC3 microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and the high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Combined MLP and HRM CD3 analysis led to the delineation of 12 genotypes. Five temporal clustering caused by five genotypes occurred during the study period. Three of these genotypes were isolated in both neonates and HCWs. The first clustering included 28 isolates obtained between January 2003 and May 2004 from 16 neonates and 2 HCWs. The second clustering included three isolates collected in 2004 from three neonates and two HCWs. The third clustering included 11 isolates obtained from 6 neonates and 1 HCW in 2006. The two remaining clustering could not be associated with any HCW's contamination. These results argue for the nosocomial transmission of C. albicans in our NICU. The combined MLP and HRM analysis is a rapid first approach for tracking cross-contamination.

  7. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Climente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  8. A one-level FETI method for the drift–diffusion-Poisson system with discontinuities at an interface

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    A 3d feti method for the drift-diffusion-Poisson system including discontinuities at a 2d interface is developed. The motivation for this work is to provide a parallel numerical algorithm for a system of PDEs that are the basic model equations for the simulation of semiconductor devices such as transistors and sensors. Moreover, discontinuities or jumps in the potential and its normal derivative at a 2d surface are included for the simulation of nanowire sensors based on a homogenized model. Using the feti method, these jump conditions can be included with the usual numerical properties and the original Farhat-Roux feti method is extended to the drift-diffusion-Poisson equations including discontinuities. We show two numerical examples. The first example verifies the correct implementation including the discontinuities on a 2d grid divided into eight subdomains. The second example is 3d and shows the application of the algorithm to the simulation of nanowire sensors with high aspect ratios. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the drift-diffusion-Poisson system with jump conditions are solved on a 3d grid with real-world boundary conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc..

  9. Occurrence of Corynebacterium striatum as an emerging antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogen in a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibi, Sana; Ferjani, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel; Cano, María Eliecer; Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navas, Jesús

    2017-08-28

    Corynebacterium striatum is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen increasingly associated with a wide range of human infections and is often resistant to several antibiotics. We investigated the susceptibility of 63 C. striatum isolated at the Farhat-Hached hospital, Sousse (Tunisia), during the period 2011-2014, to a panel of 16 compounds belonging to the main clinically relevant classes of antimicrobial agents. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin. Amikacin and gentamicin also showed good activity (MICs90 = 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively). High rates of resistance to penicillin (82.5%), clindamycin (79.4%), cefotaxime (60.3%), erythromycin (47.6%), ciprofloxacin (36.5%), moxifloxacin (34.9%), and rifampicin (25.4%) were observed. Fifty-nine (93.7%) out of the 63 isolates showed resistance to at least one compound and 31 (49.2%) were multidrug-resistant. Twenty-nine resistance profiles were distinguished among the 59 resistant C. striatum. Most of the strains resistant to fluoroquinolones showed a double mutation leading to an amino acid change in positions 87 and 91 in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene. The 52 strains resistant to penicillin were positive for the gene bla, encoding a class A β-lactamase. Twenty-two PFGE patterns were identified among the 63 C. striatum, indicating that some clones have spread within the hospital.

  10. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wassim Farhat, Rechdi Ahdab, Hassan HosseiniService de Neurologie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, APHP, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris XII, Créteil, FranceAbstract: Internal carotid artery (ICA agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also present as cerebrovascular accidents. The association with Horner’s syndrome is exceptional. We present three cases of agenesis of ICA associated with Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum presenting as focal neurological symptoms. A system of collaterals develops as a consequence of agenesis of the ICA, making the majority of cases asymptomatic. Three types of collateral circulations have been described. These collaterals increase the risk of aneurysm formation and the occurrence of life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhages. The association of congenital Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum without anhidrosis is highly suggestive of sympathetic pathway injury early in life. Such signs should prompt further diagnostic evaluation to demonstrate the presence of the agenesis of the carotid canal. Early diagnosis is essential to rule out potentially life-threatening associated vascular anomalies.Keywords: carotid artery agenesis, Horner’s syndrome, heterochromia iridum

  11. Suicide and Fire: A 20-Year Study of Self-Immolation Death in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Maher; Cherif El Khal, Mohamed; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Yassine Brahem, Mohamed; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Zemni, Majed; Kamel Souguir, Mohamed

    2016-11-15

    Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia. A total of 41 cases were collected, of which 23 were men (56%). The mean age was 36.1 years. Prior to 2011, 78.9% of the victims of self-immolation were women and after 2011, 86.4% were men. The rural origin of the victims was found in 56.25% of the cases. History of psychiatric illness was found in four individuals. The self-immolation took place in the victims' homes in 19 cases (46.3%). It came after a conjugal or family conflict in 14 cases (34.1%) and it is of protest character in 8 cases (19.5%). This study confirmed the increasing frequency of self-immolation in Tunisia after the 2011 revolution and noted a change in the victims' profiles.

  12. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climente, Alfonso; Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009)] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012)]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  14. Quantum properties of the field in the system of two atoms trapped in coupled cavities%原子与耦合腔相互作用系统中光场的量子特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴道永

    2012-01-01

    研究了耦合腔A和B中各囚禁一个二能级原子的情况,给出了总激发数为2时系统态矢的演化。采用数值计算方法研究了腔场的反聚束效应和亚泊松分布等量子特性的演化规律。讨论了原子的选择性测量和腔场间的耦合强度变化对腔场量子特性的影响。研究结果表明:腔场的反聚束效应和亚泊松分布随腔场间耦合系数变化存在非线性关系。另一方面,采用选择原子测量方法可增强腔场A的亚泊松分布的性质。%We study the two-excitation system comprising two two-level atoms resonantly interacting with two coupled cavities.The evolution of the state vector of the system is given.By means of the numerical calculations,we investigate the evolution of the second-order correlation function of the field and that of Mandel Q function.The influences of coupling constant between cavities and state-selective measurement of the atom on the second-order correlation function and Mandel Q function are discussed.The results obtained show that the second-order correlation function or Mandel Q function has a nonlinear relation with increasing of the cavity-cavity coupling coefficient.On the other hand,the sub-Poissonian distribution of the field can be strengthened through the state-selective measurement on the atom.

  15. Plano X mercado na história do pensamento econômico: quatro rodadas de um grande debate

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    A bancarrota das burocracias do Leste Europeu contribuiu para uma retomada de debates em torno da possibilidade (ou impossibilidade) de uma transição ao socialismo. O objetivo deste artigo é resenhar os aspectos principais de quatro rodadas: o debate do cálculo econômico no socialismo (Barone, Mises, Hayek e Lange); plano e mercado na industrialização na Rússia (Preobrazhesnky e Bukarin); plano, mercado e democracia na crise da URSS (Nove, Mandel e Elson) e socialismo de mercado (Roemer, Wrig...

  16. Capital-imperialismo e neoliberalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Campagnaro, Yuri Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O marxismo interpreta o imperialismo desde Hilferding, com sua análise do capital financeiro em 1910. Lenin sintetizou o primeiro debate, caracterizando o imperialismo como uma nova fase do capitalismo, com monopólios e maior centralização do capital. O debate se estende à década de 1970 com Mandel, que identificou uma alteração na morfologia do capital de então. Os autores contemporâneos debatem o período do capitalismo após os anos 1970, entre eles David Harvey e Virgínia Fontes. Ch...

  17. In-plane emission of indistinguishable photons generated by an integrated quantum emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliakos, Sokratis; Schwagmann, Andre; Bennett, Anthony J; Ward, Martin B; Ellis, David J P; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of indistinguishable photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an InAs quantum dot. The emitter is integrated in the waveguiding region of a photonic crystal structure, allowing for on-chip light propagation. We perform a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type of experiment with photons collected from the exit of the waveguide and we observe two-photon interference under continuous wave excitation. Our results pave the way for the integration of quantum emitters in advanced photonic quantum circuits.

  18. Procurements by the Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare Program Through the Environmental Technologies Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-14

    Audit Program Director, (703) 692-3179 (DSN 222-3179), or Ms. Kimberley A. Caprio , Audit Project Manager, (703) 692-3024 (DSN 222-3024). Copies of the...LITY. ASN (RD&AVO IAFX &A DEPUTYr ASS ISTANV SECRE’TAY OF TE9E Allh FORCE (CONTFOAC.TIN1) , SAF/AQC DI ±T rPHOC.IrJTýfl4Ew T LICY. AS!-, RMi1 I.,70 SAZWI...Stephenson Kimberley A. Caprio Stephanie F. Mandel Ira C. Gebler Lisa M. Waller Velma L. Booker

  19. Chiral discrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Indrani; Chaudhari, Sachin R; Suryaprakash, Nagaraja Rao

    2015-02-01

    The manuscript reports two novel ternary ion-pair complexes, which serve as chiral solvating agents, for enantiodiscrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. The protocol for discrimination of secondary alcohols is designed by using one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure mandelic acid, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a chiral alcohol. For discrimination of carboxylic acids, the ternary complex is obtained by one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure chiral alcohol, DMAP and a carboxylic acid. The designed protocols also permit accurate measurement of enantiomeric composition.

  20. Single molecule photon emission statistics of driven three-level systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yonggang; Zheng, Yujun; Brown, Frank L H

    2007-03-14

    We study the statistics of photon emission from three-level single molecule systems. The generating function method [Y. Zheng and F. L. H. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 238305 (2003)] is used to calculate steady state absorption line shapes and Mandel's Q parameter as a function of excitation frequency, as well as the time dependence associated with approach to the steady state. The line shape calculations confirm known results derived via other methods, while the Q parameter results display complex frequency dependences not amenable to simple interpretation. This study confirms the applicability of the generating function formalism to multilevel quantum systems, including the proper modeling of quantum coherence effects.

  1. Journal personnel du festival d'Avignon / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Avignoni teatrifestival 2007. Lavastustest: "Noor tüdruk pommiga" ("La jeune fille a la bombe"), lavastaja Christophe Fiat; "Dinozord: The Dialogue Series III", lavastaja Faustin Linyekula; Paul Claudeli "L'Echange" ("Vahetus"), lavastaja Julie Brochen; "Hey girl!" ("Hei, tüdruk!"), lavastaja Romeo Castellucci; "Machine sans cible'it" ("Sihita masin"), lavastaja Gildas Milin; Tony Kushneri "Inglid Ameerikas" I ja II, lavastaja Krzysztof Warlikowski; tantsuetendus "36, Avenue Georges Mandel", lavastaja Raimund Hoghe; Rene Chari "Feuillets d'Hypnos" ("Hypnose lehed"), lavastaja Frederic Fisbach; Ivan Võrõpajevi ja Antonina Velikanova "Genees nr 2", lavastaja Galin Stojev

  2. Intrinsically narrowband pair photon generation in microstructured fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alex; Fulconis, Jeremie; Halder, Matthaeus M; Cemlyn, Ben; Alibart, Olivier; Xiong, Chunle; Wadsworth, William J; Rarity, John G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the tailoring of photon spectral properties generated by four-wave mixing in a birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF). The aim is to produce intrinsically narrow-band photons and hence to achieve high non-classical interference visibility and generate high fidelity entanglement without any requirement for spectral filtering, leading to high effective detection efficiencies. We show unfiltered Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibilities of 77% between photons from the same PCF, and 80% between separate sources. We compare results from modelling the PCF to these experiments and analyse photon purities.

  3. 1992 Technical Digest Series. Volume 16. Conference Edition: Summaries of Papers Presented at the Nonlinear Dynamics in Optical Systems Topical Meeting Held in Alpbach, Austria on 22-26 June 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    References namely: Stage 1: x and v are small, y and u are large [1] P.D. Drummond, K.J. McNeil and D.F.Walls, Optica Acta 27, 321 (1980); Stage 2: u and v are...small, x and y are large Stage 3: x and v are small, y and u are large [21 P. Mandel and T. Erneux, Optica Acta 29, 7-21 (1982). Stage 4: u and v...3-5812110. Josep Massaneda and Francesc Pi Departament d’Optica i Optometria . Escola d’Optica. Universitat Polit~cnica de Catalunya. 08222 Terrassa

  4. Floating Rydberg crystals formed by resonant excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Gärttner, M; Gasenzer, T; Evers, J

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a cloud of ultra-cold Rydberg atoms is studied at off-resonant laser driving. We find that excitation crystals are formed dynamically as a consequence of interaction-induced resonant excitations. These crystals have lattice constants independent of the trap length, are spatially not localized with respect to the trap, and sensitively depend on the shape of the interaction potential. Compared to previously proposed crystals, this leads to qualitatively different results for the spatial excitation density, the Mandel $Q$ parameter, and the total number of excitations.

  5. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Dehdashti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2 and su(1, 1 coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  6. Fast Computation of High Energy Elastic Collision Scattering Angle for Electric Propulsion Plume Simulation (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-10

    MA 1997. [2] I. Mikellides, I. Katz, R. Kuharski, and M. Mandell, Journal of Propulsion and Power 21, 111–118 (2005). [3] I. D. Boyd and R. A...Dressler, Journal of Applied Physics 92, 1764–1774 (2002). [4] S. J. Araki and R. E. Wirz, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 41 (2013). [5] M. K. Scharfe...J. W. Koo, and G. Azamia, “DSMC implementation of experimentally-based Xe+ + Xe differential cross sections for electric propulsion modeling,” in AIP

  7. Quantum-optical coherence tomography with collinear entangled photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Novotny, Lukas

    2012-10-01

    Quantum-optical coherence tomography (QOCT) combines the principles of classical OCT with the correlation properties of entangled photon pairs [Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002)]. The standard QOCT configuration is based on the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, which uses entangled photons propagating in separate interferometer arms. This noncollinear configuration imposes practical limitations, e.g., misalignment due to drift and low signal-to-noise. Here, we introduce and implement QOCT based on collinear entangled photons. It makes use of a two-photon Michelson interferometer and offers several advantages, such as simplicity, robustness, and adaptability.

  8. Barut—Girardello Coherent States for Nonlinear Oscillator with Position-Dependent Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Naila; Iqbal, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    Using ladder operators for the non-linear oscillator with position-dependent effective mass, realization of the dynamic group SU(1,1) is presented. Keeping in view the algebraic structure of the non-linear oscillator, coherent states are constructed using Barut—Girardello formalism and their basic properties are discussed. Furthermore, the statistical properties of these states are investigated by means of Mandel parameter and second order correlation function. Moreover, it is shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results obtained for the non-linear oscillator with spatially varying mass reduce to corresponding results of the linear oscillator with constant mass.

  9. 横观各向同性圆柱土样轴对称Biot固结的解析解%Analytic solution of axisymmetric Biot consolidation of columnar cross-isotropic soil-sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪多辙; 石祥锋

    2002-01-01

    给出了横观各向同性圆柱土样轴对称Biot固结的封闭级数解,该解由满足非齐次边界条件的弹性力学解与满足齐次边界条件的渗流拟动态解的叠加构成.通过算例分析,探讨了横观各向土体的Biot固结规律和Mandel-Cryer效应.

  10. Nonclassical Properties of Generalized Gazeau-Klauder Coherent State for Anharmonic Oscillator%非谐振子广义Gazeau-Klauder相干态的非经典性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程衍富

    2005-01-01

    研究了非谐振子广义Gazeau-Klauder相干态的非经典特性,对Mandel Q参量的二阶相关函数的计算表明:GK相干态服从亚泊松统计分布且具有反聚束效应.以图解的方式研究了非谐参量λ和GK相干态第二参量α对正交压缩的各种影响.

  11. Two-photon Interference with Non-identical Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianbin; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-Li; Xu, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    The indistinguishability of non-identical photons is dependent on detection system in quantum physics. If two photons with different wavelengths are indistinguishable for a detection system, there can be two-photon interference when these two photons are incident to two input ports of a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, respectively. The reason why two-photon interference phenomena are different for classical and nonclassical light is not due to interference, but due to the properties of light and detection system. These conclusions are helpful to understand the physics and applications of two-photon interference.

  12. The Green Function and the Law of Volumetric Strain for Biot Consolidation of Columnar Soil-sample%圆柱土样Biot固结模型的Green函数及其土体体积应变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原新生; 吕金城; 肖建清

    2013-01-01

    通过建立横观各向同性圆柱土样轴对称Biot固结问题的Green·函数,得到了用Green函数表示的径向位移分布表达式和相应的空隙水压力的精确解析解.该方法不仅避免了将问题的解分解为弹性静力学解和渗流拟动态解的叠加的过程和复杂的积分变换,而且问题的级数解形式简洁,收敛速度较快,便于数值计算和圆柱土样的全场渗流固结规律的分析.最后以此结果具体分析了Mandel-Cryer效应在圆柱土样不同位置的强弱程度和土的泊松比对Mandel-Cryer效应的影响,表明本文方法的正确性.%The expression of radial displacement which expressed by Green function for Biot consolidation of columnar cross-isotropic soil-sample is obtained by building Green function.Correspondingly,exact analytical solutions for volumetric strain and pore water pressure are obtained also.This method not only avoid the process of decomposing solution of the Biot consolidation of columnar cross-isotropic soil-sample into the elasticity static's solution and quasi-dynamic solution of fluids,but also easy to numerical calculation and analyzing the full-court filtration concretion law for columnar cross-isotropic soil-sample.In the end of this paper,with this result,we particularly analyze the law of volumetric strain of soils and the degree of the Mandel-Cryer effect in different position of soil-sample and the influence of Poisson's ratio on the Mandel-Cryer effect.

  13. Effect of an external radiation field on the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯; 王琪; 张永生; 郭光灿

    2005-01-01

    We study the properties of atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model where the two atoms interact with each other and are also driven by an external classical field. We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state. The atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings model are given and analysed numerically. We pay special attention to the dynamical behaviour of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  14. Effect of External Radiation Filed on the Properties of the Atoms and Cavity Field in the Tavis-Cummings Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the Tavis-Cummings Model where the two atoms interact each other and also are driven by an external classical field.We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state.After work out the atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings Model, we do numerical analysis of them, and pay special attention to the dynamical behavior of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  15. Linear-Optic Heralded Photon Source

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Thiago Ferreira; Amaral, Gustavo C; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present a Heralded Photon Source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function ($g^2\\left(0\\right)=0.556$). The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The techniqu...

  16. Linear-optic heralded photon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.

  17. Optical BLOCH oscillations and Zener tunneling with nonclassical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    A quantum theory of optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling (ZT) in arrays of coupled waveguides is theoretically presented, and the particlelike behavior of photons undergoing ZT is highlighted. In singly-periodic arrays excited by a photon-number-state input beam, each photon behaves as a classical particle which independently undergoes a coin-toss ZT event with a probability described by classical Zener theory. In binary arrays, excitation with two tilted beams enables us to observe the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for two photons undergoing Bloch-Zener oscillations.

  18. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  19. Decoherence and interferometric sensitivity of boson sampling in superconducting resonator networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Samuel; Korenblit, Simcha; Bendor, Ydan; You, Hao; Geller, Michael R.; Katz, Nadav

    2017-01-01

    Multiple bosons undergoing coherent evolution in a coupled network of sites constitute a so-called quantum walk system. The simplest example of such a two-particle interference is the celebrated Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. When scaling to larger boson numbers, simulating the exact distribution of bosons has been shown, under reasonable assumptions, to be exponentially hard. We analyze the feasibility and expected performance of a globally connected superconducting resonator based quantum walk system, using the known characteristics of state-of-the-art components. We simulate the sensitivity of such a system to decay processes and to perturbations and compare with coherent input states.

  20. Scattering of two photons from two distant qubits: exact solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, Matti; Pletyukhov, Mikhail [Institute for Theory of Statistical Physics, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We consider the inelastic scattering of two photons from two qubits separated by an arbitrary distance and coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line. We present an exact, analytical solution to the problem, and use it to explore a particular configuration of qubits which is transparent to single-photon scattering, thus highlighting non-Markovian effects of inelastic two-photon scattering: Strong two-photon interference and momentum dependent photon (anti)bunching. This latter effect can be seen as an inelastic generalization of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  1. Superposition of nonlinear coherent states on a sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hosseinzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, by using the nonlinear coherent states on a sphere, we introduce superposition of the aforementioned coherent states. Then, we consider quantum optical properties of these new superposed states and compare these properties with the corresponding properties of the nonlinear coherent states on the sphere. Specifically, we investigate their characteristics function, photon-number distribution, Mandel parameter, quadrature squeezing, anti-bunching effect and Wigner function, and obtain the curvature effect on the properties of the superposed states. Finally, by using the trapped atom system, we introduce a theoretical scheme to generate superposition of the coherent states on the sphere.

  2. Coherent States of Nonlinear Oscillators with Position-Dependent Mass: Temporal Stability and Fractional Revivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Naila; Iqbal, Shahid

    2017-08-01

    We develop generalized coherent states for a class of nonlinear oscillators with position-dependent effective mass in the context of the Gazeau-Klauder formalism and discuss some of their properties. In order to investigate the temporal evolution we first explore the statistical properties by means of weighting distribution and the Mandel parameter. It is found that the temporal evolution of the coherent states may exhibit the phenomena of quantum revivals and fractional revivals for a particular choice of position-dependent mass oscillator.

  3. Quantum input-output relations for lossy and anisotropic multilayer magnetodielectric meta-material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we quantize electromagnetic field in, lossy, dispersive and anisotropic magnetodielectric media by using phenomenological approach. We obtain quantum input– output relations for anisotropic multilayer metamaterials. As an application of our approach, we investigate the dissipative and anisotropic effects of an anisotropic magnetodielectric slab on the quantum properties of incident input states. For this purpose, quadrature squeezing and Mandel parameter of output states has been calculated by modeling the anisotropic magnetodielectric slab through Lorentz model for a situation in which the incident states on the right and left side of the magnetodielectric slab are two- mode coherent states and quantum vacuum state, respectively

  4. Thermo Vacuum State for Describing the Density Operator of Photon-subtracted Squeezed Chaotic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi-Long; Fan, Hong-Yi; Li, Heng-Mei; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    For the density operator describing s-photon-subtracted squeezed chaotic light (PSSCL) we search for its thermo vacuum state (a pure state) in the real-fictitious space. We find that it reduces to a thermo vacuum state of squeezed chaotic light when s = 0, and to a thermo vacuum state of the optical negative binomial field when no squeezing. The new thermo vacuum state simplifies calculating photon number average, quantum fluctuation and Mandel's Q parameter of PSSCL. Using the method of integration within ordered product (IWOP) of operators we also derive the normalization coefficient and explicitly analytical expressions of Wigner function for PSSCL.

  5. Coherent states for nonlinear harmonic oscillator and some of its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Naila, E-mail: naila.amir@live.com, E-mail: naila.amir@sns.nust.edu.pk; Iqbal, Shahid, E-mail: sic80@hotmail.com, E-mail: siqbal@sns.nust.edu.pk [School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-06-15

    A one-dimensional nonlinear harmonic oscillator is studied in the context of generalized coherent states. We develop a perturbative framework to compute the eigenvalues and eigenstates for the quantum nonlinear oscillator and construct the generalized coherent states based on Gazeau-Klauder formalism. We analyze their statistical properties by means of Mandel parameter and second order correlation function. Our analysis reveals that the constructed coherent states exhibit super-Poissonian statistics. Moreover, it is shown that the coherent states mimic the phenomena of quantum revivals and fractional revivals during their time evolution. The validity of our results has been discussed in terms of various parametric bounds imposed by our computational scheme.

  6. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, Shahram, E-mail: shdehdashti@zju.edu.cn; Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng, E-mail: hansomchen@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentations, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Electromagnetics Academy at Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jiarui, E-mail: jrliu@zju.edu.cn; Yu, Faxin [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  7. Journal personnel du festival d'Avignon / Ott Karulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karulin, Ott, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Avignoni teatrifestival 2007. Lavastustest: "Noor tüdruk pommiga" ("La jeune fille a la bombe"), lavastaja Christophe Fiat; "Dinozord: The Dialogue Series III", lavastaja Faustin Linyekula; Paul Claudeli "L'Echange" ("Vahetus"), lavastaja Julie Brochen; "Hey girl!" ("Hei, tüdruk!"), lavastaja Romeo Castellucci; "Machine sans cible'it" ("Sihita masin"), lavastaja Gildas Milin; Tony Kushneri "Inglid Ameerikas" I ja II, lavastaja Krzysztof Warlikowski; tantsuetendus "36, Avenue Georges Mandel", lavastaja Raimund Hoghe; Rene Chari "Feuillets d'Hypnos" ("Hypnose lehed"), lavastaja Frederic Fisbach; Ivan Võrõpajevi ja Antonina Velikanova "Genees nr 2", lavastaja Galin Stojev

  8. Un « plan Marshall juif » : la présence juive américaine en France après la Shoah, 1944 – 1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hobson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soutenance de la thèse le 26 juin 2009.Composition du juryMadame Nancy Green, Directrice d’études, Directrice de thèse,Madame Catherine Collomp, Professeur émérite, Rapporteur,Madame Catherine Nicault, Professeur, Rapporteur,Madame Maud Mandel, Associate professor, Examinateur,Monsieur Michel Prum, Professeur, Examinateur, Madame Isabelle Richet, Professeur, Examinateur.ResuméEntre1944 et 1954, les Juifs américains ont envoyé plus de 27 millions de dollars aux Juifs de France pour aider à rec...

  9. All photons are equal but some photons are more equal than others

    CERN Document Server

    Töppel, Falk; Leuchs, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Photons indistinguishability is studied from a pragmatic, rather than speculative, point of view. As consequence of a detailed analysis of the coincidence probability distribution in a Hong-Ou- Mandel experiment, we introduce the concept of rate of distinguishability of photons. For photons prepared in a given, but arbitrary, state, this parameter allows one to make a quantitative analysis of their indistinguishability. Among other things, our study reveals that coupling between different degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field, plays a crucial role in photons indistinguishability.

  10. Quantum optical coherence tomography using three time-energy entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Burguete, Arturo; Campos, Eernesto

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Optical Coherence Tomography can achieve a greater image resolution compared to its classical counterpart, due to the entanglement of the photon pairs. Following the idea that higher the number of entangled photons, higher the resolution, we study the physical underpinnings that appear when using photon triplets. Unlike the usual Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer used for QOCT, a much simpler implementation in the form of a Michelson interferometer is used in this work. We find that axial resolution can be improved by a factor of four. Additionally, we provide the numerical method to reconstruct the image given the triple coincidence rate.

  11. A new type of photon-added squeezed coherent state and its statistical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jun; Fan Hong-Yi; Song Jun

    2012-01-01

    We construct a new type of photon-added squeezed coherent state generated by repeatedly operating the bosonic creation operator on a new type of squeezed coherent state [Fan H Y and Xiao M 1996 Phys.Lett.A 220 81].We find that its normalization factor is related to single-variable Hermite polynomials.Furthermore,we investigate its statistical properties,such as Mandel's Q parameter,photon-number distribution,and Wigner function.The nonclassicality is displayed in terms of the intense oscillation of photon-number distribution and the negativity of the Wigner function.

  12. Spectral density matrix of a single photon measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Wojciech; Kolenderski, Piotr; Frankowski, Robert

    2007-09-21

    We propose and demonstrate a method for measuring the spectral density matrix of a single photon pulse. The method is based on registering Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between a photon to be measured and a pair of attenuated and suitably delayed laser pulses described by a known spectral amplitude. The density matrix is retrieved from a two-dimensional interferogram of coincidence counts. The method has been implemented for a type-I down-conversion source, pumped by ultrashort laser pulses. The experimental results agree well with a theoretical model which takes into account the temporal as well as spatial effects in the source.

  13. Spectral density matrix of a single photon measured

    CERN Document Server

    Wasilewski, W; Frankowski, R; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Kolenderski, Piotr; Frankowski, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a method for measuring the spectral density matrix of a single photon pulse. The method is based on registering Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between photon to be measured and a pair of attenuated and suitably delayed laser pulses described by a known spectral amplitude. The density matrix is retrieved from a two-dimensional interferogram of coincidence counts. The method has been implemented for a type-I downconversion source, pumped by ultrashort laser pulses. The experimental results agree well with a theoretical model which takes into account the temporal as well as spatial effects in the source.

  14. Interfering Heralded Single Photons from Two Separate Silicon Nanowires Pumped at Different Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical quantum photonic applications require on-demand single photon sources. As one possible solution, active temporal and wavelength multiplexing has been proposed to build an on-demand single photon source. In this scheme, heralded single photons are generated from different pump wavelengths in many temporal modes. However, the indistinguishability of these heralded single photons has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this work, we achieve 88% ± 8% Hong–Ou–Mandel quantum interference visibility from heralded single photons generated from two separate silicon nanowires pumped at different wavelengths. This demonstrates that active temporal and wavelength multiplexing could generate indistinguishable heralded single photons.

  15. Proposal for generating Fock states in traveling wave fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benmoussa, Adil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)]. E-mail: adil.benmoussa@lehman.cuny.edu; Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2007-05-28

    We describe a proposal for the generation of a single-mode photonic number state, |N>, in a traveling wave optical field. The state is obtained by state reduction from an input coherent state using Kerr media. Our method is based on a previous scheme used for hole burning in the Fock space by minimizing the Mandel Q parameter. The same method was used by Maia et al., but ours is different, it requires only one single photon injected in the entire setup and one photon detection at the end.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  17. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  18. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  19. Aspects of implementing constant traction boundary conditions in computational homogenization via semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javili, A.; Saeb, S.; Steinmann, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the past decades computational homogenization has proven to be a powerful strategy to compute the overall response of continua. Central to computational homogenization is the Hill-Mandel condition. The Hill-Mandel condition is fulfilled via imposing displacement boundary conditions (DBC), periodic boundary conditions (PBC) or traction boundary conditions (TBC) collectively referred to as canonical boundary conditions. While DBC and PBC are widely implemented, TBC remains poorly understood, with a few exceptions. The main issue with TBC is the singularity of the stiffness matrix due to rigid body motions. The objective of this manuscript is to propose a generic strategy to implement TBC in the context of computational homogenization at finite strains. To eliminate rigid body motions, we introduce the concept of semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions. Semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions are non-homogeneous Dirichlet-type constraints that simultaneously satisfy the Neumann-type conditions. A key feature of the proposed methodology is its applicability for both strain-driven as well as stress-driven homogenization. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated via a series of numerical examples.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica modified with chiral auxiliaries for their potential application as chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayani, Vishal J; Abdi, S H R; Kureshy, R I; Khan, N H; Agrawal, Santosh; Jasra, R V

    2008-05-16

    Novel chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on chiral aminoalcohol immobilized on ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 1a and standard silica 1b and their copper complexes 1a' and 1b', respectively, was synthesized as potential material for chiral ligand exchange chromatography (CLEC). Microanalysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), cross polarized magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) (13)C NMR, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FTIR, N(2) adsorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscope (TEM) and solid reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy were used to characterize these materials. All the chiral stationary phases thus synthesized were used for the separation of different racemic compounds such as mandelic acid, 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthalene BINOL) and diethyl tartrate by simple medium-pressure column chromatography. Successful enantio-separation of racemic mandelic acid was achieved with all the stationary phases but 1a and 1b gave slightly better resolution than their copper complexes 1a' and 1b'. Remarkably these materials are stable under the given experimental conditions and can be used repeatedly for several cycles of enantioresolution. It was observed that the porosity and surface area of the stationary phase play an important role in the chiral separation.

  1. Causal Selection and Counterfactual Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jiménez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo defiende la posición según la cual el pensamiento contrafactual depende de nuestra representación causal del mundo y, en este sentido, argumenta que existe una estrecha relación entre el razonamiento causal y el contrafactual. Se lleva a cabo una crítica a la teoría de la disociación de juicios de Mandel (Mandel, 2003b, que defiende la independencia funcional entre el proceso de selección causal y el razonamiento contrafactual en el contexto de la selección causal. En los experimentos realizados se manipularon algunos elementos de la semántica de la tarea con el fin de ilustrar aquellos casos en los que no se da la disociación entre el razonamiento causal y el contrafactual. En el Experimento 1, el nivel de descripción del evento objetivo se manipuló en una tarea de generación de listas y evaluación. El Experimento 2 replicó los hallazgos del Experimento 1 utilizando un sistema de codificación alternativo, mientras que el Experimento 3 realizó lo mismo utilizando un formato de respuesta alternativo. Los resultados de los experimentos apoyan la concepción del entendimiento causal propuesta por los modelos mentales causales.

  2. Transformation of optical state through linear systems%线性网络对光场量子态的变换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇翱; 张强

    2003-01-01

    给出各种输入态和光学器件的数学表述,态包括单光子的空间和极化模,双光子的可分离态和纠缠态,光学器件有分束器,极化分束器,波片.用这种表述对一些重大实验的网络进行分析和计算,其中有Hadamard 门的实现,M-Z干涉仪光路分析,Hong-Ou-Mandel 干涉仪,而且自然引入了Mandel 新近名著Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics 中人为添加的因子,还有Teleportation 实验中的Bell 基的测量和一些自己设计的网络.并同时给出一些物理上的总结.

  3. 圆球土样Biot固结模型的Green函数及其土体体积应变规律%Green Function and the Law of Volumetric Strain of Soils for Biot Consolidation of Spherical Soil-Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原新生; 吕金城; 肖建清

    2014-01-01

    通过建立圆球土样Biot固结问题的Green函数,得到了圆球土样径向位移表达式和固结过程中孔隙水压力及土体体积应变的精确解析解.该方法不仅避免了将问题的解分解为弹性静力学解和渗流拟动态解的叠加,而且便于数值计算和分析圆球土样的全场渗流固结规律.最后以此结果具体分析了圆球土样Biot固结过程中土体体积应变规律和Mandel-Cryer效应在圆球土样不同位置的强弱程度和土的泊松比对Mandel-Cryer效应的影响.

  4. 单光子探测用于光子统计测量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖连团; 降雨强; 赵延霆; 尹王保; 赵建明; 贾锁堂

    2004-01-01

    实验研究了通过记录每一个光子事件直接测量微弱脉冲激光(平均光子数≈0.1, 脉冲持续时间10ns)的Mandel 参数. 在基于Hanbury-Brown-Twiss探测结构, 取样时间内每个单光子计数器最多探测到一个光子的情况下, 测量发现低于阈值电流工作的二极管激光呈Super-Poisson统计分布. 另外验证了工作于远高于阈值电流的二极管激光(强度噪声主要为散粒噪声)的Poisson分布相干态的Mandel 参数 QC约为--n/2. 在测量误差内, 实验结果与理论分析一致.

  5. Photon-bunching measurement after 2x25km of standard optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, M; De Riedmatten, H; Beveratos, A; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N

    2004-01-01

    To show the feasibility of a long distance partial Bell-State measurement, a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with coherent photons is reported. Pairs of degenerate photons at telecom wavelength are created by parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The photon pairs are separated in a beam-splitter and transmitted via two fibers of 25km. The wave-packets are relatively delayed and recombined on a second beam-splitter, forming a large Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Coincidence counts between the photons at the two output modes are registered. The main challenge consists in the trade-off between low count rates due to narrow filtering and length fluctuations of the 25km long arms during the measurement. For balanced paths a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip with a visibility of 47.3% is observed, which is close to the maximal theoretical value of 50% developed here. This proves the practicability of a long distance Bell state measurement with two independent sources, as e.g. required in an entangl...

  6. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant short-chain NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase/reductase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Pucci, Biagio; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-03-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily was identified in the aerobic thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strain DSM 639. The saadh gene was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (SaADH) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. SaADH is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 28,978-Da subunits, each composed of 264 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to 75 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of ~90 degrees C, and shows good tolerance to common organic solvents. SaADH has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, and displays a preference for the reduction of alicyclic, bicyclic and aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, but is poorly active on aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic alcohols, and shows no activity on aldehydes. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformate, and methyl o-chlorobenzoylformate with 100% conversion to methyl (S)-mandelate [17% enantiomeric excess (ee)], ethyl (R)-mandelate (50% ee), and methyl (R)-o-chloromandelate (72% ee), respectively, with an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system which involves glucose and a thermophilic glucose dehydrogenase. This study provides further evidence supporting the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NAD(P)H in members of the SDR superfamily.

  7. Thermal impacts of magmatic intrusions on dolomitization processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltzer, Nora; Möller, Peter; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Magri, Fabien

    2017-04-01

    The Tiberias Basin (TB) is located within the Jordan-Dead Sea Transform and is bordered to the west by the Lower Galilee (Israel), where Pliocene basalts cover an area of 35 km2. Hydrochemical analyses highlight that two types of brines exist around Lake Tiberias (LT) (Mandel 1965; Möller et al. 2009): (1) Along the eastern side of LT, brine is characterized by Mg/Ca>1, which resulted from evaporation of seawater during the Late Miocene, whereas (2) along the western side of the lake, brine is characterized by Mg/CaMandel S. (1965). Hydrogeological Investigations of the areas surrounding Lake Tiberias. Water Planning for Israel. Volumes 1-2 210 p. Möller P., Siebert C., Geyer S., Inbar N., Rosenthal E., Flexer A., Zilberbrand M. (2012). Relationship of brines in the Kinnarot Basin, Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley. Geofluids, 12(2), 166-181. Möller P., Rosenthal E., Geyer S. (2009). Characterization of aquifer environments by major and minor elements and stable isotopes of sulfate In: Hoetzel H., Möller P., Rosenthal E. (Eds) Water of the Jordan Balley. Pp. 83-122.

  8. Aspects of implementing constant traction boundary conditions in computational homogenization via semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javili, A.; Saeb, S.; Steinmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades computational homogenization has proven to be a powerful strategy to compute the overall response of continua. Central to computational homogenization is the Hill-Mandel condition. The Hill-Mandel condition is fulfilled via imposing displacement boundary conditions (DBC), periodic boundary conditions (PBC) or traction boundary conditions (TBC) collectively referred to as canonical boundary conditions. While DBC and PBC are widely implemented, TBC remains poorly understood, with a few exceptions. The main issue with TBC is the singularity of the stiffness matrix due to rigid body motions. The objective of this manuscript is to propose a generic strategy to implement TBC in the context of computational homogenization at finite strains. To eliminate rigid body motions, we introduce the concept of semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions. Semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions are non-homogeneous Dirichlet-type constraints that simultaneously satisfy the Neumann-type conditions. A key feature of the proposed methodology is its applicability for both strain-driven as well as stress-driven homogenization. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated via a series of numerical examples.

  9. Influence of steric hindrance on enantioseparation of Dns-amino acids and pesticides on terguride based chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzátko, Ales; Cvak, Jan; Vaingátová, Silvie; Flieger, Miroslav

    2005-05-01

    Three urea derivatives of ergoline-based chiral selectors (CSs), differing in the size of the urea side chain, i.e. dimethyl- (CSI), diethyl- (CSII), and diisopropylurea (CSIII), were used to study the effect of steric hindrance on the enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids (Dns-AAs), pesticides, and mandelic acid under condition of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in linear polyacrylamide coated capillaries. A mixture of organic modifiers (MeOH/THF, 4:1 v/v) in a BGE consisting of 100 mM beta-alanine-acetate was used to increase the solubility of CSs up to 25 mM. The capillary was filled with CS (high UV absorption), and the inlet and outlet vials contained buffer solutions only. The best enantioseparation of Dns-AAs was achieved on CSI. Increased steric hindrance of the chiral binding site led to reduction of both enantioselectivity and resolution. The opposite pattern was observed for the separation of mandelic acid enantiomers, where the best enantioseparation and resolution was obtained with CSIII. Most of the pesticides studied reached maximum selectivity on the diethylurea ergoline derivative (CSII). Enantioseparation of fenoxaprop was found to be independent of steric hindrance.

  10. Entanglement by Path Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Krenn, Mario; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional photonic systems, exploiting an idea introduced by the group of Leonard Mandel 25 years ago. The two ingredients are 1) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and 2) aligning photon paths such that they emerge from the same output mode. We explain examples for the creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces -- starting only from separable (non-entangled) photon pairs. For two photons, we show how arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. Interestingly, a common source for two-photon polarization entanglement is found as a special case. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm designing quantum experiments, and generalized it ...

  11. High-order squeezing of the quantum electromagnetic field and the generalized uncertainty relations in two-mode squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia

    1994-01-01

    It is found that two-mode output quantum electromagnetic field in two-mode squeezed states exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations are also presented for the first time. The concept of higher-order squeezing of the single-mode quantum electromagnetic field was first introduced and applied to several processes by Hong and Mandel in 1985. Lately Li Xizeng and Shan Ying have calculated the higher-order squeezing in the process of degenerate four-wave mixing and presented the higher-order uncertainty relations of the fields in single-mode squeezed states. In this paper we generalize the above work to the higher-order squeezing in two-mode squeezed states. The generalized uncertainty relations are also presented for the first time.

  12. Determinação simultânea de creatinina e indicadores biológicos de exposição ao tolueno, estireno e xilenos em urina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Simultaneous determination of creatinine and biological indicators of exposure to toluene, styrene and xylenes in urine by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Venzon Antunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine, hippuric acid, mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid and o, m and p-methylhippuric acids was developed and validated. Sample preparation was only dilution with water (1:10, followed by centrifugation. Analysis was performed in a reversed phase column (Lichrospher RP 8ec, 250 x 4.0 mm, with isocratic elution with phosphate buffer pH 2.3 and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v. The method presents adequate linearity, precision and accuracy and allows the simultaneous determination of the biomarkers of exposure to toluene, xylene and styrene together with creatinine, reducing cost and laboratory time.

  13. Keeping Up-to-Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As a senior (read older practising respirologist, I have come to appreciate my position as editor, which keeps me current with present practice standards. Everyone talks about the volume and flow of new knowledge, and not a week goes by in which I feel that I know enough to treat my patients optimally. This is particularly the case when it comes to antibiotic usage: the number of antibiotics and the confident way that junior colleagues bandy them about leaves me distinctly depressed because most of the names mean little to me; even the families and generations of antibiotics seem beyond my grasp. That is why I welcomed the request from Dr Lionel Mandell to publish a summary statement on the use of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which appears on pages 371-382 of the current issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal.

  14. Gene Cloning of Penicillin V Acylase from Bacillus sp BAC4 by Genomic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFI SUSANTI VH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to clone and identify penicillin V acylase (PVA gene of Bacillus sp. BAC4 by genomic library. Chromosome DNA of Bacillus sp. BAC4 was isolated by Wang method. pHB201 of E. coli was isolated by alkali lyses method. Recombinant DNA of Bacillus sp. BAC4 chromosome fragment and pHB201 was made by ligase process using T4 DNA ligase. Transformation of E. coli using this recombinant plasmid was carried out according to Mandel-Higa method. The results indicated that chromosome DNA fragment of Bacillus sp. BAC4 was bigger 23 kb with purity 1,3. Plasmid DNA fragment of E coli was 6,5 kb. Transformants laboring pHB201 recombinant plasmid was screen as blue-white colonies in a medium containing IPTG/X-gal and chloramphenicol.

  15. Preparation of molecularly imprinted microspheres by photo-grafting on supports modified with iniferter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Fei; FENG Xiaogang; LI Ping; YUAN Chunwei; FU Degang

    2006-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) of D-mandelic acid were synthesized in this study. Chloromethylated polystyrene beads modified with iniferter were used as supports for photo-grafting of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer. The polymers were characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis to testify the polymer formation and its thermal stability. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) show that the MIP particles are mono-dispersed and well-spherical, with the average diameter of 4.38 μm and size distribution coefficient of 1.02. Furthermore, the MIMs were packed in a stainless steel column and evaluated as stationary phases in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The prepared MIP exhibited a considerable capability of chiral separation between template and its enantiomer. Accordingly, this kind of MIP is likely to have wide applications in chemical sensing, chromatographic analysis and solid phase extraction.

  16. Methenamine: a forgotten drug for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in a multidrug resistance era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tze Shien; Hammer, Kimberly D P; Zegarra, Milagros; Cho, William C S

    2014-05-01

    In the era of multidrug resistance, it is critical to utilize antibiotics in an appropriate manner and to identify new treatments or revisit the use of 'forgotten' drugs. Because urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, particularly in an increasing elderly population, the 'forgotten' drug, methenamine, may become important as a preventive therapy for recurrent UTIs. Methenamine, a urinary antibacterial agent, can be used as methenamine hippurate or methenamine mandelate preparations and is United States Food and Drug Administration-approved. This article discusses the place of preventive therapy for recurrent UTIs, chemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacology, clinical uses, dosage, adverse reactions and safety, and drug interactions of methenamine. Because of its unique antiseptic property, the authors suggest that methenamine should be considered when more commonly used antibiotics fail to suppress recurrent UTIs.

  17. Strain-optic active control for quantum integrated photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Peter C; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    We present a practical method for active phase control on a photonic chip that has immediate applications in quantum photonics. Our approach uses strain-optic modification of the refractive index of individual waveguides, effected by a millimeter-scale mechanical actuator. The resulting phase change of propagating optical fields is rapid and polarization-dependent, enabling quantum applications that require active control and polarization encoding. We demonstrate strain-optic control of non-classical states of light in silica, showing the generation of 2-photon polarisation N00N states by manipulating Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We also demonstrate switching times of a few microseconds, which are sufficient for silica-based feed-forward control of photonic quantum states.

  18. Peripheral neuroblastoma in an adult: Rare disease at a rare site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadabur Nagendrappa Lokesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult peripheral neuroblastoma represents less than 1% of all malignant primary tumors of peripheral nerves. We report a young adult who presented with swelling over the left wrist with left epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes. Incision biopsy of the swelling was suggestive of malignant small round cell tumor. On immunohistochemistry, cells were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin and nonspecific enolase and negative for leucocyte common antigen, cytokeratin, CD99 and myogenin. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels were elevated. The patient received 8 cycles of chemotherapy (OJEC. Reassessment positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed a complete metabolic response at the primary site and partial response at left axillary lymph nodes. The patient underwent axillary lymph node clearance followed by radiotherapy to the tumor bed and lymph node regions. The patient could not afford autologous haematopoetic stem cell transplant and was started on isotretinoin maintenance. He is on follow-up for 12 months and disease free.

  19. Ultracompact quantum splitter of degenerate photon pairs

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jiakun; Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Zhang, Yanbing; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Integrated sources of indistinguishable photons have attracted a lot of attention because of their applications in quantum communication and optical quantum computing. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-compact quantum splitter for degenerate single photons based on a monolithic chip incorporating Sagnac loop and a micro-ring resonator with a footprint of 0.011 mm2, generating and deterministically splitting indistinguishable photon pairs using time-reversed Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. The ring resonator provides enhanced photon generation rate, and the Sagnac loop ensures the photons travel through equal path lengths and interfere with the correct phase to enable the reversed HOM effect to take place. In the experiment, we observed a HOM dip visibility of 94.5 +- 3.3 %, indicating the photons generated by the degenerate single photon source are in a suitable state for further integration with other components for quantum applications, such as controlled-NOT gates.

  20. Spectral structure and decompositions of optical states, and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, P P; Silberhorn, C; Rohde, Peter P.; Mauerer, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the spectral structure and decomposition of multi-photon states. Ordinarily `multi-photon states' and `Fock states' are regarded as synonymous. However, when the spectral degrees of freedom are included this is not the case, and the class of `multi-photon' states is much broader than the class of `Fock' states. We discuss the criteria for a state to be considered a Fock state. We then address the decomposition of general multi-photon states into bases of orthogonal eigenmodes, building on existing multi-mode theory, and introduce an occupation number representation that provides an elegant description of such states that in many situations simplifies calculations. Finally we apply this technique to several example situations, which are highly relevant for state of the art experiments. These include Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, spectral filtering, finite bandwidth photo-detection, homodyne detection and the conditional preparation of Schr\\"odinger Kitten and Fock states. Our techniques allow for ver...

  1. Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Beugnon, J; Dingjan, J; Darquié, B; Messin, G; Browaeys, A; Grangier, P; Beugnon, Jerome; Jones, Matthew; Dingjan, Jos; Darqui\\'{e}, Benoit; Messin, Gaetan; Browaeys, Antoine; Grangier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    When two indistinguishable single photons are fed into the two input ports of a beam splitter, the photons will coalesce and leave together from the same output port. This is a quantum interference effect, which occurs because the two possible paths where the photons leave in different output ports interfere destructively. This effect was first observed in parametric downconversion by Hong, Ou and Mandel, and then with single photons produced one after the other by the same quantum emitter. With the recent development of quantum information, a lot of attention has been devoted to this coalescence effect as a resource for quantum data processing using linear optics techniques. To ensure the scalability of schemes based on these ideas, it is crucial that indistinguishable photons are emitted by a collection of synchronized, but otherwise independent sources. In this paper, we demonstrate the quantum interference of two single photons emitted by two independently trapped single atoms, bridging the gap towards th...

  2. Strong nonlinearity-induced correlations for counterpropagating photons scattering on a two-level emitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could...... be quantified via a reduction in coincidence clicks in a Hong–Ou–Mandel measurement setup, analogous to a linear beam splitter. Changes to the spectra and phase of the scattered photons, however, would lead to reduced interference with other photons when implemented in a larger optical circuit. We introduce...... suitable fidelity measures which account for these changes and find that high values can still be achieved even when accounting for all properties of the scattered photonic state....

  3. All-order dispersion cancellation and energy-time entangled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jinsoo; Cho, Kiyoung; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Kang, Hoonsoo

    2017-01-23

    Dispersion cancellation with an energy-time entangled photon pair in Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is one phenomenon that reveals the nonclassical nature of the entangled photon pair. This phenomenon has been observed in materials with very weak dispersions. If the higher-order dispersion coefficient is non-negligible, then the experiment must be modified to realize dispersion cancellation. All-order dispersion cancellation using balanced dispersion was suggested by Steinberg. However, the same phenomenon is expected to occur even if a photon pair is not entangled. This behaviour can be explained by path indistinguishability with identical dispersion. To achieve an all-order dispersion experiment that cannot be explained classically, we modified the experiment and performed another all-order dispersion cancellation experiment that cannot be explained by identical dispersion. This is the first demonstration of nonclassical all-order dispersion cancellation.

  4. Composite-boson approach to molecular Bose-Einstein condensates in mixtures of ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrie, P. Alexander; Tichy, Malte C.; Roditi, Itzhak

    2017-02-01

    We show that an ansatz based on independent composite bosons [Phys. Rep. 463, 215 (2008), 10.1016/j.physrep.2007.11.003] accurately describes the condensate fraction of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold Fermi gases. The entanglement between the fermionic constituents of a single Feshbach molecule then governs the many-particle statistics of the condensate, from the limit of strong interaction to close to unitarity. This result strengthens the role of entanglement as the indispensable driver of composite-boson behavior. The condensate fraction of fermion pairs at zero temperature that we compute matches excellently previous results obtained by means of fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo methods and the Bogoliubov depletion approximation. This paves the way towards the exploration of the BEC-BCS crossover physics in mixtures of cold Fermi gases with an arbitrary number of fermion pairs as well as the implementation of Hong-Ou-Mandel-like interference experiments proposed within coboson theory.

  5. Étude du critère de plasticité des matériaux poreux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Pascal; Pastor, Joseph; Thai, The-Hung

    The ductile failure of porous metallic materials is studied here using both Limit Analysis (LA) methods, a problem treated by Gurson with his famous kinematic approach in 1977. The present work is devoted to determining the strength of porous materials with long circular cylindrical cavities in the case of plane stress. The numerical methods developed here use the Hill-Mandel method based on the homogenization theory of heterogeneous media within the LA framework. The use of kinematic and static approaches gave an excellent estimation of the yield criterion for all the cases studied. The numerical results based on LA methods have been compared with analytical and semi-analytical yield domain expressions proposed by different authors. The results show that the Richmond model was the most accurate in terms of our predictions.

  6. Anti-tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshiyuki; Ito, Hideyuki; Mukainaka, Teruo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nishino, Hoyoku; Yoshida, Takashi

    2003-02-01

    Four minor components, along with the major cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, were isolated from Prunus persica seeds (Persicae Semen; Tounin), and characterized as mandelic acid glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside) and benzyl alcohol glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside). The anti-tumor promoting activity of these compounds was examined in both in vitro and in vivo assays. All of the compounds significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by tumor promoter. In addition, they produced a delay of two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin that was comparable in potency to (-)-epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Structure-activity relationships indicated that a substituent at the benzylic position with glycosidic linkage affected the in vitro and in vivo activities with an order of enhancing potency, CN

  7. Programmable two-photon quantum interference in $10^3$ channels in opaque scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterink, Tom A W; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L; Boller, Klaus -J; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports $10^6$ transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase-modulation of the incident wavefronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From $10^3$ experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission, to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable $2\\times2$ beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programmed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be non-unitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and ph...

  8. Programmable two-photon quantum interference in 103 channels in opaque scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Tom A. W.; Uppu, Ravitej; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus-J.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate two-photon quantum interference in an opaque scattering medium that intrinsically supports a large number of transmission channels. By adaptive spatial phase modulation of the incident wave fronts, the photons are directed at targeted speckle spots or output channels. From 103 experimentally available coupled channels, we select two channels and enhance their transmission to realize the equivalent of a fully programmable 2 ×2 beam splitter. By sending pairs of single photons from a parametric down-conversion source through the opaque scattering medium, we observe two-photon quantum interference. The programed beam splitter need not fulfill energy conservation over the two selected output channels and hence could be nonunitary. Consequently, we have the freedom to tune the quantum interference from bunching (Hong-Ou-Mandel-like) to antibunching. Our results establish opaque scattering media as a platform for high-dimensional quantum interference that is notably relevant for boson sampling and physical-key-based authentication.

  9. Introduction of a Case of Bilateral Pheochromocytoma Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pheochromocytoma is an adrenal tumor characterized by symptoms of hypertension, headache, increased sweating, and tachycardia .In one third of patients, the tumor is discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation of the abdomen. In this article a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma is reported. The patient, a twelve years old boy, referred with complaints of headache, flushing, palpitation and blurring of vision. He had a blood pressure of 200/120 mmHg and after investigation, coarctation of aorta was excluded. On abdominal ultrasound, bilateral adrenal mass was diagnosed, followed by serial measurements of urinary vanillyl mandellic acid (VMA which was found to be elevated. Meta- Iodio benzyl glunidin (MIBG scan showed increased uptake in both adrenals. Patient underwent laparotomy and bilateral adrenalectomy with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Pathologic report confirmed the diagnosis

  10. The second-order interference of two independent single-mode He-Ne lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianbin; Bai, Bin; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Yu; Li, Fu-Li; Xu, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    The second-order spatial and temporal interference patterns with two independent single-mode He-Ne lasers are observed in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Two-photon interference in Feynman's path integral theory is employed to interpret the experimental results. The conditions to observe the second-order interference pattern with two independent single-mode continuous wave lasers are discussed. It is concluded that two-photon interference exists for not only identical photons, but also photons with different spectrums if the detection system can not distinguish them in principle. The second-order temporal beating with two independent lasers can be employed to measure the coherence time and frequency of one laser if the properties of the other laser were known.

  11. Study on the Conditions for Producing Cellulase by Liquid Fermentation with Aspergillus niger HQ-1%黑曲霉HQ-1液体发酵产纤维素酶条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 桑青

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum condition for producing cellulase by liquid fermentation of Aspergillus niger HQ-1. [Method] With 1 strain of A. niger HQ-1 with higher activity of producing cellulase as the original srtain, the optimum conditions for liquid fermentation of A. niger HQ-1 to produce cellulase was studied primarily through the single factor experiments and orthogonal tests and the activities of CMCase and FPAase were measured. [Result] The factors influencing the production of CMCase and FPAase by liquid fermentation of A, niger HQ-1 were in order were the content of compound carbon origin, the ratio of 2 kinds of carbon, the content of nitrogen and the liquid volume in flask. The optimal medium of producing CMCase was as follows: 15‰ bran+corn stalk powder (1∶1), 2.0‰ NH4Cl, other components as same as Mandel's medium. The optimal medium of producing FPAase was as follows: 20‰ bran+corn stalk powder (1∶1), 1.5‰ NH4Cl, others were as same as Mandel's medium. For both medium, the optimum pH was 5.0 and medium volume was 50 ml/250 ml triangle flask. The activities of CMCase and FPAase reached 525.2 and 217.6 IU respectively after culturing for 4 d under 30 ℃ and 170 r/min. [Conclusion] This study provided some technique reference for the research and development of producing cellulase strain.%[目的] 探讨黑曲霉HQ-1液体发酵产纤维素酶的最适条件.[方法] 以1株产酶活力相对较高的黑曲霉HQ-1为出发菌株,采用单因子试验和正交试验对黑曲霉HQ-1液体发酵产纤维素酶的最适条件进行初步研究,并测定了CMC酶(CMCase)和滤纸酶(FPAase)的活力.[结果] 影响黑曲霉HQ-1液体发酵产CMCase和FPAase的因素依次是复合碳源的含量、2种碳源的比例、氮源含量和装液量.该菌产CMCase的最适培养基为:麸皮+玉米秸秆粉15‰(1∶1),NH4Cl 2.0‰,其他成分同Mandel's营养液;产FPAase的最适培养基为:麸皮+玉米秸秆粉20‰(1

  12. 目击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    战争外围2008年12月31日,由于举行游行抗议以色列袭击加沙,埃及开罗市区的穆斯林兄弟会与当地警方发生冲突。(上)不太乐观1月5日,美国当选总统奥巴马,在与参议院多数党领袖哈里·量德以及当选副总统拜登会晤后,与媒体见面发表讲话。当天,奥巴马在华盛顿国会召集了一些政要探讨经济问题。(右一)摄影/ Mandel NGAN

  13. Quasi-static and dynamical bending of a cantilever poroelastic beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi; LI Li; YANG Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of porous media, the quasi-static and dynamical bending of a cantilever poroelastic beam subjected to a step load at its free end is investigated, and the influences of its permeability on bending deformation is examined.The initial boundary value problems for dynamical and quasi-static responses are solved with the Laplace transform technique,and the deflections, the bending moments of the solid skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore fluid pressure are shown in figures. It is shown that the dynamical and quasi-static behavior of the saturated poroelastic beam depends closely on the permeability conditions at the beam ends. Under the different permeability conditions, the deflections of the beam may oscillate or not. The Mandel-Cryer effect also exists in liquid-saturated poroelastic beams.

  14. Gazeau-Klauder and Klauder-Perelomov coherert states for the anharmonic oscillator%非谐振子Gazeau-Klauder与Klauder-Perelomov相干态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程衍富

    2004-01-01

    利用Kinani-Daoud方法构造了非谐振子势的Gazeau-Klauder(GK)相干态和Klaude-Perelomov(KP)相干态,表明两种相干态在非线性谐振子势下具有完全不同的形式,并对两种相干态的完备性以及各自构成的Hilbert空间进行了讨论.对相干态的Mandel Q参数的研究表明:GK相干态服从亚Poisson统计分布,KP相干态服从超Poisson统计分布.

  15. Solutions for a completely saturated porous elastic solid with impeded boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunmin; CHENG Zehai; LING Daosheng; ZHU Bin

    2007-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented for the consolidation of a semi-infinite stratum and a finite soil layer with an impeding layer located on the surface subjected to a vertical point loading.The Laplace transform and the Hankel transform are used with respect to time and the radial coordinate,respectively.Solutions of other distributed loadings,including the circular loading,can be easily obtained by integrating those of the point loading.The consolidation degree,excess pore water pressure,vertical total stress,and the shear stress of the consolidating layer are analyzed in this study.The consolidation rate decreases with the increase in the thickness of the impeding layer.Stresses of the consolidating layer vary during the consolidation due to the coupling of the excess pore water dissipation and the soil skeleton deformation.Further,the Mandel-Cryer effect is also analyzed in this study.

  16. 毛细管色谱分离扁桃酸手性对映体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱彬; 陈海军; 陈国南

    2005-01-01

    扁桃酸(mandelic acid,MA)是一类重要的药物中间体,可用于合成血管扩张药环扁桃酯、眼科药物羟苄唑、中枢神经兴奋药匹莫林及苯并二呋喃酮染料。目前国际市场上扁桃酸需求量约以年均10%左右的速度增长,是精细化工中间体的研究热点。尤其是单构型扁桃酸的开发,具有良好的应用前景和巨大的发展空间。

  17. 伊丽莎白港--花园大道起点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    伊丽莎白港是东开普省印度洋畔的一座宁静而秀美的港口城市,由于曼德拉的故乡就在东开普省,这座城市现在已被更名为纳尔逊·曼德拉湾。从伊丽莎白到曼德拉,地名的变化昭示着南非正在经历的变革。为世界杯赛新建的足球场也被直接命名为纳尔逊·曼德拉湾球场(Nelson Mandel Bay Stadium),

  18. CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2015-01-01

    A polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum swapping, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. Here, we report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped degenerated 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II phase-matched periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference measurement shows the photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The wavelength of photons can be tuned over a broad range by changing the temperature of crystal or pump power without losing the quality of entanglement. This source will be useful for building up long-distance quantum networks.

  19. Probing the Conformations of Single Molecule via Photon Counting Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yonggang; Yang, Chuanlu; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    We suggest an approach to detect the conformation of single molecule by using the photon counting statistics. The generalized Smoluchoswki equation is employed to describe the dynamical process of conformational change of single molecule. The resonant trajectories of the emission photon numbers $$ and the Mandel's $Q$ parameter, in the space of conformational coordinates $\\bm{\\mathcal{X}}$ and frequency $\\omega_L$ of external field ($\\bm{\\mathcal{X}}-\\omega_L$ space), can be used to rebuild the conformation of the single molecule. As an example, we consider Thioflavin T molecule. It demonstrates that the results of conformations extracted by employing the photon counting statistics is excellent agreement with the results of {\\it ab initio} computation.

  20. Photon counts statistics of squeezed and multi-mode thermal states of light on multiplexed on-off detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław

    2015-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can be highly useful for studying the statistics of multi-photon quantum states of light. In this work we study the counts statistics of different states of light measured on multiplexed on-off detectors. We put special emphasis on artificial nonclassical features of the statistics obtained. We show new ways to derive analytical formulas for counts statistics and their moments. Using our approach we are the first to derive statistics moments for multi-mode thermal states measured on multiplexed on-off detectors. We use them to determine empirical Mandel parameters and recently proposed subbinomial parameters suitable for tests of nonclassicality of the measured states. Additionally, we investigate subpoissonian and superbunching properties of the two-mode squeezed state measured on a pair of multiplexed detectors and we present results of the Fano factor and second-order correlation function for these states.

  1. 考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维复杂非线性固结研究%Study on one-dimensional nonlinear consolidation behavior for saturated soils with threshold gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杰卿; 谢新宇; 王文军; 刘开富

    2013-01-01

    In reduced coordinates, a one-dimensional finite strain consolidation equation for saturated soils is derived with threshold gradient. The new equation shows that threshold gradient and variation of permeability coefficient with void ratio should be considered. Using the two empirical relations proposed by Mesri, a new governing equation is obtained. Then three examples are analyzed by applying the partial differential finite element software FlexPDE. The results show that excess pore water pressure slightly increases at the beginning of consolidation progress and then dissipates. This phenomenon is similar to the Mandel-Cryer effect. It will be more significant if threshold gradient is greater or location of soil is deeper. Even though the maximum excess pore water pressure increases when threshold gradient increases, the increment is very small. It is too difficult for us to observe the tiny increments in laboratory and practical engineerings. Therefore, there is no need to consider threshold gradient in vast majority of actual projects. In other words, classical Carey's law is applicable. This research shows that it is very important to consider threshold gradient, geometric nonlinearity and material nonlinearity in studying the Mandel-Cryer effect so as to further understand the consolidation properties of saturated soils.%在固相物质坐标下推导出了考虑起始比降的饱和土体一维大应变固结控制方程.从新方程可以看出,要综合考虑土体固结过程中的渗流非线性,要同时考虑起始比降和渗透系数随孔隙比的变化.采用Mesri提出的两个经验关系式进一步推导出了新的控制方程.借助偏微分有限元软件FlexPDE对3个算例进行了分析.分析结果表明,土体固结开始阶段超静孔压先略微增大,然后减小,类似于Mandel-Cryer效应.起始比降越大,土层越深,该现象越显著.虽然超静孔压最大值随起始比降的增大而增大,但增量很小.如此微小的

  2. 标准、防伪:产品出口双重警告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2007-01-01

    2007年11月26日,欧盟贸易专员曼德尔森(Peter Mandel son)在北京出席国际食品安全高层论坛时表示,2007年欧盟进口中国商品发生问题有上升趋势,亚洲制造商必须提高产品质量。对曼德尔森的发言,与会的吴仪副总理称,中国食品出口合格率达99%,仅1%的不合格率缘何让欧美企业还要如此大做文章。

  3. 了解你

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慧眼

    2005-01-01

    1965年在美国上映了一部名为《春风无限恨》(Sandpiper)的电影,这部影片的情节基本上出自作家马丁·兰索霍夫的作品《真主的花园》。这部电影是如此的偏门并且老旧,以至于到了今天,估计已经没有几个影迷知道并且看过它了。但是,该片中有一首由维斯特(P.F.Webster)作词、约翰尼·曼德尔(Johnny Mandel)作曲的主题歌《你的笑影》(The Shadow Of Your Smile)。

  4. Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to $0.890\\pm0.001$. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated phot...

  5. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2015-11-16

    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine.

  6. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.

  7. On some links between quantum physics and gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyin, Aleksey V

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that quantum gravity effects are negligible in a conventional laboratory experiment because quantum gravity should play its role only at a distance of about Planck's length ($\\sim10^{-33}$ cm). Sometimes that is not the case as shown in this article. We discuss two new ideas about quantum physics connections with gravity. First, the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect relation to quantum gravity is examined. Second, it is shown that the very existence of gravitons is an inevitable consequence of quantum statistics. Moreover, since the Bose-Einstein statistics is a special case of Compound Poisson Distribution, it predicts the existence of an infinite family of high-spin massless particles that should be involved in gravitational interaction.

  8. Measurement of saccharifying cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreotti Raymond

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article sets forth a simple cellulase assay procedure. Cellulose is variable in nature, insoluble and resistant to enzymatic attack. As a result there have been a bevy of bewildering cellulase assays published that yielded irrational results. Certain protocols focused on the rapidity of the assay while ignoring that only the most readily susceptible cellulose regions were being hydrolyzed. Other assays simplified the system by using modified soluble substrates and yielded results that bore no relationship to the real world hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose. In this study Mandels, Andreotti and Roche utilized a common substrate, Whatman filter paper. Hydrolysis of a 50 mg sample of the paper was followed to roughly 4% degradation, which circumvented the problems of attack of only the most susceptible zones. This common hydrolysis target range also resulted in some balance with regard to the interaction of the several cellulase components. The method was subsequently widely adopted. Douglas E Eveleigh

  9. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  10. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzotta, Z; Cipriani, D; Olivares, S; Paris, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performances. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects.

  11. Finding power and privilege as a violinist and music therapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Matsumura McKee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Power and privilege is often addressed in social work literature and is taught as a part of social work training in Canada. The purpose of this training is to enhance self-awareness and interpersonal skills, and to promote the practice of critical self-reflection. Critical self-reflection not only includes one's examination of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also one's understanding of how these are shaped by personal history, social location, attitudes, and values related to diversity and difference (Mandell, 2007. Not all practices in the field of social work can be directly applied to music therapy practice. However, critical self-reflection as introduced in social work may be adapted for music therapists in realizing their own power and privilege in their work. This paper applies theoretical and conceptual ideas of power and privilege in music-centered music therapy practice through the author's personal critical reflection.

  12. When a negative weak value -1 plays the counterpart of a probability 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhiro; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    When the weak value of a projector is 1, a quantum system behaves as in that eigenstate with probability 1. By definition, however, the weak value may take an anomalous value lying outside the range of probability like -1. From the viewpoint of a physical effect, we show that such a negative weak value of -1 can be regarded as the counterpart of the ordinary value of 1. Using photons, we experimentally verify it as the symmetrical shift in polarization depending on the weak value given by pre-postselection of the path state. Unlike observation of a weak value as an ensemble average via weak measurements, the effect of a weak value is definitely confirmed in Hong-Ou-Mandel effect: the symmetrical shift corresponding to the weak value can be directly observed as the rotation angle of a half wave plate.

  13. Intramode-correlation-enhanced phase sensitivities in an SU(1,1) interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian-Kun; Hu, Xiu-Ling; Li, Dong; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Ou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically derive the lower and upper bounds of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of an SU(1,1) interferometer whatever the input state chosen. According to the QFI, the crucial resource for quantum enhancement is shown to be large intramode correlations indicated by the Mandel Q parameter. The subtraction of photons from the squeezed vacuum state has the effect of increasing the average photon number of the new field state, as well as the intramode correlations. For example, for a coherent state ⊗ a squeezed vacuum state with a given fixed input mean number of photons as the input, if p photons are subtracted from the squeezed-vacuum state before inputting the SU(1,1) interferometer, the phase sensitivities can be improved due to the intramode-correlation increment.

  14. Holographic quantum imaging: reconstructing spatial properties via two-particle interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nils; Ferenczi, Gergely; Croke, Sarah; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-05-01

    Two particle interference phenomena, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect, are a direct manifestation of the nature of the symmetry properties of indistinguishable particles as described by quantum mechanics. The HOM effect has recently been applied as a tool for pure state tomography of a single photon. In this article, we generalize the method to extract additional information for a pure state and extend this to the full tomography of mixed states as well. The formalism is kept general enough to apply to both boson and fermion based interferometry. Our theoretical discussion is accompanied by two proposals of interferometric setups that allow the measurement of a tomographically complete set of observables for single photon quantum states.

  15. Anti-coalescence of bosons on a lossy beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Benjamin; Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Éloïse; Baron, Alexandre; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2017-06-01

    Two-boson interference, a fundamentally quantum effect, has been extensively studied with photons through the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and observed with guided plasmons. Using two freely propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) interfering on a lossy beam splitter, we show that the presence of loss enables us to modify the reflection and transmission factors of the beam splitter, thus revealing quantum interference paths that do not exist in a lossless configuration. We investigate the two-plasmon interference on beam splitters with different sets of reflection and transmission factors. Through coincidence-detection measurements, we observe either coalescence or anti-coalescence of SPPs. The results show that losses can be viewed as a degree of freedom to control quantum processes.

  16. On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Bentham, C.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Wilson, L. R.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we demonstrate the on-chip two-photon interference between single photons emitted by a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external laser. The quantum dot is embedded within one arm of an air-clad directional coupler which acts as a beam-splitter for incoming light. Photons originating from an attenuated external laser are coupled to the second arm of the beam-splitter and then combined with the quantum dot photons, giving rise to two-photon quantum interference between dissimilar sources. We verify the occurrence of on-chip Hong-Ou-Mandel interference by cross-correlating the optical signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler. This experimental approach allows us to use a classical light source (laser) to assess in a single step the overall device performance in the quantum regime and probe quantum dot photon indistinguishability on application realistic time scales.

  17. Two-photon interference from two blinking quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöns, Klaus D.; Stensson, Katarina; Reindl, Marcus; Swillo, Marcin; Huo, Yongheng; Zwiller, Val; Rastelli, Armando; Trotta, Rinaldo; Björk, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effect of blinking on the two-photon interference measurement from two independent quantum emitters. We find that blinking significantly alters the statistics in the Hong-Ou-Mandel second-order intensity correlation function g(2 )(τ ) and the outcome of two-photon interference measurements performed with independent quantum emitters. We theoretically demonstrate that the presence of blinking can be experimentally recognized by a deviation from the gD(2 )(0 ) =0.5 value when distinguishable photons from two emitters impinge on a beam splitter. Our findings explain the significant differences between linear losses and blinking for correlation measurements between independent sources and are experimentally verified using a parametric down-conversion photon-pair source. We show that blinking imposes a mandatory cross-check measurement to correctly estimate the degree of indistinguishability of photons emitted by independent quantum emitters.

  18. Stochastic finite elements: Where is the physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostoja-Starzewski Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromechanics based on the Hill-Mandel condition indicates that the majority of stochastic finite element methods hinge on random field (RF models of material properties (such as Hooke’s law having no physical content, or even at odds with physics. At the same time, that condition allows one to set up the RFs of stiffness and compliance tensors in function of the mesoscale and actual random microstructure of the given material. The mesoscale is defined through a Statistical Volume Element (SVE, i.e. a material domain below the Representative Volume Element (RVE level. The paper outlines a procedure for stochastic scale-dependent homogenization leading to a determination of mesoscale one-point and two-point statistics and, thus, a construction of analytical RF models.

  19. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  20. Analysis of generalized negative binomial distributions attached to hyperbolic Landau levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhaiba, Hassan, E-mail: chhaiba.hassan@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, P.O. Box 133, Kénitra (Morocco); Demni, Nizar, E-mail: nizar.demni@univ-rennes1.fr [IRMAR, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Mouayn, Zouhair, E-mail: mouayn@fstbm.ac.ma [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences and Technics (M’Ghila), Sultan Moulay Slimane, P.O. Box 523, Béni Mellal (Morocco)

    2016-07-15

    To each hyperbolic Landau level of the Poincaré disc is attached a generalized negative binomial distribution. In this paper, we compute the moment generating function of this distribution and supply its atomic decomposition as a perturbation of the negative binomial distribution by a finitely supported measure. Using the Mandel parameter, we also discuss the nonclassical nature of the associated coherent states. Next, we derive a Lévy-Khintchine-type representation of its characteristic function when the latter does not vanish and deduce that it is quasi-infinitely divisible except for the lowest hyperbolic Landau level corresponding to the negative binomial distribution. By considering the total variation of the obtained quasi-Lévy measure, we introduce a new infinitely divisible distribution for which we derive the characteristic function.

  1. Monotonic quantum-to-classical transition enabled by positively correlated biphotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Chen, Guo-Qun; Jing, Hui; Ren, Changliang; Zhao, Pei; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Lu, Pei-Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Multiparticle interference is a fundamental phenomenon in the study of quantum mechanics. It was discovered in a recent experiment [Y.-S. Ra et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1227 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1206910110] that spectrally uncorrelated biphotons exhibited a nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in a four-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. In this work, we consider the same scheme with spectrally correlated photons. By theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, we found the transition not only can be nonmonotonic with negatively correlated or uncorrelated biphotons, but also can be monotonic with positively correlated biphotons. The fundamental reason for this difference is that the HOM-type multiphoton interference is a differential-frequency interference. Our study may shed new light on understanding the role of frequency entanglement in multiphoton behavior.

  2. Time-dependent spectrum of a single photon and its positive-operator-valued measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enk, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Suppose we measure the time-dependent spectrum of a single photon. That is, we first send the photon through a set of frequency filters (which we assume to have different filter frequencies but the same finite bandwidth Γ ) and then record at what time (with some finite precision Δ t and some finite efficiency η ) and after passing what filter the photon is detected. What is the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM), the most general description of a quantum measurement, corresponding to such a measurement? We show how to construct the POVM in various cases, with special interest in the case Γ Δ t ≪1 (time-frequency uncertainty still holds, even in that limit). One application of the formalism is to heralding single photons. We also find a Hong-Ou-Mandel type of interference effect with two photons entering a frequency filter.

  3. Spiral holographic imaging through quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Ming, Yang; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2017-07-01

    Spiral holographic imaging in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference scheme is introduced. Using spontaneous parametric down-conversion as a source of photon pairs, we analyze the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum of a reference photon and the photon encoding information of the object. The first-order interference of light beams in standard holographic imaging is replaced by the quantum interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. The difficulty in retrieving the amplitude and phase structure of an unknown photon is thereby avoided as classical interferometric techniques such as optical holography do not apply. Our results show that the full information of the object's transmission function can be recorded in the spiral hologram, which originates directly from the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum. This presents a lateral demonstration of compressive imaging and can potentially be used for remote sensing.

  4. Why a hole is like a beam splitter: A general diffraction theory for multimode quantum states of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihao; Lanning, R. Nicholas; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2017-08-01

    Within the second-quantization framework, we develop a formalism for describing a spatially multimode optical field diffracted through a spatial mask and show that this process can be described as an effective interaction between various spatial modes. We demonstrate a method to calculate the quantum state in the diffracted optical field for any given quantum state in the incident field. We also give several additional examples of how the theory works, for various quantum input states, which may be easily tested in the laboratory, including two single-mode squeezed vacuums, single- and two-photon inputs, where we show that the diffraction process produces a two-mode squeezed vacuum, number-path entanglement, and a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like effect analogous to that of a beam splitter.

  5. Rydberg blockade in a hot atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.

    2017-04-01

    The dipole blockade of very-high-n , n ˜300 , strontium 5 s n f 1F3 Rydberg atoms in a hot atomic beam is studied. For such high n , the blockade radius can exceed the linear dimensions of the excitation volume. Rydberg atoms formed inside the excitation volume can, upon leaving the region, continue to suppress excitation until they have moved farther away than the blockade radius. Moreover, the high density of states originating from the many magnetic sublevels associated with the F states results in a small but finite probability of excitation of L =3 n 1F3 atom pairs at small internuclear separations below the blockade radius. We demonstrate that these effects can be distinguished from one another by the distinct features they imprint on the Mandel Q parameter as a function of the duration of the exciting laser.

  6. Double two-photon coalescence in a controlled propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, Andrzej; Zaremba, Jarosław; Zielińska-Raczyńska, Sylwia

    2017-03-01

    The propagation, storage, and release of two quantized light fields in an optically dressed atomic medium in the tripod configuration are studied. Using the formalism of spinor dark-state polaritons, the probabilities are obtained of finding outgoing photons of two possible localizations and two possible types, i.e., having different frequencies or polarizations. An additional interaction at the storage stage is applied which modifies the atomic coherences due to the stored photons; this results in a modification of the states of the outgoing photons. The conditions are examined for the photons' spatial and type coalescence typical of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, i.e., a zero probability of finding the outgoing photons having not only different localizations but also types. These results can possibly be observed in rubidium vapors.

  7. Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Hiroki

    2008-10-24

    The frequency distinguishability of two single photons was successfully erased using single photon frequency up-conversion. A frequency nondegenerate photon pair generated via spontaneous four-wave mixing in a dispersion shifted fiber was used to emulate two telecom-band single photons that were in the same temporal mode but in different frequency modes. The frequencies of these photons were converted to the same frequency by using the sum-frequency generation process in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides, while maintaining their temporal indistinguishability. As a result, the two converted photons exhibited a nonclassical dip in a Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference experiment. The present scheme will add flexibility to networking quantum information systems that use photons with various wavelengths.

  8. Integrated AlGaAs source of highly indistinguishable and energy-time entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Autebert, Claire; Martin, Anthony; Lemaître, Aristide; Carbonell, Carmen Gomez; Favero, Ivan; Leo, Giuseppe; Zbinden, Hugo; Ducci, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The generation of nonclassical states of light in miniature chips is a crucial step towards practical implementations of future quantum technologies. Semiconductor materials are ideal to achieve extremely compact and massively parallel systems and several platforms are currently under development. In this context, spontaneous parametric down conversion in AlGaAs devices combines the advantages of room temperature operation, possibility of electrical injection and emission in the telecom band. Here we report on a chip-based AlGaAs source, producing indistinguishable and energy-time entangled photons with a brightness of $7.2\\times10^6$ pairs/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of $141\\pm12$. Indistinguishability between the photons is demonstrated via a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with a visibility of $89\\pm3\\%$, while energy-time entanglement is tested via a Franson interferometer leading to a value for the Bell parameter $ S=2.70\\pm0.10$.

  9. PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.

  10. Time-resolved spectroscopy with entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A; Kalachev, Alexey A; Yu, Ye Feng; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Krivitsky, Leonid A

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of light with media often occurs with a femtosecond response time. Its measurement by conventional techniques requires the use of femtosecond lasers and sophisticated time-gated optical detection1-3. Here we demonstrate that by exploiting quantum interference of entangled photons it is possible to measure the phase relaxation time of a media on the femtosecond time scale (down to 100 fs) using accessible continuous wave laser and single-photon counting. We insert the sample in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer4 and infer the phase relaxation time from the modification of the two-photon interference pattern. In addition to its simplicity and ease of use, the technique does not require compensation of group velocity dispersion5-8 and does not induce photo-damage of the samples. This technique will be useful for characterization of ultrafast phase relaxation processes in material science, chemistry, and biology.

  11. A robust metal-organic framework constructed from alkoxo-bridged binuclear nodes and hexamethylenetetramine spacers: crystal structure and sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyes, Elena; Florea, Mihaela; Madalan, Augustin M; Haiduc, Ionel; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Andruh, Marius

    2012-08-06

    A neutral 3D metal-organic framework, (3)(∞)[Cu(2)(mand)(2)(hmt)]·H(2)O (1), was constructed from binuclear Cu(2)O(2) alkoxo-bridged nodes, generated by the doubly deprotonated mandelic acid. The nodes are connected by hexamethylenetetramine (hmt) spacers, which act as biconnective bridging ligands, and by carboxylato groups. Channels are observed along the crystallographic c axis. The water molecules from the channels can be easily removed, preserving the architecture of the crystal, which is stable up to 280 °C. The Langmuir surface area was found to be 610 m(2) g(-1). The sorption ability of 1 was investigated using H(2) and CO(2).

  12. Analysis of generalized negative binomial distributions attached to hyperbolic Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaiba, Hassan; Demni, Nizar; Mouayn, Zouhair

    2016-07-01

    To each hyperbolic Landau level of the Poincaré disc is attached a generalized negative binomial distribution. In this paper, we compute the moment generating function of this distribution and supply its atomic decomposition as a perturbation of the negative binomial distribution by a finitely supported measure. Using the Mandel parameter, we also discuss the nonclassical nature of the associated coherent states. Next, we derive a Lévy-Khintchine-type representation of its characteristic function when the latter does not vanish and deduce that it is quasi-infinitely divisible except for the lowest hyperbolic Landau level corresponding to the negative binomial distribution. By considering the total variation of the obtained quasi-Lévy measure, we introduce a new infinitely divisible distribution for which we derive the characteristic function.

  13. 轴向扩散下不可压饱和多孔简支弹性杆的弯曲%Bending of simply supported incompressible saturated poroelastic beams with axial diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骁; 刘鑫

    2008-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of the bending of the incompressible saturated poroelastic beam with axialdiffusion, the quasi-static bendings of the simply supported poroelastic beam subjected to a suddenly applied constant loadwere investigated, and the analytical solutions were obtained for different diffusion conditions of the pore fluid at the beamends. The deflections, the bending moments of the solid skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore pressures werepresented in figures. It is also shown that the behavior of the saturated poroelastic beams depends closely on the diffusionconditions at the beam ends, especially for the equivalent couples of the pore pressures. It is found that the Mandel-Cryereffect also exists in the bending of the saturated poroelastic beams under specific diffusion conditions at the beam ends.

  14. High-fidelity spatially resolved multiphoton counting for quantum imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chrapkiewicz, Radoslaw; Banaszek, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for spatially resolved multiphoton counting based on an intensified camera with the retrieval of multimode photon statistics fully accounting for non-linearities in the detection process. The scheme relies on one-time quantum tomographic calibration of the detector. Faithful, high-fidelity reconstruction of single- and two-mode statistics of multiphoton states is demonstrated for coherent states and their statistical mixtures. The results consistently exhibit classical values of Mandel and Fano parameters in contrast to raw statistics of camera photo-events. Detector operation is reliable for illumination levels up to the average of one photon per an event area, substantially higher than in previous approaches to characterize quantum statistical properties of light with spatial resolution.

  15. Effect of Background Noise on the Photon Statistics of Triggered Single Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Lian-Tuan; ZHAO Yan-Ting; HUANG Tao; ZHAO Jian-Ming; YIN Wang-Bao; JIA Suo-Tang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We theoretically derive exact expressions for Mandel's Q parameter of the triggered single molecular source, which is inferred from the probabilities PRS(n) using the recorded of each photon detection event based on Hanbury Brown and Twiss detection. The real triggered source is recognized as an ideal single photon source with a Poissonian statistics background. How to decease the background and to increase the efficiency are discussed. It is established that the sub-Poissonian statistics formation can be determined by comparing the measured QRS of the real single triggered molecular with QC of the Poissonian source containing the same mean photons. By this method, we also give an efficient way to measure signal-to-background ratios of triggered single photons.

  16. Health hazards among workers in plastic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Sawsan Farouk; Elshafy, Wessam Sabry

    2013-10-01

    Styrene is a basic building block for manufacturing thousands of products throughout the world. The present study aimed to (1) detect the presence of styrene and/or its metabolites in the workers in one of the Egyptian plastic factories; (2) demonstrate some common health effects of styrene exposure among the same group by some laboratory investigations and compare them with the unexposed healthy individuals; and (3) correlate the duration of styrene exposure and its level in the blood with the severity of the demonstrated health effects. This study was conducted in one of Egyptian plastic factories. The exposed group was 40 male workers, ranging in age from 18 to 33 years (23.20 ± 4.09), working 12 h/day with 1 day off, and working without any protective equipment. A control group of 50 unexposed healthy males matched with the exposed group for age (21-35 yrs (23.40 ± 4.05)), sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit is selected. Written individual consent is obtained from all participants followed by (a) a full medical and occupational history and full clinical examination; (b) ventilatory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV₁)%, FEV₁/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and mid-expiratory flow 25-75%; (c) analyses of β₂ microglobulin; blood styrene level; and urinary mandelic acid; and (d) cytogenetic study. The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and the control groups as regard the blood styrene level, urinary mandelic acid level, β₂ microgloblin in urine, and chromosomal study. The study also showed a statistically significant correlation between the duration of styrene exposure and ventilatory function parameters, also between the duration of styrene exposure and some detectable chromosomal aberrations. Our study recommends the implementation of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and health education programs using

  17. Mucor griseocyanus Lipase: Production, Characterization and Study of Some Catalytic Properties of the Immobilised Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janny Coca Armas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the production of extracellular lipase by Mucor griseocyanus 55.1.1 strain on different substrates in order to select the ideal one for lipase synthesis. The carbon sources used were: olive oil, glycerol, coconut oil, sunflower oil, glucose, starch and sucrose. The obtained results indicate that the synthesis of the enzyme was possible in the presence of all substrates. Lipase activities in the range of 0.04 to 0.1 IU/mL were obtained. It was found that the most suitable carbon source for the production of the enzyme was a combination of coconut oil and sucrose at 0.5 and 1.5 % (m/V, respectively, and the level of activity reached under this condition was 0.113 IU/mL. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic extract activities were identified in a pH range of 4 to 6 and at a temperature of 60 °C. Enzymatic extract was stable for a period of 5 h in neutral and weakly acidic media (pH=6 at moderate temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. Studies on the catalytic properties (stereoselectivity and enantioselectivity of the immobilized lipase using the esters of methyl phenyl glycinic and (R,S-methyl mandelic acid showed excellent properties of the enzyme compared to commercial lipases tested. M. griseocyanus lipase exhibited a greater stereoselectivity towards the R-isomer of methyl phenyl glycinic acid ester. However, with the esters of methyl mandelic acid, the enzyme showed a certain preference toward the S-isomer and it was hydrolysed 20 times faster than the R-isomer.

  18. Single-photon experiments with liquid crystals for quantum science and quantum engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Bissell, Luke J.; Gehring, George M.; Winkler, Justin M.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    We present here our results on using liquid crystals in experiments with nonclassical light sources: (1) single-photon sources exhibiting antibunching (separation of all photons in time), which are key components for secure quantum communication systems, and (2) entangled photon source with photons exhibiting quantum interference in a Hong-Ou- Mandel interferometer. In the first part, cholesteric liquid crystal hosts were used to create definite circular polarization of antibunched photons emitted by nanocrystal quantum dots. If the photon has unknown polarization, filtering it through a polarizer to produce the desired polarization for quantum key distribution with bits based on polarization states of photons will reduce by half the efficiency of a quantum cryptography system. In the first part, we also provide our results on observation of a circular polarized microcavity resonance in nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence in a 1-D chiral photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystal microcavity. In the second part of this paper with indistinguishable, time-entangled photons, we demonstrate our experimental results on simulating quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip (quantum interference effect) is shifted when a phase change was introduced on the way of one of entangled photons in pair (one arm of the interferometer) by inserting in this arm an electrically controlled planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal layer between two prisms in the conditions close to a frustrated total internal reflection. By applying different AC-voltages to the planar-aligned nematic layer and changing its refractive index, we can obtain various conditions for incident photon propagation - from total reflection to total transmission. Measuring changes of tunnelling times of photon through this structure with femtosecond resolution permitted us to answer some unresolved questions in quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena.

  19. Plano X mercado na história do pensamento econômico: quatro rodadas de um grande debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A bancarrota das burocracias do Leste Europeu contribuiu para uma retomada de debates em torno da possibilidade (ou impossibilidade de uma transição ao socialismo. O objetivo deste artigo é resenhar os aspectos principais de quatro rodadas: o debate do cálculo econômico no socialismo (Barone, Mises, Hayek e Lange; plano e mercado na industrialização na Rússia (Preobrazhesnky e Bukarin; plano, mercado e democracia na crise da URSS (Nove, Mandel e Elson e socialismo de mercado (Roemer, Wright. Essa resenha busca uma avaliação sintética das contribuições específicas de cada rodada para uma elaboração acadêmica atual sobre o tema. Na conclusão, esse balanço é articulado com possíveis linhas de investigação que poderiam contribuir para uma elaboração contemporânea.The collapse of USSR has stimulated a huge scholarly debate on socialist alternatives. This paper surveys four rounds of the debate on market and planning in the transition towards socialism: the socialist calculation debate (Barone, Mises, Lange and Hayek, market and plan in the Soviet industrialization (Preobrazhesnky and Bukharin, plan, market and democracy in the USSR’s crisis (Nove, Mandel and Elson and market socialism (Roemer, Wright. This survey summarizes the specific contributions of each round. The concluding section suggests a research agenda for a contemporary elaboration on this subject. This elaboration includes both these lessons and the structural changes within the capitalist system.

  20. Human inhalation exposures to toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of exposure biomarkers in exhaled air, blood, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Axelle; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Tardif, Robert; Nong, Andy; Haddad, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Urinary biomarkers of exposure are used widely in biomonitoring studies. The commonly used urinary biomarkers for the aromatic solvents toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and m-xylene (X) are o-cresol, mandelic acid, and m-methylhippuric acid. The toxicokinetics of these biomarkers following inhalation exposure have yet to be described by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Five male volunteers were exposed for 6 h in an inhalation chamber to 1/8 or 1/4 of the time-weighted average exposure value (TWAEV) for each solvent: toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were quantified in blood and exhaled air and their corresponding urine biomarkers were measured in urine. Published PBPK model for parent compounds was used and simulations were compared with experimental blood and exhaled air concentration data. If discrepancies existed, Vmax and Km were optimized. Urinary excretion was modeled using parameters found in literature assuming simply stoichiometric yields from parent compound metabolism and first-order urinary excretion rate. Alternative models were also tested for (1) the possibility that CYP1A2 is the only enzyme implicated in o-cresol and (2) a 2-step model for describing serial metabolic steps for mandelic acid. Models adapted in this study for urinary excretion will be further used to interpret urinary biomarker kinetic data from mixed exposures of these solvents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Modeling and Fitting Exoplanet Transit Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical model along with an original fitting routine for the analysis of transiting extra-solar planet light curves. Our light curve model is unique in several ways from other available transit models, such as the analytic eclipse formulae of Mandel & Agol (2002) and Giménez (2006), the modified Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program (EBOP) model implemented in Southworth’s JKTEBOP code (Popper & Etzel 1981; Southworth et al. 2004), or the transit model developed as a part of the EXOFAST fitting suite (Eastman et al. in prep.). Our model employs Keplerian orbital dynamics about the system’s center of mass to properly account for stellar wobble and orbital eccentricity, uses a unique analytic solution derived from Kepler’s Second Law to calculate the projected distance between the centers of the star and planet, and calculates the effect of limb darkening using a simple technique that is different from the commonly used eclipse formulae. We have also devised a unique Monte Carlo style optimization routine for fitting the light curve model to observed transits. We demonstrate that, while the effect of stellar wobble on transit light curves is generally small, it becomes significant as the planet to stellar mass ratio increases and the semi-major axes of the orbits decrease. We also illustrate the appreciable effects of orbital ellipticity on the light curve and the necessity of accounting for its impacts for accurate modeling. We show that our simple limb darkening calculations are as accurate as the analytic equations of Mandel & Agol (2002). Although our Monte Carlo fitting algorithm is not as mathematically rigorous as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based algorithms most often used to determine exoplanetary system parameters, we show that it is straightforward and returns reliable results. Finally, we show that analyses performed with our model and optimization routine compare favorably with exoplanet characterizations published by groups such as the

  2. Prevalence of Brugada-type ECG pattern and early ventricular repolarization pattern in Tunisian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sana Ouali1, Helmi Ben Salem1, Sami Hammas1, Elyes Neffeti1, Fahmi Remedi1, Abdallah Mahdhaoui2, Essia Boughzela1, Rafik Mankai31Department of Cardiology, Sahloul Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia; 2Department of Cardiology, Farhat Hached, Sousse, Tunisia; 3Central Sports Medicine Centre of El Menzah, TunisiaIntroduction: No data regarding the prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG pattern and the early ventricular repolarization pattern (ERP in the North African population were available. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of Brugada-type ECG pattern and ERP in Tunisia and to evaluate ECG descriptors of ventricular repolarization in a population of athletes.Methods: Over a 2-year period, resting 12-lead ECG recordings were analyzed from athletes (n = 540; 348 males; age 18.3 ± 2.4 years. Brugada-type ECG pattern was defined as Type 1, 2, or 3, and ERP was characterized by an elevation of the J point in the inferior and/or lateral leads. The population was divided into three groups of athletes: ERP group; Brugada-type ECG pattern group; and control group, with neither ERP nor Brugada ECG pattern. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters were compared among the study groups.Results: Nine subjects (1.66% had a Brugada-type ECG pattern. None of them had the coved-type, 3 (0.6% had the Type 2, and 6 (1.1% had the Type 3. All subjects were asymptomatic. A Brugada-type ECG pattern was observed in seven males. No female had the Type 2 Brugada ECG pattern. ECG parameters were similar among Brugada-type ECG pattern and control athletes. ERP (119 subjects, 22% was obtained in 98 males. Heart rate was lower, the QRS duration shorter and QT and Tpeak–Tend intervals were longer in ERP than control groups.Conclusion: The results indicate that the frequency of the Brugada-type ECG pattern and ERP were respectively 1.66% and 22.00% in athletes, being more prevalent in males. The ERP group experienced shorter QRS duration and

  3. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  4. Six-minute walk test in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients living in Northwest Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiri I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Imed Latiri,1 Rihab Elbey,1 Kamel Hcini,1 Afif Zaoui,2 Bessam Charfeddine,3 Mohamed Ridha Maarouf,4 Zouhair Tabka,1,5 Abdelkrim Zbidi,1,5 Helmi Ben Saad1,51Laboratory of Physiology, University of Sousse, 2Department of Physical Medicine. Sahloul Hospital, 3Laboratory of Biochemistry, Basic Health Group, 4Basic Health Group, 5Department of Physiology and Functional Exploration, Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse, TunisiaIntroduction: International recommendations of the exploration of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM are focused on deficiency and not incapacity.Aims: (1 To estimate the incapacity of NIDDM patients through the 6-minute walk test (6MWT data. (2 To determine their 6-minute walk distance (6MWD influencing factors (3 To compare data of NIDDM patient group (PG; n = 100 with those of two control groups (CG: CG1 (n = 174, healthy nonobese and nonsmoker; CG2 (n = 55, obese nondiabetic free from comorbidities.Population and methods: The anthropometric, socioeconomic, clinical, metabolic, and 6MWT data of 100 NIDDM patients (45 females were collected.Results: Total sample means ± standard deviation of age, weight, and height were 54 ± 8 years, 81 ± 14 kg, and 1.64 ± 0.09 m. (1 Measured 6MWD (566 ± 81 m was significantly lower than the theoretical 6MWD (90% ± 12%. The profile of the PG carrying the 6MWT, was as follows: 23% had an abnormal 6MWD; at the end of the 6MWT, 21% and 12% had, respectively, a low heart rate and a high dyspnea (>5/10, and 4% had desaturation during the walk. The estimated "cardiorespiratory and muscular chain" age (68 ± 16 years was significantly higher than the chronological age. (2 The factors that significantly influenced the 6MWD (r2 = 0.58 are included in the following equation: 6MWD (m = –73.94 × gender (0, male; 1, female – 3.25 × age (years + 7.33 × leisure activity score – 35.57 × obesity (0, no; 1, yes + 32.86 × socioeconomic level (0, low; 1, high – 27.67 × cigarette use (0

  5. Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Duong

    2001-12-01

    thermal information via a temperature wall law. For the transfer of the discretized heat fluxes from the fluid to the structural analyzer across meshes with non-conforming interfaces, we adopt the conservation method developed by Farhat and co-workers for exchanging aerodynamic data in aeroelastic problems. We validate our computational procedure on the flat plate benchmark problem and perform a thermal study of the F-16's 2D wing section. Lastly, we apply our solution methodology to the aerothermoelastic stability analysis of a flat panel.

  6. Analysis of binary responses with outcome-specific misclassification probability in genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekaya R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romdhane Rekaya,1–3 Shannon Smith,4 El Hamidi Hay,5 Nourhene Farhat,6 Samuel E Aggrey3,7 1Department of Animal and Dairy Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 2Department of Statistics, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, 3Institute of Bioinformatics, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 4Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, 5United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, 6Carolinas HealthCare System Blue Ridge, Morganton, NC, 7Department of Poultry Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Errors in the binary status of some response traits are frequent in human, animal, and plant applications. These error rates tend to differ between cases and controls because diagnostic and screening tests have different sensitivity and specificity. This increases the inaccuracies of classifying individuals into correct groups, giving rise to both false-positive and false-negative cases. The analysis of these noisy binary responses due to misclassification will undoubtedly reduce the statistical power of genome-wide association studies (GWAS. A threshold model that accommodates varying diagnostic errors between cases and controls was investigated. A simulation study was carried out where several binary data sets (case–control were generated with varying effects for the most influential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and different diagnostic error rate for cases and controls. Each simulated data set consisted of 2000 individuals. Ignoring misclassification resulted in biased estimates of true influential SNP effects and inflated estimates for true noninfluential markers. A substantial reduction in bias and increase in accuracy ranging from 12% to 32% was observed when the misclassification procedure was invoked. In fact, the majority of influential SNPs that were not identified using the noisy data were captured using the

  7. Nanoliposomal artemisinin for the treatment of murine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Want MY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muzamil Y Want,1 Mohammad Islammudin,1 Garima Chouhan,1 Hani A Ozbak,2 Hassan A Hemeg,2 Asoke P Chattopadhyay,3 Farhat Afrin2 1Parasite Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Most of the therapeutics for VL are toxic, expensive, or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent antileishmanial activity, but with limited access to infected cells, being a highly lipophilic molecule. Association of artemisinin with liposome is a desirable strategy to circumvent the problem of poor accessibility, thereby improving its efficacy, as demonstrated in a murine model of experimental VL. Nanoliposomal artemisinin (NLA was prepared by thin-film hydration method and optimized using Box–Behnken design with a mean particle diameter of 83±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.2±0.03, zeta potential of -27.4±5.7 mV, and drug loading of 33.2%±2.1%. Morphological study of these nanoliposomes by microscopy showed a smooth and spherical surface. The mechanism of release of artemisinin from the liposomes followed the Higuchi model in vitro. NLA was free from concomitant signs of toxicity, both ex vivo in murine macrophages and in vivo in healthy BALB/c mice. NLA significantly denigrated the intracellular infection of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and the number of infected macrophages ex vivo with an IC50 of 6.0±1.4 µg/mL and 5.1±0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Following treatment in a murine model of VL, NLA demonstrated superior efficacy compared to artemisinin with a

  8. Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article, 'Reflections on the United States Military 1941-1987' written by my grandmother, Mary Mandels, illustrates her passion for life. Her outreach article was considered most appropriate for publication in this forum. Her career activities are outlined in the prior article 'Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, Bioenergy Leader' while her accomplishments were fully recognized, for instance, nationally through the American Chemical Society and through her induction into the Hall of Fame at the US Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts. As illustrated, along with Dr Elwyn Reese at Natick's Pioneering Research Laboratory, she headed a bioengineering group that is particularly remembered for developing a process for the enzymatic conversion of waste cellulosic biomass into soluble sugars that could be fermented to ethanol for an alternate liquid fuel (gasohol. This technology remains a subject of interest with growing environmental concerns and an oil shortage crisis. Mary broke the promotional glass ceiling in her own field, all the more remarkable from the perspective that she was born 3 years before women gained the right to vote. Her talents as the family storyteller, enthralling her four siblings while growing up, later reflected her abilities as an outstanding mentor to young scientists. Mary's passions went beyond her career with a love of nature and the outdoors, taking frequent canoe, hiking, skiing, and camping trips. She had a broad fascination for science, foci including her encyclopedic knowledge of plants and wildlife. When not outdoors Mary enjoyed listening to music, from opera to 'Bobby' Dylan, as she called him. Her voracious appetite for books was apparent by the tomes that covered her coffee table. She was never shy to share her political opinions and would send long handwritten letters to politicians who did something to her disapproval. She was strong willed and passionate in everything that she did

  9. De Novo Synthesis of Benzenoid Compounds by the Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae Increases the Flavor Diversity of Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Valentina; Giorello, Facundo; Fariña, Laura; Minteguiaga, Manuel; Salzman, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Aguilar, Pablo S; Gaggero, Carina; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Mas, Albert; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-06-08

    Benzyl alcohol and other benzenoid-derived metabolites of particular importance in plants confer floral and fruity flavors to wines. Among the volatile aroma components in Vitis vinifera grape varieties, benzyl alcohol is present in its free and glycosylated forms. These compounds are considered to originate from grapes only and not from fermentative processes. We have found increased levels of benzyl alcohol in red Tannat wine compared to that in grape juice, suggesting de novo formation of this metabolite during vinification. In this work, we show that benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol are synthesized de novo in the absence of grape-derived precursors by Hanseniaspora vineae. Levels of benzyl alcohol produced by 11 different H. vineae strains were 20-200 times higher than those measured in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. These results show that H. vineae contributes to flavor diversity by increasing grape variety aroma concentration in a chemically defined medium. Feeding experiments with phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, p-aminobenzoic acid, and ammonium in an artificial medium were tested to evaluate the effect of these compounds either as precursors or as potential pathway regulators for the formation of benzenoid-derived aromas. Genomic analysis shows that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) pathways, used by plants to generate benzyl alcohols from aromatic amino acids, are absent in the H. vineae genome. Consequently, alternative pathways derived from chorismate with mandelate as an intermediate are discussed.

  10. Marcel Vivargent

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    (Photo LAPP ) Marcel Vivargent died on 31 January of this year, aged 87. After obtaining a science degree in 1949, he joined the CNRS in 1951, starting out in the laboratory of Frédéric Joliot Curie at the Collège de France, and obtaining his doctorate in 1958. He worked on the installation of the cyclotron at the Radium Institute in Orsay, where he conducted research until 1960. That year he went to CERN, joining a small group of physicists to work on hadron production and kaon physics at the PS. Passionate about the future of the discipline in France, in the 1960s Marcel Vivargent worked together with Robert Lévy-Mandel and the physicists and engineers in Orsay and at Saclay on the design of a 45 GeV accelerator project, which never materialised. In 1968 he was appointed director of the high-energy division of the CNRS, bringing together particle physicists from IPN in Orsay and from the University of Paris Jussieu. In parallel, he participated in the experim...

  11. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  12. Cloning, DNA sequencing and heterologous expression of the gene for thermostable N-acylamino acid racemase from Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, S; Hatano, K

    1995-03-01

    The gene encoding the novel enzyme N-acylamino acid racemase (AAR) was cloned in recombinant phage lambda-4 from the DNA library of Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60, a rare actinomycete, using antiserum against the enzyme. The cloned gene was subcloned and transformed in Escherichia coli JM105 using pUC118 as a vector. The AAR gene consists of an open-reading frame of 1104 nucleotides, which specifies a 368-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 39411Da. The molecular mass deduced from the AAR gene is in good agreement with the subunit molecular mass (40kDa) of AAR from Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60. The guanosine plus cytosine content of the AAR gene was about 70%. Although the AAR gene uses the unusual initiation codon GTG, the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli using the lac promoter of pUC118. The amount of the enzyme produced by the transformant was 16 times that produced by Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60. When the unusual initiation codon GTG was changed to ATG, the enzyme productivity of the transformant increased to more than 37 times that of Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60. In the comparison of the DNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of AAR with those of known racemases and epimerases in data bases, no significant sequence homology was found. However, AAR resembles mandelate racemase in that requires metal ions for enzyme activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Causal signal transmission by quantum fields -- V: Generalised Keldysh rotations and electromagnetic response of the Dirac sea

    CERN Document Server

    Plimak, L I

    2013-01-01

    The connection between real-time quantum field theory (RTQFT) [see, e.g., A.\\ Kamenev and A.\\ Levchenko, Advances in Physics {58} (2009) 197] and phase-space techniques [E.\\ Wolf and L.\\ Mandel, {\\em Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics} (Cambridge, 1995)] is investigated. The Keldysh rotation that forms the basis of RTQFT is shown to be a phase-space mapping of the quantum system based on the symmetric (Weyl) ordering. Following this observation, we define generalised Keldysh rotations based on the class of operator orderings introduced by Cahill and Glauber [Phys.\\ Rev.\\ {177} (1969) 1882]. Each rotation is a phase-space mapping, generalising the corresponding ordering from free to interacting fields. In particular, response transformation [L.P.\\ and S.S., Ann.\\ Phys. (N.Y.) {323} (2008) 1989] extends the normal ordering of free-field operators to the time-normal ordering of Heisenberg\\ operators. Structural properties of the response transformation, such as its association with the nonlinear quantum respon...

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the activities of lauric acid monoester formulations against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Mark S; Rotger, Margalida; Piper, Kerryl E; Steckelberg, James M; Scholz, Matthew; Andrews, Jeffrey; Patel, Robin

    2005-08-01

    Due to increasing mupirocin resistance, alternatives for Staphylococcus aureus nasal decolonization are needed. Lauric acid monoesters combined with lactic, mandelic, malic, or benzoic acid are being evaluated as possible alternatives. We determined the in vitro activity of 13 lauric acid monoester (LAM) formulations and mupirocin against 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates and 30 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. We then used a murine model of MRSA nasopharyngeal colonization to compare the in vivo activity of mupirocin with three LAM formulations. MSSA and MRSA MIC(90) values were 0.25 microg/ml for mupirocin and

  15. Definition of (so MIScalled) ``Complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!(sMciUS!!!) Versus Deviations From( sMciUS!!!): ``COMPLICATEDNESS" Definition(s) and MEASURE(S)!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, F.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    (so MIScalled) ``complexity''(sMc) associated BOTH SCALE- INVARIANCE Symmetry-RESTORING(S-I S-R) [vs. S-I S-B!!!], AND X (w) P(w ) 1/w^(1.000...) ``pink''/Zipf/Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY CONNECTION is by simple-calculus SISR's logarithm- function derivative: (d/dw)ln(w)=1/w=1/w^(1.000...), hence: (d/dw) [SISR](w)=1/w=1/w^(1.000...)=(via Noether-theorem relating continuous-(SISR)-symmetries to conservation-laws)=(d/dw)[4-DIV (J(INTER-SCALE)=0](w)=1/w =1/w^(1.000...). Hence sMc is information inter-scale conservation [as Anderson-Mandell, Fractals of Brain; Fractals of Mind(1994)-experimental- psychology!!!], i.e. sMciUS!!!, VERSUS ``COMPLICATEDNESS", is sMcciUS!!!: EITHER: PLUS (Additive: Murphy's-law absence) OR TIMES (Multiplicative: Murphy's-law dominance) various disparate system-specificity ``COMPLICATIONS". ``COMPLICATEDNESS" MEASURES: DEVIATIONS FROM sMciUS!!!: EITHER [S-I S-B] MINUS [S- I S-R] AND/OR [``red"/Pareto X(w) P(w) 1/w^(#=/=1.000...)] MINUS [X(w) P(w) 1/w^(1.000...) ``pink"/Zipf/Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY] = [1/w^(#=/=1.000...)] MINUS [1/w^(1.000...)]; almost but not exactly a fractals Hurst-exponent-like [# - 1.000...]!!!

  16. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  17. A micromechanical approach for the micropolar modeling of heterogeneous periodic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Bellis,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational homogenization is adopted to assess the homogenized two-dimensional response of periodic composite materials where the typical microstructural dimension is not negligible with respect to the structural sizes. A micropolar homogenization is, therefore, considered coupling a Cosserat medium at the macro-level with a Cauchy medium at the micro-level, where a repetitive Unit Cell (UC is selected. A third order polynomial map is used to apply deformation modes on the repetitive UC consistent with the macro-level strain components. Hence, the perturbation displacement field arising in the heterogeneous medium is characterized. Thus, a newly defined micromechanical approach, based on the decomposition of the perturbation fields in terms of functions which depend on the macroscopic strain components, is adopted. Then, to estimate the effective micropolar constitutive response, the well known identification procedure based on the Hill-Mandel macro-homogeneity condition is exploited. Numerical examples for a specific composite with cubic symmetry are shown. The influence of the selection of the UC is analyzed and some critical issues are outlined.

  18. Regulation of cell-cell adhesion by Rap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Hogan, Catherine; Braga, Vania M M

    2006-01-01

    Rap1 has been implicated in the regulation of morphogenesis and cell-cell contacts in vivo (Asha et al., 1999; Hariharan et al., 1991; Knox and Brown, 2002) and in vitro (Hogan et al., 2004; Price et al., 2004). Among cell-cell adhesion molecules regulated by Rap1 is cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesive receptor. Assembly of cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts triggers Rap1 activation, and Rap function is necessary for the stability of cadherins at junctions (Hogan et al., 2004; Price et al., 2004). Here we describe assays to access the effects of Rap1 on cadherin-dependent adhesion in epithelia, in particular the method used for Rap1 localization, activation, and function modulation by microinjection. We focus on controls and culture conditions to determine the specificity of the phenotype with respect to cadherin receptors. This is important, because different receptors that accumulate at sites of cell-cell contacts are also able to activate Rap1 (Fukuyama et al., 2005; Mandell et al., 2005).

  19. Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, V. V.; Valverde, C.; Souza, L. S.; Baseia, B.

    2016-08-01

    We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called "sub-Planck structures" is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short "conventional interference degradation time" (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.

  20. Quantum Mechanics for Everybody: An autonomous MOOC on EdX for nonscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freericks, James; Cutler, Dylan; Vieira-Barbosa, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    We have launched a MOOC for nonscientists that teaches quantum mechanics using the Feynman methodology as outlined in his QED book and in a similar book by Daniel Styer. Using a combination of videos, voice-over powerpoint animations, computer simulations and interactive tutorials, we teach the fundamentals of quantum mechanics employing a minimum of math (high school algebra, square roots, and a little trigonometry) but going into detail on a number of complex quantum ideas. We begin with the Stern-Gerlach experiment, including delayed choice and Bell's inequality variants. Then we focus on light developing the quantum theory for partial reflection and diffraction. At this point we demonstrate the complexity of quantum physics by showing how watched and unwatched two-slit experiments behave differently and how quantum particles interfere. The four week course ends with advanced topics in light where we cover the idea of an interaction free measurement, the quantum Zeno effect and indistinguishable particles via the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment. We hope this MOOC will reach thousands of students interesting in learning quantum mechanics without any dumbing down or the need to learn complex math. It can also be used with undergraduates to help with conceptual understanding. Funded by the National Science Foundation under grants numbered PHY-1620555 and PHY-1314295 and by Georgetown University.

  1. ANÁLISE SIMULTÂNEA DOS INDICADORES BIOLÓGICOS DE EXPOSIÇÃO AOS SOLVENTES ETILBENZENO, ESTIRENO, TOLUENO E XILENO NA URINA POR CLAE-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila A. Yamamoto

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneous analysis of phenylglyoxylic (PGA, mandelic (MA, hippuric (HA, orto-, meta- and para-methylhippuric (o-, m- and p-MHA acids in urine, by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed and validated. The substances are biotransformation products used as biological indicators to assess the exposure of workers, respectively, to ethylbenzene, styrene, toluene and xylene. The urinary metabolites were separated using a C18 column and a mixture of 5 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.6:acetonitrile (92:8, v/v as mobile phase. Urine samples were extracted with dichloromethane:ethyl acetate (70:30, v/v. The method used phenacetin as internal standard and was linear in the interval of 100-500 µg mL-1 for PGA and MA and 150-700 µg mL-1 for HA and MHA. The detection limits in µg mL-1, were 19.8 for PGA, 1.7 for MA, 4.1 for HA, 3.9 for o-MHA, 3.3 for m-MHA and 7.3 for p-MHA. Intra- and inter-assay precisions (as relative standard deviation were all less than 15% and accuracy (as relative standard error did not exceed 12.3%. The recovery was higher than 65% for all metabolites. The developed method will be applied to biological evaluation of workers exposure to these solvents.

  2. Periodic behavior of collapse-revival phenomenon in the full nonlinear interaction between a three-level atom and a single-mode field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M. K.; Rastegarzadeh, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper based on a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model we solve the dynamical Hamiltonian describing the interaction between a (Λ or V-type) three-level atom and a single-mode field in the "full nonlinear regime" and then the analytical form of state vector of the system is explicitly obtained. In this manner, we encountered with "intensity-dependent detuning" as well as "intensity-dependent atom-field coupling" in our two models. Via choosing an appropriate deformation function (which imposes nonlinearity to the system) we consider the influence of Kerr-like medium from which the resonance condition for a selected number of quanta is achieved (selective transition is occurred). Furthermore, by these considerations, we may find the optimum values for atom-field coupling constants which provide a regular periodic behavior of probability amplitudes for the two considered atomic systems. Moreover, to show this periodic time behavior, the temporal evolution of the probability of the allowed atomic transitions as well as the Mandel parameter (as a non-classical sign) is depicted for various circumstances. As is observed, complete revivals may appear in some particular situations.

  3. Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodonov, V.V., E-mail: vdodonov@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04455, 70919-970 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Valverde, C. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Universidade Paulista, BR 153, km 7, 74845-090 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Souza, L.S. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Baseia, B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58.051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called “sub-Planck structures” is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short “conventional interference degradation time” (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.

  4. On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Wu, Dian; Atatüre, Mete; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Single photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots offer distinct advantages for quantum information, including a scalable solid-state platform, ultrabrightness, and interconnectivity with matter qubits. A key prerequisite for their use in optical quantum computing and solid-state networks is a high level of efficiency and indistinguishability. Pulsed resonance fluorescence (RF) has been anticipated as the optimum condition for the deterministic generation of high-quality photons with vanishing effects of dephasing. Here, we generate pulsed RF single photons on demand from a single, microcavity-embedded quantum dot under s-shell excitation with 3-ps laser pulses. The pi-pulse excited RF photons have less than 0.3% background contributions and a vanishing two-photon emission probability. Non-postselective Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two successively emitted photons is observed with a visibility of 0.97(2), comparable to trapped atoms and ions. Two single photons are further used to implement a h...

  5. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  6. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  7. Nonclassical properties and decoherence of fields in photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2014-04-01

    We put forward the photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states (PASETS) theoretically by adding photon to the squeezed enhancing thermal states (SETS) repeatedly. Based on the normally ordered density operator of PASETS, we investigate the nonclassical behavior of the PASETS by evaluating, both analytically and numerically, Mandel's Q-parameter, photon-number distribution (PND), and Wigner function (WF). It is found that smaller squeezing parameter r and thermal photon number nc can lead to more chance of the appearance of sub-Poissonian statistics. And it is shown that the PND of PASETS exhibit more remarkable oscillations than that of SETS in stronger squeezing case. The WF exhibit partial negativity in phase space and the squeezing parameter r can result in both squeezing and rotating effect. By investigating the fidelity between PASETS and SETS shows that the fidelity tender to steady values in the high value of squeezing parameter or thermal photon number. In addition, the decoherence effect on the PASETS is examined by the time-evolution of the analytical WF in thermal channel. The results show that the PASETS shall lose nonclassicality and non-Gaussianity and reduce to classical states with Gaussian distribution after sufficient time interaction with the thermal noise. And larger photon-added number or thermal photon number shall render shorter decoherence time.

  8. Evolution of a hybrid micro-macro entangled state of the qubit-oscillator system via the generalized rotating wave approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Yogesh, V.

    2016-04-01

    We study the evolution of the hybrid entangled states in a bipartite (ultra) strongly coupled qubit-oscillator system. Using the generalized rotating wave approximation the reduced density matrices of the qubit and the oscillator are obtained. The reduced density matrix of the oscillator yields the phase space quasi probability distributions such as the diagonal P-representation, the Wigner W-distribution and the Husimi Q-function. In the strong coupling regime the Q-function evolves to uniformly separated macroscopically distinct Gaussian peaks representing ‘kitten’ states at certain specified times that depend on multiple time scales present in the interacting system. The ultrastrong coupling strength of the interaction triggers appearance of a large number of modes that quickly develop a randomization of their phase relationships. A stochastic averaging of the dynamical quantities sets in, and leads to the decoherence of the system. The delocalization in the phase space of the oscillator is studied by using the Wehrl entropy. The negativity of the W-distribution reflects the departure of the oscillator from the classical states, and allows us to study the underlying differences between various information-theoretic measures such as the Wehrl entropy and the Wigner entropy. Other features of nonclassicality such as the existence of the squeezed states and appearance of negative values of the Mandel parameter are realized during the course of evolution of the bipartite system. In the parametric regime studied here these properties do not survive in the time-averaged limit.

  9. Temporal Purity and Quantum Interference of Single Photons from Two Independent Cold Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.

  10. Quantitation of iodine-123 MIBG uptake by normal adrenal medulla in hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomanji, J.; Flatman, W.D.; Horne, T.; Fettich, J.; Britton, K.E.; Ross, G.; Besser, G.M.

    1987-03-01

    Eighteen hypertensive patients with a clinical suspicion of pheochromocytoma and raised or borderline raised plasma catecholamine and urinary vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) levels were studied by scintigraphy using /sup 123/I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). None of these patients had any scintigraphic evidence of pheochromocytoma at the time of study or on subsequent clinical follow-up. A quantitative approach was taken to calculate the adrenal medullary uptake of (/sup 123/I)MIBG in these patients. Three different methods of quantitation were evaluated using data acquired from an anthropomorphic phantom and analysed by three independent observers. In the patient studies 34 out of 35 adrenal medullas were visualized with uptake in the range of 0.01-0.22% of the administered dose 22 hr postinjection which was calculated using the preferred quantitation method. This is an appropriate control group range for comparison with patients who have proven norepinephrine and epinephrine secreting tumors. A quantitative approach to (/sup 123/I)MIBG imaging provides an important tool for studying adrenomedullary pathophysiology.

  11. Improving the Thermostability and Optimal Temperature of a Lipase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Covalent Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta V. Branco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant thermostable lipase (Pf2001Δ60 from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PFUL was immobilized by hydrophobic interaction on octyl-agarose (octyl PFUL and by covalent bond on aldehyde activated-agarose in the presence of DTT at pH = 7.0 (one-point covalent attachment (glyoxyl-DTT PFUL and on glyoxyl-agarose at pH 10.2 (multipoint covalent attachment (glyoxyl PFUL. The enzyme’s properties, such as optimal temperature and pH, thermostability, and selectivity, were improved by covalent immobilization. The highest enzyme stability at 70°C for 48 h incubation was achieved for glyoxyl PFUL (around 82% of residual activity, whereas glyoxyl-DTT PFUL maintained around 69% activity, followed by octyl PFUL (27% remaining activity. Immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose improved the optimal temperature to 90°C, while the optimal temperature of octyl PFUL was 70°C. Also, very significant changes in activity with different substrates were found. In general, the covalent bond derivatives were more active than octyl PFUL. The E value also depended substantially on the derivative and the conditions used. It was observed that the reaction of glyoxyl-DTT PFUL using methyl mandelate as a substrate at pH 7 presented the best results for enantioselectivity E=22 and enantiomeric excess (ee (% = 91.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for beta-lactoglobulin determination: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumr, Frantisek; Gabrovská, Dana; Rysová, Jana; Hanák, Petr; Plicka, Jan; Tomková, Kveta; Cuhra, Petr; Kubík, Martin; Barsová, Sona; Karsulínoví, Lenka; Bulawová, Hana; Brychta, Josef

    2009-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed in six laboratories to prove the validation of the ELISA method developed for quantitative determination of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in foods. The ELISA kit used for this study is based on rabbit polyclonal antibody. In-house validation of the kit did not produce false-positive results or cross-reactivity in a broad range of food matrixes containing no milk proteins. All participants obtained the BLG kit with a standard operational procedure, the list of the samples, samples, and a protocol for recording test results. The study included 14 food samples (extruded breakfast cereals, bread, two soy desserts, butter, chicken ham, chicken meat, wheat flour, long grain rice, jelly, two whey drinks, crackers, and bitter chocolate) and six spiked samples (two rice, two wheat flour, and two chicken meat). Nine samples of food matrixes containing no milk proteins showed BLG content lower than the first standard (0.15 mg/kg). Two samples of food matrixes with no milk proteins revealed BLG content higher than standard 3 (1.5 mg/100 g) and standard 4 (5.0 mg/100 g). Three food samples containing milk were tested as positive, and all spiked samples were evaluated as positive. The statistical tests (Cochran, Dixon, and Mandel) and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the interlaboratory study results. Repeatability and reproducibility limits, as well as LOQ (0.22 mg BLG/kg) and LOD (0.07 mg BLG/kg), for the kit were calculated.

  13. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  14. RI and Target recovery system of Lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. H.; Park, U. J.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Moon, J. H.; Nam, S. S.; Jang, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Separation of adjacent lanthanides is complicated process to obtain pure target nuclide. Several papers have reported that the ionic character change of lanthanides with appropriate chelating agents can isolate the target lanthanides. These specific agents to the metal ion are called as complexing agents including-HIBA, tartaric acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid etc. Radioisotope research division of KAERI has developed separating technique for target lanthanides, total 20mg scale, by using complexing agents and ion-pairing agents in cold state. The reactor-produced radiolanthanides have been pivotal for development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Some radiolanthanides show excellent theranostic effects in that they have proper Let (Linear Energy Transfer) to induce apoptosis for cancer treatment and gamma ray to use as a tracer for cancer diagnosis. This system was designed for automated separation of the (n,γ) reaction product. Especially, we are focused on getting the carrier free Ho-166 which is the first attempt at KAERI. Even though we have already developed to produce c.a Ho-166(carrier added form), we did not try to develop to produce carrier free Ho-166 since the separating process is difficult as well as production process follows double (n,γ) reaction. After HANARO is re-operated, we are schedule to produce n.c.a Ho by using this recovery system.

  15. Generation of broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence using multiple bulk nonlinear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Okano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Subashchandran, Shanthi; Takeuchi, Shigeki; 10.1364/OE.20.013977

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel method for generating broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence by using a set of bulk nonlinear crystals (NLCs). We also demonstrate this scheme experimentally. Our method employs a superposition of spontaneous parametric fluorescence spectra generated using multiple bulk NLCs. A typical bandwidth of 160 nm (73 THz) with a degenerate wavelength of 808 nm was achieved using two beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystals, whereas a typical bandwidth of 75 nm (34 THz) was realized using a single BBO crystal. We also observed coincidence counts of generated photon pairs in a non-collinear configuration. The bandwidth could be further broadened by increasing the number of NLCs. Our demonstration suggests that a set of four BBO crystals could realize a bandwidth of approximately 215 nm (100 THz).We also discuss the stability of Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference between the parametric fluorescence generated by this scheme. Our simple scheme is easy to implement with conventional NLCs and does not...

  16. Generation of broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence using multiple bulk nonlinear crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masayuki; Okamoto, Ryo; Tanaka, Akira; Subashchandran, Shanthi; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2012-06-18

    We propose a novel method for generating broadband spontaneous parametric fluorescence by using a set of bulk nonlinear crystals (NLCs). We also demonstrate this scheme experimentally. Our method employs a superposition of spontaneous parametric fluorescence spectra generated using multiple bulk NLCs. A typical bandwidth of 160 nm (73 THz) with a degenerate wavelength of 808 nm was achieved using two β-barium-borate (BBO) crystals, whereas a typical bandwidth of 75 nm (34 THz) was realized using a single BBO crystal. We also observed coincidence counts of generated photon pairs in a non-collinear configuration. The bandwidth could be further broadened by increasing the number of NLCs. Our demonstration suggests that a set of four BBO crystals could realize a bandwidth of approximately 215 nm (100 THz). We also discuss the stability of Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference between the parametric fluorescence generated by this scheme. Our simple scheme is easy to implement with conventional NLCs and does not require special devices.

  17. Consolidation of a poroelastic half-space with anisotropic permeability and compressible constituents by axisymmetric surface loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarva Jit Singh; Raman Kumar; Sunita Rani

    2009-10-01

    The fully coupled Biot quasi-static theory of linear poroelasticity is used to study the consolidation of a poroelastic half-space caused by axisymmetric surface loads.The fluid and solid constituents of the poroelastic medium are compressible and its permeability in the vertical direction is different from its permeability in the horizontal direction.An analytical solution of the governing equations is obtained by taking the displacements and the pore pressure as the basic state variables and using a combination of the Laplace and Hankel transforms.The problem of an axisymmetric normal load is discussed in detail.An explicit analytical solution is obtained for normal disc loading.Detailed numerical computations reveal that the anisotropy in permeability as well as the com-pressibilities of the fluid and solid constituents of the poroelastic medium have significant effects on the consolidation of the half-space.The anisotropy in permeability may accelerate the consolidation process and may lead to a dilution in the theoretical prediction of the Mandel –Cryer effect. The compressibility of the solid constituents may also accelerate the consolidation process.

  18. A 50/50 electronic beam splitter in graphene nanoribbons as a building block for electron optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro R. F.; Hernández, Alexis R.; Pinheiro, Felipe A.; Lewenkopf, Caio

    2016-12-01

    Based on the investigation of the multi-terminal conductance of a system composed of two graphene nanoribbons, in which one is on top of the other and rotated by {{60}\\circ} , we propose a setup for a 50/50 electronic beam splitter that neither requires large magnetic fields nor ultra low temperatures. Our findings are based on an atomistic tight-binding description of the system and on the Green function method to compute the Landauer conductance. We demonstrate that this system acts as a perfect 50/50 electronic beam splitter, in which its operation can be switched on and off by varying the doping (Fermi energy). We show that this device is robust against thermal fluctuations and long range disorder, as zigzag valley chiral states of the nanoribbons are protected against backscattering. We suggest that the proposed device can be applied as the fundamental element of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, as well as a building block of many devices in electron optics.

  19. Refinement of Magnetite Nanoparticles by Coating with Organic Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cîrcu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite nanoparticles are of great importance in nanotechnology and nanomedicine and have found manifold applications. Here, the effect of coating of magnetite nanoparticles with organic stabilizers, such as O-phosphoryl ethanolamine, glycerol phosphate, phospho-l-ascorbic acid, phospho-d,l-serine, glycolic acid, lactic acid, d,l-malic acid, and d,l-mandelic acid was studied. Remarkably, this procedure led to an improvement of saturation magnetization in three cases rather than to an unfavorable decrease as usually observed. Detailed X-ray powder diffraction investigations revealed that changes in the average crystallite occurred in the coating process. Surprisingly, changes of the average crystallite sizes in either direction were further observed, when the exposure time to the stabilizer was increased. These results imply a new mechanism for the well-known coating of magnetite nanoparticles with stabilizers. Instead of the hitherto accepted simple anchoring of the stabilizers to the magnetite nanoparticle surfaces, a more complex recrystallization mechanism is likely, wherein partial re-dispersion of magnetite moieties from the nanoparticles and re-deposition are involved. The results can help producers and users of magnetite nanoparticles to obtain optimal results in the production of core shell magnetite nanoparticles.

  20. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mainetti, Deborah; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double peaked flare (Mandel & Levin 2015). In this paper we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of SPH simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the syst...

  1. Axisymmetric Biot consolidation of a semi-infinite isotropic saturated soil subjected to time-dependent loadings%变荷载作用下轴对称饱和半空间均质地基Biot固结分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿雪玉; 蔡袁强

    2009-01-01

    基于Biot固结理论,对随时间变化的变荷载作用下轴对称饱和半空间均质地基固结问题进行了分析.引入状态变量,利用Laplace-Haknel联合变换法,求解了状态方程,得到变荷载作用下饱和土骨架位移、应力、孔隙水压力及渗流量的一般积分形式解,通过算例详细分析了变荷载作用下二维地基固结问题.结果表明,对缓加荷载作用下地基,只有加载较快时,在地基较深处才有明显的Mandel-Cryer效应出现.在循环荷载作用下,多维固结情况下会出现负孔压现象.

  2. Demonstration of quantum synchronization based on second-order quantum coherence of entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simultaneously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.4 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 59.4 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light...

  3. Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Zhenda; Shrestha, Sajan; Xu, XinAn; Liang, Junlin; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Bienfang, Joshua C; Restelli, Alessandro; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Wong, Franco N C; Wong, Chee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for secure information processing and communications, where hyperentanglement or high-dimensional entanglement has been separately proposed towards high data capacity and error resilience. The continuous-variable nature of the energy-time entanglement makes it an ideal candidate for efficient high-dimensional coding with minimal limitations. Here we demonstrate the first simultaneous high-dimensional hyperentanglement using a biphoton frequency comb to harness the full potential in both energy and time domain. The long-postulated Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum revival is exhibited, with up to 19 time-bins, 96.5% visibilities. We further witness the high-dimensional energy-time entanglement through Franson revivals, which is observed periodically at integer time-bins, with 97.8% visibility. This qudit state is observed to simultaneously violate the generalized Bell inequality by up to 10.95 deviations while observing recurrent Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt S-parameters up to...

  4. 论具有水文学意义的树木年代记录的持续性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰德沃·J·M; 马特拉斯·N·C; 侯明华

    1989-01-01

    赫斯特(Hurst)在研究了水文记录和多种长期地球物理记录,特别是树木年代记录后得出结论:水文过程具有持续性而不可能是长期独立的。曼德布洛特(Mandel-brot)提出一种无限记忆平稳过程,分数高斯噪音过程(F)来解释赫斯特的观点。对比之下,其它的一些预测是基于记录中隐含的非平稳而作出的。作者从物理概念出发提出一种包含树木年代记录中持续性机制的平稳无限记忆过程,它比F和其它过程更为成功。

  5. Single-mode nonclassicality criteria via Holstein-Primakoff transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Tasgin, Mehmet Emre

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantifications for nonclassicality of a single-mode field are shown to be equivalent; (i) the rank of entanglement it can generate by a beam-splitter and (ii) the number of terms needed to expand it as superposition of coherent states. We show that nonclassicality criteria can be obtained with an alternative approach. The rank of two-mode entanglement among 2-level identical particles converges to the rank of single-mode nonclassicality within the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, at the large particle number limit. In particular, we show that the entanglement criterion of Hillery & Zubairy converges to the Mandel's $Q$-parameter which is used to reveal nonclassicality, and spin-squeezing criterion of S{\\o}rensen et al. converges to single-mode squeezing condition. We obtain additional nonclassicality criteria not existing in the literature. We also discuss if single-mode nonclassicality can be visualized as the entanglement of space generating the photons. Moreover, in a forthcoming study...

  6. Identifying design parameters controlling damage behaviors of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites using micromechanics as a virtual testing tool

    KAUST Repository

    Pulungan, Ditho

    2017-03-31

    In this paper, we propose a micromechanical approach to predict damage mechanisms and their interactions in glass fibers/polypropylene thermoplastic composites. First, a representative volume element (RVE) of such materials was rigorously determined using a geometrical two-point probability function and the eigenvalue stabilization of homogenized elastic tensor obtained by Hill-Mandel kinematic homogenization. Next, the 3D finite element models of the RVE were developed accordingly. The fibers were modeled with an isotropic linear elastic material. The matrix was modeled with an isotropic linear elastic, rate-independent hyperbolic Drucker-Prager plasticity coupled with a ductile damage model that is able to show pressure dependency of the yield and damage behavior often found in a thermoplastic material. In addition, cohesive elements were inserted into the fiber-matrix interfaces to simulate debonding. The RVE faces are imposed with periodical boundary conditions to minimize the edge effect. The RVE was then subjected to transverse tensile loading in accordance with experimental tensile tests on [90]8 laminates. The model prediction was found to be in very good agreement with the experimental results in terms of the global stress-strain curves, including the linear and nonlinear portion of the response and also the failure point, making it a useful virtual testing tool for composite material design. Furthermore, the effect of tailoring the main parameters of thermoplastic composites is investigated to provide guidelines for future improvements of these materials.

  7. Hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by immobilized lipases: effect of the immobilization protocol and experimental conditions on diacetin yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Karel; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Porcar, Raul; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2011-05-06

    The effect of the immobilization protocol and some experimental conditions (pH value and presence of acetonitrile) on the regioselective hydrolysis of triacetin to diacetin catalyzed by lipases has been studied. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were immobilized on Sepabeads (commercial available macroporous acrylic supports) activated with glutaraldehyde (covalent immobilization) or octadecyl groups (adsorption via interfacial activation). All the biocatalysts accumulated diacetin. Covalently immobilized RML was more active towards rac-methyl mandelate than the adsorbed RML. However, this covalent RML preparation presented the lowest activity towards triacetin. For this reason, this preparation was discarded as biocatalyst for this reaction. At pH 7, acyl migration occurred giving a mixture of 1,2 and 1,3 diacetin, but at pH 5.5, only 1,2 diacetin was produced. Yields were improved at acidic pH values and in the presence of 20% acetonitrile (to over 95%). RML immobilized on octadecyl Sepabeads was proposed as optimal preparation, mainly due to its higher specific activity. Each enzyme preparation presented very different properties. Moreover, changes in the reaction conditions affected the various immobilized enzymes in a different way.

  8. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Zeudi; Cialdi, Simone; Cipriani, Daniele; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, the HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performance. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects. Overall, we show that it is possible to effectively introduce high-order dispersion effects on the propagation of photons and also to compensate for such effect. Our results clarify the role of the different dispersion phenomena and pave the way for optimization procedures in quantum technological applications involving PDC photons and optical fibers.

  9. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks.

  10. Simple method of generating and distributing frequency-entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Gerrits, Thomas; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    High-dimensional, frequency-entangled photonic quantum bits (qudits for d-dimension) are promising resources for quantum information processing in an optical fiber network and can also be used to improve channel capacity and security for quantum communication. However, up to now, it is still challenging to prepare high-dimensional frequency-entangled qudits in experiments, due to technical limitations. Here we propose and experimentally implement a novel method for a simple generation of frequency-entangled qudts with d\\gt 10 without the use of any spectral filters or cavities. The generated state is distributed over 15 km in total length. This scheme combines the technique of spectral engineering of biphotons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and the technique of spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. Our frequency-entangled qudits will enable quantum cryptographic experiments with enhanced performances. This distribution of distinct entangled frequency modes may also be useful for improved metrology, quantum remote synchronization, as well as for fundamental test of stronger violation of local realism.

  11. Fundamentals of green chemistry: efficiency in reaction design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Roger A

    2012-02-21

    In this tutorial review, the fundamental concepts underlying the principles of green and sustainable chemistry--atom and step economy and the E factor--are presented, within the general context of efficiency in organic synthesis. The importance of waste minimisation through the widespread application of catalysis in all its forms--homogeneous, heterogeneous, organocatalysis and biocatalysis--is discussed. These general principles are illustrated with simple practical examples, such as alcohol oxidation and carbonylation and the asymmetric reduction of ketones. The latter reaction is exemplified by a three enzyme process for the production of a key intermediate in the synthesis of the cholesterol lowering agent, atorvastatin. The immobilisation of enzymes as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) as a means of optimizing operational performance is presented. The use of immobilised enzymes in catalytic cascade processes is illustrated with a trienzymatic process for the conversion of benzaldehyde to (S)-mandelic acid using a combi-CLEA containing three enzymes. Finally, the transition from fossil-based chemicals manufacture to a more sustainable biomass-based production is discussed.

  12. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-01

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 +/- 1.0% (85.1 +/- 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  13. Tamper-Indicating Quantum Seal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian P.; Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-01-01

    Technical means for identifying when tampering occurs is a critical part of many containment and surveillance technologies. Conventional fiber-optic seals provide methods for monitoring enclosed inventories, but they are vulnerable to spoofing attacks based on classical physics. We address these vulnerabilities with the development of a quantum seal that offers the ability to detect the intercept-resend attack using quantum integrity verification. Our approach represents an application of entanglement to provide guarantees in the authenticity of the seal state by verifying it is transmitted coherently. We implement these ideas using polarization-entangled photon pairs that are verified after passing through a fiber-optic-channel test bed. Using binary-detection theory, we find the probability of detecting inauthentic signals is greater than 0.9999 with a false-alarm chance of 1 0-9 for a 10-s sampling interval. In addition, we show how the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect concurrently provides a tight bound on redirection attack, in which tampering modifies the shape of the seal. Our measurements limit the tolerable path-length change to submillimeter disturbances. These tamper-indicating features of the quantum seal offer unprecedented security for unattended monitoring systems.

  14. Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes with hydroxyproline groups as chiral NMR solvating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Courtney M; Chudomel, J Matthew; Collins, Jan M; Dignam, Catherine F; Wenzel, Thomas J

    2008-04-04

    Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes containing 3- and 4-hydroxyproline, d-nipecotic acid, (S)-2-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine, (S)-2-pyrrolidine methanol, and (S,S)-(+)-2,4-bis(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine substituents are synthesized and evaluated as chiral NMR solvating agents. The derivatives with the hydroxyproline groups are especially effective at causing enantiomeric discrimination in the spectra of water-soluble cationic and anionic compounds with pyridyl, phenyl, and bicyclic aromatic rings. Binding studies show that mono- and ortho-substituted phenyl rings associate within the cavity of the calix[4]resorcinarenes, as do naphthyl rings with mono-, 2,3-, and 1,8-substitution patterns. Anthracene derivatives with an amino or sulfonyl group at the 1-position bind within the cavity, as well. Aromatic resonances of the substrates exhibit substantial upfield shifts because of shielding from the aromatic rings of the calix[4]resorcinarene. The effectiveness of the reagents at producing chiral recognition in 1H NMR spectra is demonstrated with sodium mandelate, the sodium salt of tryptophan, and doxylamine succinate. While no one reagent is consistently the most effective, the calix[4]resorcinarenes with trans-4-hydroxyproline and trans-3-hydroxyproline moieties generally produce the largest nonequivalence in the 1H NMR spectra of the substrates.

  15. The Concept of Model. What is Remarkable in Mathematical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Dictionaries tell us that the word "model" originates from the Latin word "modulus" which means "measure, template, norm". This term was used in proceedings on civil engineering several centuries BC. Currently, it relates to an enormously wide range of material objects, symbolic structures and ideal images ranging from models of clothes, small copies of ships and aeroplanes, different pictures and plots to mathematical equations and computational algorithms. Starting to define the concept of "model", we would like to remind about the difficulty to give strict definitions of basic concepts. Thus, when university professors define "oscillations" and "waves" in their lectures on this subject, it is common for many of them to repeat the joke of Russian academician L.I. Mandel'shtam, who illustrated the problem with the example of the term "heap": How many objects, and of which kind, deserve such a name? As well, he compared strict definitions at the beginning of studying any topic to "swaddling oneself with barbed wire". Among classical examples of impossibility to give exhaustive formulations, one can mention the terms "bald spot", "forest", etc. Therefore, we will not consider variety of existing definitions of "model" and "modelling" in detail. Any of them relates to the purposes and subjective preferences of an author and is valid in a certain sense. However, it is restricted since it ignores some objects or properties that deserve attention from other points of view.

  16. Reprint of : Hanbury-Brown Twiss noise correlation with time controlled quasi-particles in ballistic quantum conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.

    2016-08-01

    We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.

  17. Hanbury-Brown Twiss noise correlation with time controlled quasi-particles in ballistic quantum conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.

    2016-02-01

    We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.

  18. Quantum-optical description of losses in ring resonators based on field-operator transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Paul M.; Hach, Edwin E.; Tison, Christopher C.; Smith, A. Matthew

    2017-05-01

    In this work we examine loss in ring resonator networks from an operator valued phasor addition approach which considers the multiple transmission and cross coupling paths of a quantum field traversing a ring resonator coupled to one or two external waveguide buses. We demonstrate the consistency of our approach by the preservation of the operator commutation relation of the out-coupled bus mode. We compare our results to those obtained from the conventional quantum Langevin approach which introduces noise operators in addition to the quantum Heisenberg equations in order to preserve commutation relations in the presence of loss. It is shown that the two expressions agree in the neighborhood of a cavity resonance where the Langevin approach is applicable, whereas the operator valued phasor addition expression we derive is more general, remaining valid far from resonances. In addition, we examine the effects of internal and coupling losses on the Hong-Ou-Mandel manifold discussed in Hach et al. [Phys. Rev. A 89, 043805 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.043805] that generalizes the destructive interference of two incident photons interfering on a 50:50 beam splitter (HOM effect) to the case of an add-drop double bus ring resonator.

  19. Superresolving Phase Measurement with Short-Wavelength NOON States by Quantum Frequency Up-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shi-Long; Liu, Shi-Kai; Li, Yin-Hai; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2017-06-01

    Precise measurements are the key to advances in all fields of science. Quantum entanglement shows higher sensitivity than that which is achievable by classical methods. Most physical quantities including position, displacement, distance, angle, and optical path length can be obtained by optical phase measurements. Reducing the photon wavelength of the interferometry can further enhance the optical-path-length sensitivity and imaging resolution. By quantum frequency up-conversion, we realize a short-wavelength two-photon number entangled state. Nearly perfect Hong-Ou-Mandel interference is achieved after both 1547-nm photons are up-converted to 525 nm. Optical phase measurement of the two-photon entanglement state yields a visibility greater than the threshold to surpass the standard quantum limit. A spectra change of the photon pair after being up-converted is observed and well explained. These results offer alternative ways for high-precision quantum metrology using a short-wavelength quantum entanglement number state and offer a potential all-optical spectra engineering technique for the photon pair source.

  20. Two-photon interference and coherent control of single InAs quantum dot emissions in an Ag-embedded structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X., E-mail: iu.xiangming@nims.go.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I. [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Kuroda, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.

  1. Construction of the Barut-Girardello type of coherent states for Pöschl-Teller potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong-Biao, E-mail: zhanghb017@nenu.edu.cn; Guo, San-Xing [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Jiang, Guang-Yuan [School of Physics, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130000 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The Pöschl-Teller (PT) potential occupies a privileged place among the anharmonic oscillator potentials due to its applications from quantum mechanics to diatomic molecules. For this potential, a polynomial su(1, 1) algebra has been constructed previously. So far, the coherent states (CSs) associated with this algebra have never appeared. In this paper, we construct the coherent states of the Barut-Girardello coherent states (BG-CSs) type for the PT potentials, which have received less attention in the scientific literature. We obtain these CSs and demonstrate that they fulfil all conditions required by the coherent state. The Mandel parameter for the pure BG-CSs and Husimi’s and P-quasi distributions (for the mixed-thermal states) is also presented. Finally, the exponential form of the BG-CSs for the PT potential has been presented and enabled us to build Perelomov type CSs for the PT potential. We point out that the BG-CSs and the Perelomov type coherent states (PCSs) are related via Laplace transform.

  2. Optimization and characterization of thermostable β-glucosidase by Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Santosh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU02, a thermophilic fungus isolated from cattle dung, produced a significant amount of thermostable β-glucosidase in Mandel and Weber medium (45°C, 3 days. Scytalidium thermophilum SKESMBKU02 opted pH – 5, temperature of 45°C for production of β-glucosidases. The glucose and yeast extract are the best carbon and nitrogen sources for β-glucosidase production. It has found that shake flak culture method exerted more β-glucosidase production than the still culture method. The fungus showed maximum dry weight in cellulose as carbon sources, yeast extract and malt extract as nitrogen source, pH of 9.0-10.0 and temperature of 45oC.The crude enzyme was characterized and found that substrate concentration of 6 mM and enzyme concentration of 300 μl are found suitable for the maximum β-glucosidase activity. Stability studies reveals that the enzyme was active at wide range of pH and temperature.

  3. A micromorphic computational homogenization framework for heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, R.; Poh, L. H.

    2017-05-01

    The conventional first-order computational homogenization framework is restricted to problems where the macro characteristic length scale is much larger than the underlying Representative Volume Element (RVE). In the absence of a clear separation of length scales, higher-order enrichment is required to capture the influence of the underlying rapid fluctuations, otherwise neglected in the first-order framework. In this contribution, focusing on matrix-inclusion composites, a novel computational homogenization framework is proposed such that standard continuum models at the micro-scale translate onto the macro-scale to recover a micromorphic continuum. Departing from the conventional FE2 framework where a macroscopic strain tensor characterizes the average deformation within the RVE, our formulation introduces an additional macro kinematic field to characterize the average strain in the inclusions. The two macro kinematic fields, each characterizing a particular aspect of deformation within the RVE, thus provide critical information on the underlying rapid fluctuations. The net effect of these fluctuations, as well as the interactions between RVEs, are next incorporated naturally into the macroscopic virtual power statement through the Hill-Mandel condition. The excellent predictive capability of the proposed homogenization framework is illustrated through three benchmark examples. It is shown that the homogenized micromorphic model adequately captures the material responses, even in the absence of a clear separation of length scales between macro and micro.

  4. Ideology, capitalist division of labour and social role of the designer: a study on the production of materiality in fashion design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Martins Contino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to discuss about social division of labour and how it appears in the fashion design field, in addition to debate about the social role of fashion designer in the production chain, this paper presents two opposing notions that aim to explain important changes that have occurred in industrial society in the second half of twentieth century: “post-industrial society” of the author Daniel Bell, and “late capitalism” from Ernst Mandel. Each of these theories come from different ideological positions and impacts on the field of design with regard to theoretical production and the professional qualification and practices of designers. Thus, through bibliographic research, we began this paper with a reflection on the materiality and immateriality production in design. Then we confront these two important theoretical currents and relate them to others that we believe to be arising from one of them – "end of work", "design as a process" – and to objective and concrete issues of one of the design branches in which material production and the huge number of workers are undeniable: the fashion design field. Among these issues are the social division of labour and the propagation of the mythical notion of the individual creator, even propagated by the education system.

  5. Frequency entanglement characterization of short-pulse pumped SPDC biphoton source with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwei; Dong, Ruifang; Li, Baihong; Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang

    2017-06-01

    Frequency entangled biphoton sources have played an important role in quantum information. There are two key characteristics which determine the extent of their applications: the spectral indistinguishability and the degree of frequency entanglement. Previously, the spectral indistinguishability of the biphoton state is measured by the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference visibility, whereas the degree of frequency entanglement is normally characterized with independent spectral measurements. However, these two quantum features have not been successfully measured with a single experimental setup. In this paper, we deduce the temporal distribution of a short-pulse pumped type-II spontaneous parametric down converted (SPDC) biphoton source and its relevant temporal entanglement parameter R t for operationally quantifying the degree of frequency entanglement. Furthermore, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate, due to the inherent group delay, the difference between the signal and idler photons at the exit of the type-II nonlinear crystal, resulting in a HOM-shape dip at both sides of the center fringed envelope of the MZ interferometric coincidence diagram. By measuring the HOM-shape dip depth, the separation between the two sideband dips as well as the MZ fringed envelope width, both the spectral indistinguishability and the temporal entanglement parameter can thus be simultaneously quantified. This implementation provides us a unified and convenient method to characterize the frequency entanglement of the short-pulse pumped biphotons.

  6. Statistical signatures of states orthogonal to the Fock-state ladder of composite bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrie, P. Alexander; Tichy, Malte C.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The theory of composite bosons (cobosons) made of two fermions [C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 71, 034306 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.034306; M. C. Tichy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 260403 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.260403] converges to ordinary structureless bosons in the limit of infinitely strong entanglement between the fermionic constituents. For finite entanglement, the annihilation operator c ̂ of a composite boson couples the N -coboson Fock state not only to the (N -1 ) -coboson state—as for ordinary bosons—but also to a component which is orthogonal to the Fock-state ladder of cobosons. Coupling with states orthogonal to the Fock ladder arises also in dynamical processes of cobosons. Here, with a Gedanken experiment involving both mode splitting and collective Hong-Ou-Mandel-like interference, we derive the characteristic physical signature of the states orthogonal to the Fock ladder generated in the splitting process. This allows us to extract the microscopic properties of many-fermion wave functions from the collective coboson behavior. We show that consecutive beam-splitter dynamics increases the deviation from the ideal bosonic behavior pattern, which opens up a rigorous approach to the falsification of coboson theory.

  7. Quantum-Dot Single-Photon Sources for Entanglement Enhanced Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Vural, H.; Schneider, C.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Höfling, S.; Michler, P.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphoton entangled states such as "N00N states" have attracted a lot of attention because of their possible application in high-precision, quantum enhanced phase determination. So far, N00N states have been generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes and by mixing quantum and classical light on a beam splitter. Here, in contrast, we demonstrate superresolving phase measurements based on two-photon N00N states generated by quantum dot single-photon sources making use of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect on a beam splitter. By means of pulsed resonance fluorescence of a charged exciton state, we achieve, in postselection, a quantum enhanced improvement of the precision in phase uncertainty, higher than prescribed by the standard quantum limit. An analytical description of the measurement scheme is provided, reflecting requirements, capability, and restraints of single-photon emitters in optical quantum metrology. Our results point toward the realization of a real-world quantum sensor in the near future.

  8. Signatures of nonclassical effects in optical tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, B.; Saumitran, K.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2017-02-01

    Several nonclassical effects displayed by wave packets governed by nonlinear Hamiltonians can be identified and assessed directly from tomograms without attempting to reconstruct the Wigner function or the density matrix explicitly. We have demonstrated this for both single-mode and bipartite systems. We have shown that a wide spectrum of effects such as the revival phenomena, quadrature squeezing, and Hong-Mandel and Hillery type higher-order squeezing in a generic single-mode system and the double-well Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can be obtained from appropriate tomograms in a straightforward manner. We have examined the manner in which decoherence affects the nature of the state of a generic single-mode system at specific instants during temporal evolution. We have investigated entropic squeezing of the subsystem state of a bipartite system as it evolves in time, solely from tomograms. The procedures that we have demonstrated can be readily adapted to multimode systems. Further, for the double-well BEC we have identified an indicator of entanglement between subsystems that can be obtained directly from the tomogram. This mirrors the qualitative behavior of the subsystem von Neumann entropy and the subsystem linear entropy.

  9. Nitrilase-catalyzed conversion of (R,S)-mandelonitrile by immobilized recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring nitrilase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Ya-Ping; Xu, Ming; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-07-01

    (R)-(-)-Mandelic acid (R-MA) is widely used both as a versatile intermediate for pharmaceuticals and a resolving agent in chiral resolution processes. In the current study, to improve the stability of operation, recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis were immobilized for the enantioselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-mandelonitrile to R-MA. Different immobilization methods including entrapment matrices, entrapment matrices cross-linked by cross-linking and polymerization agents, and direct cross-linking cells using glutaraldehyde (GA) or bionic silicon were investigated. To facilitate industrial solid-liquid separation, the direct cross-linking recombinant E. coli cells using diatomite/GA/polyethyleneimine with 135.95% relative activity compared with free cells was chosen using water as the reaction medium. The operational stability of the immobilized cells was obviously superior to that of free cells, without significant activity loss after 28 cycles of batch reaction and the successive production of R-MA could reach 1.88 M. Moreover, the immobilized cells showed good storage stability with about 52% relative activity after storing for 30 days at 4 °C. Therefore, the immobilized biocatalyst is very promising for upscale production of optically pure R-MA with high performance and low cost.

  10. Experimental demonstration of passive-decoy-state quantum key distribution with two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    The decoy-state method could effectively enhance the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a practical phase randomized weak coherent source. Although active modulation of the source intensity is effective and has been implemented in many experiments, passive preparation of decoy states is also an important addition to the family of decoy-state QKD protocols. In this paper, following the theory of Curty et al. [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022310 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.022310], we experimentally demonstrate the phase-encoding passive-decoy-state QKD with only linear optical setups and threshold single-photon detectors. In our experiment, two homemade independent pulsed lasers, with visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference 0.53 (±0.003 ) , have been implemented and used to passively generate the different decoy states. Finally, a secret key rate of 1.5 ×10-5 /pulse is obtained with 10-km commercial fiber between Alice and Bob.

  11. Determination of estrogenic mycotoxins in environmental water samples by low-toxicity dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emídio, Elissandro Soares; da Silva, Claudia Pereira; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2015-04-24

    A novel, simple, rapid and eco-friendly method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using a bromosolvent was developed to determine six estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, zearalanone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol) in water samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The optimal conditions for this method include the use of 100 μL bromocyclohexane as an extraction solvent (using a non-dispersion solvent), 10 mL of aqueous sample (adjusted to pH 4), a vortex extraction time of 2 min, centrifugation for 10 min at 3500 rpm and no ionic strength adjustment. The calibration function was linear and was verified by applying the Mandel fitting test with a 95% confidence level. No matrix effect was observed. According to the relative standard deviations (RSDs), the precision was better than 13% for the repeatability and intermediate precision. The average recoveries of the spiked compounds ranged from 81 to 118%. The method limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) considering a 125-fold pre-concentration step were 4-20 and 8-40 ng L(-1), respectively. Next, the method was applied to the analysis of the environmental aqueous samples, demonstrating the presence of β-zearalanol and zearalanone in the river water samples.

  12. Two-photon interference of temporally separated photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-10-01

    We present experimental demonstrations of two-photon interference involving temporally separated photons within two types of interferometers: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polarization-based Michelson interferometer. The two-photon states are probabilistically prepared in a symmetrically superposed state within the two interferometer arms by introducing a large time delay between two input photons; this state is composed of two temporally separated photons, which are in two different or the same spatial modes. We then observe two-photon interference fringes involving both the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect and the interference of path-entangled two-photon states simultaneously in a single interferometric setup. The observed two-photon interference fringes provide simultaneous observation of the interferometric properties of the single-photon and two-photon wavepackets. The observations can also facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the origins of the interference phenomena arising from spatially bunched/anti-bunched two-photon states comprised of two temporally separated photons within the interferometer arms.

  13. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-20

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  14. Quantum-Dot Single-Photon Sources for Entanglement Enhanced Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Vural, H; Schneider, C; Rastelli, A; Schmidt, O G; Höfling, S; Michler, P

    2017-06-23

    Multiphoton entangled states such as "N00N states" have attracted a lot of attention because of their possible application in high-precision, quantum enhanced phase determination. So far, N00N states have been generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes and by mixing quantum and classical light on a beam splitter. Here, in contrast, we demonstrate superresolving phase measurements based on two-photon N00N states generated by quantum dot single-photon sources making use of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect on a beam splitter. By means of pulsed resonance fluorescence of a charged exciton state, we achieve, in postselection, a quantum enhanced improvement of the precision in phase uncertainty, higher than prescribed by the standard quantum limit. An analytical description of the measurement scheme is provided, reflecting requirements, capability, and restraints of single-photon emitters in optical quantum metrology. Our results point toward the realization of a real-world quantum sensor in the near future.

  15. Determination of hydroxy acids in cosmetics by chemometric experimental design and cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hui; Feng, Chia Hsien; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2012-10-01

    A CD-modified CE method was established for quantitative determination of seven hydroxy acids in cosmetic products. This method involved chemometric experimental design aspects, including fractional factorial design and central composite design. Chemometric experimental design was used to enhance the method's separation capability and to explore the interactions between parameters. Compared to the traditional investigation that uses multiple parameters, the method that used chemometric experimental design was less time-consuming and lower in cost. In this study, the influences of three experimental variables (phosphate concentration, surfactant concentration, and methanol percentage) on the experimental response were investigated by applying a chromatographic resolution statistic function. The optimized conditions were as follows: a running buffer of 150 mM phosphate solution (pH 7) containing 0.5 mM CTAB, 3 mM γ-CD, and 25% methanol; 20 s sample injection at 0.5 psi; a separation voltage of -15 kV; temperature was set at 25°C; and UV detection at 200 nm. The seven hydroxy acids were well separated in less than 10 min. The LOD (S/N = 3) was 625 nM for both salicylic acid and mandelic acid. The correlation coefficient of the regression curve was greater than 0.998. The RSD and relative error values were all less than 9.21%. After optimization and validation, this simple and rapid analysis method was considered to be established and was successfully applied to several commercial cosmetic products.

  16. Three-dimensional phenomenological thermodynamic model of pseudoelasticity of shape memory alloys at finite strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziólkowski, A.

    2007-11-01

    The familiar small strain thermodynamic 3D theory of isotropic pseudoelasticity proposed by Raniecki and Lexcellent is generalized to account for geometrical effects. The Mandel concept of mobile isoclinic, natural reference configurations is used in order to accomplish multiplicative decomposition of total deformation gradient into elastic and phase transformation (p.t.) parts, and resulting from it the additive decomposition of Eulerian strain rate tensor. The hypoelastic rate relations of elasticity involving elastic strain rate \\underline{{{mathbf{d}}}}^e are derived consistent with hyperelastic relations resulting from free energy potential. It is shown that use of Jaumann corotational rate of stress tensor in rate constitutive equations formulation proves to be convenient. The formal equation for p.t. strain rate \\underline{{{mathbf{d}}}}^{in} , describing p.t. deformation effects is proposed, based on experimental evidence. Phase transformation kinetics relations are presented in objective form. The field, coupled problem of thermomechanics is specified in rate weak form (rate principle of virtual work, and rate principle of heat transport). It is shown how information on the material behavior and motion inseparably enters the rate virtual work principle through the familiar bridging equation involving Eulerian rate of nominal stress tensor.

  17. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-06

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples.

  18. Steady state recycling chromatography with solvent removal-effect of solvent removal constraints on process operation under ideal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Jani; Sainio, Tuomo

    2014-05-09

    Steady state recycling chromatography (SSR) offers a means to reduce eluent consumption and increase productivity in preparative and production scale chromatographic separations. Even better performance is obtained with an integrated process by coupling solvent removal unit to the chromatographic separation unit. Here a design method for SSR with an integrated solvent removal unit (SSR-SR) is presented. The method is more practical than previous work as the effect of physical constraints, such as solubility or viscosity, imposed on the amount of solvent removed is included. The method holds under ideal conditions for binary systems with competitive Langmuir isotherm model. The design equations allow calculation of the regions of feasible operating parameters when either the maximum concentrations in the solvent removal unit or of the solution fed into the chromatographic column is restricted. The method was applied to analyze the performance of different SSR-SR configurations in two case studies: the separation of mandelic acid enantiomers and the separation of EMD 53986 enantiomers. The benefits of SSR-SR are relatively small under ideal conditions but the design method developed here can give a good starting point for designing SSR-SR processes under non-ideal conditions.

  19. Definition of (so MIScalled) ''Complexity'' as UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Versus Deviations From it as Complicatedness-Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, F.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    (so MIScalled) "complexity" with INHERENT BOTH SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING, AND 1 / w (1.000..) "pink" Zipf-law Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY power-spectrum power-law decay algebraicity. Their CONNECTION is via simple-calculus SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING logarithm-function derivative: (d/ d ω) ln(ω) = 1 / ω , i.e. (d/ d ω) [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING](ω) = 1/ ω . Via Noether-theorem continuous-symmetries relation to conservation-laws: (d/ d ω) [inter-scale 4-current 4-div-ergence} = 0](ω) = 1 / ω . Hence (so MIScalled) "complexity" is information inter-scale conservation, in agreement with Anderson-Mandell [Fractals of Brain/Mind, G. Stamov ed.(1994)] experimental-psychology!!!], i.e. (so MIScalled) "complexity" is UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Versus COMPLICATEDNESS either PLUS (Additive) VS. TIMES (Multiplicative) COMPLICATIONS of various system-specifics. COMPLICATEDNESS-MEASURE DEVIATIONS FROM complexity's UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!: EITHER [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-BREAKING] MINUS [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING] via power-spectrum power-law algebraicity decays DIFFERENCES: ["red"-Pareto] MINUS ["pink"-Zipf Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY]!!!

  20. Personality and long term exposure to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, K.; Martelin, T.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, especially emotional reactions of two solvent exposed groups and a nonexposed reference group were described by means of 20 formal, content and check-list type of Rorschach variables. Another objective of the study was to explore the suitability and psychological meaning of other types of Rorschach variables than those applied earlier in the field of behavioral toxicology. The factor analyses grouped the applied variables into factors of Productivity, Ego Strength, Control of Emotionality, Defensive Introversion and Aggressiveness. One solvent group, a patient groups (N.53), was characterized by a high number of Organic signs and a low Genetic Level, indicating possible psychoorganic deterioration. The other solvent group, styrene exposed but subjectively healthy (N.98), was characterized by few emotional reactions, low Anxiety and a low number of Neurotic Signs. the long duration of exposure of the solvent patient group (mean 10.2 +/- 8.7 years) was related to variables of the Productivity factor, a finding that indicates a possible better adjustment of those exposed for a longer time. The duration of exposure of the styrene exposed group (mean 4.9 +/- 3.2 years) revealed a very slight relation to personality variables, but the mean urinary mandelic acid concentration, indicating the level of styrene exposure, correlated with increased emotional reactions. For the most part definite causal conclusions could not be drawn because of the cross-sectional design of the study.